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Sample records for high abundance serum

  1. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

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    Nie Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers.

  2. Identification of Candidate Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Serum by Depletion of Highly Abundant Proteins and Differential In Gel Electrophoresis

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    Andersen, John D.; Boylan, Kristin L.M.; Xue, Feifei S.; Anderson, Lorraine B.; Witthuhn, Bruce A.; Markowski, Todd W.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Skubitz, Amy P.N.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death for women in the U.S., yet survival rates are over 90% when it is diagnosed at an early stage, highlighting the need for biomarkers for early detection. To enhance the discovery of tumor-specific proteins which could represent novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer, we depleted serum of highly abundant proteins which can mask the detection of proteins present in serum at low concentrations. Three commercial immunoaffinity columns were used in parallel to deplete the highly abundant proteins in serum from 60 patients with serous ovarian carcinoma and 60 non-cancer controls. Medium and low abundance serum proteins from each serum pool were then evaluated by the quantitative proteomic technique of Differential-In-Gel-Electrophoresis (DIGE). The number of protein spots that were elevated in ovarian cancer sera by at least 2-fold ranged from 36 to 248, depending upon the depletion and separation methods. From the 33 spots picked for MS analysis, nine different proteins were identified, including the novel candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers leucine-rich alpha-2 glycoprotein-1 and ficolin 3. Western blotting validated the relative increases in serum protein levels for three of the proteins identified, demonstrating the utility of this approach for the identification of novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer. PMID:20162585

  3. Element abundances at high redshift

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    Meyer, D.M.; Welty, D.E.; York, D.G. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA); Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe( ), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value. 25 refs.

  4. Element abundances at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David M.; Welty, D. E.; York, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    Abundances of Si(+), S(+), Cr(+), Mn(+), Fe(_), and Zn(+) are considered for two absorption-line systems in the spectrum of the QSO PKS 0528 - 250. Zinc and sulfur are underabundant, relative to H, by a factor of 10 compared to their solar and Galactic interstellar abundances. The silicon-, chromium-, iron-, and nickel-to-hydrogen ratios are less than the solar values and comparable to the local interstellar ratios. A straightforward interpretation is that nucleosynthesis in these high-redshift systems has led to only about one-tenth as much heavy production as in the gas clouds around the sun, and that the amount of the observed underabundances attributable to grain depletion is small. The dust-to-gas ratio in these clouds is less than 8 percent of the Galactic value.

  5. 甲醇沉淀法去除人血清高丰度蛋白质的实验研究%Establishment of methyl alcohol precipitation method for removing high abundant proteins in human serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹璐颖; 李克; 郑文杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective The common method of depleting the high abundant proteins in human serum is too complicated and ex -pensive to be applied to clinical practice . In this study, an effective and simple method of methyl alcohol precipitation was established for the removal of serum high abundant proteins. Methods The serum albumin of healthy controls was precipitated by different volume methyl alcohol. The removal effect was analyzed with one -dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate -polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE) and quantitative method of albumin. Results Compared with the gel images of the original serum , the band of protein with molecular weight between 50000-80000 was removed. The results showed that the average concentration of albumin in the serum was de -creased from (47.65-.35) g/L to (1.16-.08) g/L. The removal ratio of protein was over 97% and the percentage of albumin in the total protein of serum was decreased from 65.4% to49.3%. The significantly statistical differences were observed (P<0.001). And the low abundance proteins could be seen and reserved . Conclusion The methyl alcohol depletion strategy may offer an effective and simple method to remove albumin from human serum , which provided a technical support for further study of serum proteomics .%目的 常用人血清高丰度蛋白质(high abundant proteins,HAP)去除方法操作较繁且成本高,文中探索建立简便有效的甲醇沉淀法去除人血清HAP.方法 用不同体积的甲醇处理血清样品,然后与原血清样品上样进行十二烷基磺酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)分析,并对去除HAP后的样品进行蛋白定量检测.结果 SDS-PAGE显示,经甲醇处理过的血清样品与原血清电泳结果 相比,相对分子质量在50000~80000 间的清蛋白等HAP被明显去除,血清清蛋白平均浓度显著降低,由(47.65±0.35)g /L下降至(1.16±0.08)g /L,去除率达97%以上,

  6. Chromatofocusing fractionation and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis for low abundance serum proteins.

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    Qin, Shuzhen; Ferdinand, Angeline S; Richie, Jerome P; O'Leary, Michael P; Mok, Samuel C; Liu, Brian C-S

    2005-08-01

    The technical challenge to analysis of the serum proteome is that the serum proteins are present at unequal concentrations. A few are so dominant, such as serum albumin and immunoglobulins, that they mask detection of other proteins. Because of these high abundance proteins, current technologies, while theoretically capable of analyzing protein amounts spanning four orders of magnitude, are only able to analyze proteins ranging over two orders of magnitude and cannot analyze the lower abundance proteins that may be the next biomarkers and drug targets. To facilitate the identification of low abundance proteins, we fractionated serum samples from patients with prostate cancer and patients with benign prostate hyperplasia using anion displacement liquid chromatofocusing chromatography, which separates proteins by a pH gradient and a positively charged column. Differential expression of proteins from fractions was then determined and identified by IEF gels and 2-D DIGE. Results demonstrate improved resolution of proteins within the chosen pH gradient when compared to the unfractionated samples. Several proteins that were differentially expressed in serum from patients with prostate cancer were identified in the fractionated serum. Three of these proteins, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1), calgranulin B, and haptoglobin-related protein, are present in the serum at levels below the classical protein level of mg/mL. SCCA1 is normally expressed in serum at ng/mL levels, and calgranulin B is an intracellular protein. Our results demonstrate that the use of anion displacement liquid chromatofocusing chromatography may reduce the complexity of the serum proteome by separating proteins into distinct pH ranges, and facilitate the identification of low abundance proteins.

  7. An approach to remove albumin for the proteomic analysis of low abundance biomarkers in human serum.

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    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Barker, Gillian; Oliva, Karen; Garfin, David; Talmadge, Kenneth; Georgiou, Harry; Quinn, Michael; Rice, Greg

    2003-10-01

    Proteomic technologies are being used to discover and identify disease-associated biomarkers. The application of these technologies in the search for potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in the serum of patients has been limited by the presence of highly abundant albumin and immunoglobulins that constitute approximately 60-97% of the total serum proteins. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether treatment of human serum with Affi-Gel Blue alone or in combination with Protein A (Aurum serum protein mini kit, Bio-Rad) before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis removed high abundance proteins to allow the visualization of low abundant proteins. Serum samples were treated with either Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit and then subjected to 2-DE using 11 cm, pH 4-7 isoelectric focussing strips for the first dimension and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for second dimension. Protein spots were visualized using a fluorescent protein dye (SYPRO Ruby, Bio-Rad). Comparison between treatment methods showed significant removal of albumin by both Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit and considerable differences in the protein profile of the gels after each treatment. Direct comparison between treatments revealed twenty-eight protein spots unique to Affi-Gel Blue while only two spots were unique after Aurum kit treatment. Unique spots in Affi-Gel Blue and Aurum kit treated serum were not visualized in untreated serum. Sixteen hours of Affi-Gel Blue treatment resulted in enhanced visualization of fifty-three protein spots by two-fold, thirty-one by five-fold, twelve by ten-fold and six by twenty-fold. In parallel after Aurum kit treatment two-, five-, ten- and twenty-fold enhancements of thirty, thirteen, eight and five protein spots, respectively, were observed. The pattern of increased visualization of protein spots with both treatment methods was similar. In conclusion, treatment of serum samples with Affi-Gel Blue or Aurum kit before

  8. Automatic abundance analysis of high resolution spectra

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    Bonifacio, P; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Caffau, Elisabetta

    2003-01-01

    We describe an automatic procedure for determining abundances from high resolution spectra. Such procedures are becoming increasingly important as large amounts of data are delivered from 8m telescopes and their high-multiplexing fiber facilities, such as FLAMES on ESO-VLT. The present procedure is specifically targeted for the analysis of spectra of giants in the Sgr dSph; however, the procedure may be, in principle, tailored to analyse stars of any type. Emphasis is placed on the algorithms and on the stability of the method; the external accuracy rests, ultimately, on the reliability of the theoretical models (model-atmospheres, synthetic spectra) used to interpret the data. Comparison of the results of the procedure with the results of a traditional analysis for 12 Sgr giants shows that abundances accurate at the level of 0.2 dex, comparable with that of traditional analysis of the same spectra, may be derived in a fast and efficient way. Such automatic procedures are not meant to replace the traditional ...

  9. Nitrogen Abundances in High-z DLAs

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; D'Odorico, V; Péroux, C

    2003-01-01

    Determination of chemical abundances for elements produced mainly by Type I SNae and intermediate mass stars in high redshift DLAs probes the early chemical build-up on time-scales comparable with their production. Nitrogen shows a peculiar behaviour never detected before in any other class of objects. For [N/H] < -3 there is a plateau with [N/Si]= -1.45(\\pm 0.05). We interpret this as empirical evidence for primary N production by massive stars in young systems where AGB stars have not yet had time to make their contribution. The plateau provides the observational integrated yields for N production by massive stars which are theoretically rather uncertain. High N/Si and solar [alpha/iron-peak] ratios are observed at high redshift and place at an earlier epoch the onset of star formation. On the other hand, low N/Si, i.e. young objects, are observed also at relatively low redshifts. These evidences suggest that DLAs started to be formed at a very early epoch but their formation has been extended up to late...

  10. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Shields, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within...... the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time...... scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note...

  11. Quasar Elemental Abundances at High Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Shields, J C; Constantin, A; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We examine rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of 70 high redshift quasars (z>3.5) to study the chemical enrichment history of the gas closely related to the quasars, and thereby estimate the epoch of first star formation. The fluxes of several ultraviolet emission lines were investigated within the framework of the most recent photoionization models to estimate the metallicity of the gas associated with the high-z quasars. Standard photoionization parameters and the assumption of secondary nitrogen enrichment indicate an average abundance of Z/Z_sol = 4 to 5 in the line emitting gas. Assuming a time scale of t_evol = 0.5 - 0.8 Gyrs for the chemical enrichment of the gas, the first major star formation for quasars with z>=4 should have started at a redshift of z_f = 6 - 8, corresponding to an age of the universe of several 10^8 yrs (H_o = 65 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, Omega_Lambda = 0.7). We note that this also appears to be the era of re-ionization of the universe. Finally, there is some evidence for a positive lum...

  12. High-resolution abundance analysis of HD 140283

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Korotin, S A

    2015-01-01

    HD 140283 is a reference subgiant that is metal poor and confirmed to be a very old star. The abundances of this type of old star can constrain the nature and nucleosynthesis processes that occurred in its (even older) progenitors. The present study may shed light on nucleosynthesis processes yielding heavy elements early in the Galaxy. A detailed abundance analysis of a high-quality spectrum is carried out, with the intent of providing a reference on stellar lines and abundances of a very old, metal-poor subgiant. We aim to derive abundances from most available and measurable spectral lines. The analysis is carried out using high-resolution (R = 81 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (800 < S/N/pixel < 3400) spectrum, in the wavelength range 3700 - 10475, obtained with a seven-hour exposure time, using the ESPaDOnS at the CFHT. The calculations in LTE were performed with the OSMARCS 1D atmospheric model and the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum, while the analysis in NLTE is based on the MULTI code...

  13. Highly siderophile element abundances in Eoarchean komatiite and basalt protoliths

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    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Maier, Wolfgang D.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Plume-derived, Mg-rich, volcanic rocks (komatiites, high-Mg basalts, and their metamorphic equivalents) can record secular changes in the highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances of mantle sources. An apparent secular time-dependent enrichment trend in HSE abundances from Paleoarchean to Paleoproterozoic mantle-derived rocks could represent the protracted homogenization of a Late Veneer chondritic contaminant into the pre-Late Veneer komatiite source. To search for a possible time dependence of a late accretion signature in the Eoarchean mantle, we report new data from rare >3700 Myr-old mafic and ultramafic schists locked in supracrustal belts from the Inukjuak domain (Québec, Canada) and the Akilia association (West Greenland). Our analysis shows that some of these experienced HSE mobility and/or include a cumulate component (Touboul et al. in Chem Geol 383:63-75, 2014), whereas several of the oldest samples show some of the most depleted HSE abundances measured for rocks of this composition. We consider these new data for the oldest documented rocks of komatiite protolith in light of the Late Veneer hypothesis.

  14. Protein Biophysics Explains Why Highly Abundant Proteins Evolve Slowly

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    Adrian W.R. Serohijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The consistent observation across all kingdoms of life that highly abundant proteins evolve slowly demonstrates that cellular abundance is a key determinant of protein evolutionary rate. However, other empirical findings, such as the broad distribution of evolutionary rates, suggest that additional variables determine the rate of protein evolution. Here, we report that under the global selection against the cytotoxic effects of misfolded proteins, folding stability (ΔG, simultaneous with abundance, is a causal variable of evolutionary rate. Using both theoretical analysis and multiscale simulations, we demonstrate that the anticorrelation between the premutation ΔG and the arising mutational effect (ΔΔG, purely biophysical in origin, is a necessary requirement for abundance–evolutionary rate covariation. Additionally, we predict and demonstrate in bacteria that the strength of abundance–evolutionary rate correlation depends on the divergence time separating reference genomes. Altogether, these results highlight the intrinsic role of protein biophysics in the emerging universal patterns of molecular evolution.

  15. Highly Multiplexed Profiling of Low Abundance Tumor Mutations in Plasma

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    Wiggin, Matthew; Pel, Joel; Vysotskaia, Valentina; Broemeling, David; Marziali, Andre; Hanson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel somatic mutation enrichment methodology demonstrating multiplexed detection of tumor mutations in plasma with sensitivity as low as 0.01% compared to normal DNA. This highly sensitive detection of low abundance mutations is achieved using electrophoretic separation and enrichment of DNA fragments containing point mutations over their wild-type counterparts. Commercialized as the OnTarget platform by Boreal Genomics, the system enriches nucleic acid samples for specific targets prior to amplification and detection, enabling the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) or other detection assays for plasma or FFPE-based mutation detection and profiling. We present data demonstrating highly sensitive and multiplexed detection of panels of up to 100 mutations in plasma samples, improving the sensitivity of NGS assays to below 0.01% mutant content. We also report on concordance studies comparing low tumor content FFPE tissue and matched plasma in human samples demonstrating that OnTarget represents a robust, highly sensitive and multiplexed platform for non-invasive tumor monitoring.

  16. Low abundance of mitochondrial DNA changes mitochondrial status and renders cells resistant to serum starvation and sodium nitroprusside insult.

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    Lee, Sung Ryul; Heo, Hye Jin; Jeong, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin

    2015-07-01

    Mutation or depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause severe mitochondrial malfunction, originating from the mitochondrion itself, or from the crosstalk between nuclei and mitochondria. However, the changes that would occur if the amount of mtDNA is diminished are less known. Thus, we generated rat myoblast H9c2 cells containing lower amounts of mtDNA via ethidium bromide and uridine supplementation. After confirming the depletion of mtDNA by quantitative PCR and gel electrophoresis analysis, we investigated the changes in mitochondrial physical parameters by using flow cytometry. We also evaluated the resistance of these cells to serum starvation and sodium nitroprusside. H9c2 cells with diminished mtDNA contents showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, mass, free calcium, and zinc ion contents as compared to naïve H9c2 cells. Furthermore, cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels were significantly higher in mtDNA-lowered H9c2 cells than in the naïve cells. Although the oxygen consumption rate and cell proliferation were decreased, mtDNA-lowered H9c2 cells were more resistant to serum deprivation and nitroprusside insults than the naïve H9c2 cells. Taken together, we conclude that the low abundance of mtDNA cause changes in cellular status, such as changes in reactive oxygen species, calcium, and zinc ion levels inducing resistance to stress.

  17. Iron Abundance Diagnostics in High-Redshift QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, M R; Freduling, N K W; Corbin, Michael R.; Korista, Kirk T.; Freduling, Nalaka Kodituwakku & Wolfram

    2004-01-01

    The abundance of alpha-process elements such as magnesium and carbon relative to iron measured from the broad emission lines of QSOs can serve as a diagnostic of the star formation and chemical enrichment histories of their host galaxies. We investigate the relationship between Fe/Mg and Fe/C abundance ratios and the resulting Fe II / Mg II 2800A and Fe II / 1900A-blend flux ratios, both of which have been measured in QSOs out to redshifts of approximately six. Using a galactic chemical evolution model based on a starburst in a giant elliptical galaxy, we find that these flux ratios are good tracers of the chemical enrichment of the nuclei. However, the values of these ratios measured in objects at redshifts of approximately six suggest that iron enrichment has occurred more rapidly in these objects than predicted by the assumed elliptical starburst model, under currently favored cosmologies.

  18. Pancreatic cancer with a high serum IgG4 concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Pong Yui Chen; Yuyang Tu; Hitoshi Nakajima; Naoto Egawa; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto; Tsunekazu Hishima

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation between autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer is sometimes difficult. It has been reported that serum IgG4 concentrations are significantly elevated and particularly high (>135 mg/dL) in autoimmune pancreatitis. Measurement of serum IgG4 has become a useful tool for differentiating between autoimmune pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However,we present a 74-year-old female with a markedly elevated serum IgG4 (433 mg/dL) who underwentpancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer. Elevated serum IgG4 levels continued after the resection. On histology, adenocarcinoma of the pancreas accompanied with moderate lymphoplasmacytic infiltration infiltrated the lower bile duct and duodenum, but there were no findings of autoimmune pancreatitis. Although a small metastasis was detected in one parapancreatic lymph node, regional lymph nodes were swollen. Abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells infiltrated the cancerous areas of the pancreas, but only a few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in the noncancerous areas.Pancreatic cancer cells were not immunoreactive for IgG4. An abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells was detected in the swollen regional lymph nodes and in the duodenal mucosa. We believe that the serum IgG4 level was elevated in this patient with pancreatic cancer as the result of an IgG4-related systemic disease that had no clinical manifestations other than lymphadenopathy.

  19. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    is well fitted by a relation A(Li) = a0 + a1 M + a2 Z + a3 M Z, where a0, a1, a2, and a3 are constants. Extrapolating this relation to Z = 0 leads to A(Li)= 2.58 ± 0.08 close to the primordial Li abundance predicted from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations and the WMAP baryon density. A...

  20. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ......A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ... is well fitted by a relation A(Li) = a0 + a1 M + a2 Z + a3 M Z, where a0, a1, a2, and a3 are constants. Extrapolating this relation to Z = 0 leads to A(Li)= 2.58 ± 0.08 close to the primordial Li abundance predicted from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations and the WMAP baryon density. A...

  1. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Nordlander, T.; Heiter, U.; Jofré, P.; Masseron, T.; Casamiquela, L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Bhat, S. S.; Casey, A. R.; Meléndez, J.; Ramírez, I.

    2017-03-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  2. How much can we trust high-resolution spectroscopic stellar chemical abundances?

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Heiter, U; Jofré, P; Masseron, T; Casamiquela, L; Tabernero, H M; Bhat, S S; Casey, A R; Meléndez, J; Ramírez, I

    2016-01-01

    To study stellar populations, it is common to combine chemical abundances from different spectroscopic surveys/studies where different setups were used. These inhomogeneities can lead us to inaccurate scientific conclusions. In this work, we studied one aspect of the problem: When deriving chemical abundances from high-resolution stellar spectra, what differences originate from the use of different radiative transfer codes?

  3. Metal-rich absorbers at high redshifts: abundance patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Molaro, P; Reimers, D; Hou, J L

    2009-01-01

    (Abbreviated) From six spectra of high-z QSOs, we select eleven metal-rich, Z>=Z_solar, and optically-thin to the ionizing radiation, N(HI)0, which supposes that the nitrogen enrichment occurs irregularly. In some cases, the lines of MgII 2796, 2803 appear to be shifted, probably as a result of an enhanced content of heavy isotopes 25Mg and 26Mg in the absorbing gas relative to the solar isotopic composition. Seven absorbers are characterized by low mean ionization parameter U, log U2 whereas all others are found at z ~= 1.8. Comparing the space number density of metal-rich absorbers with the comoving density of star-forming galaxies at z ~= 2, we estimate that the circumgalactic volume of each galaxy is populated by 10^7 - 10^8 such absorbers with total mass <=1/100th of the stellar galactic mass. Possible effects of high metal content on the peak values of star-forming and AGN activities at z~2 are discussed.

  4. Total protein or high-abundance protein: Which offers the best loading control for Western blotting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Yeung, Derrick H; Staines, W Richard; Mielke, John G

    2016-03-01

    Western blotting routinely involves a control for variability in the amount of protein across immunoblot lanes. Normalizing a target signal to one found for an abundantly expressed protein is widely regarded as a reliable loading control; however, this approach is being increasingly questioned. As a result, we compared blotting for two high-abundance proteins (actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) and two total protein membrane staining methods (Ponceau and Coomassie Brilliant Blue) to determine the best control for loading variability. We found that Ponceau staining optimally balanced accuracy and precision, and we suggest that this approach be considered as an alternative to normalizing with a high-abundance protein.

  5. High serum zinc and serum testosterone levels were associated with excessive erythrocytosis in men at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a lack of adaptation to altitude characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE), is a health problem associated with life at high altitude. The erythropoietic process is regulated by both erythropoietin and testosterone. Zinc (Zn) is known to be related with testosterone and hemoglobin levels; meanwhile, nitric oxide was also associated with adaptation to high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of hemoglobin and CMS score with serum levels of zinc, total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), bioavailable testosterone (BAT), hemoglobin, and nitric oxide in men at high altitude with or without EE. Men residing in Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, were divided into three groups: (1) low altitude, (2) high altitude without EE (hemoglobin < 21 g/dl), and (3) high altitude with EE (hemoglobin ≥ 21 g/dl). Adjusted multivariable regression models showed that serum testosterone (total or free) and Zn levels were independently correlated with increased hemoglobin levels. Similarly, hemoglobin was positively related with signs/symptoms of CMS; however, both increased the serum Zn and the nitric oxide levels correlated with reduced risk for signs/symptoms of CMS. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels and Zn levels were associated with EE, and low scores of signs/symptoms of CMS were associated with higher Zn and nitric oxide levels.

  6. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-α field halo stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishlock, C. K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Alves-Brito, A.; Meléndez, J.; Nissen, P. E.; Kobayashi, C.; Casey, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd, and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 < [Fe/H] <-0.8. We also measure the iron-peak element Sc. These stars separate into three populations (low- and high-α halo and thick-disc stars) based on the [α/Fe] abundance ratio and their kinematics as discovered by Nissen & Schuster. We find differences between the low- and high-α groups in the abundance ratios of [Sc/Fe], [Zr/Fe], [La/Zr], [Y/Eu], and [Ba/Eu] when including Y and Ba from Nissen & Schuster. For all ratios except [La/Zr], the low-α stars have a lower abundance compared to the high-α stars. The low-α stars display the same abundance patterns of high [Ba/Y] and low [Y/Eu] as observed in present-day dwarf spheroidal galaxies, although with smaller abundance differences, when compared to the high-α stars. These distinct chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-α population. By comparing the low-α population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints on the mass range of the AGB stars.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: High-precision abundances for stars with planets (Ramirez+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, I.; Melendez, J.; Asplund, M.

    2013-11-01

    High-precision stellar parameters and chemical abundances are presented for 111 stars; 52 of them are late-F type dwarfs and 59 are metal-rich solar analogs. The atomic linelist employed in the derivation of chemical abundances is also given. This linelist includes hyperfine structure parameters for some species. The stars' isochrone masses and ages are also reported, along with estimates of chromospheric activity. (5 data files).

  8. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  9. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  10. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Dijk, van S.J.; Hoelen, D.; Siebelink, E.; Heijligenberg, R.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims - Diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) such as a Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving insulin sensitivity and serum lipids. Besides being high in MUFA, a Mediterranean diet also contains abundant plant foods, moderate wine and

  11. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-alpha field halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, Amanda I.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 <[Fe/H] <-0.8. We also measure the iron-peak element Sc. These stars separate into three populations (low-and high-a halo and thick-disc stars) based on ...

  12. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. III. Lithium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    We report on the abundance analysis of Li in solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars which were found by the analysis of Kepler photometric data. Li is a key element to understand the evolution of the stellar convection zone which reflects the age of solar-type stars. We performed the high dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and confirmed that 34 stars show no evidence of binarity in our previous study. In this study, we derived the Li abundances of these 34 objects. We investigate correlations of Li abundance with stellar atmospheric parameters, rotational velocity, and superflare activities to understand the nature of superflare stars and the possibility of the nucleosynthesis of Li by superflares. We confirm the large dispersion in the Li abundance, and the correlation with stellar parameters is not seen. As compared with the Li abundance in Hyades cluster which is younger than the Sun, it is suggested that half of the observed stars are younger than Hyades cl...

  13. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (Pfluoride and high fat (Pfluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (Pfluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (Pfluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (Pfluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A New View of the Surface of Mars: High-Resolution Rock Abundance from MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, S.; Christensen, P.

    2001-12-01

    Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data from the most dust-free seasons on Mars were used to calculate the areal percentage of rocks and finer materials such as dust and sand. Rock is defined as a surface material that has a thermal inertia of 1250 J/m2-s1/2-K (30 cal/cm2-s1/2-K) or greater. A surface with a high rock abundance value could be exposed bedrock, blocky debris, well-cemented materials or a combination. Globally, the TES and IRTM data agree well, with no rocks exposed in the large dusty regions such as Tharsis and Arabia, and exposure of rocks in small (a few km) areas where likely eolian or mass-wasting processes actively remove dust from the ancient rocky surface. Analysis of high-resolution TES rock abundance suggests that there are extremely varied surfaces within relatively small regions, and places an upper limit of ~45 % rocks in the rockiest regions. Thermal inertia and rock abundance are correlate to some degree over much of the planet, but the highest thermal inertia surfaces often do not have the highest rock abundances. A global perspective will be presented here, with detailed look at a few high-resolution ares including Ares Vallis/Pathfinder, Valles Marineris, and the proposed landing sites for the 2003 MER landers.

  15. Quantification of intermediate-abundance proteins in serum by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a single-quadrupole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shanhua; Shaler, Thomas A; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-08-15

    A method is presented to quantify intermediate-abundance proteins in human serum using a single-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer-in contrast, for example, to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Stable-isotope-labeled (tryptic) peptides are spiked into digested protein samples as internal standards, aligned with the traditional isotope dilution approach. As a proof-of-concept experiment, four proteins of intermediate abundance were selected, coagulation factor V, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and thyroxine binding globulin. Stable-isotope-labeled peptides were synthesized with one tryptic sequence from each of these proteins. The normal human serum concentration ranges of these proteins are from 1 to 30 microg/mL (or 20 to 650 pmol/mL). These labeled peptides and their endogenous counterparts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring, a multiplexed form of the selected reaction monitoring technique. For these experiments, only one chromatographic dimension (on-line reversed-phase capillary column) was used. Improved limits of detection will result with multidimensional chromatographic methods utilizing more material per sample. Standard curves of the spiked calibrants were generated with concentrations ranging from 3 to 700 pmol/mL using both neat solutions and peptides spiked into the complex matrix of digested serum protein solution where ion suppression effects and interferences are common. Endogenous protein concentrations were determined by comparing MS/MS peak areas of the endogenous peptides to the isotopically labeled internal calibrants. The derived concentrations from a normal human serum pool (neglecting loss of material during sample processing) were 9.2, 110, 120, and 246 pmol/mL for coagulation factor V, adiponectin, CRP, and thyroxine binding globulin, respectively. These concentrations generally agree with the reported normal ranges for these proteins. As a measure of analytical reproducibility of this

  16. Chemical abundances in a high velocity RR Lyrae star near the bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Camilla Juul; Koch, Andreas; Xu, Siyi; Kunder, Andrea; Ludwig, Hans-Guenter

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, variable, high-velocity stars are interesting study cases for many aspects of Galactic structure and evolution. Until recently, the only known high- or hyper-velocity stars were young stars thought to originate from the Galactic centre. Wide-area surveys like APOGEE and BRAVA have found several low-mass stars in the bulge with Galactic rest-frame velocities larger than 350 km/s. In this study we present the first abundance analysis of a low-mass, RR Lyrae star, located close to the Galactic bulge, with a space motion of ~ -400 km/s. Using medium-resolution spectra, we derive abundances (including upper limits) of 11 elements. These allow us to chemically tag the star and discuss its origin, although our derived abundances and metallicity, at [Fe/H] =-0.9 dex, do not point toward one unambiguous answer. Based on the chemical tagging, we cannot exclude that it originated in the bulge. However, combining its retrograde orbit and the derived abundances suggests that the star was accelerated from the out...

  17. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  18. Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization (DASH): using Cas9 to remove unwanted high-abundance species in sequencing libraries and molecular counting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W; Crawford, E D; O'Donovan, B D; Wilson, M R; Chow, E D; Retallack, H; DeRisi, J L

    2016-03-04

    Next-generation sequencing has generated a need for a broadly applicable method to remove unwanted high-abundance species prior to sequencing. We introduce DASH (Depletion of Abundant Sequences by Hybridization). Sequencing libraries are 'DASHed' with recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with a library of guide RNAs targeting unwanted species for cleavage, thus preventing them from consuming sequencing space. We demonstrate a more than 99 % reduction of mitochondrial rRNA in HeLa cells, and enrichment of pathogen sequences in patient samples. We also demonstrate an application of DASH in cancer. This simple method can be adapted for any sample type and increases sequencing yield without additional cost.

  19. High-resolution abundance analysis of very metal-poor r-I stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siqueira-Mello, C; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Beers, T C; Caffau, E; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; François, P; Schatz, H; Wanajo, S

    2014-01-01

    Moderately r-process-enriched stars (r-I) are at least four times as common as those that are greatly enriched in r-process elements (r-II), and the abundances in their atmospheres are important tools for obtaining a better understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes responsible for the origin of the elements beyond the iron peak. The main aim of this work is to derive abundances for a sample of seven metal-poor stars with classified as r-I stars, to understand the role of these stars for constraining the astrophysical nucleosynthesis event(s) that is(are) responsible for the production of the r-process, and to investigate whether they differ, in any significant way, from the r-II stars. We carried out a detailed abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the VLT/UVES spectrograph. The OSMARCS LTE 1D model atmosphere grid was employed, along with the spectrum synthesis code Turbospectrum. We have derived abundances of light elements Li, C, and N, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-...

  20. FIRST SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR HIGH IONIZATION STATE AND LOW OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN Ly{alpha} EMITTERS ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ono, Yoshiaki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Lee, Janice C., E-mail: nakajima@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present results from Keck/NIRSPEC and Magellan/MMIRS follow-up spectroscopy of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.2 identified in our Subaru narrowband survey. We successfully detect H{alpha} emission from seven LAEs, and perform a detailed analysis of six LAEs free from active galactic nucleus activity, two out of which, CDFS-3865 and COSMOS-30679, have [O II] and [O III] line detections. They are the first [O II]-detected LAEs at high-z, and their [O III]/[O II] ratios and R23-indices provide the first simultaneous determinations of ionization parameter and oxygen abundance for LAEs. CDFS-3865 has a very high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=2.5{sup +1.7}{sub -0.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=7.84{sup +0.24}{sub -0.25}) in contrast with moderate values of other high-z galaxies such as Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). COSMOS-30679 also possesses a relatively high ionization parameter (q{sub ion}=8{sup +10}{sub -4} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm s{sup -1}) and a low oxygen abundance (12+ log (O/H)=8.18{sup +0.28}{sub -0.28}). Both LAEs appear to fall below the mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 LBGs. Similarly, a low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) < 8.4 is independently indicated for typical LAEs from a composite spectrum and the [N II]/H{alpha} index. Such high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances can be found in local star-forming galaxies, but this extreme local population occupies only {approx}0.06% of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic galaxy sample with a number density {approx}100 times smaller than that of LAEs. With their high ionization parameters and low oxygen abundances, LAEs would represent an early stage of galaxy formation dominated by massive stars in compact star-forming regions. High-q{sub ion} galaxies like LAEs would produce ionizing photons efficiently with a high escape fraction achieved by density-bounded H II regions, which would significantly contribute to

  1. Estimating sufficient reductions of the predictors in abundant high-dimensional regressions

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R Dennis; Rothman, Adam J; 10.1214/11-AOS962

    2012-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a class of methods for sufficient dimension reduction in high-dimension regressions, as the sample size and number of predictors grow in various alignments. It is demonstrated that these methods are consistent in a variety of settings, particularly in abundant regressions where most predictors contribute some information on the response, and oracle rates are possible. Simulation results are presented to support the theoretical conclusion.

  2. [Cholesterol in serum high density lipoprotein fraction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, C; Jeanblanc, B; Offner, M

    1980-11-22

    The risk of atheroma can be assessed and valid epidemiological surveys can be carried out by measuring cholesterol in serum high density lipoprotein fraction (HDL) and calculating the HDL cholesterol: VLDL + LDL ratio. This was done in 39 patients free from surgically confirmed atheromatous lesions and in 51 patients presenting with such lesions. Of the four different techniques used for separation in these patients (ultracentrifugation, precipitation with heparin-Mn2+, precipitation with phosphotungstate-Mg2+ and electrophoresis), precipitation with phosphotungstate-Mg/2+ seems to be the most suitable, since there is no degradation of the HDL fraction as during electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and less floculation of the supernatant after separation. Contrary to ultracentrifugation, which requires sophisticated equipment and good technical skill, the technique is easily carried out.

  3. Chemical Abundances of the Highly Obscured Galactic Globular Clusters 2MASS GC02 and Mercer 5

    CERN Document Server

    Penaloza, Francisco; Vasquez, Sergio; Borissova, Jura; Kurtev, Radostin; Zoccali, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution abundance analysis of two newly discovered Galactic globular clusters, namely Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 residing in regions of high interstellar reddening in the direction of the Galactic center. The data were acquired with the Phoenix high-resolution near-infrared echelle spectrograph at Gemini South (R~50000) in the 15500.0 A - 15575.0 A spectral region. Iron, Oxygen, Silicon, Titanium and Nickel abundances were derived for two red giant stars, in each cluster, by comparing the entire observed spectrum with a grid of synthetic spectra generated with MOOG. We found [Fe/H] values of -0.86 +/- 0.12 and -1.08 +/- 0.13 for Mercer 5 and 2MASS GC02 respectively. The [O/Fe], [Si/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] ratios of the measured stars of Mercer 5 follow the general trend of both bulge field and cluster stars at this metallicity, and are enhanced by > +0.3. The 2MASS GC02 stars have relatively lower ratios, but still compatible with other bulge clusters. Based on metallicity and abund...

  4. Phenotype of asthma related with high serum periostin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Matsusaka

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Elevated periostin concentrations in serum were correlated with a specific phenotype of eosinophilic asthma, late-onset and often complicated by obstructive pulmonary dysfunction and nasal disorders.

  5. Immunodepletion of high-abundant proteins from acute and chronic wound fluids to elucidate low-abundant regulators in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chojnacki Caroline

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of wound healing consists of several well distinguishable and finely tuned phases. For most of these phases specific proteins have been characterized, although the underlying mechanisms of regulation are not yet fully understood. It is an open question as to whether deficits in wound healing can be traced back to chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus. Previous research efforts in this field focus largely on a restricted set of marker proteins due to the limitations detection by antibodies imposes. For mechanistic purposes the elucidation of differences in acute and chronic wounds can be addressed by a less restricted proteome study. Mass spectrometric (MS methods, e.g. multi dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT, are well suitable for this complex theme of interest. The human wound fluid proteome is extremely complex, as is human plasma. Therefore, high-abundant proteins often mask the mass spectrometric detection of lower-abundant ones, which makes a depletion step of such predominant proteins inevitable. Findings In this study a commercially available immunodepletion kit was evaluated for the detection of low-abundant proteins from wound fluids. The dynamic range of the entire workflow was significantly increased to 5-6 orders of magnitude, which makes low-abundant regulatory proteins involved in wound healing accessible for MS detection. Conclusion The depletion of abundant proteins is absolutely necessary in order to analyze highly complex protein mixtures such as wound fluids using mass spectrometry. For this the used immunodepletion kit is a first but important step in order to represent the entire dynamic range of highly complex protein mixtures in the future.

  6. Water abundances in high-mass protostellar envelopes: Herschel observations with HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Marseille, M; Herpin, F; Wyrowski, F; Chavarria, L; Pietropaoli, B

    2015-01-01

    We derive the dense core structure and the water abundance in four massive star-forming regions which may help understand the earliest stages of massive star formation. We present Herschel-HIFI observations of the para-H2O 1_11-0_00 and 2_02-1_11 and the para-H2-18O 1_11-0_00 transitions. The envelope contribution to the line profiles is separated from contributions by outflows and foreground clouds. The envelope contribution is modelled using Monte-Carlo radiative transfer codes for dust and molecular lines (MC3D and RATRAN), with the water abundance and the turbulent velocity width as free parameters. While the outflows are mostly seen in emission in high-J lines, envelopes are seen in absorption in ground-state lines, which are almost saturated. The derived water abundances range from 5E-10 to 4E-8 in the outer envelopes. We detect cold clouds surrounding the protostar envelope, thanks to the very high quality of the Herschel-HIFI data and the unique ability of water to probe them. Several foreground cloud...

  7. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  8. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  9. Metagenomics and single-cell genomics reveal high abundance of comammox Nitrospira in a rapid gravity sand filter treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palomo, Alejandro; Fowler, Jane; Gülay, Arda;

    , the ecological relevance of comammox remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the microbial communities from various locations within a groundwater-fed rapid sand filter (RSF), where Nitrospira were at very high relative abundances. Through metagenomics, a highly abundant composite multi-genome of Nitrospira...

  10. GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina

    2015-01-08

    The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20 273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater.

  11. Fabrication of diverse pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica for selective removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins from biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Lan, Jingfeng; Li, Huihui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Haixia

    2017-01-01

    In proteomic studies, poor detection of low abundant proteins is a major problem due to the presence of highly abundant proteins. Therefore, the specific removal or depletion of highly abundant proteins prior to analysis is necessary. In response to this problem, a series of pH-sensitive functional mesoporous silica materials composed of 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid units were designed and synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. These functional mesoporous silica materials were characterized and their ability for adsorption and separation of proteins was evaluated. Possessing a pH-sensitive feature, the synthesized functional materials showed selective adsorption of some proteins in aqueous or buffer solutions at certain pH values. The specific removal of a particular protein from a mixed protein solution was subsequently studied. The analytical results confirmed that all the target proteins (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and lysozyme) can be removed by the proposed materials from a five-protein mixture in a single operation. Finally, the practical application of this approach was also evaluated by the selective removal of certain proteins from real biological samples. The results revealed that the maximum removal efficiencies of ovalbumin and lysozyme from egg white sample were obtained as 99% and 92%, respectively, while the maximum removal efficiency of human serum albumin from human serum sample was about 80% by the proposed method. It suggested that this treatment process reduced the complexity of real biological samples and facilitated the identification of hidden proteins in chromatograms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isotopic Abundances and Ratios in Arsenic Irradiated by High-Energy Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hall, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-06-07

    This document provides derivations of the 73As, 74As and 75As isotopic abundances and ratios in an arsenic sample irradiated by high-energy (14 MeV) neutrons for 0 ≤ t ≤ T, where T is short compared to the natural decay times of the reaction products (t1/2 (73As) ~ 80.3 d, t1/2 (74As) ~ 17.8 d). The document also outlines the historic approach used to analyze arsenic data from experiments.

  13. High Resolution HDS/SUBARU chemical abundances of the young stellar cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Correnti, M; Bonifacio, P; Geisler, D

    2010-01-01

    Context. Palomar\\,1 is a peculiar globular cluster (GC). It is the youngest Galactic GC and it has been tentatively associated to several of the substructures recently discovered in the Milky Way (MW), including the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity and the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS). Aims. In order to provide further insights into its origin, we present the first high resolution chemical abundance analysis for one red giant in Pal\\,1. Methods. We obtained high resolution (R=30000) spectra for one red giant star in Pal\\,1 using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted at the SUBARU telescope. We used ATLAS-9 model atmospheres coupled with the SYNTHE and WIDTH calculation codes to derive chemical abundances from the measured line equivalent widths of 18 among $\\alpha$, Iron-peak, light and heavy elements. Results. The Palomar~1 chemical pattern is broadly compatible to that of the MW open clusters population and similar to disk stars. It is, instead, remarkably different from that of the Sa...

  14. High food abundance permits the evolution of placentotrophy: evidence from a placental lizard, Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Griffith, Oliver W; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of reproductive allocation are major determinants of fitness because embryos cannot complete development without receiving sufficient nutrition from their parents. The nourishment of offspring via placentas (placentotrophy) has evolved repeatedly in vertebrates, including multiple times in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Placentotrophy has been suggested to evolve only if food is sufficiently abundant throughout gestation to allow successful embryogenesis. If scarcity of food prevents successful embryogenesis, females should recoup nutrients allocated to embryos via abortion, reabsorption, and/or cannibalism. We tested these hypotheses in the placentotrophic southern grass skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii. We fed females one of four diets (high constant, high variable, low constant, and low variable) during gestation and tested the effects of both food amount and schedule of feeding on developmental success, cannibalism rate, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Low food availability reduced developmental success, placental nutrient transport, offspring size, and maternal growth and body condition. Cannibalism of offspring also increased when food was scarce. Schedule of feeding did not affect offspring or mothers. We suggest that high food abundance and ability to abort and cannibalize poor-quality offspring are permissive factors necessary for placentotrophy to be a viable strategy of reproductive allocation.

  15. Polychaete richness and abundance enhanced in anthropogenically modified estuaries despite high concentrations of toxic contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Dafforn

    Full Text Available Ecological communities are increasingly exposed to multiple chemical and physical stressors, but distinguishing anthropogenic impacts from other environmental drivers remains challenging. Rarely are multiple stressors investigated in replicated studies over large spatial scales (>1000 kms or supported with manipulations that are necessary to interpret ecological patterns. We measured the composition of sediment infaunal communities in relation to anthropogenic and natural stressors at multiple sites within seven estuaries. We observed increases in the richness and abundance of polychaete worms in heavily modified estuaries with severe metal contamination, but no changes in the diversity or abundance of other taxa. Estuaries in which toxic contaminants were elevated also showed evidence of organic enrichment. We hypothesised that the observed response of polychaetes was not a 'positive' response to toxic contamination or a reduction in biotic competition, but due to high levels of nutrients in heavily modified estuaries driving productivity in the water column and enriching the sediment over large spatial scales. We deployed defaunated field-collected sediments from the surveyed estuaries in a small scale experiment, but observed no effects of sediment characteristics (toxic or enriching. Furthermore, invertebrate recruitment instead reflected the low diversity and abundance observed during field surveys of this relatively 'pristine' estuary. This suggests that differences observed in the survey are not a direct consequence of sediment characteristics (even severe metal contamination but are related to parameters that covary with estuary modification such as enhanced productivity from nutrient inputs and the diversity of the local species pool. This has implications for the interpretation of diversity measures in large-scale monitoring studies in which the observed patterns may be strongly influenced by many factors that covary with anthropogenic

  16. Re-examining High Abundance SDSS Mass-Metallicity Outliers: High N/O, Evolved Wolf-Rayet Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Marble, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    We present new MMT spectroscopic observations of four dwarf galaxies representative of a larger sample observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and identified by Peeples et al. (2008) as low-mass, high oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity relation. Peeples et al. (2008) showed that these four objects (with metallicity estimates of 8.5 =~ 0.10), each of which tend to bias estimates based on strong emission lines toward high oxygen abundances. These spectra all fall in a regime where the "standard" strong line methods for metallicity determinations are not well calibrated either empirically or by photoionization modeling. By comparing our spectra directly to photoionization models, we estimate oxygen abundances in the range of 7.9 =< 12 + log(O/H) =< 8.4, consistent with the scatter of the mass-metallicity relation. We discuss the physical nature of these galaxies that leads to their unusual spectra (and previous classification as outliers), finding their low excitation, elevated N/O...

  17. Petrogenesis of high-CaO lavas from Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Constraints from trace element abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Humayun, Munir

    2016-07-01

    The role of a mafic component in the petrogenesis of Oceanic Island Basalts (OIBs) is highly debated. As the best studied OIB, Hawaiian lavas provide critical insights into OIB genesis. At a given MgO content, the CaO content in the melt has been used to distinguish between partial melts of peridotite and garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. However, calculations using the BATCH program show that CaO contents in volatile-free melts saturated with all four phases, garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and olivine, are controlled by both degrees of partial melting and source compositions, and low melt CaO content is not diagnostic of partial melts from garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. This is an important consideration in understanding the origin of high-CaO lavas recovered from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP). Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the HSDP high- and low-SiO2 group lavas, and high-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here, we report trace element abundances obtained on a suite of high-CaO glasses and compared the trace element abundances of high-CaO lavas to those in high- and low-SiO2 lavas. When normalized to the average composition of low-SiO2 lavas, high-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern, enriched in both the most incompatible (Nb, Th) and the least incompatible (Sc, V) elements. This compositional distinction is best explained if high-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of a low degree partial melt of the low-SiO2 mantle source with a high degree (>80%) partial melt derived from a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, recycled lower oceanic crust, or high pressure cumulates from a magma chamber.

  18. Elemental Abundances in Two High Column Density Damped Lyman Alpha Systems at z < 1.5

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S M; Howk, J C; Wolfe, A M; Rao, Sandhya M.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    2004-01-01

    We present Keck/HIRES abundance measurements and metal-line kinematic profiles of the damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) towards the quasars Q0933+733 (z_abs=1.479) and Q0948+433 (z_abs=1.233). These two DLAs have among the five highest HI column densities at any redshift: N(HI)=4.2E21 cm^{-2}. The metal-line data, presented here for the first time, reveal that these DLAs are noteworthy for several other reasons as well. 1) The Q0933+733 DLA exhibits simple kinematic structure with unusually narrow velocity widths as measured from its unsaturated metal lines (delta v=16 km/s). At 2.6% solar, it has the second lowest metallicity at z -1) and a significant alpha-enhancement. The strong metal lines of this DLA have made possible the detection of TiII1910, CoII2012, and MgI2026. 3) We find that the relative gas-phase abundances of both DLAs follow the general trend seen at high redshift, e.g., enhanced Zn/Fe and Si/Fe, and sub-solar Mn/Fe, indicating that there is little evolution in the nucleosynthetic patterns o...

  19. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-06-21

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  20. Highly abundant and stage-specific mRNAs in the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, H S; Michelmore, R W

    1990-01-01

    Germinating spores of the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) contain several unusually abundant species of mRNA. Thirty-nine cDNA clones corresponding to prevalent transcripts were isolated from a library synthesized using poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores; these clones represented only five distinct classes. Each corresponding mRNA accounted for from 0.4 to 9 percent by mass of poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores and together represented greater than 20 percent of the mRNA. The expression of the corresponding genes, and a gene encoding Hsp70, was analyzed in spores during germination and during growth in planta. The Hsp70 mRNA and mRNA from one abundant cDNA clone (ham34) were expressed constitutively. Two clones (ham9 and ham12) hybridized only to mRNA from spores and germinating spores. Two clones (ham37 and ham27) showed hybridization specific to germinating spores. Quantification of the number of genes homologous to each cDNA clone indicated that four clones corresponded to one or two copies per haploid genome, and one hybridized to an approximately 11-member family of genes. A sequence of the gene corresponding to ham34 was obtained to investigate its function and to identify sequences conferring high levels of gene expression for use in constructing vectors for the transformation of B. lactucae.

  1. Discovery of earth-abundant nitride semiconductors by computational screening and high-pressure synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinuma, Yoyo; Hatakeyama, Taisuke; Kumagai, Yu; Burton, Lee A.; Sato, Hikaru; Muraba, Yoshinori; Iimura, Soshi; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Tanaka, Isao; Hosono, Hideo; Oba, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors are attractive because they can be environmentally benign, comprised of abundant elements and possess favourable electronic properties. However, those currently commercialized are mostly limited to gallium nitride and its alloys, despite the rich composition space of nitrides. Here we report the screening of ternary zinc nitride semiconductors using first-principles calculations of electronic structure, stability and dopability. This approach identifies as-yet-unreported CaZn2N2 that has earth-abundant components, smaller carrier effective masses than gallium nitride and a tunable direct bandgap suited for light emission and harvesting. High-pressure synthesis realizes this phase, verifying the predicted crystal structure and band-edge red photoluminescence. In total, we propose 21 promising systems, including Ca2ZnN2, Ba2ZnN2 and Zn2PN3, which have not been reported as semiconductors previously. Given the variety in bandgaps of the identified compounds, the present study expands the potential suitability of nitride semiconductors for a broader range of electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. PMID:27325228

  2. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  3. Zooplankton abundance, species composition and ecology of tropical high-mountain crater lake Wonchi, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Degefu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Ethiopia represent some of the remnants of undisturbed aquatic ecosystems; they are however highly threatened by significant socio–economic developments and associated anthropogenic impacts. Lake Wonchi is one of the few remaining fairly pristine high–mountain crater lakes in the central highlands and has never been investigated in detail. We present a first study on zooplankton taxa composition, abundance and biomass conducted over more than one year including the underlying environmental drivers. The lake is basic (pH 7.9-8.9, dilute (specific conductivity 185-245 µS cm-1 and oligotrophic with mean trophic status index of 36. The zooplankton community composition showed low species richness comprising a total of fourteen taxa with six cladocerans, one copepod and seven rotifers. Simpson´s index of diversity with values between 0.6 and 0.8 pointed towards a homogenous taxa occurrence within the single sample units. The overall mean (±SD standing biomass of zooplankton was 62.02±25.76 mg dry mass m-3,which is low compared to other highland and rift valley lakes in Ethiopia. Cyclopoid copepods, in particular Thermocyclops ethiopiensis were the most abundant group and contributed 50% to the total zooplankton abundance followed by cladocerans (38% and rotifers (12%. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling resulted in a 3-dimensional model, which revealed similar community composition on successive sampling dates except in December/January and May. Temperature, alkalinity, conductivity and nitrate-N had significant influence on this seasonal pattern. A weak, but significant positive correlation (r=0.482, N=20, P=0.037 between Chlorophyll a and zooplankton biomass mirrors a bottom-up effect of phytoplankton biomass on zooplankton dynamics. The zooplankton of Lake Wonchi displayed some degree of segregation along the epi– and metalimnion during this study, but diel vertical migration was not observed. The results show that fish

  4. Production of High Potency Anti-Teschen Disease Serum From Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D

    1964-01-01

    An antiserum of high antibody content against Teschen disease Konratice virus was obtained by inoculating rabbits and guinea pigs with an antigen composed of aluminum gel and virus propagated in swine kidney cell cultures. The rabbit and guinea pig serums neutralized 1,500 TCID(50) of virus at dilutions of 1:5,120 and 1:2,048, respectively. The antibody level in the rabbit serum was tenfold greater than that in convalescent swine serum. Rabbit serum neutralized 2.8 x 10(6) plaque-forming units of the Konratice virus. At a dilution of 1:5,120, this serum neutralized 1,500 TCID(50) of the Reporyje virus. The methods used to prepare and assay the serum are described.

  5. Dietary flavonoid fisetin increases abundance of high-molecular-mass hyaluronan conferring resistance to prostate oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Syed, Deeba N; Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar M; Gong, Yuansheng; Lucey, John A; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown previously that fisetin, a plant flavonoid, has therapeutic potential against many cancer types. Here, we examined the probable mechanism of its action in prostate cancer (PCa) using a global metabolomics approach. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of tumor xenografts from fisetin-treated animals identified several metabolic targets with hyaluronan (HA) as the most affected. Efficacy of fisetin on HA was then evaluated in vitro and also in vivo in the transgenic TRAMP mouse model of PCa. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALS) was performed to analyze the molar mass (Mw) distribution of HA. Fisetin treatment downregulated intracellular and secreted HA levels both in vitro and in vivo Fisetin inhibited HA synthesis and degradation enzymes, which led to cessation of HA synthesis and also repressed the degradation of the available high-molecular-mass (HMM)-HA. SEC-MALS analysis of intact HA fragment size revealed that cells and animals have more abundance of HMM-HA and less of low-molecular-mass (LMM)-HA upon fisetin treatment. Elevated HA levels have been shown to be associated with disease progression in certain cancer types. Biological responses triggered by HA mainly depend on the HA polymer length where HMM-HA represses mitogenic signaling and has anti-inflammatory properties whereas LMM-HA promotes proliferation and inflammation. Similarly, Mw analysis of secreted HA fragment size revealed less HMM-HA is secreted that allowed more HMM-HA to be retained within the cells and tissues. Our findings establish that fisetin is an effective, non-toxic, potent HA synthesis inhibitor, which increases abundance of antiangiogenic HMM-HA and could be used for the management of PCa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. THE ABUNDANCE, DIVERSITY AND METABOLIC FOOTPRINT OF SOIL NEMATODES IS HIGHEST IN HIGH ELEVATION ALPINE GRASSLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kergunteuil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are key components of soil biodiversity and represent valuable bio-indicators of soil food webs. Numerous community indices have been developed in order to track variations in soil ecosystem processes, but their use is mainly restricted to anthropogenic stresses. In this study, we propose to expand the use of nematodes’ derived ecological indices in order to shed light on variations of soil food webs in natural systems distributed along elevation gradients. For this purpose, we aimed at determining how elevation affects the community structure and the trophic diversity by studying the abundance, the composition and the functional diversity of nematode communities. Nematode communities were sampled every 200 m across five transects that span about 2000 m in elevation in the Alps. To understand the underlying ecological parameters driving these patterns we studied both abiotic factors (soil properties and biotic factors (trophic links, relationships with plant diversity. We found that (1 nematode abundance increases with elevation of lowland forests and alpine meadows; (2 differences in nematodes communities rely on habitat-specific functional diversity (e.g. tolerance to harsh environments, colonizer/persister status while most trophic groups are ubiquitous; and (3 the metabolic footprint of the complete nematode community increases with elevation. We thus conclude that the contribution of soil dwelling nematodes to belowground ecosystem processes, including carbon and energy flow, is stronger at high elevation. The resulting cascading effects on the soil food web structure are discussed from an ecosystem functioning perspective. Overall, this study highlights the importance of nematodes in soil ecosystems and brings insights in their enhanced role along ecological gradients.

  7. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  8. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  9. Velocity and abundance precisions for future high-resolution spectroscopic surveys: a study for 4MOST

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Sbordone, L; Sartoretti, P; Hansen, C J; Royer, F; Leclerc, N; Bonifacio, P; Christlieb, N; Ludwig, H G; Grebel, E K; de Jong, R S; Chiappini, C; Walcher, J; Mignot, S; Feltzing, S; Cohen, M; Minchev, I; Helmi, A; Piffl, T; Depagne, E; Schnurr, O

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for future, large-scale, multi-object, high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy, we present a series of tests of the precision in radial velocity and chemical abundances that any such project can achieve at a 4m class telescope. We briefly discuss a number of science cases that aim at studying the chemo-dynamical history of the major Galactic components (bulge, thin and thick disks, and halo) - either as a follow-up to the Gaia mission or on their own merits. Based on a large grid of synthetic spectra that cover the full range in stellar parameters of typical survey targets, we devise an optimal wavelength range and argue for a moderately high-resolution spectrograph. As a result, the kinematic precision is not limited by any of these factors, but will practically only suffer from systematic effects, easily reaching uncertainties <1 km/s. Under realistic survey conditions (namely, considering stars brighter than r=16 mag with reasonable exposure times) we prefer an ideal resolving...

  10. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (~110,700 S m-1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  11. High frequency (hourly) variation in vertical distribution and abundance of meroplanktonic larvae in nearshore waters during strong internal tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévana MacTavish, A.; Ladah, L. B.; Lavín, M. F.; Filonov, A.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Leichter, J.

    2016-04-01

    We related the vertical distribution and abundance of nearshore meroplankton at hourly time scales with internal tidal wave events. We proposed that significant changes in plankter abundance would occur across internal tidal fronts, and that surface and bottom strata would respond in opposite fashions. First-mode internal tidal bores propagating in the alongshore direction were detected in water-column currents and baroclinic temperature changes. Surface and bottom currents always flowed in opposite directions, and abrupt flow reversals coincided with large temperature changes during arrival of bores. Crab zoeae and barnacle cyprids were more abundant in the bottom strata, whereas barnacle nauplii showed the opposite pattern. Significant changes in vertical distribution and abundance of target meroplankters occurred across internal tidal fronts, especially for crabs at depth, with surface and bottom organisms responding in opposite fashions. Changes in plankter abundance were significantly correlated with current flows in the strata where they were most abundant. The manner in which plankters were affected (increasing or decreasing abundance) appeared to be modulated by their vertical position within the water column. The significant differences found at the high frequencies of this study, maintained across sampling days, suggest that nearshore meroplankton populations may have greater and more consistent temporal and vertical variability than previously considered.

  12. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binfeng; Li, Hongli; Hu, Mingdong; Dong, Weijie; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Yao, Wei; Guo, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS) is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p HADAS subjects compared with controls (p HADAS incidence and severity (p HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS.

  13. HIGH PRECISION ABUNDANCES OF THE OLD SOLAR TWIN HIP 102152: INSIGHTS ON Li DEPLETION FROM THE OLDEST SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Melendez, Jorge; Tucci Maia, Marcelo; Freitas, Fabricio C. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yong, David; Asplund, Martin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Casagrande, Luca [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bergemann, Maria [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lind, Karin [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Castro, Matthieu; Do Nascimento, Jose-Dias [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bazot, Michael, E-mail: tmonroe@usp.br [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-09-10

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of the old 8.2 Gyr solar twin, HIP 102152. We derive differential abundances of 21 elements relative to the Sun with precisions as high as 0.004 dex ({approx}<1%), using ultra high-resolution (R = 110,000), high S/N UVES spectra obtained on the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope. Our determined metallicity of HIP 102152 is [Fe/H] = -0.013 {+-} 0.004. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined to be 54 K cooler than the Sun, 0.09 dex lower in surface gravity, and a microturbulence identical to our derived solar value. Elemental abundance ratios examined versus dust condensation temperature reveal a solar abundance pattern for this star, in contrast to most solar twins. The abundance pattern of HIP 102152 appears to be the most similar to solar of any known solar twin. Abundances of the younger, 2.9 Gyr solar twin, 18 Sco, were also determined from UVES spectra to serve as a comparison for HIP 102152. The solar chemical pattern of HIP 102152 makes it a potential candidate to host terrestrial planets, which is reinforced by the lack of giant planets in its terrestrial planet region. The following non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Li abundances were obtained for HIP 102152, 18 Sco, and the Sun: log {epsilon} (Li) = 0.48 {+-} 0.07, 1.62 {+-} 0.02, and 1.07 {+-} 0.02, respectively. The Li abundance of HIP 102152 is the lowest reported to date for a solar twin, and allows us to consider an emerging, tightly constrained Li-age trend for solar twin stars.

  14. The case for high precision in elemental abundances of stars in the era of large spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Lindegren, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    A number of large spectroscopic surveys of stars in the Milky Way are under way or are being planned. In this context it is important to discuss the extent to which elemental abundances can be used as discriminators between different (known and unknown) stellar populations in the Milky Way. We aim to establish the requirements in terms of precision in elemental abundances, as derived from spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way's stellar populations, in order to detect interesting substructures in elemental abundance space. We present a simple relation between the minimum number of stars needed to detect a given substructure and the precision of the measurements. The results are in agreement with recent small- and large-scale studies, with high and low precision, respectively. Large-number statistics cannot fully compensate for low precision in the abundance measurements and each survey should carefully evaluate what the main science drivers are for the survey and ensure that the chosen observational strategy ...

  15. Association between Serum Interleukin-17A Level and High-Altitude Deacclimatization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binfeng He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude deacclimatization syndrome (HADAS is emerging as a severe public health issue that threatens the quality of life of individuals who return to lower altitude from high altitude. In this study, we measured serum levels of SOD, MDA, IL-17A, IL-10, TNF-α, and HADAS score in HADAS subjects at baseline and 50th and 100th days and to evaluate the relationship between interleukins, including IL-17A, and HADAS. Our data showed that and the serum IL-17A levels and HADAS score decreased over time in the HADAS group, and serum IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the HADAS group at baseline and 50th day compared with controls (p<0.05. Furthermore, baseline serum levels of MDA and TNF-α were significantly higher, while SOD and IL-10 levels were lower in HADAS subjects compared with controls (p<0.05. It is interesting that serum levels of IL-17A were clearly interrelated with HADAS incidence and severity (p<0.05. ROC curve analysis showed that combined serum IL-17A and IL-10 levels were a better predictor of HADAS incidence than serum levels of IL-17A or IL-10 alone. These data suggest that serum levels of IL-17A are a novel predictive index of HADAS.

  16. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Vega-like Stars: Abundances and Circumstellar Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkin, S. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Ryan, Sean G.

    1996-01-01

    Vega-like stars are main-sequence stars exhibiting excess infrared emission. In an effort to improve the information available on this class of star, 13 stars have been analyzed which have been classed as Vega-like, or have an infra-red excess attributable to dust in their circumstellar environment. In a separate paper stellar properties such as effective temperature and log g have been derived and in this poster we highlight the results of the photospheric abundance analysis also carried out during this work. King recently drew attention to the possible link between Vega-like stars and the photospheric metal-depleted class of A-stars, the Lambda Bootis stars. Since Vega-like stars are thought to have disks of dust, it might be expected that accretion of depleted gas onto the surface of these stars may cause this same phenomenon. In the 6 stars studied for depletions, none showed the extreme underabundance patterns observed in Lambda Bootis stars. However, depletions of silicon and magnesium were found in two of the sample, suggesting that these elements are in silicate dust grains in the circumstellar environment of these stars. Absorption lines attributed to circumstellar gas have been positively identified in three stars in our sample. Individual cases show evidence either of high-velocity outflowing gas, variability in the circumstellar lines observed, or evidence of circumstellar gas in excited lines of Fe II. No previous identification of circumstellar material has been made for two of the stars in question.

  17. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  18. Scalable Synthesis of Defect Abundant Si Nanorods for High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Meng, Xiangcai; Fan, Xiulin; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-06-23

    Microsized nanostructured silicon-carbon composite is a promising anode material for high energy Li-ion batteries. However, large-scale synthesis of high-performance nano-Si materials at a low cost still remains a significant challenge. We report a scalable low cost method to synthesize Al/Na-doped and defect-abundant Si nanorods that have excellent electrochemical performance with high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (90%). The unique Si nanorods are synthesized by acid etching the refined and rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Si ingot. To maintain the high electronic conductivity, a thin layer of carbon is then coated on the Si nanorods by carbonization of self-polymerized polydopamine (PDA) at 800 °C. The carbon coated Si nanorods (Si@C) electrode at 0.9 mg cm(-2) loading (corresponding to area-specific-capacity of ∼2.0 mAh cm(-2)) exhibits a reversible capacity of ∼2200 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) current, and maintains ∼700 mAh g(-1) over 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1) with a capacity decay rate of 0.02% per cycle. High Coulombic efficiencies of 87% in the first cycle and ∼99.7% after 5 cycles are achieved due to the formation of an artificial Al2O3 solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si surface, and the low surface area (31 m(2) g(-1)), which has never been reported before for nano-Si anodes. The excellent electrochemical performance results from the massive defects (twins, stacking faults, dislocations) and Al/Na doping in Si nanorods induced by rapid solidification and Na salt modifications; this greatly enhances the robustness of Si from the volume changes and alleviates the mechanical stress/strain of the Si nanorods during the lithium insertion/extraction process. Introducing massive defects and Al/Na doping in eutectic Si nanorods for Li-ion battery anodes is unexplored territory. We venture this uncharted territory to commercialize this nanostructured Si anode for the next generation of Li-ion batteries.

  19. [Restless legs syndrome in patients with high serum ferritin and normal iron levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Duque-Ramírez, Luis G; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To document the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and high ferritin levels in five patients. The five patients were male, mean age: 59 years (range: 36-73 years). The patients were referred for RLS (two of them blood donors), in two cases associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients underwent a video-PSG recording. Serum iron and serum ferritin were determined. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for RLS: leg paresthesias associated with an urge to move, motor restless-ness, worsening of symptoms during the evening and night, and partial relief with activity, difficulty falling asleep, and presence of nocturnal awakenings due to RLS. Neurological examination, EEGs, EMGs and MRIs were normal. Video-PSGs recordings showed a disturbed and fragmented sleep with a reduction in total sleep time, low sleep efficiency, respiratory abnormalities with an apnea-hipopnea index > 10/h in two cases, and in all of them a periodic leg movements index > 5/h. The serum iron levels were within the normal range in all cases, whereas those in serum ferritin levels were high. To our knowledge the association of normal serum iron with high serum ferritin levels in patients diagnosed clinically and polygraphically as having RLS with periodic leg movements has not been described before. The notion of an involvement of a dopaminergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of RLS is supported by the decrease in the values of serum ferritin concentration observed in one patient during follow-up while being treated with dopaminergic agents.

  20. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  1. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  2. Chemical Abundances in Field Red Giants from High-Resolution H-Band Spectra using the APOGEE Spectral Linelist

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Verne V; Shetrone, Matthew D; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Perez, Ana Garcia; Majewski, Steven R; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the SDSS III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes 12C, 13C, 14N, and 16O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to ~0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is, thus, well-suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as inter...

  3. Determination of nadolol in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Yoshida, K; Murano, M; Naruto, S

    1992-01-17

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for a routine assay of nadolol in serum is described. Serum samples spiked with atenolol (internal standard) were extracted with diethyl ether. After centrifugation, the organic layer was evaporated to dryness. The residue was redissolved in the mobile phase and injected onto an octadecyl silica column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase was 0.05 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.5)-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). Fluorometric detection (excitation 230 nm, emission 300 nm) was used. The minimum detectable level of nadolol in serum was 1 ng/ml.

  4. Abundances in Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems and Chemical Evolution of High Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, L; Barlow, T A; Lu, Limin; Sargent, Wallace L.W.; Barlow, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent abundance measurements in damped Lyman-alpha galaxies, supplemented with unpublished Keck observations, are discussed. The metallicity distribution with cosmic time is examined for clues about the degree of enrichment, the onset of initial star formation, and the nature of the galxies. The relative abundances of the elements are compared with the abundnce pattern in Galactic halo stars and in the Sun, taking into account of the effects of dust depletion, in order to gain insight into the stellar processes and the time scales by which the enrichment occurred.

  5. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab......The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested...... for establishing the ability of HPLC-LIF protein profiling technique for discrimination, using hard clustering and Fuzzy clustering methods. The clustering algorithms have quite successfully classified the profiles as belonging to normal, cancer of cervix, and oral cancer conditions....

  6. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN FIELD RED GIANTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION H-BAND SPECTRA USING THE APOGEE SPECTRAL LINELIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto d' Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Garcia Perez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5UX (United Kingdom); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer A., E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants ({alpha} Boo and {mu} Leo), two M-giants ({beta} And and {delta} Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 16}O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of {sup 12}C synthesized during {sup 4}He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to {approx}0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  7. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Lescot, Magali

    2015-11-27

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  8. Reverse transcriptase genes are highly abundant and transcriptionally active in marine plankton assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescot, Magali; Hingamp, Pascal; Kojima, Kenji K; Villar, Emilie; Romac, Sarah; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Boccara, Martine; Jaillon, Olivier; Iudicone, Daniele; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Genes encoding reverse transcriptases (RTs) are found in most eukaryotes, often as a component of retrotransposons, as well as in retroviruses and in prokaryotic retroelements. We investigated the abundance, classification and transcriptional status of RTs based on Tara Oceans marine metagenomes and metatranscriptomes encompassing a wide organism size range. Our analyses revealed that RTs predominate large-size fraction metagenomes (>5 μm), where they reached a maximum of 13.5% of the total gene abundance. Metagenomic RTs were widely distributed across the phylogeny of known RTs, but many belonged to previously uncharacterized clades. Metatranscriptomic RTs showed distinct abundance patterns across samples compared with metagenomic RTs. The relative abundances of viral and bacterial RTs among identified RT sequences were higher in metatranscriptomes than in metagenomes and these sequences were detected in all metatranscriptome size fractions. Overall, these observations suggest an active proliferation of various RT-assisted elements, which could be involved in genome evolution or adaptive processes of plankton assemblage.

  9. Identification of novel serum peptide biomarkers for high-altitude adaptation: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Siyuan; Yuan, Dongya; Guo, Yijiao; Jia, Cheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to identify serum biomarkers for screening individuals who could adapt to high-altitude hypoxia at sea level. HHA (high-altitude hypoxia acclimated; n = 48) and HHI (high-altitude hypoxia illness; n = 48) groups were distinguished at high altitude, routine blood tests were performed for both groups at high altitude and at sea level. Serum biomarkers were identified by comparing serum peptidome profiling between HHI and HHA groups collected at sea level. Routine blood tests revealed the concentration of hemoglobin and red blood cells were significantly higher in HHI than in HHA at high altitude. Serum peptidome profiling showed that ten significantly differentially expressed peaks between HHA and HHI at sea level. Three potential serum peptide peaks (m/z values: 1061.91, 1088.33, 4057.63) were further sequence identified as regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 fragment (ITIH4 347-356), regions of the inter-α trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H1 fragment (ITIH1 205-214), and isoform 1 of fibrinogen α chain precursor (FGA 588-624). Expression of their full proteins was also tested by ELISA in HHA and HHI samples collected at sea level. Our study provided a novel approach for identifying potential biomarkers for screening people at sea level who can adapt to high altitudes.

  10. High serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Chaohui; Miao, Min; Xie, Jianhong; Li, Youming

    2014-01-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum ferritin levels with hyperuricemia. A cross-sectional and subsequently prospective study was performed among the employees of Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company, Ningbo, China. In a cross-sectional study, the association between serum ferritin levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was analyzed. Subjects who were free of hyperuricemia at baseline were followed up annually to explore the prospective association between serum ferritin levels and hyperuricemia incidence. Of the 10,074 subjects enrolled at baseline, 1,731 (17.18%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of hyperuricemia. Subjects with hyperuricemia presented significantly higher serum ferritin levels, and the levels were positively correlated with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. During a total of 22,367 person-years of follow-up, 502 subjects developed hyperuricemia. The overall incidence of hyperuricemia for 1,000 person-years of follow-up was 22.4, ranging from 17.6 in subjects with baseline serum ferritin levels in the first quintile to 19.2, 21.7, 23.9, and 30.7 in subjects in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (p for trend serum ferritin levels were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results indicate that high serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  11. TRACING THE EVOLUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Brian D.; O’Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason, E-mail: crosby.bd@gmail.com [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    This paper presents the first results from a model for chemical evolution that can be applied to N-body cosmological simulations and quantitatively compared to measured stellar abundances from large astronomical surveys. This model convolves the chemical yield sets from a range of stellar nucleosynthesis calculations (including asymptotic giant branch stars, Type Ia and II supernovae, and stellar wind models) with a user-specified stellar initial mass function (IMF) and metallicity to calculate the time-dependent chemical evolution model for a “simple stellar population” (SSP) of uniform metallicity and formation time. These SSP models are combined with a semianalytic model for galaxy formation and evolution that uses merger trees from N-body cosmological simulations to track several α- and iron-peak elements for the stellar and multiphase interstellar medium components of several thousand galaxies in the early (z ≥ 6) universe. The simulated galaxy population is then quantitatively compared to two complementary data sets of abundances in the Milky Way stellar halo and is capable of reproducing many of the observed abundance trends. The observed abundance ratio distributions are best reproduced with a Chabrier IMF, a chemically enriched star formation efficiency of 0.2, and a redshift of reionization of 7. Many abundances are qualitatively well matched by our model, but our model consistently overpredicts the carbon-enhanced fraction of stars at low metallicities, likely owing to incomplete coverage of Population III stellar yields and supernova models and the lack of dust as a component of our model.

  12. Estimating the abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at variable elevations using an aircraft: how high can they fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Konoglou, Maria; Akritidis, Ioannis; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Gioulekas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    Airborne pollen and fungal spores are monitored mainly in highly populated, urban environments, for allergy prevention purposes. However, their sources can frequently be located outside cities’ fringes with more vegetation. So as to shed light to this paradox, we investigated the diversity and abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at various environmental regimes. We monitored pollen and spores using an aircraft and a car, at elevations from sea level to 2,000 m above ground, in the region of Thesssaloniki, Greece. We found a total of 24 pollen types and more than 15 spore types. Pollen and spores were detected throughout the elevational transect. Lower elevations exhibited higher pollen concentrations in only half of plant taxa and higher fungal spore concentrations in only Ustilago. Pinaceae and Quercus pollen were the most abundant recorded by airplane (>54% of the total). Poaceae pollen were the most abundant via car measurements (>77% of the total). Cladosporium and Alternaria spores were the most abundant in all cases (aircraft: >69% and >17%, car: >45% and >27%, respectively). We conclude that pollen and fungal spores can be diverse and abundant even outside the main source area, evidently because of long-distance transport incidents.

  13. Young stars and ionized nebulae in M83: comparing chemical abundances at high metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A; Gieren, Wolfgang; Ho, I-Ting; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    We present spectra of 14 A-type supergiants in the metal-rich spiral galaxy M83. We derive stellar parameters and metallicities, and measure a spectroscopic distance modulus m-M = 28.47 +\\- 0.10 (4.9 +\\- 0.2 Mpc), in agreement with other methods. We use the stellar characteristic metallicity of M83 and other systems to discuss a version of the galaxy mass-metallicity relation that is independent of the analysis of nebular emission lines and the associated systematic uncertainties. We reproduce the radial metallicity gradient of M83, which flattens at large radii, with a chemical evolution model, constraining gas inflow and outflow processes. We carry out a comparative analysis of the metallicities we derive from the stellar spectra and published HII region line fluxes, utilizing both the direct, Te-based method and different strong-line abundance diagnostics. The direct abundances are in relatively good agreement with the stellar metallicities, once we apply a modest correction to the nebular oxygen abundance...

  14. Trace element abundances of high-MgO glasses from Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala volcanoes, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.P.; Clague, D.A.; Hauri, E.H.; Grove, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    We performed an ion-microprobe study of eleven high-MgO (6.7-14.8 wt%) tholeiite glasses from the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala. We determined the rare earth (RE), high field strength, and other selected trace element abundances of these glasses, and used the data to establish their relationship to typical Hawaiian shield tholeiite and to infer characteristics of their source. The glasses have trace element abundance characteristics generally similar to those of typical shield tholeiites, e.g. L(light)REE/H(heavy)REE(C1) > 1. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa glasses, however, display trace and major element characteristics that cross geochemical discriminants observed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield lavas. The glasses contain a blend of these discriminating chemical characteristics, and are not exactly like the typical shield lavas from either volcano. The production of these hybrid magmas likely requires a complexly zoned source, rather than two unique sources. When corrected for olivine fractionation, the glass data show correlations between CaO concentration and incompatible trace element abundances, indicating that CaO may behave incompatibly during melting of the tholeiite source. Furthermore, the tholeiite source must contain residual garnet and clinopyroxene to account for the variation in trace element abundances of the Kilauea glasses. Inversion modeling indicates that the Kilauea source is flat relative to C1 chondrites, and has a higher bulk distribution coefficient for the HREE than the LREE.

  15. Genetic causes of high and low serum HDL-cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have a strong inherited basis with heritability estimates of 40-60%. The well-established inverse relationship between plasma HDL-C levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has led to an extensive search for genetic factors influencing HDL-C concentrations. Over the past 30 years, candidate gene, genome-wide linkage, and most recently genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic variations for plasma HDL-C levels. However, the functional role of several of these variants remains unknown, and they do not always correlate with CAD. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about HDL metabolism, monogenic disorders associated with both low and high HDL-C levels, and candidate gene studies. Then we will focus this review on recent genetic findings from the GWA studies and future strategies to elucidate the remaining substantial proportion of HDL-C heritability. Comprehensive investigation of the genetic factors conferring to low and high HDL-C levels using integrative approaches is important to unravel novel pathways and their relations to CAD, so that more effective means of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention will be identified. PMID:20421590

  16. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  17. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Indresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine amino transferase (ALT and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05 decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 313-317

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with high serum levels of tenascin-X and decreased aneurysmal tissue tenascin-X.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, M.C.; Peeters, A.C.T.; Graafsma, S.J.; Kranendonk, S.E.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Heijer, M. den; Schalkwijk, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tenascin-X is a large extracellular matrix protein that is abundantly expressed in several connective tissues. A 140-kDa C-terminal fragment of tenascin-X is present in human serum. Complete deficiency of tenascin-X is associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and these patients show major

  19. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease.

  20. Comparative study of human and mouse postsynaptic proteomes finds high compositional conservation and abundance differences for key synaptic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Bayés

    Full Text Available Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease.

  1. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina

    2014-07-09

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four bacterial phyla of representative sponge symbionts as well as the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea. We could show that the 16S rRNA gene numbers of Archaea, Chloroflexi, and the candidate phylum Poribacteria were 4-6 orders of magnitude higher in high microbial abundance (HMA) than in low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges and that actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene numbers were 1-2 orders higher in HMA over LMA sponges, while those for Cyanobacteria were stable between HMA and LMA sponges. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aplysina aerophoba tissue sections confirmed the numerical dominance of Chloroflexi, which was followed by Poribacteria. Archaeal and actinobacterial cells were detected in much lower numbers. By use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a primer- and probe-independent approach, the dominance of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Poribacteria in A. aerophoba was confirmed. Our study provides new quantitative insights into the microbiology of sponges and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA/LMA dichotomy. The authors quantified sponge symbionts in eight sponge species from three different locations by real time PCR targetting 16S rRNA genes. Additionally, FISH was performed and diversity and abundance of singularized microbial symbionts from Aplysina aerophoba was determined for a comprehensive quantification work. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  2. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-10-01

    Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors.

  3. Ultra-diffuse galaxies: the high-spin tail of the abundant dwarf galaxy population

    CERN Document Server

    Amorisco, N C

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of an abundant population of faint, low surface brightness (SB) galaxies, which appear to be numerous and ubiquitous in nearby galaxy clusters, including the Virgo, Coma and Fornax clusters. With median stellar masses of dwarf galaxies, these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) have unexpectedly large sizes, corresponding to a mean SB of $24\\lesssim\\langle\\mu_e\\rangle_r\\ {\\rm mag}^{-1} {\\rm arcsec}^2\\lesssim27$ within the effective radius. We show that the UDG population represents the tail of galaxies formed in dwarf-sized haloes with higher-than-average angular momentum at collapse. By adopting the standard model of disk formation -- in which the size of galaxies is set by the spin of the halo -- we recover both the abundance of UDGs as a function of the host cluster mass and the distribution of sizes within the UDG population. According to this model, UDGs are not failed $L_*$ galaxies, but genuine dwarfs, and their low SB is not uniquely connected to the harsh clu...

  4. Earth-Abundant and Non-Toxic SiX (X = S, Se) Monolayers as Highly Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Yuan, Qinghong; Deng, Huixiong; Wei, Su-Huai; Yakobson, Boris I.

    2017-01-12

    Current thermoelectric (TE) materials often have low performance or contain less abundant and/or toxic elements, thus limiting their large-scale applications. Therefore, new TE materials with high efficiency and low cost are strongly desirable. Here we demonstrate that SiS and SiSe monolayers made from nontoxic and earth-abundant elements intrinsically have low thermal conductivities arising from their low-frequency optical phonon branches with large overlaps with acoustic phonon modes, which is similar to the state-of-the-art experimentally demonstrated material SnSe with a layered structure. Together with high thermal power factors due to their two-dimensional nature, they show promising TE performances with large figure of merit (ZT) values exceeding 1 or 2 over a wide range of temperatures. We establish some basic understanding of identifying layered materials with low thermal conductivities, which can guide and stimulate the search and study of other layered materials for TE applications.

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius Streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M; Bonifacio, P.; A. Buzzoni; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G; Sbordone, L.; S. Zaggia

    2006-01-01

    Context. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently being disrupted under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstruction of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained by combining core and stream information. Aims. We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and $\\alpha$-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods. Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HAR...

  6. Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël, Natascha M.D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn; Ingle, John; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum (golden alga, GA) is a toxigenic harmful alga native to marine ecosystems that has also affected brackish inland waters. The first toxic bloom of GA in the western hemisphere occurred in the Pecos River, one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Environmental factors (water quality) associated with GA occurrence in this basin, however, have not been examined. Water quality and GA presence and abundance were determined at eight sites in the Pecos River basin with or without prior history of toxic blooms. Sampling was conducted monthly from January 2012 to July 2013. Specific conductance (salinity) varied spatiotemporally between 4408 and 73,786 mS/cm. Results of graphical, principal component (PCA), and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses indicated that the incidence and abundance of GA are reduced as salinity increases spatiotemporally. LOWESS regression and correlation analyses of archived data for specific conductance and GA abundance at one of the study sites retrospectively confirmed the negative association between these variables. Results of PCA also suggested that at nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations whereas at higher salinity, GA was observed only at mid-to-high nutrient levels. Generally consistent with earlier studies, results of ZIP regression indicated that GA presence is positively associated with organic phosphorus and in samples where GA is present, GA abundance is positively associated with organic nitrogen and negatively associated with inorganic nitrogen. This is the first report of an inverse relation between salinity and GA presence and abundance in riverine waters and of interaction effects of salinity and nutrients in the field. These observations contribute to a more complete understanding of environmental conditions that influence GA distribution in inland waters.

  7. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was 7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance.

  9. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcin Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher T; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian A; Finocchiaro, Raymond G; Johnston, Michael D; McAdams, Brandon C; Solensky, Matthew J; Smith, Garrett J; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Abundant carbon substrates drive extremely high sulfate reduction rates and methane fluxes in Prairie Pothole Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paula; Hoyt, David W.; Bansal, Sheel; Mills, Christopher; Tfaily, Malak; Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Johnston, Michael D.; McAdams, Brandon C.; Solensky, Matthew J.; Smith, Garrett J.; Chin, Yu-Ping; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Inland waters are increasingly recognized as critical sites of methane emissions to the atmosphere, but the biogeochemical reactions driving such fluxes are less well understood. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is one of the largest wetland complexes in the world, containing millions of small, shallow wetlands. The sediment pore waters of PPR wetlands contain some of the highest concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sulfur species ever recorded in terrestrial aquatic environments. Using a suite of geochemical and microbiological analyses, we measured the impact of sedimentary carbon and sulfur transformations in these wetlands on methane fluxes to the atmosphere. This research represents the first study of coupled geochemistry and microbiology within the PPR and demonstrates how the conversion of abundant labile DOC pools into methane results in some of the highest fluxes of this greenhouse gas to the atmosphere ever reported. Abundant DOC and sulfate additionally supported some of the highest sulfate reduction rates ever measured in terrestrial aquatic environments, which we infer to account for a large fraction of carbon mineralization in this system. Methane accumulations in zones of active sulfate reduction may be due to either the transport of free methane gas from deeper locations or the co-occurrence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. If both respiratory processes are concurrent, any competitive inhibition of methanogenesis by sulfate-reducing bacteria may be lessened by the presence of large labile DOC pools that yield noncompetitive substrates such as methanol. Our results reveal some of the underlying mechanisms that make PPR wetlands biogeochemical hotspots, which ultimately leads to their critical, but poorly recognized role in regional greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Chemical Abundances in Twelve Red Giants of the Large Magellanic Cloud from High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Plez, B; Lambert, D L; Pilachowski, C A; Barbuy, B; Melendez, J; Balachandran, S C; Bessell, M S; Geisler, D; Hesser, J E; Winge, C

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution infrared spectra (R=50,000) have been obtained for twelve red-giant members of the LMC with the Gemini South 8.3-meter telescope plus Phoenix spectrometer. Quantitative chemical abundances of carbon-12, carbon-13, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-16 were derived from molecular lines of CO, CN, and OH, while sodium, scandium, titanium, and iron abundances were derived from neutral atomic lines. The LMC giants have masses from about 1 to 4 solar masses and span a metallicity range from [Fe/H]= -1.1 to -0.3. The program red giants all show evidence of first dredge-up mixing, with low 12C/13C ratios, and low 12C correlated with high 14N abundances. Comparisons of the oxygen-to-iron ratios in the LMC and the Galaxy indicate that the trend of [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] in the LMC falls about 0.2 dex below the Galactic trend. Such an offset can be modeled as due to an overall lower rate of supernovae per unit mass in the LMC relative to the Galaxy, as well as a slightly lower ratio of supernovae of type II to super...

  12. High immunogenic enterovirus 71 strain and its production using serum-free microcarrier Vero cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chyi; Lian, Wei-Cheng; Butler, Michael; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Developing an effective vaccine against enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection provides the best means to control the disease. We have previously reported that large-scale preparation of a low immunogenic EV71 strain can be achieved using serum free microcarrier Vero cell culture in a 2-l bioreactor [Wu SC, Liu CC, Lian WC. Optimization of microcarrier cell culture process for the inactivated enterovirus type 71 vaccine development. Vaccine 2004;22:3858-64]. This present work further investigated the virus growth and the immunogenicity of two high immunogenic strains (EV71-075 and EV71-117) prepared in serum-free microcarrier cell cultures. Our results showed that serum free culture increased cell death rate after infection, reduced the virus specific productivity, but resulted in elicitation of higher neutralizing titers in immunized mice as compared to that parallel obtained in serum-containing cultures. Therefore, serum-free microcarrier culture is a valuable process for developing inactivated EV71 vaccines.

  13. Predator diversity and abundance provide little support for the enemies hypothesis in forests of high tree diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Andreas; Both, Sabine; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Schmid, Bernhard; Zhou, Hongzhang; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Predatory arthropods can exert strong top-down control on ecosystem functions. However, despite extensive theory and experimental manipulations of predator diversity, our knowledge about relationships between plant and predator diversity--and thus information on the relevance of experimental findings--for species-rich, natural ecosystems is limited. We studied activity abundance and species richness of epigeic spiders in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in subtropical China across 27 forest stands which formed a gradient in tree diversity of 25-69 species per plot. The enemies hypothesis predicts higher predator abundance and diversity, and concomitantly more effective top-down control of food webs, with increasing plant diversity. However, in our study, activity abundance and observed species richness of spiders decreased with increasing tree species richness. There was only a weak, non-significant relationship with tree richness when spider richness was rarefied, i.e. corrected for different total abundances of spiders. Only foraging guild richness (i.e. the diversity of hunting modes) of spiders was positively related to tree species richness. Plant species richness in the herb layer had no significant effects on spiders. Our results thus provide little support for the enemies hypothesis--derived from studies in less diverse ecosystems--of a positive relationship between predator and plant diversity. Our findings for an important group of generalist predators question whether stronger top-down control of food webs can be expected in the more plant diverse stands of our forest ecosystem. Biotic interactions could play important roles in mediating the observed relationships between spider and plant diversity, but further testing is required for a more detailed mechanistic understanding. Our findings have implications for evaluating the way in which theoretical predictions and experimental findings of functional predator effects apply to species-rich forest

  14. Specificity and transcriptional activity of microbiota associated with low and high microbial abundance sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2013-08-20

    Marine sponges are generally classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) species. Here, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the diversity, specificity and transcriptional activity of microbes associated with an LMA sponge (Stylissa carteri), an HMA sponge (Xestospongia testudinaria) and sea water collected from the central Saudi Arabia coast of the Red Sea. Altogether, 887 068 denoised sequences were obtained, of which 806 661 sequences remained after quality control. This resulted in 1477 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were assigned to 27 microbial phyla. The microbial composition of S. carteri was more similar to that of sea water than to that of X. testudinaria, which is consistent with the observation that the sequence data set of S. carteri contained many more possibly sea water sequences (~24%) than the X. testudinaria data set (~6%). The most abundant OTUs were shared between all three sources (S. carteri, X. testudinaria, sea water), while rare OTUs were unique to any given source. Despite this high degree of overlap, each sponge species contained its own specific microbiota. The X. testudinaria-specific bacterial taxa were similar to those already described for this species. A set of S. carteri-specific bacterial taxa related to Proteobacteria and Nitrospira was identified, which are likely permanently associated with S. carteri. The transcriptional activity of sponge-associated microorganisms correlated well with their abundance. Quantitative PCR revealed the presence of Poribacteria, representing typical sponge symbionts, in both sponge species and in sea water; however, low transcriptional activity in sea water suggested that Poribacteria are not active outside the host context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  16. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  17. A new copper containing MALDI matrix that yields high abundances of [peptide + Cu]+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxiang; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A; Perez, Lisa M; Russell, David H

    2009-07-01

    The dinuclear copper complex (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) copper salt (CHCA)(4)Cu(2)), synthesized by reacting CHCA with copper oxide (CuO), yields increased abundances of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1-6) ions when used as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (355 nm Nd:YAG laser). The yield of [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) (x = 1 to approximately 6) ion is much greater than that obtained by mixing peptides with copper salts or directly depositing peptides onto oxidized copper surfaces. The increased ion yields for [M + xCu - (x-1)H](+) facilitate studies of biologically important copper binding peptides. For example, using this matrix we have investigated site-specific copper binding of several peptides using fragmentation chemistry of [M + Cu](+) and [M + 2Cu - H](+) ions. The fragmentation studies reveal interesting insight on Cu binding preferences for basic amino acids. Most notable is the fact that the binding of a single Cu(+) ion and two Cu(+) ions are quite different, and these differences are explained in terms of intramolecular interactions of the peptide-Cu ionic complex.

  18. Chemical Abundances for the Outer Halo Cluster Pal 4 from Co-added High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Context: Chemical element abundances for distant Galactic globular clusters (GCs) hold important clues to the origin of the Milky Way halo and its substructures. Aims: We study the chemical composition of red giant stars in Pal 4 - one of the most remote GCs in the Milky Way - and compare our abundance measurements to those for both low surface brightness dwarf galaxies, and GCs in the inner and the outer halo. Methods: By co-adding high-resolution, low-S/N Keck/HIRES spectra of 19 stars along the red giant branch, we estimate chemical abundance ratios of 20 alpha-, iron peak-, and neutron-capture elements. Our method gives total uncertainties on most element-to-iron ratios of typically 0.2 dex. Results: We measure [Fe/H] = -1.41 +- 0.04 (statistical) +- 0.17 (systematic) and an alpha-enhancement of [alpha/Fe] = +0.38 +- 0.11 dex, which is consistent with the canonical value of +0.4 dex found for Galactic halo field stars and most halo GCs at this metallicity. Although Pal 4 has higher enhancements in the hea...

  19. High-precision abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba in solar twins. Trends of element ratios with stellar age

    CERN Document Server

    Nissen, P E

    2016-01-01

    A previous study of correlations between element abundance ratios, [X/Fe], and ages of solar twin stars is extended to include Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba. HARPS spectra with S/N > 600 are used to derive very precise (+/- 0.01 dex) differential abundances, and stellar ages with internal errors less than 1 Gyr are obtained by interpolation in the logg - Teff diagram between isochrones calculated with the Aarhus Stellar Evolution Code. For stars younger than 6 Gyr, [X/Fe] is tightly correlated with stellar age for all elements. For ages between 6 and 9 Gyr, the [X/Fe] - age correlations break down and the stars split up into two groups having respectively high and low [X/Fe] for the odd-Z elements. It is concluded that while stars in the solar neighborhood younger than about 6 Gyr were formed from interstellar gas with a smooth chemical evolution, older stars have originated from regions enriched by supernovae with different neutron excesses. Furthermore, the correlations between abundance ratios and stellar age suggest...

  20. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Kristina; Kamke, Janine; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-09-01

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four bacterial phyla of representative sponge symbionts as well as the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea. We could show that the 16S rRNA gene numbers of Archaea, Chloroflexi, and the candidate phylum Poribacteria were 4-6 orders of magnitude higher in high microbial abundance (HMA) than in low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges and that actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene numbers were 1-2 orders higher in HMA over LMA sponges, while those for Cyanobacteria were stable between HMA and LMA sponges. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aplysina aerophoba tissue sections confirmed the numerical dominance of Chloroflexi, which was followed by Poribacteria. Archaeal and actinobacterial cells were detected in much lower numbers. By use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a primer- and probe-independent approach, the dominance of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Poribacteria in A. aerophoba was confirmed. Our study provides new quantitative insights into the microbiology of sponges and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA/LMA dichotomy.

  1. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  2. A case of radiation pneumonitis associated with high serum KL-6 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Masamitsu; Yoshida, Kouichirou; Niki, Yoshihito; Manabe, Toshiaki; Matsushima, Toshiharu [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital in January 1992 for chemotherapy and radiation therapy against primary lung cancer, which was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma by a transbronchial lung biopsy. The lung tumor was decreased in size and he was discharged in May 1993. Twenty-five days after discharge, he experienced fever and dyspnea, and was readmitted to our hospital. His chest x-ray and laboratory data suggested that he had radiation pneumonitis and his serum KL-6 level was high. Despite the treatment with methylprednisolone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide, his serum KL-6 levels rapidly increased and correlated with his serum LDH levels and reversely correlated with the levels of PaO{sub 2} and opacities on chest x-ray films. An autopsy revealed a diffuse alveolar damage with proliferated type II pneumocytes, which was consistent with radiation pneumonitis, but was not associated with any infectious lesions. The findings in this case suggest that the serum KL-6 could be consistently high and that KL-6 levels could be a useful monitoring marker for radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  3. Extensive determination of glycan heterogeneity reveals an unusual abundance of high mannose glycans in enriched plasma membranes of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun Joo; Gip, Phung; Kim, Jaehan; Wu, Shuai; Park, Kun Wook; McVaugh, Cheryl T; Schaffer, David V; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-04-01

    Most cell membrane proteins are known or predicted to be glycosylated in eukaryotic organisms, where surface glycans are essential in many biological processes including cell development and differentiation. Nonetheless, the glycosylation on cell membranes remains not well characterized because of the lack of sensitive analytical methods. This study introduces a technique for the rapid profiling and quantitation of N- and O-glycans on cell membranes using membrane enrichment and nanoflow liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of native structures. Using this new method, the glycome analysis of cell membranes isolated from human embryonic stem cells and somatic cell lines was performed. Human embryonic stem cells were found to have high levels of high mannose glycans, which contrasts with IMR-90 fibroblasts and a human normal breast cell line, where complex glycans are by far the most abundant and high mannose glycans are minor components. O-Glycosylation affects relatively minor components of cell surfaces. To verify the quantitation and localization of glycans on the human embryonic stem cell membranes, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were performed. Proteomics analyses were also performed and confirmed enrichment of plasma membrane proteins with some contamination from endoplasmic reticulum and other membranes. These findings suggest that high mannose glycans are the major component of cell surface glycosylation with even terminal glucoses. High mannose glycans are not commonly presented on the surfaces of mammalian cells or in serum yet may play important roles in stem cell biology. The results also mean that distinguishing stem cells from other mammalian cells may be facilitated by the major difference in the glycosylation of the cell membrane. The deep structural analysis enabled by this new method will enable future mechanistic studies on the biological significance of high mannose glycans on stem cell membranes and provide a general tool to examine

  4. Serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin as a marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Seino-Yoshihara, Yoshie; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo

    2010-12-26

    In 1996, adiponectin was reported to be the most abundant transcript in adipose tissue. Animal studies revealed that administering adiponectin improves insulin resistance and blood glucose levels and inhibits atherosclerosis. In the present article, we review the significance of measuring serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels in human subjects. Our cross-sectional studies revealed that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration was 1.9 times higher in healthy Japanese females than males and had a strong positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol but a negative correlation with BMI and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). They also indicated that the serum HMW adiponectin concentration had a stronger association with HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome than the total adiponectin concentration. Our longitudinal study, a 6-year follow-up of Japanese men, suggested that a decreased level of HMW adiponectin is a predictor of progression to metabolic syndrome. In another intervention study, lifestyle modification for 3 months induced a decrease in BMI and waist circumference and an increase in serum HMW adiponectin but not the total adiponectin level in 16 Japanese males with metabolic syndrome. Administering thiazolidinediones to diabetic patients increased the serum HMW adiponectin concentration 3 fold and improved glucose and lipid profiles and blood pressure. Some people may inherit a lower serum concentration of adiponectin, and have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.It is suggested that HMW adiponectin is a useful marker for the evaluation and care of subjects with metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

  5. Predicting abundance and variability of ice nucleating particles in precipitation at the high-altitude observatory Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopelli, Emiliano; Conen, Franz; Morris, Cindy E.; Herrmann, Erik; Henne, Stephan; Steinbacher, Martin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Nucleation of ice affects the properties of clouds and the formation of precipitation. Quantitative data on how ice nucleating particles (INPs) determine the distribution, occurrence and intensity of precipitation are still scarce. INPs active at -8 °C (INPs-8) were observed for 2 years in precipitation samples at the High-Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) at 3580 m a.s.l. Several environmental parameters were scanned for their capability to predict the observed abundance and variability of INPs-8. Those singularly presenting the best correlations with observed number of INPs-8 (residual fraction of water vapour, wind speed, air temperature, number of particles with diameter larger than 0.5 µm, season, and source region of particles) were implemented as potential predictor variables in statistical multiple linear regression models. These models were calibrated with 84 precipitation samples collected during the first year of observations; their predictive power was successively validated on the set of 15 precipitation samples collected during the second year. The model performing best in calibration and validation explains more than 75 % of the whole variability of INPs-8 in precipitation and indicates that a high abundance of INPs-8 is to be expected whenever high wind speed coincides with air masses having experienced little or no precipitation prior to sampling. Such conditions occur during frontal passages, often accompanied by precipitation. Therefore, the circumstances when INPs-8 could be sufficiently abundant to initiate the ice phase in clouds may frequently coincide with meteorological conditions favourable to the onset of precipitation events.

  6. High abundances of potentially active ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in oligotrophic, high-altitude lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis J Hayden

    Full Text Available Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle by determining the oxidation state of nitrogen and its subsequent bioavailability and cycling. However, relatively little is known about the underlying ecology of the microbial communities that carry out nitrification in freshwater ecosystems--and particularly within high-altitude oligotrophic lakes, where nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient. We quantified ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB in 9 high-altitude lakes (2289-3160 m in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, in relation to spatial and biogeochemical data. Based on their ammonia monooxygenase (amoA genes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected. AOB were present in 88% of samples and were more abundant than AOA in all samples. Both groups showed >100 fold variation in abundance between different lakes, and were also variable through time within individual lakes. Nutrient concentrations (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate were generally low but also varied across and within lakes, suggestive of active internal nutrient cycling; AOB abundance was significantly correlated with phosphate (r(2 = 0.32, p<0.1, whereas AOA abundance was inversely correlated with lake elevation (r(2 = 0.43, p<0.05. We also measured low rates of ammonia oxidation--indicating that AOB, AOA, or both, may be biogeochemically active in these oligotrophic ecosystems. Our data indicate that dynamic populations of AOB and AOA are found in oligotrophic, high-altitude, freshwater lakes.

  7. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  8. A high precision chemical abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary: constraints on planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, F; Ramirez, I; Yong, D; Melendez, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a high-precision, differential elemental abundance analysis of the HAT-P-1 stellar binary based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/HIRES spectra. The secondary star in this double system is known to host a transiting giant planet while no planets have yet been detected around the primary star. The derived metallicities ([Fe/H]) of the primary and secondary stars are identical within the errors: $0.146 \\pm 0.014$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.033 dex) and $0.155 \\pm 0.007$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.023 dex), respectively. Extremely precise differential abundance ratios of 23 elements have been measured (mean error of $\\sigma$([X/Fe]) = 0.013 dex) and are found to be indistinguishable between the two stars: $\\Delta$[X/Fe] (secondary - primary) = $+0.001 \\pm 0.006$ dex ($\\sigma$ = 0.008 dex). The striking similarity in the chemical composition of the two stellar components in HAT-P-1 is contrary to the possible 0.04 dex level difference seen in 16 Cyg A+B, which also hosts a giant planet, at least 3 time...

  9. A High Resolution Fourier-Transform Spectrometer for the Measurement of Atmospheric Column Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cageao, R.; Sander, S.; Blavier, J.; Jiang, Y.; Nemtchinov, V.

    2000-01-01

    A compact, high resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for atmospheric near ultraviolet spectroscopy has been installed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Facility (34.4N, 117.7 W, elevation 2290m).

  10. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  11. High Levels of Serum Ubiquitin and Proteasome in a Case of HLA-B27 Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Settimio; Gesualdo, Carlo; Maisto, Rosa; Trotta, Maria Consiglia; Di Carluccio, Nadia; Brigida, Annalisa; Di Iorio, Valentina; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; D’Amico, Michele; Di Filippo, Clara

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a case of high serum levels of ubiquitin and proteasome in a woman under an acute attack of autoimmune uveitis. The woman was 52 years old, diagnosed as positive for the Human leukocyte antigen-B27 gene, and came to our observation in January 2013 claiming a severe uveitis attack that involved the right eye. During the acute attack of uveitis, this woman had normal serum biochemical parameters but higher levels of serum ubiquitin and proteasome 20S subunit, with respect to a healthy volunteer matched for age and sex. These levels correlated well with the clinical score attributed to uveitis. After the patient was admitted to therapy, she received oral prednisone in a de-escalation protocol (doses from 50 to 5 mg/day) for four weeks. Following this therapy, she had an expected reduction of clinical signs and score for uveitis, but concomitantly she had a reduction of the serum levels of ubiquitin, poliubiquitinated proteins (MAb-FK1) and proteasome 20S activity. Therefore, a role for ubiquitin and proteasome in the development of human autoimmune uveitis has been hypothesized. PMID:28245629

  12. High Levels of Serum Ubiquitin and Proteasome in a Case of HLA-B27 Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Settimio; Gesualdo, Carlo; Maisto, Rosa; Trotta, Maria Consiglia; Di Carluccio, Nadia; Brigida, Annalisa; Di Iorio, Valentina; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; D'Amico, Michele; Di Filippo, Clara

    2017-02-26

    In this paper, the authors describe a case of high serum levels of ubiquitin and proteasome in a woman under an acute attack of autoimmune uveitis. The woman was 52 years old, diagnosed as positive for the Human leukocyte antigen-B27 gene, and came to our observation in January 2013 claiming a severe uveitis attack that involved the right eye. During the acute attack of uveitis, this woman had normal serum biochemical parameters but higher levels of serum ubiquitin and proteasome 20S subunit, with respect to a healthy volunteer matched for age and sex. These levels correlated well with the clinical score attributed to uveitis. After the patient was admitted to therapy, she received oral prednisone in a de-escalation protocol (doses from 50 to 5 mg/day) for four weeks. Following this therapy, she had an expected reduction of clinical signs and score for uveitis, but concomitantly she had a reduction of the serum levels of ubiquitin, poliubiquitinated proteins (MAb-FK1) and proteasome 20S activity. Therefore, a role for ubiquitin and proteasome in the development of human autoimmune uveitis has been hypothesized.

  13. Proteomics tools reveal startlingly high amounts of oxytocin in plasma and serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Johnsen, Elin; Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Seip, Knut Fredrik; Maclean, Evan L.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Leknes, Siri; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2016-08-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is associated with a plethora of social behaviors, and is a key topic at the intersection of psychology and biology. However, tools for measuring OT are still not fully developed. We describe a robust nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) platform for measuring the total amount of OT in human plasma/serum. OT binds strongly to plasma proteins, but a reduction/alkylation (R/A) procedure breaks this bond, enabling ample detection of total OT. The method (R/A + robust nanoLC-MS) was used to determine total OT plasma/serum levels to startlingly high concentrations (high pg/mL-ng/mL). Similar results were obtained when combining R/A and ELISA. Compared to measuring free OT, measuring total OT can have advantages in e.g. biomarker studies.

  14. Abundance and diversity of methanogens: potential role in high arsenic groundwater in Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Li, P; Dai, X Y; Zhang, R; Jiang, Z; Jiang, D W; Wang, Y X

    2015-05-15

    To investigate the community diversity and abundance of methanogens and their potential role in high arsenic groundwater, 17 groundwater samples from Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia were investigated with an integrated method including 16S rRNA gene clone library, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and geochemistry analyses. Total arsenic (AsTot) concentrations were 82.7-1088.7 μg/L and arsenite (AsIII) mostly dominated in these samples with percentages of 0.04-0.79. CH₄ concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 292 μg/L and distinctly elevated only when AsTot were relatively high and SO₄(2-) were distinctly low. Principal component analysis indicated that these samples were divided into three groups according to the variations of AsTot, CH₄ and SO₄(2-). AsTot concentrations were distinctly high in the group with high CH₄ and low SO₄(2-) comparing to the other two groups (one with high CH₄ and high SO₄(2-), the other with low CH₄ and SO₄(2-)). The mcrA gene (methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene) based phylogenetic analysis of methanogens population showed that methanogenic archaea was diverse but mainly composed of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteria and unidentified groups, with Methanomicrobiales being distinctly dominant (50.6%). The mcrA gene abundance in high arsenic groundwater ranged from 3.01 × 10(3) to 3.80 × 10(6)copies/L and accounted for 0-30.2% of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The abundance of mcrA genes was positively correlated with the concentrations of AsTot (R=0.59), AsIII (R=0.57) and FeII (R=0.79), while it was negatively correlated with oxidation-reduction potential (R=-0.66) and SO₄(2-) concentration (R=-0.64). These results implied that methanogenic archaea might accelerate As release in groundwater aquifers in Hetao Plain.

  15. Large-scale spatial variation in palm fruit abundance across a tropical moist forest estimated from high-resolution aerial photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Olff, Han; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wright, S. Joseph; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2008-01-01

    Fruit abundance is a critical factor in ecological studies of tropical forest animals and plants, but difficult to measure at large spatial scales. We tried to estimate spatial variation in fruit abundance on a relatively large spatial scale using low altitude, high-resolution aerial photography. We

  16. Effects of Diet High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    postprandial tipidLipoprotein metabolism . Funded by the Almond Boar’d of vitamin E supplement use, body mass index, exercise , and intakes of California...High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism , Phase 2 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jesse David Curb, M.D., MPH CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION... response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  17. Primary colon cancer with a high serum PIVKA-II level

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Onodera, Kazuhiko; Matsuda, Minoru; Kawakami, Takako; Higuchi, Mineko; Kato, Kimitaka; Kato, Yurina; FURUKAWA, HIROYUKI

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is an abnormal protein, and several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of PIVKA-II in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report an extremely rare case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with a high serum PIVKA-II level. Presentation of Case A 95-year-old woman presented with right lower quadrant pain and appetite loss. An abdominal computed tomography scan and ultrasonography showed an ascending colon ...

  18. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP~1

    CERN Document Server

    Barbuy, B; Vemado, A; Ernandes, H; Ortolani, S; Saviane, I; Bica, E; Minniti, D; Dias, B; Momany, Y; Hill, V; Zoccali, M; Siqueira-Mello, C

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster HP~1 is projected at only 3.33 degrees from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H]~-1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y , Zr, Ba, La, and Eu.} High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP~1 were obtained with the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of FeI...

  19. High serum ferritin is associated with worse outcome of patients with decompensated cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Theodora; Goulis, Ioannis; Soulaidopoulos, Stergios; Karasmani, Areti; Doumtsis, Petros; Tsioni, Konstantina; Mandala, Eudokia; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Cholongitas, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies in patients with decompensated cirrhosis showed a correlation between serum ferritin levels and patients’ prognosis. Besides, red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV) have been associated with the severity of hepatic function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of serum ferritin and RDW/MPV in the outcome [survival, death, or liver transplantation (LT)] of patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis. Methods Consecutive adult patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis admitted to our department between September 2010 and February 2016 were included. Serum ferritin, RDW and MPV were recorded in every patient. They were followed up and their outcome (alive, death, or LT) was evaluated. Results 192 consecutive patients with stable decompensated cirrhosis (142 men, age 54.2±12 years); at the end of follow up [12 (range: 1-64) months] 62 patients remained alive and 130 died or underwent LT. In multivariate analysis, serum ferritin (HR 1.001, 95%CI 1.00-1.002, P=0.005) and GFR (HR 0.96, 95%CI 0.92-0.99, P=0.035) were the only independent factors significantly associated with the outcome. Ferritin had low discriminative ability (AUC: 0.61) to the outcome yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 85.3% and 44.2%, respectively, at the best cut-off point (>55 ng/mL), while patients with ferritin >55 ng/mL (n=145) had a worse outcome compared to those with ferritin ≤55 ng/mL (n=47) (log rank P=0.001). RDW and MPV were not associated with the outcome. Conclusion High serum ferritin, but not RDW/MPV, is associated with worse outcome in patients with established decompensated cirrhosis. However, further studies are needed to elucidate better this issue. PMID:28243043

  20. High Serum Alkaline Phosphatase, Hypercalcaemia, Race, and Mortality in South African Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Raquel; Naicker, Saraladevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between serum total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) and mortality in African maintenance haemodialysis patients (MHD). Patients and Methods. The study enrolled a total of 213 patients on MHD from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were categorized into a low TAP group (≤112 U/L) versus a high TAP group (>112 U/L) based on a median TAP of 112 U/L. Results. During the follow-up period of 7 years, there were 55 (25.8%) deaths. After adjusting for cofounders such as age, other markers of bone disorder, and comorbidity (diabetes mellitus), patients in the high TAP group had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients in the low TAP group (hazard ratio, 2.50; 95% CI 1.24–5.01, P = 0.01). Similarly, serum calcium >2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusion. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients. PMID:28168054

  1. High energy density rechargeable magnesium battery using earth-abundant and non-toxic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Masese, Titus; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Takuya; Hattori, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Okado, Tetsuya; Huang, Zhen-Dong; Minato, Taketoshi; Tassel, Cédric; Kim, Jungeun; Kobayashi, Yoji; Abe, Takeshi; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2014-07-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries are poised to be viable candidates for large-scale energy storage devices in smart grid communities and electric vehicles. However, the energy density of previously proposed rechargeable magnesium batteries is low, limited mainly by the cathode materials. Here, we present new design approaches for the cathode in order to realize a high-energy-density rechargeable magnesium battery system. Ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 demonstrates a high reversible capacity exceeding 300 mAh.g-1 at a voltage of approximately 2.4 V vs. Mg. Further, the electronic and crystal structure of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 changes during the charging and discharging processes, which demonstrates the (de)insertion of magnesium in the host structure. The combination of ion-exchanged MgFeSiO4 with a magnesium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-triglyme electrolyte system proposed in this work provides a low-cost and practical rechargeable magnesium battery with high energy density, free from corrosion and safety problems.

  2. High abundance and expression of transposases in bacteria from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil-Stenman, Theoden; Ininbergs, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta; Ekman, Martin

    2017-07-21

    Transposases are mobile genetic elements suggested to have an important role in bacterial genome plasticity and host adaptation but their transcriptional activity in natural bacterial communities is largely unexplored. Here we analyzed metagenomes and -transcriptomes of size fractionated (0.1-0.8, 0.8-3.0 and 3.0-200 μm) bacterial communities from the brackish Baltic Sea, and adjacent marine waters. The Baltic Sea transposase levels, up to 1.7% of bacterial genes and 2% of bacterial transcripts, were considerably higher than in marine waters and similar to levels reported for extreme environments. Large variations in expression were found between transposase families and groups of bacteria, with a two-fold higher transcription in Cyanobacteria than in any other phylum. The community-level results were corroborated at the genus level by Synechococcus transposases reaching up to 5.2% of genes and 6.9% of transcripts, which is in contrast to marine Synechococcus that largely lack these genes. Levels peaked in Synechococcus from the largest size fraction, suggesting high frequencies of lateral gene transfer and high genome plasticity in colony-forming picocyanobacteria. Together, the results support an elevated rate of transposition-based genome change and adaptation in bacterial populations of the Baltic Sea, and possibly also of other highly dynamic estuarine waters.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 21 July 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.114.

  3. Serum proteomes of hypertension patients with abundant phlegm-dampness%高血压病痰湿壅盛证患者血清蛋白质组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚瑜光; 何青; 石洁; 胡元会; 吴华琴; 刘贵建; 胡朝军; 李永哲; 李宜; 陈子晶

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the serum proteomes of essential hypertension (EH) patients with abundant phlegm-dampness, and try to find special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome.Methods: Fifty-nine hypertension patients were included, and the patients were divided into abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome group (39 cases) and non-phlegm-dampness syndrome group (20 cases). To find the special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness, the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness and another 30 healthy persons were regarded as control. Weak cation nano-magnetic beads were used to capture proteins in serum, and proteomic fingerprint was made by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All the proteomic fingerprints were analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 Software. Then Biomarker Patterns Software (BPS) 5.0 was used to identify the differentiated proteins, which could induce phlegm-dampness.Results: There were 102 differentiated protein peaks between abundant phlegm-dampness and the control group. The best markers of abundant phlegm-dampness were protein peaks with the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 9 334. 958 m/z (the expression increased), 9 280. 191 m/z (the expression decreased), 8 030.794 m/z (the expression increased), and 2 941.551 m/z (the expression increased). These four protein peaks found by BPS could induce abundant phlegm-dampness. They could be used to separate the abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome from the healthy persons and the hypertension patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The sensitivity of the model was 93.103% (27/29), specificity was 92% (23/25), false positive rate was 8% (2/25), false negative rate was 6.897% (2/29) and Youden's index was 85.103%. Blind test data indicated a sensitivity of 90% (9/10) and a specificity of 88% (22/25), and the false positive rate was 12% (3/25), false negative rate was 10% (1/10), and Youden's index was 78%.Conclusion: The differentiated proteins

  4. Distribution and abundance of Canadian High Arctic belugas, 1974-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Koski

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted >236,000 km of aerial surveys and some supplementary studies of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas in the central and eastern Canadian High Arctic in 974-79. Belugas that wintered in the “North Water” in Baffin Bay moved southwest into Lancaster Sound in April and early May. The main westward migration into Lancaster Sound occurred over a 2 to 3 week period during late June to late July. Estuaries along Somerset Island were occupied for <3 weeks from mid-July to mid-August. Little feeding occurred in estuaries. From mid-August until fall migration began in mid-September belugas occupied estuaries and offshore waters in Peel Sound. Fall migration eastward through Lancaster Sound was exclusively along the south coast of Devon Island, highly co-ordinated, and rapid; most of the population passed through the sound in <1 week. The whales then moved north along the east coast of Devon Island; some entered Jones Sound while others crossed directly to SE Ellesmere Island. Most calving occurred in July and early August; calving was not seen in estuaries and probably occurred offshore. Excluding calves, adults and yearlings formed 77% and 8.4%, respectively, of the population. The proportion of calves during mid-August was consistent with a triennial calving cycle. During late summer, belugas fed on coastal concentrations of polar cod (Boreogadus saida, under pan ice offshore (probably on cod, and in deep offshore waters. The size of the Canadian High Arctic population in the late 1970s was estimated to be at least 10,250 to 12,000 animals without allowing for animals that may have passed between surveys or that were below the surface at the time of the counts.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of abundant renewable natural organic chemicals for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Sevilla, Marta [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain); School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, Oviedo 33080 (Spain); Mokaya, Robert [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Yushin, Gleb [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Cellulose, potato starch, and eucalyptus wood saw dust were transformed into porous carbons with micropore surface areas of up to 2387 m{sup 2}/g. The specific capacitance of the produced carbons approaches 236 F/g (100 F/cc) when measured in a symmetric configuration in an organic electrolyte. Charge-discharge tests showed excellent capacitance retention with capacitance of up to 175 F/g at an ultra-high current density of 20 A/g. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. A biosensor of high-density lipoprotein of human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Kai-Han; Chu, Wei-Lin; Tsou, Yu-Shih; Wu, Li-Ching; Li, Chien-Feng

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor for the concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human serum on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film (LCPCF) is demonstrated. The sensing mechanism is based on a polar-polar interaction between orientation of LC directors and HDL in human serum. The concentration of polar HDL in human serum affects the orientations of LC directors at the interface between LCPCF and the human serum. In addition, the surface free energy of LCPCF changes with the applied voltage due to the electrically tunable orientations of LC directors anchored among the polymer grains of LCPCF. As a result, the droplet motion of human serum on LCPCF under applied voltages can sense the concentration of HDL in human serum.

  7. Exploiting the multiplexing capabilities of tandem mass tags for high-throughput estimation of cellular protein abundances by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrné, Erik; Martinez-Segura, Amalia; Syed, Afzal Pasha; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Gruber, Andreas J; Marguerat, Samuel; Schmidt, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The generation of dynamic models of biological processes critically depends on the determination of precise cellular concentrations of biomolecules. Measurements of system-wide absolute protein levels are particularly valuable information in systems biology. Recently, mass spectrometry based proteomics approaches have been developed to estimate protein concentrations on a proteome-wide scale. However, for very complex proteomes, fractionation steps are required, increasing samples number and instrument analysis time. As a result, the number of full proteomes that can be routinely analyzed is limited. Here we combined absolute quantification strategies with the multiplexing capabilities of isobaric tandem mass tags to determine cellular protein abundances in a high throughput and proteome-wide scale even for highly complex biological systems, such as a whole human cell line. We generated two independent data sets to demonstrate the power of the approach regarding sample throughput, dynamic range, quantitative precision and accuracy as well as proteome coverage in comparison to existing mass spectrometry based strategies.

  8. [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Eijiro; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Morishige, Satoshi; Seki, Ritsuko; Imamura, Rie; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Osaki, Kouichi; Mizuno, Shinichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.

  9. Determination of meropenem levels in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Thomas; Fiedler, Stella; Mihai, Sidonia; Parsch, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Meropenem is a β-lactam broad-spectrum antibiotic and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is primarily used in intensive care units for intravenous treatment of severe infections. To avoid bacterial resistance or toxic side effects, the determination of serum meropenem concentration is highly advisable. A simple and fast method for the quantitative determination of meropenem in human serum using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) was developed and validated. Meropenem was determined by an isocratic HPLC using a tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer (pH 8.5; 15% methanol) as a mobile phase and UV detection at 300 nm, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and an analysis time of 10 min. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (5 μm, 150 × 4.6 mm). In order to remove undesired serum components, solid-phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Since meropenem is not stable in solution, sample and stock solution were stored at -80°C. After preparation, samples were stable at room temperature for at least 6 h. The calibration curve was linear from 3.5 to 200 mg/L with a correlation coefficient r(2) of 0.999. The method is accurate with an intra- and inter-assay precision <18.5%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2013-08-01

    The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5 years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to cold winter air, but most species studied are resistant to changes. Winter warming events, often occurring

  11. 187Re-187Os systematics, highly siderophile element, S-Se-Te abundances in the components of unequilibrated L chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlag, Yogita; Becker, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The 187Re-187Os systematics, abundances of highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, platinum group elements and Au), Te, Se and S as well as major and minor elements were determined in separated components of two unequilibrated L chondrites QUE 97008 (L3.05) and Ceniceros (L3.7). The 187Re-187Os systematics are disturbed in the components of both meteorites, most likely due to open system behavior of Re during terrestrial weathering of QUE 97008 and alteration on the L chondrite parent body as indicated by an internal errorchron generated for components of Ceniceros. The HSE abundance patterns suggest that the bulk rock abundances were mainly controlled by two different end members. Non-magnetic fractions display lower Re/Os and HSE/Ir than CI chondrites. Chondrules, metal-troilite spherules and fine magnetic fractions, are depleted in refractory HSE and show higher Rh/Ir, Pd/Ir and Au/Ir than in CI chondrites. The different HSE compositions indicate the presence of unequilibrated alloys and loss of refractory HSE-rich carrier phases from the precursors of some L chondrite components. Gold is decoupled from other HSE in magnetic fractions and shows chalcophile affinities with a grain size dependent variation similar to S and Se, presumably inherited from preaccretionary processes. Tellurium is depleted in all components compared to other analysed siderophile elements, and its abundance was most likely controlled by fractional condensation and different geochemical affinities. The volatility dependent depletion of Te requires different physical and chemical conditions than typical for the canonical condensation sequence as represented by carbonaceous chondrites. Tellurium also shows variable geochemical behavior, siderophile in Ceniceros, predominantly chalcophile in QUE 97008. These differences may have been inherited from element partitioning during chondrule formation. Selenium and S on the other hand are almost unfractionated from each other and only show

  12. Catalytic stimulation by restrained active-site floppiness--the case of high density lipoprotein-bound serum paraoxonase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Moshe; Sussman, Joel L; Maxwell, Christopher I; Szeler, Klaudia; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-03-27

    Despite the abundance of membrane-associated enzymes, the mechanism by which membrane binding stabilizes these enzymes and stimulates their catalysis remains largely unknown. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a lipophilic lactonase whose stability and enzymatic activity are dramatically stimulated when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Our mutational and structural analyses, combined with empirical valence bond simulations, reveal a network of hydrogen bonds that connect HDL binding residues with Asn168--a key catalytic residue residing >15Å from the HDL contacting interface. This network ensures precise alignment of N168, which, in turn, ligates PON1's catalytic calcium and aligns the lactone substrate for catalysis. HDL binding restrains the overall motion of the active site and particularly of N168, thus reducing the catalytic activation energy barrier. We demonstrate herein that disturbance of this network, even at its most far-reaching periphery, undermines PON1's activity. Membrane binding thus immobilizes long-range interactions via second- and third-shell residues that reduce the active site's floppiness and pre-organize the catalytic residues. Although this network is critical for efficient catalysis, as demonstrated here, unraveling these long-rage interaction networks is challenging, let alone their implementation in artificial enzyme design.

  13. Measurement of serum pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Pascal; Borron, Stephen W; Scherninski, François; Bousquet, Bernard; Gourmel, Bernard; Baud, Frédéric

    2005-01-05

    Pralidoxime methylsulfate (Contrathion) is widely used to treat organophosphate poisoning. Despite animal and human studies, the usefulness of Contrathion therapy remains a matter of debate. Therapeutic dosage regimens need to be clarified and availability of a reliable method for plasma pralidoxime quantification would be helpful in this process. We here describe a high-performance liquid chromatography technique with electrochemical detection to measure pralidoxime concentrations in human serum using guanosine as an internal standard. The assay was linear between 0.25 and 50 microg mL(-1) with a quantification limit of 0.2 microg mL(-1). The analytical precision was satisfactory, with variation coefficients lower 10%. This assay was applied to the analysis of a serum from an organophosphorate poisoned patient and treated by Contrathion infusions (100 and 200 mg h(-1)) after a loading dose (400 mg).

  14. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu;

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential to encapsulate and selectively release therapeutic drugs. Observations of real-time performance of 3D DNA origami structures in physiological environment will contribute much to its further applications. Here, we investigate the degradation kinetics of 3D...... DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...... is a combination of a rapid collapse phase and a slow degradation phase. The damages of box origami mainly happen in the collapse phase. Thus, the structure stability of 3D DNA box origami should be further improved, especially in the collapse phase, before clinical applications...

  15. Lactate dehydrogenase A as a highly abundant eye lens protein in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): upsilon (upsilon)-crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheede, Teun; Amons, Reinout; Stewart, Niall; de Jong, Wilfried W

    2003-06-01

    Vertebrate eye lenses mostly contain two abundant types of proteins, the alpha-crystallins and the beta/gamma-crystallins. In addition, certain housekeeping enzymes are highly expressed as crystallins in various taxa. We now observed an unusual approximately 41-kd protein that makes up 16% to 18% of the total protein in the platypus eye lens. Its cDNA sequence was determined, which identified the protein as muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A). It is the first observation of LDH-A as a crystallin, and we designate it upsilon (upsilon)-crystallin. Interestingly, the related heart-type LDH-B occurs as an abundant lens protein, known as epsilon-crystallin, in many birds and crocodiles. Thus, two members of the ldh gene family have independently been recruited as crystallins in different higher vertebrate lineages, suggesting that they are particularly suited for this purpose in terms of gene regulatory or protein structural properties. To establish whether platypus LDH-A/upsilon-crystallin has been under different selective constraints as compared with other vertebrate LDH-A sequences, we reconstructed the vertebrate ldh-a gene phylogeny. No conspicuous rate deviations or amino acid replacements were observed.

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius Streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Bonifacio, P; Buzzoni, A; Ferraro, F R; Marconi, G; Sbordone, L; Zaggia, S

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently disrupting under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstructions of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained joining core and stream informations. We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and $\\alpha$-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods. Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HARPS@3.6m and SARG@TNG. Radial velocities are obtained through cross correlation with a template spectra. Concerning chemical analysis, for the various elements, selected line equivalent widths (EWs) were measured and abundances computed using the WIDTH code and ATLAS model atmospheres. Results. The velocity dispersion of the trailing tail is found to be $\\sigma$=8.3$\\pm$0.9 km s$^{-1}, i.e. significantly lower than in the core of the Sgr galaxy and marginally lower than previous estimates in the same portion of the stream. Stream stars fol...

  17. A high abundance of massive galaxies 3-6 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Karl; Abraham, Roberto G; McCarthy, Patrick J; Savaglio, Sandra; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Crampton, David; Murowinski, Rick; Jørgensen, Inger; Roth, Kathy; Hook, Isobel; Marzke, Ronald O; Carlberg, R G

    2004-07-08

    Hierarchical galaxy formation is the model whereby massive galaxies form from an assembly of smaller units. The most massive objects therefore form last. The model succeeds in describing the clustering of galaxies, but the evolutionary history of massive galaxies, as revealed by their visible stars and gas, is not accurately predicted. Near-infrared observations (which allow us to measure the stellar masses of high-redshift galaxies) and deep multi-colour images indicate that a large fraction of the stars in massive galaxies form in the first 5 Gyr (refs 4-7), but uncertainties remain owing to the lack of spectra to confirm the redshifts (which are estimated from the colours) and the role of obscuration by dust. Here we report the results of a spectroscopic redshift survey that probes the most massive and quiescent galaxies back to an era only 3 Gyr after the Big Bang. We find that at least two-thirds of massive galaxies have appeared since this era, but also that a significant fraction of them are already in place in the early Universe.

  18. High abundance of BDNF within glutamatergic presynapses of cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAndreska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian brain, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has emerged as a key factor for synaptic refinement, plasticity and learning. Although BDNF-induced signaling cascades are well known, the spatial aspects of the synaptic BDNF localization remained unclear. Recent data provide strong evidence for an exclusive presynaptic location and anterograde secretion of endogenous BDNF at synapses of the hippocampal circuit. In contrast, various studies using BDNF overexpression in cultured hippocampal neurons support the idea that postsynaptic synapses and other dendritic structures are the preferential sites of BDNF localization and release. In this study we used rigorously tested anti-BDNF antibodies and achieved a dense labeling of endogenous BDNF close to synapses. Confocal microscopy showed natural BDNF close to many, but not all glutamatergic synapses, while neither GABAergic synapses nor postsynaptic structures carried a typical synaptic BDNF label. To visualize the BDNF distribution within the fine structure of synapses, we implemented super resolution fluorescence imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM. Two-color dSTORM images of neurites were acquired with a spatial resolution of ~20 nm. At this resolution, the synaptic scaffold proteins Bassoon and Homer exhibit hallmarks of mature synapses and form juxtaposed bars, separated by a synaptic cleft. BDNF imaging signals form granule-like clusters with a mean size of ~60 nm and are preferentially found within the fine structure of the glutamatergic presynapse. Individual glutamatergic presynapses carried up to 90% of the synaptic BDNF immunoreactivity, and only a minor fraction of BDNF molecules was found close to the postsynaptic bars. Our data proof that hippocampal neurons are able to enrich and store high amounts of BDNF in small granules within the mature glutamatergic presynapse, at a principle site of synaptic plasticity.

  19. Clinical analysis of high serum IgE in autoimmune pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Hirano; Minoru; Tada; Hiroyuki; Isayama; Kazumichi; Kawakubo; Hiroshi; Yagioka; Takashi; Sasaki; Hirofumi; Kogure; Yousuke; Nakai; Naoki; Sasahira; Takeshi; Tsujino; Nobuo; Toda; Kazuhiko; Koike

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the clinical significance of high serum IgE in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: Forty-two AIP patients, whose IgE was measured before steroid treatment, were analyzed. To evaluate the relationship between IgE levels and the disease activity of AIP, we examined (1) Frequency of high IgE (> 170 IU/mL) and concomitant allergic dis-eases requiring treatment; (2) Correlations between IgG, IgG4, and IgE; (3) Relationship between the presence of extrapancreatic lesions and IgE; (4) Re-lation...

  20. Early Earth differentiation investigated through 142Nd, 182W, and highly siderophile element abundances in samples from Isua, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, H.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Touboul, M.; Horan, M. F.; Puchtel, I. S.; Boyet, M.; Rosing, M. T.

    2016-02-01

    We report new data for W concentrations, stable W isotopic compositions, high-precision 182W/184W ratios, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and 187Re-187Os systematics in a suite of 3.8-3.3 Ga mafic and ultramafic rocks from the Isua supracrustal belt, and the Paleoarchean terrane in the northwestern part of the belt. These data are compared with published data for 146Sm-142Nd systematics in the same samples. The samples from the Isua supracrustal belt show well resolved excesses of 182W/184W of up to ∼21 ppm, consistent with previous W isotopic data reported by Willbold et al. (2011). While there is abundant evidence that W was mobilized in the crust accessed by the Isua supracrustal suite, the isotopic anomalies are interpreted to primarily reflect processes that affected the mantle precursors to these rocks. The origin of the 182W excesses in these rocks remains uncertain. The Isua mantle source could represent a portion of the post-core-formation mantle that was isolated from late accretionary additions (e.g., Willbold et al., 2011). However, the combined 182W, Re-Os isotopic systematics and HSE abundances estimated for the source of the Isua basalts are difficult to reconcile with this interpretation. The W isotope variations were more likely produced as a result of fractionation of the Hf/W ratio in the mantle during the lifetime of 182Hf, i.e., during the first 50 Ma of Solar System history. This could have occurred as a result of differentiation in an early magma ocean. The Isua suite examined is also characterized by variable 142Nd/144Nd, but the variations do not correlate with the variations in 182W/184W. Further, samples with ages between 3.8 and 3.3 Ga show gradual diminution of 142Nd anomalies until these are no longer resolved from the modern mantle isotopic composition. By contrast, there is no diminishment of 182W variability with time, suggesting different mechanisms of origin and retention of isotopic variations for these two extinct

  1. Distribution and abundance of breeding birds and small mammals in the high salt marsh and the adjacent upland critical edge in southern Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to document breeding bird and small mammal distribution and abundance in the high salt marsh and the adjacent riparian zone...

  2. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  3. IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pandey et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

  4. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  5. High Abundance of the Epibenthic Trachymedusa Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa, Trachylina) in Subpolar Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig R.; Lindsay, Dhugal J.; Bentlage, Bastian; Youngbluth, Marsh J.

    2017-01-01

    Medusae can be conspicuous and abundant members of seafloor communities in deep-sea benthic boundary layers. The epibenthic trachymedusa, Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa: Trachylina: Ptychogastriidae) occurs in the cold, high latitude systems of both the northern and southern hemispheres, with a circumpolar distribution in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and disjunct reports of a few individuals from Antarctica. In January-February 2010, during benthic megafaunal photosurveys in three subpolar fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula (Andvord, Flandres and Barilari Bays), P. polaris was recorded in Antarctic Peninsula waters. The trachymedusa, identified from megacore-collected specimens, was a common component of the epifauna in the sediment floored basins at 436–725 m depths in Andvord and Flandres Bays, reaching densities up to 13 m-2, with mean densities in individual basins ranging from 0.06 to 4.19 m-2. These densities are 2 to 400-fold higher than previously reported for P. polaris in either the Arctic or Antarctic. This trachymedusa had an aggregated distribution, occurring frequently in Andvord Bay, but was often solitary in Flandres Bay, with a distribution not significantly different from random. Epibenthic individuals were similar in size, typically measuring 15–25 mm in bell diameter. A morphologically similar trachymedusa, presumably the same species, was also observed in the water column near the bottom in all three fjords. This benthopelagic form attained abundances of up to 7 m-2 of seafloor; however, most P. polaris (~ 80%), were observed on soft sediments. Our findings indicate that fjords provide a prime habitat for the development of dense populations of P. polaris, potentially resulting from high and varied food inputs to the fjord floors. Because P. polaris resides in the water column and at the seafloor, large P. polaris populations may contribute significantly to pelagic-benthic coupling in the WAP fjord ecosystems. PMID

  6. High Abundance of the Epibenthic Trachymedusa Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa, Trachylina) in Subpolar Fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Laura J; Smith, Craig R; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Bentlage, Bastian; Youngbluth, Marsh J

    2017-01-01

    Medusae can be conspicuous and abundant members of seafloor communities in deep-sea benthic boundary layers. The epibenthic trachymedusa, Ptychogastria polaris Allman, 1878 (Hydrozoa: Trachylina: Ptychogastriidae) occurs in the cold, high latitude systems of both the northern and southern hemispheres, with a circumpolar distribution in Arctic and sub-Arctic areas, and disjunct reports of a few individuals from Antarctica. In January-February 2010, during benthic megafaunal photosurveys in three subpolar fjords along the West Antarctic Peninsula (Andvord, Flandres and Barilari Bays), P. polaris was recorded in Antarctic Peninsula waters. The trachymedusa, identified from megacore-collected specimens, was a common component of the epifauna in the sediment floored basins at 436-725 m depths in Andvord and Flandres Bays, reaching densities up to 13 m-2, with mean densities in individual basins ranging from 0.06 to 4.19 m-2. These densities are 2 to 400-fold higher than previously reported for P. polaris in either the Arctic or Antarctic. This trachymedusa had an aggregated distribution, occurring frequently in Andvord Bay, but was often solitary in Flandres Bay, with a distribution not significantly different from random. Epibenthic individuals were similar in size, typically measuring 15-25 mm in bell diameter. A morphologically similar trachymedusa, presumably the same species, was also observed in the water column near the bottom in all three fjords. This benthopelagic form attained abundances of up to 7 m-2 of seafloor; however, most P. polaris (~ 80%), were observed on soft sediments. Our findings indicate that fjords provide a prime habitat for the development of dense populations of P. polaris, potentially resulting from high and varied food inputs to the fjord floors. Because P. polaris resides in the water column and at the seafloor, large P. polaris populations may contribute significantly to pelagic-benthic coupling in the WAP fjord ecosystems.

  7. High abundances of oxalic, azelaic, and glyoxylic acids and methylglyoxal in the open ocean with high biological activity: Implication for secondary OA formation from isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikkina, Srinivas; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Fu, Pingqing

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric dicarboxylic acids (DCA) are a ubiquitous water-soluble component of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), which can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), affecting the Earth's climate. Despite the high abundances of oxalic acid and related compounds in the marine aerosols, there is no consensus on what controls their distributions over the open ocean. Marine biological productivity could play a role in the production of DCA, but there is no substantial evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we present latitudinal distributions of DCA, oxoacids and α-dicarbonyls in the marine aerosols from the remote Pacific. Their concentrations were found several times higher in more biologically influenced aerosols (MBA) than less biologically influenced aerosols. We propose isoprene and unsaturated fatty acids as sources of DCA as inferred from significantly higher abundances of isoprene-SOA tracers and azelaic acid in MBA. These results have implications toward the reassessment of climate forcing feedbacks of marine-derived SOA.

  8. Stability of serum high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs for preanalytical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroya; Taromaru, Nao; Kondo, Kanako; Nagura, Ayuri; Yamazaki, Mirai; Ando, Yoshitaka; Munetsuna, Eiji; Suzuki, Koji; Ohashi, Koji; Teradaira, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, several studies have shown that microRNAs are present in high-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein-microRNA may be a promising disease biomarker. We investigated the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs in different storage conditions as this is an important issue for its application to the field of clinical research. Methods microRNAs were extracted from the high-density lipoprotein fraction that was purified from the serum. miR-135 a and miR-223, which are known to be present in high-density lipoprotein, were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of preanalytical parameters on the analysis of high-density lipoprotein-miRNAs was examined by the effect of RNase, storage conditions, and freezing and thawing. Results The concentrations of microRNA in high-density lipoprotein were not altered by RNase A treatment (0-100 U/mL). No significant change in these microRNAs was observed after storing serum at room temperature or 4℃ for 0-24 h, and there was a similar result in the cryopreservation for up to two weeks. Also, high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs were stable for, at least, up to five freeze-thaw cycles. Conclusions These results demonstrated that high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs are relatively resistant to various storage conditions. This study provides new and important information on the stability of high-density lipoprotein-microRNAs.

  9. High-precision abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba in solar twins. Trends of element ratios with stellar age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    Aims: A previous study of correlations between element abundances and ages of solar twin stars in the solar neighborhood is extended to include Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba to obtain new information on the nucleosynthetic history of these elements. Methods: HARPS spectra with S/N ≳ 600 are used to derive very precise (σ ~ 0.01 dex) differential abundances of Sc, Mn, Cu, and Ba for 21 solar twins and the Sun. The analysis is based on MARCS model atmospheres with parameters determined from the excitation and ionization balance of Fe lines. Stellar ages with internal errors less than 1 Gyr are obtained by interpolation in the log g - Teff diagram between isochrones based on the Aarhus Stellar Evolution Code. Results: For stars younger than 6 Gyr, [Sc/Fe], [Mn/Fe], [Cu/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] are tightly correlated with stellar age, which is also the case for the other elements previously studied; linear relations between [X/Fe] and age have χ^2red ˜ 1, and for most stars the residuals do not depend on elemental condensation temperature. For ages between 6 and 9 Gyr, the [X/Fe] - age correlations break down and the stars split up into two groups having respectively high and low [X/Fe] for the odd-Z elements Na, Al, Sc, and Cu. Conclusions: While stars in the solar neighborhood younger than ~ 6 Gyr were formed from interstellar gas with a smooth chemical evolution, older stars seem to have originated from regions enriched by supernovae with different neutron excesses. Correlations between abundance ratios and stellar age suggest that: (i) Sc is made in Type II supernovae along with the α-capture elements; (ii) the Type II to Ia yield ratio is about the same for Mn and Fe; (iii) Cu is mainly made by the weak s-process in massive stars; (iv) the Ba/Y yield ratio for asymptotic giant branch stars increases with decreasing stellar mass; (v) [Y/Mg] and [Y/Al] can be used as chemical clocks when determining ages of solar metallicity stars. Based on data products from observations made

  10. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te≈ 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory

  11. Water emission from the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 17233-3606. High water abundances at high velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Leurini, S; Wyrowski, F; Codella, C; Csengeri, T; van der Tak, F; Beuther, H; Flower, D R; Comito, C; Schilke, P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the physical and chemical processes at work during the formation of a massive protostar based on the observation of water in an outflow from a very young object previously detected in H2 and SiO in the IRAS 17233-3606 region. We estimated the abundance of water to understand its chemistry, and to constrain the mass of the emitting outflow. We present new observations of shocked water obtained with the HIFI receiver onboard Herschel. We detected water at high velocities in a range similar to SiO. We self-consistently fitted these observations along with previous SiO data through a state-of-the-art, one-dimensional, stationary C-shock model. We found that a single model can explain the SiO and H2O emission in the red and blue wings of the spectra. Remarkably, one common area, similar to that found for H2 emission, fits both the SiO and H2O emission regions. This shock model subsequently allowed us to assess the shocked water column density, N(H2O)=1.2x10^{18} cm^{-2}, mass, M(H2O)=12.5 M_earth, a...

  12. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of free and total polyamines in human serum as fluorescamine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, M; Ogata, T; Haraguchi, K; Ohkura, Y

    1979-06-11

    A highly sensitive and simple fluorimetric method for the determination of free and total polyamines, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine, in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography is described. The polyamines, obtained after clean-up of deproteinized serum by Cellex P column chromatography, are converted to their fluorescamine derivatives in the presence of nickel ion which inhibits the reaction of interfering amines with fluorescamine, and the derivatives are separated simultaneously by reversed-phase chromatography (LiChrosorb RP-18) with a linear gradient elution. The lower limits of detection are 10 and 15 pmole for spermine and the others in 0.5 ml of serum, respectively.

  14. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy of RGB stars in the Sagittarius streams. I. Radial velocities and chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Buzzoni, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Marconi, G.; Sbordone, L.; Zaggia, S.

    2007-03-01

    Context: The Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal galaxy is currently being disrupted under the strain of the Milky Way. A reliable reconstruction of Sgr star formation history can only be obtained by combining core and stream information. Aims: We present radial velocities for 67 stars belonging to the Sgr Stream. For 12 stars in the sample we also present iron (Fe) and α-element (Mg, Ca) abundances. Methods: Spectra were secured using different high resolution facilities: UVES@VLT, HARPS@3.6 m, and SARG@TNG. Radial velocities are obtained through cross correlation with a template spectra. Concerning chemical analysis, for the various elements, selected line equivalent widths were measured and abundances computed using the WIDTH code and ATLAS model atmospheres. Results: The velocity dispersion of the trailing tail is found to be σ = 8.3 ± 0.9 km s-1, i.e., significantly lower than in the core of the Sgr galaxy and marginally lower than previous estimates in the same portion of the stream. Stream stars follow the same trend as Sgr main body stars in the [ α/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. However, stars are, on average, more metal poor in the stream than in the main body. This effect is slightly stronger in stars belonging to more ancient wraps of the stream, according to currently accepted models of Sgr disruption. Based on observations taken at ESO VLT Kueyen telescope (Cerro Paranal, Chile, program: 075.B-0127(A)) and 3.6 m telescope (La Silla, Chile). Also based on spectroscopic observations taken at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, operated by the Fundación G. Galilei of INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC (La Palma, Spain). Appendix A and Table [see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Food Abundance Is the Main Determinant of High-Altitude Range Use in Snub-Nosed Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril C. Grueter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude dwelling primates have to optimize navigating a space that contains both a vertical and horizontal component. Black-and-white or Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti are extreme by primate standards in inhabiting relatively cold subalpine temperate forests at very high altitudes where large seasonal variation in climate and food availability is expected to profoundly modulate their ranging strategies so as to ensure a positive energy balance. A “semi-nomadic” group of R. bieti was followed for 20 months in the montane Samage Forest, Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan, PRC, which consisted of evergreen conifers, oaks, and deciduous broadleaf trees. The aim of this study was to disentangle the effects of climate and phenology on patterns of altitudinal range use. Altitude used by the group ranged from a maximum of 3550 m in July 2007 to a minimum of 3060 m in April 2006. The proportional use of lichen, the monkeys’ staple fallback food, in the diet explained more variation in monthly use of altitudes than climatic factors and availability of flush and fruit. The abundance of lichens at high altitudes, the lack of alternative foods in winter, and the need to satisfy the monkey's basal energetic requirements explain the effect of lichenivory on use of altitudes.

  17. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, Anne; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib J

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p...

  18. Identification of a proteinaceous component in the leaf of moringa oleifera lam. with effects on high serum creatinine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  19. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  20. Serum Fructosamine, Total Cholesterol, and High-Density Lipoprotein in Children with Asthma during Glucocorticoid Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, A J; Wolthers, O D

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims. Glucocorticoids may have adverse effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The present study was conducted to investigate possible effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of inhaled and oral glucocorticoids in children with asthma. Methods. Two randomised controlled trials with blinded crossover designs were performed. Active treatment was 400  μ g inhaled budesonide or 5 mg prednisolone orally daily during one week. The budesonide trial included 17 and the prednisolone trial 20 school children. Serum fructosamine, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were assessed. Results. Serum fructosamine was increased during active treatment (prednisolone 252.3  μ M versus placebo 247.3  μ M; P = 0.03 and budesonide 228.1  μ M versus no treatment 223.1  μ M; P = 0.02). Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were not statistically significantly increased. Conclusion. Short-term treatment with oral prednisolone and inhaled budesonide may adversely affect mean blood glucose concentration. Possible long-term consequences require further investigations.

  1. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  2. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  3. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  4. An integrated bioanalytical platform for supporting high-throughput serum protein binding screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shou, Wilson Z; Vath, Marianne; Kieltyka, Kasia; Maloney, Jennifer; Elvebak, Larry; Stewart, Jeremy; Herbst, John; Weller, Harold N

    2010-12-30

    Quantification of small molecules using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has become a common practice in bioanalytical support of in vitro adsorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening. The bioanalysis process involves primarily three indispensable steps: MS/MS optimization for a large number of new chemical compounds undergoing various screening assays in early drug discovery, high-throughput sample analysis with LC/MS/MS for those chemically diverse compounds using the optimized MS/MS conditions, and post-acquisition data review and reporting. To improve overall efficiency of ADME bioanalysis, an integrated system was proposed featuring an automated and unattended MS/MS optimization, a staggered parallel LC/MS/MS for high-throughput sample analysis, and a sophisticated software tool for LC/MS/MS raw data review as well as biological data calculation and reporting. The integrated platform has been used in bioanalytical support of a serum protein binding screening assay with high speed, high capacity, and good robustness. In this new platform, a unique sample dilution scheme was also introduced. With this dilution design, the total number of analytical samples was reduced; therefore, the total operation time was reduced and the overall throughput was further improved. The performance of the protein binding screening assay was monitored with two controls representing high and low binding properties and an acceptable inter-assay consistency was achieved. This platform has been successfully used for the determination of serum protein binding in multiple species for more than 4000 compounds.

  5. High Serum IgG4 Concentrations in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Popławska-Kita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Since recent reports suggest that Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT may be associated with IgG4-related disease, we aimed to find out whether the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for the identification of distinct types of HT, with different clinical, sonographic, and serologic characteristics. Methods. The group studied consisted of 53 patients with HT and 28 healthy individuals who underwent thyroid ultrasonography and body composition analysis. Serum concentrations of IgG4, TSH, anti-peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb, anti-TSH receptor antibodies, TNF-α, TGF-β1, Fas Ligand, TRAIL, and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL11, and CXCL10 were measured by ELISA or radioimmunoassay. Results. The group with IgG4 level >135 IU/ml accounted for 32.5% of the patients. The signs of fibrosis were present in 27.0% of the high-IgG4 patients and in 9.1% of the normal-IgG4 group. The patients with elevated IgG4 required higher doses of L-thyroxine and had significantly lower level of TPOAb (P=0.02 than the non-IgG4-HT individuals and higher TNF-α level in comparison with the controls (P=0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the measurement of serum IgG4 allows for an identification of patients with more rapid progression of HT, requiring higher doses of L-thyroxine. Low TPOAb level and the absence of coexisting autoimmune diseases may suggest distinct pathomechanism of this type of thyroiditis.

  6. Highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances in the mantle of Mars are due to core formation at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Pando, K. M.; Williams, J.; Humayun, M.; Hervig, R. L.; Sharp, T. G.

    2015-04-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) can be used to understand accretion and core formation in differentiated bodies, due to their strong affinity for FeNi metal and sulfides. Coupling experimental studies of metal-silicate partitioning with analyses of HSE contents of Martian meteorites can thus offer important constraints on the early history of Mars. Here, we report new metal-silicate partitioning data for the PGEs and Au and Re across a wide range of pressure and temperature space, with three series designed to complement existing experimental data sets for HSE. The first series examines temperature effects for D(HSE) in two metallic liquid compositions—C-bearing and C-free. The second series examines temperature effects for D(Re) in FeO-bearing silicate melts and FeNi-rich alloys. The third series presents the first systematic study of high pressure and temperature effects for D(Au). We then combine our data with previously published partitioning data to derive predictive expressions for metal-silicate partitioning of the HSE, which are subsequently used to calculate HSE concentrations of the Martian mantle during continuous accretion of Mars. Our results show that at midmantle depths in an early magma ocean (equivalent to approximately 14 GPa, 2100 °C), the HSE contents of the silicate fraction are similar to those observed in the Martian meteorite suite. This is in concert with previous studies on moderately siderophile elements. We then consider model calculations that examine the role of melting, fractional crystallization, and sulfide saturation/undersaturation in establishing the range of HSE contents in Martian meteorites derived from melting of the postcore formation mantle. The core formation modeling indicates that the HSE contents can be established by metal-silicate equilibrium early in the history of Mars, thus obviating the need for a late veneer for HSE, and by extension volatile siderophile elements, or volatiles in general.

  7. Unusually high serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase without perivalvular leakage following double valve replacement: predictor of tetany attack after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroe

    2006-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman who complained of exertional dyspnea was diagnosed as having severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent double valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Postoperative laboratory data showed unusually high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, even though no perivalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography. Tetany occurred suddenly owing to hypoparathyroidism, which seemed to be a late complication after thyroidectomy. After calcium administration, the symptoms dramatically diminished, as did the serum LDH levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be doubted if serum LDH levels increase higher than the normal range following valve replacement without obvious perivalvular leakage.

  8. [Two Cases of Germ Cell Tumors with Hyperthyroidism Due to High Serum hCGLevels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Ichiro; Nitta, Satoshi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kandori, Shuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Waku, Natsui; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kawai, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable. We diagnosed the patient with hyperthyroidism and started oral propranolol and thiamazole. Subsequently, his tachycardia and tremor disappeared. On day 12 of the first course of BEP, his hCG level decreased to less than 50,000 mIU/ml. Also, his fT4 level returned to the normal range. Case 2 : A 29-year-old man presented with a left scrotal mass. He was diagnosed with non-seminoma testicular cancer (embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma) with multiple lung, liver and lymph node metastases. On the admission day, his serum hCG and fT4 levels were high ; 3.23 million mIU/ml and 2.2 ng/dl, respectively. The TSH level was low at 0.011 mIU/ml. On day 3 of the first course of BEP, his hCG and fT4 levels increased to 4.5 million mIU/ml and 3.0 ng/dl, respectively. He complained of tachycardia, tremor and hyperhydrosis. He was started on propranolol and potassium iodide. After the treatment, histachycardia, tremor and hyperhidrosisdis appeared. HisfT4 level normalized on day 17 of the first course of BEP. The TSH-like activity of hCG is considered to be responsible for paraneoplastic hyperthyroidism among germ cell cancer patients with high hCG levels. To our knowledge, thisisthe first report of such a case in Japan. However, thisphenomenon isnot rare among patients with extremely high hCG levels. Therefore, we should be careful of these patients.

  9. Determination of mitomycin C in human aqueous humor and serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W Y; Seah, S K; Koda, R T

    1993-09-08

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is used in the treatment of disseminated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and pancreas and is used in ophthalmology as adjunctive therapy in trabeculectomy. Since only small volumes of aqueous humor are available for analysis, a sensitive method requiring limited sample preparation was developed. An internal standard, 4-aminoacetophenone, was added to aqueous humor specimens, and the solution was directly injected into the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) column. The use of a short 50-mm C18 reversed-phase column gave adequate resolution of peaks with improved sensitivity. The method was applicable for determination of MMC in serum, although solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up was required prior to injection into the HPLC column, and analytical columns of 150-250 mm were necessary for adequate resolution of peaks. The method has been validated and is linear from 6.25 to 50 ng/ml in aqueous humor and from 10 to 500 ng/ml in serum.

  10. High Redshift Intergalactic C IV Abundance Measurements from the Near-Infrared Spectra of Two z~6 QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Simcoe, R A

    2006-01-01

    New measurements of the z~6 intergalactic CIV abundance are presented, using moderate resolution IR spectra of two QSOs taken with GNIRS on Gemini South. These data were systematically searched for high redshift CIV absorption lines, using objective selection criteria. Comprehensive tests were performed to quantify sample incompleteness, as well as the rate of false positive CIV identifications. The trend of constant $\\Omega_{CIV}(z)$ observed at z~2-5 appears to continue to z~6, the highest observed redshift. The CIV sample is also consistent with the redshift-invariant form of the CIV column density distribution reported by Songaila (2001) at lower redshift, although with fairly large uncertainties due to a smaller sample size and noisier infrared data. The constant value of $\\Omega_{CIV}$ does not necessarily imply that the IGM was infused with an early metallicity ``floor,'' but the presence of early CIV does indicate that heavy-element enrichment began < 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. The lack of a decline...

  11. Ultra-High Sensitivity Techniques for the Determination of 3 He /4 He Abundances in Helium by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, H. P.; Huber, M.; Bauder, W.; Abrams, N.; Deibel, C.; Huffer, C.; Huffman, P.; Schelhammer, K.; Janssens, R.; Jiang, C.; Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Rehm, K.; Vondrasek, R.; Swank, C.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Paul, M.; Yang, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report the development of an Accelerator Mass Spectrometry technique to measure the 3He/4He isotopic ratio using a radio frequency (RF) discharge source and the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Control over 3He/4He ratio in helium several orders of magnitude lower than natural abundance is critical for neutron lifetime and source experiments using liquid helium. Due to low ultimate beam currents, the ATLAS accelerator and beam line were tuned using a succession of species of the same M/q. A unique RF source was developed for the experiment due to large natural 3He backgrounds. Analog H_3 + and DH + molecular ions are eliminated by dissociation via a gold stripper foil near the detector. The stripped ions were dispersed in a magnetic spectrograph and 3He2 + ions counted in the focal plane detector. This technique is sensitive to 3 He /4 He ratios in the regime of 10-12 with backgrounds that appear to be below 10-14. The techniques used to reduce the backgrounds and remaining outstanding problems will be presented along with results from measurements on high purity 4He samples.

  12. Amyloid proteins are highly abundant in water-repellent but not wettable soils: microbial differentiation matters to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kat; Dudley, Ed; Swain, Martin; Doerr, Stefan; Matthews, Peter; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    Soil water repellency is a common phenomenon affecting the hydrological responses of many soil and land use types in different climates. This in turn leads to decreased water infiltration, reduced vegetation cover, fertiliser run off and soil erosion. The fundamental (biological) causes of (bulk) soil repellency and its dynamic behaviour remain poorly understood. We have applied soil metaproteomics, the systemic extraction and identification of proteins from a soil, to understand the biological (adaptive) processes and potential for bio-modification of mineral surfaces, which occur at the molecular level in soils switching between wettable and repellent states. Extreme, moderate and sub-critical water-repellent UK silt-loam soils under permanent grass vegetation, including Park Grass at Rothamsted Research, were sampled below the root zone depth under wettable and repellent conditions. Soils were subjected to our new extraction methods for determining the specific ultrahydrophobic and total metaproteomes. Using our ultrahydrophobic extraction protocol, we have identified more than 200, mostly novel amyloid, proteins, which could be extracted from water-repellent soils, but were absent in the comparable wettable soils. One of the novel amyloid proteins was highly abundant in all soils, which has the potential as a soil biomarker for precision land management, especially in irrigation. Comparative profiling of the total metaproteomes of wettable and repellent soils has revealed similarities and dissimilarities in microbial diversity and their activities, which have created a deeper understanding of soil system processes common and adaptive to soil moisture and to the severity of repellence.

  13. Endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris and have high genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, L L; Costa, L E O; Santos, T T; Araújo, E F; Queiroz, M V

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi from the leaves of the common bean and the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum using IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism) analyses. The fungi were isolated by tissue fragmentation and identified by analysing the morphological features and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the rDNA large subunit (LSU). Twenty-seven different taxa were identified. Colletotrichum was the most commonly isolated genera from the common bean (32.69% and 24.29% of the total isolates from the Ouro Negro and Talismã varieties, respectively). The IRAP and REMAP analyses revealed a high genetic diversity in the Colletotrichum endophytic isolates and were able to discriminate these isolates from the phytopathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Fungi from the genus Colletotrichum are abundant in the Phaseolus vulgaris endophytic community, and the IRAP and REMAP markers can be used to rapidly distinguish between C. lindemuthianum and other Colletotrichum members that are frequently found as endophytes. This is the first report of the diversity of endophytic fungi present in the common bean and the use of IRAP and REMAP markers to assess the genetic diversity of endophytic fungi from the genus Colletotrichum. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. High efficiency enrichment of low-abundance peptides by novel dual-platform graphene@SiO2@PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Zhao, Man; Deng, Chunhui

    2012-11-21

    For the first time, dual-platform graphene@SiO(2)@poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) material was synthesized, and successfully applied to efficiently enrich low-abundance peptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

  15. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  16. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: $\\alpha$, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; Cameron, S A; McWilliam, A

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in 8 clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05 to 12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high resolution ($R\\sim$25,000) integrated light spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional integrated light $\\chi^2$-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak ($\\sim$15 m\\AA) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N$\\sim$30). Additionally, we supplement the integrated light abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (Age$+0.5$) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-meta...

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Jun Gao; Ya-Jing Chen; Duo Zuo; Ming-Ming Xiao; Ying Li; Hua Guo; Ning Zhang; Rui-Bing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Methods:Lectin affnity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. Results:A total of 2,280 protein groups were identiifed in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1, 6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. Conclusion:A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hua-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Duo; Xiao, Ming-Ming; Li, Ying; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Methods Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. Results A total of 2,280 protein groups were identified in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. Conclusion A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC. PMID:26487969

  19. Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis Exhibiting a High Serum TARC/CCL17 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SPD is a rare, relapsing, symmetric sterile pustular eruption that dominantly involves flexural areas. It is considered one form of neutrophilic dermatoses, which are associated with interleukin (IL-17-producing T helper (Th 17 cells that induce IL-8 production. We have previously reported that Th17 might be involved in the pathomechanism of Th2-dominant atopic dermatitis [Koga et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2008;128:2625-2630]. On the other hand, it has been a debate whether Th2 is involved in the etiology of neutrophilic dermatoses. Herein, we report a case of SPD that exhibited a high serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/chemokine (C-C motif ligand 17 level, thereby raising the possibility of a Th2 association in its pathogenesis. Although it was limited to a single observation, our case raised the possibility that SPD may possess Th2 properties.

  20. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    = 151) and serum YKL-40 in 18-30-year-olds (n = 89). Fifty-one of the octogenarians died during the 6-year follow-up. Serum YKL-40 in octogenarians was higher compared to the level in young people (median 116 versus 31 microg/l, P elderly women...... (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.009) and men (rho = 0.25, P = 0.003), but only with serum TNF-alpha (rho = 0.23, P = 0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (rho = 0.57, P elderly women. In addition, high serum level of YKL-40 was associated with a low CD4 : CD8 cell ratio. Univariate analysis...

  1. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  2. The physical conditions, metallicity and metal abundance ratios in a highly magnified galaxy at z = 3.6252

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, Matthew B. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sharon, Keren; Johnson, Traci [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wuyts, Eva [Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Gießenbachstrae, D-85741 Garching bei München (Germany); Florian, Michael; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: mbayliss@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6+001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z = 3.6252 magnified by >30×, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) = 9.5 ± 0.35, star formation rates from [O II] λλ3727 and Hβ of 55 ± 25 and 84 ± 24 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, respectively, an electron density of n{sub e} ≤ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –2}, an electron temperature of T{sub e} ≤ 14,000 K, and a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.3 ± 0.1. The strong C III] λλ1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O, and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z ∼ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II λ1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are indicative of a young starburst with high ionization, implying either (1) an ionization parameter significantly higher than suggested by rest-frame optical nebular lines, or (2) differences in one or both of the initial mass function and the properties of ionizing spectra of massive stars. We argue that the observed features are likely the result of a superposition of star forming regions with different physical properties. These results demonstrate the complexity of star formation on scales smaller than individual galaxies, and highlight the importance of systematic effects that result from smearing together the signatures of individual star forming regions within galaxies.

  3. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health.

  4. Evaluation of the Validity of High Serum Antistreptolysin O Titre Only, as an Indication for Tonsillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hembrom, R.; Roychaudhuri, B. K.; Saha, A. K.; Roychowdhury, A.; Ghosh, S; Gon, S.; Mandal, K.

    2012-01-01

    Serum Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titre is raised when there is infection of any organ of the body, by Group A beta haemolytic streptococci (GABHS), Group C or Group G streptococci [1]. Increased serum ASO titre should not be the only deciding criterion for tonsillectomy if GABHS is not present in the palatine tonsils. In this study, we evaluate the rationality of performing tonsillectomy in raised serum ASO titre only, in absence of GABHS in palatine tonsil. The study was designed as a prospect...

  5. High level of serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein inactive hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the significance of cholesteryl estertransfer protein (CETP) in lipoprotein abnormalities inchronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.METHODS: We evaluated the significance of the serumconcentration of CETP in 110 Japanese patients withchronic HCV infection. Fifty-five patients had active HCVinfection, and HCV eradication had been achieved in55. The role of CETP in serum lipoprotein abnormalities,specifically, in triglyceride (TG) concentrations in thefour major classes of lipoproteins, was investigatedusing Pearson correlations in conjunction with multipleregression analysis and compared them between thosewith active HCV infection and those in whom eradicationhad been achieved.RESULTS: The serum CETP levels of patients withactive HCV infection were significantly higher than thoseof patients in whom HCV eradication was achieved(mean ± SD, 2.84 ± 0.69 μg/mL vs 2.40 ± 1.00 μg/mL, P = 0.008). In multiple regression analysis, HCVinfection status (active or eradicated) was an independentfactor significantly associated with the serumCETP level. TG concentrations in low-density lipoprotein(mean ± SD, 36.25 ± 15.28 μg/mL vs 28.14 ± 9.94μg/mL, P = 0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(mean ± SD, 25.9 ± 7.34 μg/mL vs 17.17 ± 4.82μg/mL, P 〈 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with active HCV infection than in those in whom HCVeradication was achieved. The CETP level was stronglycorrelated with HDL-TG in patients with active HCVinfection (R = 0.557, P 〈 0.001), whereas CETP wasnot correlated with HDL-TG in patients in whom HCVeradication was achieved (R = -0.079, P = 0.56).CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that CETP playsa role in abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism inpatients with chronic HCV infection.

  6. High abundances of viruses in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent system indicates viral mediated microbial mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Alice C.; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about the distribution and abundance of viruses at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Based on estimates made using epifluorescence microscopy and the dye YoPro-1, much higher viral abundances were observed at active hydrothermal vents than in the surrounding deep sea. This indicates that viral production was occurring and that viruses were a source of microbial mortality. Samples collected from three actively venting sites (Clam Bed, S&M and Salut) within the Endeavour Ridge system off the west coast of North America had viral abundances ranging from 1.45×10 5 to 9.90×10 7 ml -1, while the abundances of prokaryotes ranged from 1.30×10 5 to 4.46×10 6 ml -1. The abundances of viruses and prokaryotes in samples collected along the neutrally buoyant plume associated with the Main Endeavour Field were lower than at actively venting sites, with a mean of 5.3×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1 (s.d. 2.9×10 5, n=64) and 3.50×10 6 viruses ml -1 (s.d. 1.89×10 6, n=64), but were higher than non-plume samples (2.7×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1, s.d. 5.0×10 4, n=15 and 2.94×10 6 viruses ml -1, s.d. 1.08×10 6, n=15). Prokaryotic and viral abundances in non-hydrothermal regions were as much as 10-fold higher than found in previous studies, in which sample fixation likely resulted in underestimates. This suggests that viral infection may be a greater source of prokaryotic mortality throughout the deep sea than previously recognized. Overall, our results indicate that virus-mediated mortality of prokaryotes at these hydrothermal-vent environments is significant and may reduce energy flow to higher trophic levels.

  7. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Emergence of NDM-1-positive capsulated Escherichia coli with high resistance to serum killing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takano, Tomomi; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Akira

    2011-06-01

    The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) gene, bla (NDM-1), is an emerging plasmid-borne drug resistance gene, which encodes for exceptionally broad-spectrum β-lactamase, being able to hydrolyze a wide variety of β-lactams, including carbapenems, and was first reported in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a Swedish patient of Indian origin in 2009. It is widely distributed among Enterobacteriacae and has geographically exhibited extremely rapid and global spread. In this study, we characterized the bla (NDM-1)-positive ST38 Escherichia coli strain NDM-1 Dok01 (which was isolated from the blood of a 54-year-old Japanese inpatient, who had previously visited India), focusing on bacterial surface structures related to virulence. The E. coli culture contained colony variants, which developed a transparent smooth colony and a rough colony on blood agar plates. The smooth colony-forming cells (substrain M1) possessed a surface capsule and were resistant to serum killing, whereas rough colony-forming mutants (substrain B2) lacked a capsule (and a 5.3-kb plasmid) and were highly susceptible to serum killing. Reflecting the surface structural difference, substrain M1 was more flagellated and motile, whereas substrain B2 was less flagellated and apparently possessed straight pili 5 nm wide, which played a role in adherence to human intestinal cells and bacterial autoaggregation. Data suggest that the bla (NDM-1)-positive ST38 E. coli has emerged in Japan and that it is a capsulated bacterial pathogen with virulence potential in the blood stream.

  9. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-08-26

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Serum Levels of Leptin As Marker For Patients At High Risk of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Nagtzaam, Nicole M. A.; van Dekken, Herman; ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Serological screening for gastric cancer (GC) may reduce mortality. However, optimal serum markers for advanced gastric precursor lesions are lacking. Aim: To evaluate in a case-control study whether serum leptin levels correlate with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and can serve as a tool to

  11. Clinical and biochemical assessment of high serum vitamin B12 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of serum cobalamin (Cbl) is routinely used to assess suspected Cbl deficiency. Surprisingly, 15% of all samples analysed for serum Cbl show values above the reference range of 200-600 pmol/L. Aim: We hypothesized that increased Cbl levels are caused by alterations in the...

  12. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  13. Hyperphosphatemia is a combined function of high serum PTH and high dietary protein intake in dialysis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Streja, Elani; Lau, Wei Ling; Goldstein, Leanne; Sim, John J.; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Nissenson, Allen R; Csaba P Kovesdy; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with higher death risk in hemodialysis patients. Previous studies have suggested that both higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and higher dietary protein intake may contribute to higher serum phosphorus levels. However, it is not well known how these two factors simultaneously contribute to the combined risk of hyperphosphatemia in real patient-care scenarios. We hypothesized that the likelihood of hyperphosphatemia increases across higher seru...

  14. High Serum Resistin Level may be an Indicator of the Severity of Coronary Disease in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; De-you Chen; Jian Cao; Zuo-yun He; Bing-po Zhu; Min Long

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between serum resistin level,cardiovascular risk factors and severity of coronary disease in acute coronary syndrome(ACS).Methods After evaluated by clinical history,electrocardiography,exercise tolerance tests,laboratory tests,and coronary angiography,220 consecutive patients with suspected chest pain were divided into normal control group,stable angina pectoris(SAP)group,and ACS group,respectively.Baseline clinical characteristics,including height,weight,waist circumference,hip circumference,white blood cell count,high-sensitive C-reactive protein(hsCRP),total cholesterol,triglyceride,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,were compared among three groups.ELISA was used to detect serum resistin levels.Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess association between resistin nd other traditional cardiovascular risk factors.Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to define the relationship between serum resistin level and SAP or ACS.Results Serum resistin level in ACS group(1.18±0.48 μg/L)was significantly higher than that in normal control and SAP groups(0.49±0.40 and 0.66±0.40 μg/L;P<0.01).Only in ACS group,increased serum resistin level was significantly correlated with hsCRP(r=0.262,P=0.004)and white blood cell count (r=0.347,P=0.001).Furthermore,serum resistin levels showed a stepwise increase with the number in crease of > 50% stenosed coronary vessels.Multinomial logistic regression test demonstrated that serum resistin was a strong risk factor for ACS(OR=29.132,95 % CI:10.93% 77.581,P<0.001).Conclusion These findings suggested the potential role of resistin in atherosclerosis and especially its involvement in ACS.

  15. Two semi-automated computational approaches for spectroscopic analysis of stellar photospheres: detailed characterization at high resolution and abundance determination at medium resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Andre; Sansom, Anne; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    We report on two distinct computational approaches to self-consistently measure photospheric properties of large samples of stars. Both procedures consist of a set of several semi-integrated tasks based on shell and Python scripts, which efficiently run either our own codes or open source software commonly adopted by the astronomical community. One approach aims to derive the main stellar photospheric parameters and abundances of a few elements by analysing high-resolution spectra from a given public library homogeneously constructed. The other one is applied to recover the abundance of a single element in stars with known photospheric parameters by using mid-resolution spectra from another open homogeneous database and calibrating derived abundances. Both semi-automated computational approaches provide homogeneity and objectivity to every step of the process and represent a fast way to reach partial and final results as well as to estimate measurement errors, making possible to systematically evaluate and im...

  16. Abundances of the elements in sharp-lined early-type stars from IUE high-dispersion spectrograms; 2, the nitrogen deficiency in mercury- manganese stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roby, S W; Adelman, S J

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.419, no.1, p.276-85 (1993). The authors determine nitrogen abundances from co-added IUE high-dispersion SWP spectrograms of four HgMn stars and five normal or superficially normal main-sequence B and A stars. They find N deficiencies in the HgMn stars greater than previously reported (depletion factors of 135-400 relative to the Sun). N abundance discrepancies from UV and IR studies of normal stars are discussed in light of possible non-LTE effects. Their data set for their sample of HgMn stars (observed with a consistent strategy to maximize the benefits of co-additions) is an improvement over the single or few images previously used to derive N abundances for most of these stars. (37 refs).

  17. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in high altitude natives with and without excessive erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Velarde, F; Monge, C C; Vidal, A; Carcagno, M; Criscuolo, M; Bozzini, C E

    1991-05-01

    We report the estimation of blood hemoglobin (Hb), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), and serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (siEPO) in a group of Peruvian workers residing in Cerro de Pasco at 4300 m showing "excessive erythrocytosis" (EE, Monge's disease, chronic mountain sickness). These estimates were compared with those of humans residing either in Cerro de Pasco and showing "normal erythrocytosis" (NE) or in Lima (sea level, SL) to determine whether Hb and SaO2 are related to siEPO in high altitude (HA) natives with NE or EE. The three parameters showed statistically significant differences between HA and SL groups--the values in SL being lower. Significant differences were also found between NE and EE groups in Hb and SaO2. There was no statistical difference in siEPo between the two groups. The results indicate, therefore, that HA residents who develop EE are not distinguishable from residents who develop NE on the basis of estimates of siEPO. As a result, siEPO and Hb do not show a dose-response relationship in HA residents, and variation in EPO does not explain the striking variation in Hb at high altitudes.

  18. A soluble form of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc-epsilon-RI, circulates in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dehlink

    Full Text Available Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum.

  19. Effects of serum of the rats ventilated with high tidal volume on endothelial cell permeability and therapeutic effects of ulinastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Guo-dong; CAI Shao-xi; CHEN Bo; CHEN Ying-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of ventilators in treating critically ill patients, the morbidity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is increasing accordingly. VILI is characterized by a considerable increase in microvascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. In this study we investigated the effects of inflammatory mediators in VILI rat serum on endothelial cytoskeleton and monolayer cellular permeability, as well as the therapeutic effect of ulinastatin, to explore the pathogenesis and the relationship between biotrauma and lung oedema induced by VILI.Methods Thirty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (normal tidal volume ventilation), group B (high tidal volume ventilation) and group C (high tidal volume ventilation plus ulinastatin). The serum of each rat after ventilation was added to endothelial cell line ECV-304 medium for two hours to observe the effects of serum and/or ulinastatin on endothelial fibrous actin and permeability. Results Compared to rats ventilated with normal tidal volume, serum of rats ventilated with high tidal volume caused a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity at the peripheral filament bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibres in the centre resulting in endothelial contraction and higher permeability. Prior treatment with ulinastatin lessened the above changes significantly. The changes of permeability coefficient of endothelial permeability after group A, B or C rats serum stimulation were (6.95 ±1.66)%, (27.50±7.77)% and (17.71±4.66)% respectively with statistically significant differences (P<0.05)among the three groups.Conclusions The proinflammatory mediators in the serum of the rats given high tidal volume ventilation increases endothelial permeability by reorganizing actin cytoskeleton, and pretreatment with ulinastatin lessens the permeability by inhibiting of proinflammatory mediators.

  20. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  1. Development of low-cost technology for the next generation of high efficiency solar cells composed of earth abundant elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-28

    The development of renewable, affordable, and environmentally conscious means of generating energy on a global scale represents a grand challenge of our time. Due to the “permanence” of radiation from the sun, solar energy promises to remain a viable and sustainable power source far into the future. Established single-junction photovoltaic technologies achieve high power conversion efficiencies (pce) near 20% but require complicated manufacturing processes that prohibit the marriage of large-scale throughput (e.g. on the GW scale), profitability, and quality control. Our approach to this problem begins with the synthesis of nanocrystals of semiconductor materials comprising earth abundant elements and characterized by material and optoelectronic properties ideal for photovoltaic applications, namely Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). Once synthesized, such nanocrystals are formulated into an ink, coated onto substrates, and processed into completed solar cells in such a way that enables scale-up to high throughput, roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. This project aimed to address the major limitation to CZTSSe solar cell pce’s – the low open-circuit voltage (Voc) reported throughout literature for devices comprised of this material. Throughout the project significant advancements have been made in fundamental understanding of the CZTSSe material and device limitations associated with this material system. Additionally, notable improvements have been made to our nanocrystal based processing technique to alleviate performance limitations due to the identified device limitations. Notably, (1) significant improvements have been made in reducing intra- and inter-nanoparticle heterogeneity, (2) improvements in device performance have been realized with novel cation substitution in Ge-alloyed CZTGeSSe absorbers, (3) systematic analysis of absorber sintering has been conducted to optimize the selenization process for large grain CZTSSe absorbers, (4) novel electrical

  2. Highly Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance White Spot Syndrome Virus by a Pre-Amplification PCR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanfang; Sha, Xuejiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-03-28

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major threat to the shrimp farming industry and so far there is no effective therapy for it, and thus early diagnostic of WSSV is of great importance. However, at the early stage of infection, the extremely low-abundance of WSSV DNA challenges the detection sensitivity and accuracy of PCR. To effectively detect low-abundance WSSV, here we developed a pre-amplification PCR (pre-amp PCR) method to amplify trace amounts of WSSV DNA from massive background genomic DNA. Combining with normal specific PCR, 10 copies of target WSSV genes were detected from ~10(10) magnitude of backgrounds. In particular, multiple target genes were able to be balanced amplified with similar efficiency due to the usage of the universal primer. The efficiency of the pre-amp PCR was validated by nested-PCR and quantitative PCR, and pre-amp PCR showed higher efficiency than nested-PCR when multiple targets were detected. The developed method is particularly suitable for the super early diagnosis of WSSV, and has potential to be applied in other low-abundance sample detection cases.

  3. High serum adiponectin predicts incident fractures in elderly men: Osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Helena; Odén, Anders; Lerner, Ulf H; Jutberger, Hans; Lorentzon, Mattias; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Karlsson, Magnus K; Ljunggren, Osten; Smith, Ulf; McCloskey, Eugene; Kanis, John A; Ohlsson, Claes; Mellström, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common progenitor, and there is, therefore, potential for both autocrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin on skeletal metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether high serum adiponectin was associated with an increased risk of fracture in elderly men. We studied the relationship between serum adiponectin and the risk of fracture in 999 elderly men drawn from the general population and recruited to the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Baseline data included general health questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin, osteocalcin, and leptin. Men were followed for up to 7.4 years (average, 5.2 years). Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, other risk variables and the time-to-event hazard function of fracture. Median levels of serum adiponectin at baseline were 10.4 µg/mL (interquartile range, 7.7-14.3). During follow-up, 150 men sustained one or more fractures. The risk of fracture increased in parallel with increasing serum adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR]/SD, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.72) and persisted after multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR/SD, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55). Serum adiponectin shows graded stepwise association with a significant excess risk of fracture in elderly men that was independent of several other risk factors for fracture. Its measurement holds promise as a risk factor for fracture in men.

  4. Control of lipopolysaccharide-high-density lipoprotein interactions by an acute-phase reactant in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, P S; McAdam, K P; Soldau, K; Ulevitch, R J

    1985-10-01

    We have recently described several phenomena involving the interactions of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Salmonella minnesota Re595 (Re595-LPS) with rabbit serum, which are different in and unique to acute-phase serum as compared with normal serum (P.S. Tobias and R.J. Ulevitch, J. Immunol. 131:1913-1916, 1983). To determine whether these phenomena could also be observed in acute-phase human serum (APHS), we used APHS obtained from volunteers injected with etiocholanolone. As observed in acute-phase rabbit serum, we found that (i) in APHS, Re595-LPS forms a protein complex with a density of 1.3 g/cm3 which does not form in normal human serum (NHS), (ii) in APHS, the t1/2 for LPS-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexation is at least a factor of 10 slower than the t1/2 for LPS-HDL complexation in NHS, (iii) when Re595-LPS serum mixtures are dialyzed against a low salt buffer, Re595-LPS precipitates in less soluble form from APHS than from NHS, and (iv) the precipitate from Re595-LPS-APHS mixtures includes a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000 which does not precipitate from Re595-LPS-NHS mixtures or from NHS or APHS alone. These indications of an altered status of LPS in NHS and APHS suggest that one or more acute-phase reactants interact with Re595-LPS to modify its rate of binding to HDL.

  5. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established.

  6. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Deuterium abundance and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal-Madjar, A; Lemoine, M

    1996-01-01

    We review the status of the measurements of the deuterium abundance from the local interstellar medium to the solar system and high redshifts absorbers toward quasars. We present preliminary results toward a white dwarf and a QSO. We conclude that the deuterium evolution from the Big-Bang to now is still not properly understood.

  8. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16-21 g/dl and the second with Hb >or=21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 +/- 55.91 microg/dl vs. 328.14 +/- 53.23 ng/dl, means +/- SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.65 +/- 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 +/- 14.60 microg/dl vs. 148.95 +/- 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  9. SERUM LEVEL OF LIPIDS, APOLIPOPROTEINS AND VITAMIN D IN CHILDREN AT HIGH RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BASHTAM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most prevalent disease in human population that has high prevalence and mortality in lsfahan (Iran. As positive family history and changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins are risk factors of these diseases, and also studies have showed the relationship between serum vitamin D and CAD, we studied serum level of lipids, lipoproteins and vitamin D in high risk children compared with control group, and the relation between serum vitamin D and other factors. Methods. This case-control study was done on 44 subjects (25 boys, 19 girls aged 2-18 years old with positive CAD family history as case group and also 44 persons with negative CAD family history as control group with the same age groups. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Children who consumed antiepilepthic drugs as phenytoin or phenobarbital and those who had positive family histroy for renal stone were excluded for variable vitamin D levels due to drug interaction and genetic susceptibility, respectively. All subjects were invited to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. Using a questionnaire, information on personal characteristics, CVD family history and ... were obtained. A fasting (12-14 hr blood sample was drawn from each one. Serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin Dwere measured by radioimmunoassay and serum lipids by ELAN 2000 autoanalyzer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. The level of serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin D were compared between two groups by independent t test and the relation of the mentioned apolipoproteins with vitamin D was studied using multiple linear regression. Results. Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in case group (P < 0.045. Among studied factors, only triglyceride was significantly higher in control group (P < 0.0001 and also no significant relaitonship was observed between serum APO A1, APO B100 and vitamin D. Sex comparision in case group showed those mean levels

  10. Long term stability of paraoxonase-1 and high-density lipoprotein in human serum

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    Beekhof Piet K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.

  11. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine serum lipid, cholesterol and obesity levels in healthy children, and then to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: The sample group consisted of 103 students at Gelik Elementary School in Zonguldak, Turkey who was willing to participate in the study, had not been medically diagnosed with a chronic ailment, and were not taking regular medications. Results: When the students' mean BMI (Body Mass Index measurements were considered, it was found that mean BMI at 13 years of age (21.03 ± 0.23 was higher than at 14 years (20.05 ± 0.20 and that this difference was strongly significant (p=0.002. When the relationships between the students' height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein measurements were considered, it was seen that there was a positive significant relationship between height-weight (r=0.472; p<0.001, height-blood pressure (r=0.432; p<0.001, and height-FBS (r=0.332; p=0.001. Conclusions: The conclusion drawn was that monitoring blood pressure, cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in childhood medical examinations is not only important in terms of identifying obesity, but also in identifying nutritional mistakes and deficiencies at an early stage.

  12. Benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in melanoma patients with high serum MMP-8 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihinen, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Sorsa, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue turnover and various inflammatory processes. In this study, it was evaluated whether serum MMP-8 can predict the response to adjuvant interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α) therapy in patients with operated high-risk cutaneous melanoma. Pre...

  13. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite), c

  14. Carbon Abundances of Three Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars from High-Resolution Gemini-S/bHROS Spectra of the 8727A [C I] Line

    CERN Document Server

    Schuler, S C; Sivarani, T; Asplund, M; Smith, V V; Cunha, K; Beers, T C

    2008-01-01

    We present the results from an analysis of the 8727ang forbidden [C I] line in high-resolution Gemini-S/bHROS spectra of three CEMP stars. We find the [C/Fe] ratios based on the [C I] abundances of the two most Fe-rich stars in our sample (HIP 0507-1653: [Fe/H] = -1.42 and HIP 0054-2542: [Fe/H] = -2.66) to be in good agreement with previously determined CH and C_2 line-based values. For the most Fe-deficient star in our sample (HIP 1005-1439: [Fe/H] = -3.08), however, the [C/Fe] ratio is found to be 0.34 dex lower than the published molecular-based value. We have carried out 3D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) calculations for [C I], and the resulting corrections are found to be modest for all three stars, suggesting that the discrepancy between the [C I] and molecular-based C abundances of HIP 1005-1439 is due to more severe 3D effects on the molecular lines. Carbon abundances are also derived from C I high-excitation lines and are found to be 0.45-0.64 dex higher than the [C I]-based abundances. Previo...

  15. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  16. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, A.; Johansen, J.S.; Christensen, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p TNM classification (HR = 5.77, p = 0.001) and serum...... YKL-40 (dichotomous variable: HR = 2.75, p = 0.01) were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival. During follow-up after radiotherapy, a high serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable) in patients with TNM Stage III and TV disease predicted poorer OS within 6 months (HR = 1.95, p

  17. Expression of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 at low grade and high grade serous carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fei Zhu; Lin-Sheng He; Zhen-Dong Zhang; Qing-Shui Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in differential diagnosis of patients with low-grade serous (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) serous ovarian cancer. Methods: LGSC and HGSC serous ovarian cancer were diagnosed by the two-tier grade system, serum levels of HE4 and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) were measured by ELISA and radioisotope method, respectively in 60 serous ovarian cancer patients. HE4 and TP53 protein in cancer tissue were measured by immunohistochemical method. Results: The difference in density of HE4 and TP53 protein was significant between LGSC and HGSC tissue, while serum CA125 did not show significant difference between different serum samples. There was significant difference in serum HE4 levels between LGSC and HGSC, and the result was different within FIGO (I+II) stage, suggesting HE4 was not a reliable biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC. HE4 had potential as a biomarker for the discrimination between LGSC and HGSC but the role in early diagnosis was limited. Conclusions: HE4 may be a reliable marker for differential diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC. But its role in early diagnosis of LGSC and HGSC need to be confirmed from the perspective of two-tier grade system.

  18. High preoperative serum ferritin predicted poor prognosis in non-metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingting, Hong; Di, Shen; Xiaoping, Chen; Xiaohong, Wu; Dong, Hua

    2017-03-01

    To validate the prognostic significance of preoperative serum iron metabolism parameters in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with curative resection.   Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in the Department of Surgical Oncology, WuXi 4th People's Hospital, WuxiChina, between  March 2010 and September 2013.  The relationships of serum iron metabolism parameters with other variables were examined. The prognostic significance was evaluated using the Kaplan Meier curve and Cox proportional hazards regression model.  Results: Five hundred and fourteen patients were eligible for analysis. The levels of the 3 iron metabolism parameters were interdependent. Hemoglobin level was positively correlated with serum iron and transferrin, and was negatively correlated with ferritin. Compared with peri-neural invasion (PNI)-negative patients, PNI-positive patients had higher serum iron (p=0.03) and ferritin levels (p=0.01). Compared with patients with the lowest quartile level of ferritin, patients with the highest quartile level of ferritin had a 2.21 (95% CI: 1.18-4.14) fold increased mortality risk in the univariate and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.10-5.96) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. When stratified by TNM stages, it was only in stage III patients that serum ferritin remained statistically prognostically significant. Conclusions: Preoperative serum ferritin appeared as an independent adverse risk factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer.

  19. Higher Grades and Repeated Recurrence of Hepatic Encephalopathy May Be Related to High Serum Manganese Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtan, Abdelrahman A; El-Kalla, Ferial S; Soliman, Hanan H; Zakaria, Soha S; Goda, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of liver failure. Until now, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully determined. It has been demonstrated that manganese plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, we studied manganese levels in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy in relation to grading and recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. One hundred persons were enrolled in the study, 80 cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy and 20 healthy controls. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed clinically and by laboratory findings. Serum manganese levels were measured in all participants. The grading of hepatic encephalopathy was significantly correlated to the severity of liver dysfunction. The mean serum manganese level was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls and in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without encephalopathy. It was also significantly higher in patients with advanced grading of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum manganese level was positively correlated to number of recurrences of encephalopathy during a 6-month follow-up period. Serum manganese levels were able to predict recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy within 6 months following the episode. Serum manganese levels are positively correlated to the modified Child-Pugh score of cirrhosis as well as grading and number of recurrences of hepatic encephalopathy. Higher manganese levels seem to be related to worsening of the condition, and its measurement may be used as a predictor of repeated recurrences.

  20. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  1. Severity of sepsisis is correlated with the elevation of serum high-mobility group box 1 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-chao; XIONG Li-ze; QIN Ming-zhe; ZHENG Li-na; LU Yan; WANG Qiang; PENG Dao-rong; YU Xin-ping; XIN Yu-chang; JI Gen-lin

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the intensive care units. The late inflammatory cytokine,high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), plays a critical role in sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the serum HMGB1 levels and the severity of organ injury in the lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in rats.Methods To produce an animal model of sepsis with different degree of organ injury, animals were treated with three different doses of lipopolysaccharide (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg), and the animals in control group were treated with the same volume of the vehicle (saline). The levels of serum HMGB1 were measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle injection, meanwhile the biochemical and histopathological indicators for the severity of organ injury were assessed.Results The level of HMGB1 had a positive, high correlation with the abnormal changes of serum cardiac troponin Ⅰ, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, as well as the pathologic scores of heart, lung, liver and kidney.Conclusions The level of serum HMGB1 is highly correlated with the severity of sepsis in rats, suggesting that HMGB1 could serve as a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis and management of sepsis.

  2. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I.; Nikolov, Pavel N.; GEorgieva, Darina D.; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Vasileva, Gergana P.; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Green, Andy J.

    2013-01-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4–45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27–72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  3. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Marta I; Nikolov, Pavel N; Georgieva, Darina D; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P; Pankov, Plamen; Paracuellos, Mariano; Lafferty, Kevin D; Green, Andy J

    2013-05-01

    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts. These parasites can have marked influences on shrimp behavior and fecundity, generating the potential for cascading effects in hypersaline food webs. We present the first comprehensive study of the temporal dynamics of cestode parasites in natural populations of brine shrimp throughout the annual cycle. Over a 12-month period, clonal Artemia parthenogenetica were sampled in the Odiel marshes in Huelva, and the sexual Artemia salina was sampled in the Salinas de Cerrillos in Almería. Throughout the year, 4-45 % of A. parthenogenetica were infected with cestodes (mean species richness = 0.26), compared to 27-72 % of A. salina (mean species richness = 0.64). Ten cestode species were recorded. Male and female A. salina showed similar levels of parasitism. The most prevalent and abundant cestodes were those infecting the most abundant final hosts, especially the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber. In particular, the flamingo parasite Flamingolepis liguloides had a prevalence of up to 43 % in A. parthenogenetica and 63.5 % in A. salina in a given month. Although there was strong seasonal variation in prevalence, abundance, and intensity of cestode infections, seasonal changes in bird counts were weak predictors of the dynamics of cestode infections. However, infection levels of Confluaria podicipina in A. parthenogenetica were positively correlated with the number of their black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis hosts. Similarly, infection levels of Anomotaenia tringae and Anomotaenia microphallos in A. salina were correlated with the number of shorebird hosts present the month before. Correlated seasonal transmission structured the cestode community, leading to more multiple infections than expected by chance.

  4. High Ozone (O3) Affects the Fitness Associated with the Microbial Composition and Abundance of Q Biotype Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yanyun; Yi, Tuyong; Tan, Xiaoling; Zhao, Zihua; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) affects the fitness of an insect, such as its development, reproduction and protection against fungal pathogens, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unclear. Here, we compared the fitness (i.e., the growth and development time, reproduction and protection against Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana) of Q biotype whiteflies fumigated under hO3 (280 ± 20 ppb) and control O3 (50 ± 10 ppb) concentrations. Moreover, we determined that gene expression was related to development, reproduction and immunity to B. bassiana and examined the abundance and composition of bacteria and fungi inside of the body and on the surface of the Q biotype whitefly. We observed a significantly enhanced number of eggs that were laid by a female, shortened developmental time, prolonged adult lifespan, decreased weight of one eclosion, and reduced immunity to B. bassiana in whiteflies under hO3, but hO3 did not significantly affect the expression of genes related to development, reproduction and immunity. However, hO3 obviously changed the composition of the bacterial communities inside of the body and on the surface of the whiteflies, significantly reducing Rickettsia and enhancing Candidatus_Cardinium. Similarly, hO3 significantly enhanced Thysanophora penicillioides from the Trichocomaceae family and reduced Dothideomycetes (at the class level) inside of the body. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the abundance of Candidatus_Cardinium and the female whitefly ratio and the fecundity of a single female, and positive correlations were found between the abundance of Rickettsia and the weight of adult whiteflies just after eclosion and immunity to B. bassiana. We conclude that hO3 enhances whitefly development and reproduction but impairs immunity to B. bassiana, and our results also suggest that the changes to the microbial environments inside of the body and on the surface could be crucial factors that alter whitefly fitness under hO3. PMID:27799921

  5. Microbial community diversities and taxa abundances in soils along a seven-year gradient of potato monoculture using high throughput pyrosequencing approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on linking soil community structure, diversity, or specific taxa to disturbances. Relatively little attention has been directed to crop monoculture soils, particularly potato monoculture. Information about microbial community changes over time between monoculture and non-monoculture treatments is lacking. Furthermore, few studies have examined microbial communities in potato monoculture soils using a high throughput pyrosequencing approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Soils along a seven-year gradient of potato monoculture were collected and microbial communities were characterized using high throughput pyrosequencing approach. Principal findings are as follows. First, diversity (H(Shannon and richness (S(Chao1 indices of bacterial community, but not of fungal community, were linearly decreased over time and corresponded to a decline of soil sustainability represented by yield decline and disease incidence increase. Second, Fusarium, the only soilborne pathogen-associated fungal genus substantially detected, was linearly increased over time in abundance and was closely associated with yield decline. Third, Fusarium abundance was negatively correlated with soil organic matter (OM and total nitrogen (TN but positively with electrical conductivity (EC. Fourth, Fusarium was correlated in abundances with 6 bacterial taxa over time. CONCLUSIONS: Soil bacterial and fungal communities exhibited differential responses to the potato monoculture. The overall soil bacterial communities were shaped by potato monoculture. Fusarium was the only soilborne pathogen-associated genus associated with disease incidence increase and yield decline. The changes of soil OM, TN and EC were responsible for Fusarium enrichment, in addition to selections by the monoculture crop. Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae were linearly decreased over time in abundance, corresponding to the decrease of OM, suggesting their similar

  6. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from high-resolution optical spectra. I. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the solar neighborhood and Kepler field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Nordlander, T.; Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Hartman, H.; Jönsson, P.; Eriksson, K.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The Galactic bulge is an intriguing and significant part of our Galaxy, but it is hard to observe because it is both distant and covered by dust in the disk. Therefore, there are not many high-resolution optical spectra of bulge stars with large wavelength coverage, whose determined abundances can be compared with nearby, similarly analyzed stellar samples. Aims: We aim to determine the diagnostically important alpha elements of a sample of bulge giants using high-resolution optical spectra with large wavelength coverage. The abundances found are compared to similarly derived abundances from similar spectra of similar stars in the local thin and thick disks. In this first paper we focus on the solar neighborhood reference sample. Methods: We used spectral synthesis to derive the stellar parameters as well as the elemental abundances of both the local and bulge samples of giants. We took special care to benchmark our method of determining stellar parameters against independent measurements of effective temperatures from angular diameter measurements and surface gravities from asteroseismology. Results: In this first paper we present the method used to determine the stellar parameters and elemental abundances, evaluate them, and present the results for our local disk sample of 291 giants. Conclusions: When comparing our determined spectroscopic temperatures to those derived from angular diameter measurements, we reproduce these with a systematic difference of +10 K and a standard deviation of 53 K. The spectroscopic gravities reproduce those determined from asteroseismology with a systematic offset of +0.10 dex and a standard deviation of 0.12 dex. When it comes to the abundance trends, our sample of local disk giants closely follows trends found in other works analyzing solar neighborhood dwarfs, showing that the much brighter giant stars are as good abundance probes as the often used dwarfs. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope

  7. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy. II. Expanding the Metallicity Range for Old Clusters and Updated Analysis Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Colucci, J E; McWilliam, A

    2016-01-01

    We present abundances of globular clusters in the Milky Way and Fornax from integrated light spectra. Our goal is to evaluate the consistency of the integrated light analysis relative to standard abundance analysis for individual stars in those same clusters. This sample includes an updated analysis of 7 clusters from our previous publications and results for 5 new clusters that expand the metallicity range over which our technique has been tested. We find that the [Fe/H] measured from integrated light spectra agrees to $\\sim$0.1 dex for globular clusters with metallicities as high as [Fe/H]=$-0.3$, but the abundances measured for more metal rich clusters may be underestimated. In addition we systematically evaluate the accuracy of abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for Na I, Mg I, Al I, Si I, Ca I, Ti I, Ti II, Sc II, V I, Cr I, Mn I, Co I, Ni I, Cu I, Y II, Zr I, Ba II, La II, Nd II, and Eu II. The elements for which the integrated light analysis gives results that are most similar to analysis of individual stellar ...

  8. A Recalibration of Strong Line Oxygen Abundance Diagnostics via the Direct Method and Implications for the High Redshift Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Jonathan S; Andrews, Brett H

    2016-01-01

    We use direct method oxygen abundances in combination with strong optical emission lines, stellar masses ($M_{\\star}$), and star formation rates (SFRs) to recalibrate the N2, O3N2, and N2O2 oxygen abundance diagnostics. We stack spectra of $\\sim$200,000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in bins of $M_{\\star}$ and SFR offset from the star forming main sequence to measure the weak emission lines needed to apply the direct method. All three new calibrations are reliable to within $\\pm 0.10$ dex from $\\log(M_{\\star}/M_{\\odot}) \\sim 7.5 - 10.5$ and up to at least $200~M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ in SFR. The N2O2 diagnostic is the least subject to systematic biases. We apply the diagnostics to galaxies in the local universe and investigate the $M_{\\star}$-$Z$-${\\rm SFR}$ relation. The N2 and O3N2 diagnostics suggest the SFR dependence of the $M_{\\star}$-$Z$-${\\rm SFR}$ relation varies with both $M_{\\star}$ and $\\Delta \\log(SSFR)$, whereas the N2O2 diagnostic suggests a nearly constant dependence on S...

  9. Ultrathin Vein-Like Iridium-Tin Nanowires with Abundant Oxidized Tin as High-Performance Ethanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meiwu; Shao, Qi; Pi, Yecan; Guo, Jun; Huang, Bin; Qian, Yong; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-09-01

    Iridium (Ir) holds great promise for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR), while its practical applications suffer from the limited shape-controlled synthesis due to its low-energy barrier for nucleation. To overcome this limitation, the preparation of a new class of ultrathin vein-like Ir-tin nanowires (IrSn NWs) with abundant oxidized Sn is reported. By tuning the ratio of Ir to Sn, the optimized Ir67 Sn33 /C exhibits the highest mass density of 95.6 mA mg(-1) Ir for EOR at low potential (0.04 V), which is 4.1-fold and 20-fold higher than that of Ir/C and the commercial Pt/C, respectively. It also exhibits the smallest Tafel slope of 153 mV dec(-1) and superior stability after 2 h chronoamperometric measurement. Electrochemical measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectra results confirm that the abundant oxidized Sn promotes a complete oxidization of ethanol into CO2 at low potential. This work highlights the importance of non-noble metal on enhancing the EOR performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High doses of bifendate elevate serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in rabbits and mice: animal models of acute hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-yuan PAN; Rong YANG; Yi-fan HAN; Hang DONG; Xu-dong FENG; Na LI; Wei GENG; Kam-ming KO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of bifendate on serum and hepatic lipids level in rabbits and mice. Methods: Animals were administered bifendate [powdered pill suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] at increasing doses (0.25-1 g/kg, ig). Blood lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured using commercially available assay kits. Results: The treatment of rabbits with a single dose of bifendate (0.3 g/kg) caused a time-dependent and biphasic change in serum triglyceride (TG) levels, with the value reaching a maximum (3-fold increase compared to the baseline value) between 24 and 36 h post-dosing. When mice were orally treated with bifendate (0.25-1 g/kg), serum TG levels increased by 39%-76% and 14%-39% at 24 and 48 h post-dosing, respectively. When given at daily doses of 0.25 and 1 g/kg for 4 d, bifendate increased serum TG levels (56%-79%), with concomitant elevations in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B levels at 24 h after the last dosing. TG levels were also increased (11%-43%) in liver samples of mice receiving single or multiple doses of bifendate. However, bifendate treatment caused slight reductions in serum and hepatic total cholesterol levels (9%-13%). The hypertriglyceridemia induced by bifendate was ameliorated by fenofibrate but not inositol nicotinate treatment in mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that bifendate treatment at high oral doses can cause an acute elevation in serum and hepatic TG levels.

  11. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders.

  12. Mangiferin binding to serum albumin is non-saturable and induces conformational changes at high concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, P.G.; Barbosa, A.F. [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Saraiva, L.A. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Camps, I. [Physics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Silveira, N.J.F. da [Bioinformatics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Veloso, M.P. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Santos, M.H., E-mail: poliany.santos@gmail.com [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Schneedorf, J.M., E-mail: zemasfs@gmail.com [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The binding interaction between mangiferin (MGF), which a natural xanthone isolated from mangoes, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied with absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling. The data were analyzed to assess the binding mechanism, effect of pH and ionic strength, conformational changes in the protein and electrical charge transfer involved. The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity with a 1:1 stoichiometry (K{sub d}=0.38 mmol L{sup -1}) for the first binding site and a non-saturable binding at high ligand concentrations. Furthermore, the data also suggest an increase in drug bioavailability in the acidic region and relatively low ionic strength values, which are close to physiological levels. The data suggest a specific electrostatic interaction together with hydrophobic effects and H-bonding displayed in MGF binding to the BSA IIA subdomain. Synchronous fluorescence spectra indicate that there are conformational changes in the polypeptide backbone upon ligand binding. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that there is an irreversible charge transfer between MGF and BSA that is modulated by diffusion on the electrode surface, where two electrons are transferred. These results can help the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic activities of natural or chemical xanthone-based drugs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity beyond 1:1 stoichiometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of MGF with BSA is non-saturable at higher ligand concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding was accomplished by H-bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apparent binding constant for MGF-BSA was 0.38 mmol L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MGF binds electrostatically to BSA, different from a hydrophobic interaction to HSA.

  13. Highly sensitive detection of bovine serum albumin based on the aggregation of triangular silver nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Ma, Fang Fang; Kuang, Yang Fang; Cheng, Shu; Long, Yun Fei; Xiao, Qiu Guo

    2016-02-01

    A simple, fast and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been developed based on the interactions between triangular silver nanoplates (TAgNPs) and BSA in the presence of Britton-Robison buffer solution (BR). Particularly, the wavelength of absorption maximum (λmax) of TAgNPs is red shifted in the presence of BSA together with Britton-Robinson buffer solution (BR, pH = 2.56), and the color of the solution changed from blue to light blue. This may be due to the interactions between BSA molecules on the surface of TAgNPs through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic effects and van der Waals forces at pH 2.56, which leads to the aggregation of TAgNPs. The determination of BSA was achieved by measuring the change of λmax corresponding to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from UV-visible spectrophotometry. It was found that the shift value in the wavelength of absorption maximum (Δλ, the difference in absorption maxima of the TAgNPs/BSA/BR mixture and the TAgNPs/BR mixture) was proportionate to the concentration of BSA in the range of 1.0 ng mL- 1 to 100.0 ng mL- 1 with the correlation coefficient of r = 0.9969. The detection limit (3 σ/k) for BSA was found to be as low as 0.5 ng mL- 1.

  14. Apolipoprotein modulation of streptococcal serum opacity factor activity against human plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-08-25

    Human plasma HDL are the target of streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence factor that clouds human plasma. Recombinant (r) SOF transfers cholesteryl esters (CE) from approximately 400,000 HDL particles to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM), forms a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle (neo HDL), and releases lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. Whereas the rSOF reaction requires labile apo A-I, the modulation effects of other apos are not known. We compared the products and rates of the rSOF reaction against human HDL and HDL from mice overexpressing apos A-I and A-II. Kinetic studies showed that the reactivity of various HDL species is apo-specific. LpA-I reacts faster than LpA-I/A-II. Adding apos A-I and A-II inhibited the SOF reaction, an effect that was more profound for apo A-II. The rate of SOF-mediated CERM formation was slower against HDL from mice expressing human apos A-I and A-II than against WT mice HDL and slowest against HDL from apo A-II overexpressing mice. The lower reactivity of SOF against HDL containing human apos is due to the higher hydropathy of human apo A-I, particularly its C-terminus relative to mouse apo A-I, and the higher lipophilicity of human apo A-II. The SOF-catalyzed reaction is the first to target HDL rather than its transporters and receptors in a way that enhances reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Thus, effects of apos on the SOF reaction are highly relevant. Our studies show that the "humanized" apo A-I-expressing mouse is a good animal model for studies of rSOF effects on RCT in vivo.

  15. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  16. Changes of serum high sensitive C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Du; Yan Ren; Ying Li

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), which regards as a high sensitive mark of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, can provide a lot of valuable information for the treatment and prognosis of cerebrovascular disease.OBJECTIVE: To observe the differences of blood glucose, lipid, homocysteine and previous disease history among patients with acute cerebral infarction at various levels of hs-CRP and compare changes of hs-CRP of patients with various degrees ofneurologic impairment.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Shenzhou Hospital, Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 patients with acute cerebral infarction were selected from Department of Neurology, Shenzhou Hospital of Shenyang Medical College from February 2005 to September 2006,including 55 males and 47 females aged from 55 to 86 years. All accepted patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction established by the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting and were diagnosed with CT or MRI examination. All patients provided the confirmed consent. Based on clinical criteria of neurologic impairment established by the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting, patients were randomly divided into mild group (0- 15 points, n =46), moderate group (16- 30points, n =38) and severe group (31 - 45 points, n =18). In addition, based on hs-CRP level within 72 hours,patients were divided into normal group (hs-CRP ≤ 3 mg/L, n =53) and increasing group (hs-CRP > 3 mg/L,n =49).METHODS: ① 2 mL venous blood was selected from hospitalized patients in the next morning to separate serum. Quantitative measurement of hs-CRP was dealt with Latex Enhnced Turbidimetric Immunoassay (LETIA). ② Fasting venous blood was colleted from hospitalized patients in the next morning to measure numeration of white blood cells, fibrinogen, blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high density lipoprotein

  17. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16–21 g/dl and the second with Hb ≥21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 ± 55.91 μg/dl vs. 328.14 ± 53.23 ng/dl, means ± SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 ± 1.1 vs. 3.65 ± 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 ± 14.60 μg/dl vs. 148.95 ± 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19318512

  18. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  19. Incidence of high chromogranin A serum levels in patients with non metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabei Agnese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChromograninA in prostate carcinoma (PC indicate NE differentiation. This tumour is more aggressive and resistant to hormone therapy. Patients and methods We analyzed the incidence of pre-operative ChromograninA serum levels in non metastatic PC patients. Serum PSA and ChromograninA were analyzed before treatment. Clinicopathological parameters were evaluated in relation to serum ChromograninA. 486 patients were enrolled. Results We found 352 pT2 and 134 pT3. 21 patients were N+. 278 patients had Gleason score levels 7. Median PSA pre-operative level was 7.61 ng/ml. PSA was significantly associated with pT stage (pT2 with PSA abnormal 23.6% vs pT3 48.5%, p 7 vs 29.5% in the Gleason score = 7 vs 27.3% in the Gleason score 7 (31.4% (p = 0.12. The serum ChromograninA levels in the two groups of patients were subdivided before and after 2005 on the basis of different used assays, showing no correlation with serum ChromograninA and other parameters. Conclusions This study showed that ChromograninA levels correlated to NE differentiation and possible aggressiveness of PC. Pre-operative circulating ChromograninA could complement PSA in selecting more aggressive PC cases, particularly in the presence of a higher Gleason score. Complementary information is provided by the absence of a correlation between serum ChromograninA and PSA levels.

  20. Silting up and development of anoxic conditions enhanced by high abundance of the geoengineer species Ophiothrix fragilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, A.; Méar, Y.; Poizot, E.; Dauvin, J. C.; Beryouni, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the English Channel, the brittle-star Ophiothrix fragilis is a common epifaunal species typically found on pebbles in habitats with strong tidal currents. This species forms dense aggregations on the seafloor, supporting populations that can reach up to 7500 ind m-2 in the eastern part of the Baie de Seine, offshore from Antifer harbour. Here, O. fragilis occurs in an area with unexpected amounts of fine-grained sediment. Some of these mud deposits are made up of unusually compact black muds, an indication of the development of anoxic conditions in surficial sediments. To highlight a potential link between silting up and dense O. fragilis populations, and identify the interactions between environmental conditions and the population dynamics of this species, we analyse the data from three surveys corresponding to exceptional situations: (1) just after a Seine flood; (2) just after a storm and (3) after a period of ten months without any flood or storm. Four parameters are taken into account: number of brittle stars per 0.25 m2, Fine Fraction percentage, Total Organic Carbon and Total Sulphur. The main environmental forcings appear to be Seine river inflow, regional circulation dependent on tidal currents and the occurrence of storms. O. fragilis is able to geoengineer its environment in various ways and at different rates. Silting up is enhanced by increasing abundance of O. fragilis and takes place at a very fast rate. As a result, floods and storms reflecting instantaneous events give rise to a steady-state situation established between the abundance of this species and the fine fraction percentage. Anoxic conditions are dependent on the degradation of organic matter and require more time to be established. After many months in the absence of any disturbing events, anoxic conditions are developed in non-compacted muddy sediments (stability situation) and represent the normal surficial situation when the sediment becomes compacted (compact black muds). The

  1. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. II. Expanding the Metallicity Range for Old Clusters and Updated Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We present abundances of globular clusters (GCs) in the Milky Way and Fornax from integrated-light (IL) spectra. Our goal is to evaluate the consistency of the IL analysis relative to standard abundance analysis for individual stars in those same clusters. This sample includes an updated analysis of seven clusters from our previous publications and results for five new clusters that expand the metallicity range over which our technique has been tested. We find that the [Fe/H] measured from IL spectra agrees to ∼0.1 dex for GCs with metallicities as high as [Fe/H] = ‑0.3, but the abundances measured for more metal-rich clusters may be underestimated. In addition we systematically evaluate the accuracy of abundance ratios, [X/Fe], for Na i, Mg i, Al i, Si i, Ca i, Ti i, Ti ii, Sc ii, V i, Cr i, Mn i, Co i, Ni i, Cu i, Y ii, Zr i, Ba ii, La ii, Nd ii, and Eu ii. The elements for which the IL analysis gives results that are most similar to analysis of individual stellar spectra are Fe i, Ca i, Si i, Ni i, and Ba ii. The elements that show the greatest differences include Mg i and Zr i. Some elements show good agreement only over a limited range in metallicity. More stellar abundance data in these clusters would enable more complete evaluation of the IL results for other important elements. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  2. Serum protein profile study of normal and cervical cancer subjects by high performance liquid chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kumar, Pratap; Mahato, Krishna K; Kartha, Vasudevan B; Santhosh, Chidangil

    2008-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography with high sensitivity laser-induced fluorescence detection is used to study the protein profiles of serum samples from healthy volunteers and cervical cancer subjects. The protein profiles are subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA shows that the large number of chromatograms of a given class of serum samples--say normal/malignant--can be expressed in terms of a small number of factors (principal components). Three parameters--scores of the factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis distance--are derived from PCA. The parameters are observed to have a narrow range for protein profiles of standard calibration sets formed from groups of clinically confirmed normal/malignant classes. Limit tests using match/no match of the parameters of any test sample with parameters derived for the standard calibration sets give very good discrimination between malignant and normal samples with high sensitivity (approximately 100%) aand specificity (approximately 94%).

  3. Correlation between Serum High Sensitivity CRP Level and Inhospital Cardiac Events in the Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazerani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Several studies have been performed to evaluate correlation of serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP level with the prognosis of the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina, and by now different results were reported. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between serum hs-CRP level and inhospital prognosis and cardiac events in the patients with unstable angina. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed from Sep 2004 till Feb 2006 in Shahid Beheshti hospital. Kermanshah, Iran. Sera were collected from 250 patients for hs-CRP measurement. Exclusion criteria were: acute ST elevation MI, non ST elevation MI, patients with history of recent infection, patients with recent trauma and patients with serum high sensitive CRP level more than 10 mg/lit. Patients were divided into two groups, first group whose serum hs-CRP level was less than 3 mg/lit and second group whose serum hs-CRP level was between 3 and 10 mg/lit. They were followed for recurrent chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, acute myocardial infarction and in hospital death. Results were analyzed using x² and t-test. Results: Mean age were 57±7.8 and 58±11.5 years in first group and second group respectively. There was statistically significant difference in some cardiac complications such as dyspnea, duration of hospitalization, recurrent chest pain, CCU admission (p<0.001 and in hospital myocardial infarction (p=0.03, between two groups. Some complications did not have significant difference such as pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia, S3, S4 and pulmonary rates .There was no mortality in both groups. Conclusion: According to the results, we can use serum hs-CRP level for risk stratification in the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina. Obviously the patients with high serum hs-CRP level need more attention whether early invasive management help these patients, may be the matter of later studies.

  4. In-situ annotation of carbohydrate diversity, abundance, and degradability in highly complex mixtures using NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many functions of carbohydrates depend on the detection of short structural motifs, approximately up to hexasaccharide length, by receptors or catalysts. This study investigates the usefulness of state-of-the-art 1H–13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for characterizing the diversity......, abundance, and degradability of such short structural motifs in plant-derived carbohydrates. Assignments of carbohydrate signals for 1H–13C NMR spectra of beer, wine, and fruit juice yield up to >130 assignments in situ, i.e. in individual samples without separation or derivatization. More than 500...... structural motifs can be resolved over a concentration range of ~103 in experiments of a few hours duration. The diversity of carbohydrate units increases according to power laws at lower concentrations for both cereal and fruit-derived samples. Simple graphs resolve the smaller overall contribution of more...

  5. Abundance, activity, and diversity of archaeal and bacterial communities in both uncontaminated and highly copper-contaminated marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaury, Ludovic; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Quillet, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the impact of copper mine tailing discharges on benthic Archaea and Bacteria around the city of Chanaral in northern Chile. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) showed that the bacteria dominated the prokaryotic community at both sites, but only the bacteria showed a decrease in abundance in the copper-contaminated site. Q-PCR on reverse transcripts indicated a higher activity of both bacterial and archaeal communities in the contaminated site, suggesting an adaptation of the two communities to copper. This hypothesis was reinforced by the concomitant augmentation of the copper-resistant copA gene coding for a P-type ATP-ase pump in the contaminated site. The metabolically active bacterial community of the contaminated site was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria related to Ectothiorhodospiraceae and Chromatiaceae and by Alphaproteobacteria phylum related to Rhodobacteraceae. The metabolically active archaeal community was dominated by one lineage belonging to unclassified Euryarchaeota and to methanogenic Archaea.

  6. The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.......To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity....

  7. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 - 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  8. [Development of highly sensitive assay for detection of low serum level of PIVKA-II and its clinical usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizono, K; Oita, T; Kuroda, M; Kasakura, S

    1996-09-01

    PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe the adaptations to render a commercially available PIVKA-II immunoassay kit (Eitest MONO P-II: Eisai Co., Ltd, Tokyo) more sensitive and evaluated clinical usefulness of this highly sensitive assay for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations with the Eitest kit as described for the kit. To measure serum PIVKA-II concentrations below the sensitivity limit of the Eitest kit (0.0625AU/ml), linearity was determined using a series of dilutions of standard antigen diluted in standard diluent, including PIVKA-II concentrations of 0.002, 0.004, 0.008, 0.016, 0.031, 0.0625AU/ml. The assay was found to be liner from 0.004AU/ml. In this way, one can detect as low PIVKA-II concentrations as 0.004AU/ml. The repeatability-assay coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained from sixteen repeated assays of four sera were distributed between 3.63 and 18.75% and the reproducibility-assay coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained from ten repeated assays of four sera were distributed between 6.27 and 14.04%. We determined the serial changes in serum PIVKA-II levels of two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after the resection of hepatic tumor. In these patients, elevation of serum PIVKA-II level determined by the highly sensitive assay preceded the detection of relapse by imaging diagnostic procedures. In summary, the assay system we developed has good accuracy and reproducibility for assaying low concentrations of PIVKA-II in serum and is suitable for detecting small increases in PIVKA-II concentrations. This assay system may be useful to earlier detect a relapse of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with systemic sclerosis are associated with pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbaek, C; Johansen, J S; Halberg, P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: YKL-40, a growth factor of connective tissue cells, is elevated in sera from patients with diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodelling, or fibrosis. The aim of the study was to determine serum YKL-40 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to explore any...

  10. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  11. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Douard

    Full Text Available Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  12. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  13. Novel low abundance and transient RNAs in yeast revealed by tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing are not conserved across closely related yeast species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A complete description of the transcriptome of an organism is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of how it functions and how its transcriptional networks are controlled, and may provide insights into the organism's evolution. Despite the status of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as arguably the most well-studied model eukaryote, we still do not have a full catalog or understanding of all its genes. In order to interrogate the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae for low abundance or rapidly turned over transcripts, we deleted elements of the RNA degradation machinery with the goal of preferentially increasing the relative abundance of such transcripts. We then used high-resolution tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing (UHTS to identify, map, and validate unannotated transcripts that are more abundant in the RNA degradation mutants relative to wild-type cells. We identified 365 currently unannotated transcripts, the majority presumably representing low abundance or short-lived RNAs, of which 185 are previously unknown and unique to this study. It is likely that many of these are cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs, which are rapidly degraded and whose function(s within the cell are still unclear, while others may be novel functional transcripts. Of the 185 transcripts we identified as novel to our study, greater than 80 percent come from regions of the genome that have lower conservation scores amongst closely related yeast species than 85 percent of the verified ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Such regions of the genome have typically been less well-studied, and by definition transcripts from these regions will distinguish S. cerevisiae from these closely related species.

  14. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  15. Biological Signatures of Brain Damage Associated with High Serum Ferritin Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Millán

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Increased body iron stores have been related to greater oxidative stress and brain injury in clinical and experimental cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. We aimed to investigate the biological signatures of excitotoxicity, inflammation and blood brain barrier disruption potentially associated with high serum ferritin levels-related damage in acute stroke patients treated with i.v. t-PA.

  16. High resolution study of the abundance pattern of the heavy elements in very metal-poor field stars

    CERN Document Server

    Spite, Monique

    2013-01-01

    The abundances of heavy elements in EMP stars are not well explained by the simple view of an initial basic "rapid" process. In a careful and homogeneous analysis of the "First stars" sample (eighty per cent of the stars have a metallicity [Fe/H]=-3.1$\\pm$0.4), it has been shown that at this metallicity [Eu/Ba] is constant, and therefore the Eu-rich stars (generally called "r-rich") are also Ba-rich. The very large variation of [Ba/Fe] (existence of "r-poor" and "r-rich" stars) induces that the early matter was not perfectly mixed. On the other hand, the distribution of the values of [Sr/Ba] vs. [Ba/Fe] appears with well defined upper and lower envelopes. No star was found with [Sr/Ba]<-0.5 and the scatter of [Sr/Ba] increases regularly when [Ba/Fe] decreases. To explain this behavior, we suggest that an early "additional" process forming mainly first peak elements would affect the initial composition of the matter. For a same quantity of accreted matter, this additional Sr production would barely affect t...

  17. The Physical Conditions, Metallicity and Metal Abundance Ratios In a Highly Magnified Galaxy at z = 3.6252

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Matthew B; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva; Florian, Michael; Gladders, Michael D; Johnson, Traci; Oguri, Masamune

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-IR imaging and spectroscopy of SGAS J105039.6$+$001730, a strongly lensed galaxy at z $=$ 3.6252 magnified by $>$30$\\times$, and derive its physical properties. We measure a stellar mass of log(M$_{*}$/M$_{\\odot}$) $=$ 9.5 $\\pm$ 0.35, star formation rates from [O II]$\\lambda$$\\lambda$3727 and H-$\\beta$ of 55 $\\pm$ 20 and 84 $\\pm$ 17 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively, an electron density of n$_{e} \\leq$ 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-2}$, an electron temperature of T$_{e} \\leq$ 14000 K, and a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) $=$ 8.3 $\\pm$ 0.1. The strong C III]$\\lambda$$\\lambda$1907,1909 emission and abundance ratios of C, N, O and Si are consistent with well-studied starbursts at z $\\sim$ 0 with similar metallicities. Strong P Cygni lines and He II$\\lambda$1640 emission indicate a significant population of Wolf-Rayet stars, but synthetic spectra of individual populations of young, hot stars do not reproduce the observed integrated P Cygni absorption features. The rest-frame UV spectral features are in...

  18. High serum folate is associated with reduced biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Moreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To analyze the association between serum levels of folate and risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy among men from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH database. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 135 subjects from the SEARCH database treated between 1991-2009 with available preoperative serum folate levels. Patients' characteristics at the time of the surgery were analyzed with ranksum and linear regression. Uni- and multivariable analyses of folate levels (log-transformed and time to biochemical recurrence were performed with Cox proportional hazards. Results The median preoperative folate level was 11.6ng/mL (reference = 1.5-20.0ng/mL. Folate levels were significantly lower among African-American men than Caucasians (P = 0.003. In univariable analysis, higher folate levels were associated with more recent year of surgery (P < 0.001 and lower preoperative PSA (P = 0.003. In univariable analysis, there was a trend towards lower risk of biochemical recurrence among men with high folate levels (HR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.37-1.03, P = 0.064. After adjustments for patients characteristics' and pre- and post-operative clinical and pathological findings, higher serum levels of folate were independently associated with lower risk for biochemical recurrence (HR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.20-0.89, P = 0.023. Conclusion In a cohort of men undergoing radical prostatectomy at several VAs across the country, higher serum folate levels were associated with lower PSA and lower risk for biochemical failure. While the source of the folate in the serum in this study is unknown (i.e. diet vs. supplement, these findings, if confirmed, suggest a potential role of folic acid supplementation or increased consumption of folate rich foods to reduce the risk of recurrence.

  19. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Güler, Mustafa; Özgül, Cemil; Saydam, Gündüzalp; Küçükayaz, Mustafa; Sözbir, Ercan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentially beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) supplementation on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, liver and kidney membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant levels in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed high cholesterol. Four groups of ten female mice were treated as follows: Group I received no treatment and was used as control. Group II was OVX mice. Group III received ACV intragastrically (0.6% of feed), and group IV was OVX and was treated with ACV as described for group III. The treatment was continued for 28 days, during which the mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocyte, liver and kidney, triglycerides, total, and VLDL cholesterol levels in serum were higher in the OVX group than in groups III and IV. The levels of vitamin E in liver, the kidney and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) were decreased in group II. The GSH-Px, vitamin C, E, and β-carotene, and the erythrocyte GSH and GSH-Px values were higher in kidney of groups III and IV, but in liver the vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased. In conclusion, ACV induced a protective effect against erythrocyte, kidney, and liver oxidative injury, and lowered the serum lipid levels in mice fed high cholesterol, suggesting that it possesses oxidative stress scavenging effects, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes and vitamin.

  20. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  1. Metabolism of hexachlorobenzene in humans: association between serum levels and urinary metabolites in a highly exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-Figueras, J; Sala, M; Otero, R; Barrot, C; Santiago-Silva, M; Rodamilans, M; Herrero, C; Grimalt, J; Sunyer, J

    1997-01-01

    Serum and urine from 100 subjects of a general population highly exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed to obtain new insights into the metabolism of this ubiquitous compound. HCB was detected in all serum samples with concentrations ranging between 1.1 and 953 ng/ml. The major known metabolites of HCB were investigated in urine collected over 24 hr. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was detected in all urines with values ranging between 0.58 and 13.9 micrograms excreted in 24 hr [mean +/- standard deviation (SD), 2.52 +/- 2.05; geometric mean, 2.05]. A sulfur derivative that, after hydrolysis, yielded pentachlorobenzenethiol (PCBT) could also be identified and quantified in all the urines with values ranging between 0.18 and 84.0 micrograms of PCBT excreted in 24 hr (mean +/- SD, 3.47 +/- 10.8; geometric mean, 1.39). The sulfur derivative assessed as PCBT appeared to be the main metabolite, with urinary concentrations surpassing those of PCP in the subjects with higher HCB accumulation (HCB in serum > 32 ng/ml). PCBT concentration in urine collected over 24 hr showed a very strong association with HCB concentration in serum; the association was stronger in males than in females. An increase of 1 ng/ml of HCB in serum led to an increase of 2.12 micrograms of PCBT excreted in urine collected over 24 hr in males (95% CI, 1.82-2.44) and to an increase of 0.67 microgram of PCBT in females (CI, 0.33-1.09). A weaker association was found between PCP in urine and HCB in serum, which was only statistically significant in males (an increase of 1 ng/ml of HCB in serum led to an increase of 0.63 microgram of PCP excreted in urine collected over 24 hr; (CI, 0.34-0.95). These results show that the formation of the cysteine conjugate is a quantitatively more important metabolic pathway in humans than the formation of PCP. Moreover, the association found suggests that PCBT is a good urinary marker of HCB internal dose and glutathione-mediated metabolism.

  2. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining the highly enantiomeric photocyclodimerization of 2-anthracenecarboxylate bound to human serum albumin using time-resolved anisotropy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Denis; Kato, Hanako; Nishijima, Masaki; Fukuhara, Gaku; Mori, Tadashi; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Bohne, Cornelia

    2013-01-09

    The mechanism for the high enantiomeric excess (ee) (80-90%) observed in the photocyclodimerization of 2-anthracenecarboxylate (AC) in the chiral binding sites of human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using fluorescence anisotropy. A long rotational correlation time of 36 ns was observed for the excited states of the ACs bound to the HSA site responsible for the high ee, suggesting that the ACs have restricted rotational mobility in this site. The ACs in this site have the same prochiral face protected by the protein, and this protection is responsible for the high ee observed. These insights provide a strategy for the rational design of supramolecular photochirogenic systems.

  4. Oolemmal proteomics – identification of highly abundant heat shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the mature mouse egg and their localization on the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Meredith E; Digilio, Laura C; Herr, John C; Coonrod, Scott A

    2003-01-01

    Background The mature mouse egg contains the full complement of maternal proteins required for fertilization, the transition to zygotic transcription, and the beginning stages of embryogenesis. Many of these proteins remain to be characterized, therefore in this study we have identified highly abundant egg proteins using a proteomic approach and found that several of these proteins also appear to localize to the egg surface. Characterization of such molecules will provide important insight into the cellular events of fertilization and early development. Methods In order to identify some of the more abundant egg proteins, whole egg extracts were resolved on coomassie-stained two-dimensional (2D) PAGE gels. Several highly abundant protein spots were cored and microsequenced by tandem mass spectrometry (TMS), and determined to be molecular chaperone proteins. Concurrent experiments were performed to identify oolemmal proteins using 2D avidin blotting. Proteins spots that appeared to be surface labeled by biotinylation were correlated with the initial coomassie-stained reference gel. Surprisingly, some of the surface labelled proteins corresponded to those abundant chaperone proteins previously identified. To confirm whether these molecules are accumulating at the oolemmal surface in eggs, we performed immunofluoresence on live, zona-free eggs using antibodies to HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP78, calreticulin and calnexin. Results The putative surface-labeled proteins identified by biotinylation included the molecular chaperones HSP70 (MW 70 KDa, pI 5.5), HSP90a (MW 85 KDa, pI 4.9), GRP94 (MW 92 KDa, pI 4.7), GRP78 (MW 72 KDa, pI 5.0), Oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150; MW 111 KDa, pI 5.1), Calreticulin (MW 48 KDa, pI 4.3), Calnexin (MW 65 KDa, pI 4.5), and Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; MW 57 KDa, pI 4.8). Immunofluoresence results showed that antibodies to HSP90, GRP94, GRP78 and calreticulin were reactive with oolemmal proteins. We were unable to confirm surface

  5. Oolemmal proteomics – identification of highly abundant heat shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the mature mouse egg and their localization on the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr John C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mature mouse egg contains the full complement of maternal proteins required for fertilization, the transition to zygotic transcription, and the beginning stages of embryogenesis. Many of these proteins remain to be characterized, therefore in this study we have identified highly abundant egg proteins using a proteomic approach and found that several of these proteins also appear to localize to the egg surface. Characterization of such molecules will provide important insight into the cellular events of fertilization and early development. Methods In order to identify some of the more abundant egg proteins, whole egg extracts were resolved on coomassie-stained two-dimensional (2D PAGE gels. Several highly abundant protein spots were cored and microsequenced by tandem mass spectrometry (TMS, and determined to be molecular chaperone proteins. Concurrent experiments were performed to identify oolemmal proteins using 2D avidin blotting. Proteins spots that appeared to be surface labeled by biotinylation were correlated with the initial coomassie-stained reference gel. Surprisingly, some of the surface labelled proteins corresponded to those abundant chaperone proteins previously identified. To confirm whether these molecules are accumulating at the oolemmal surface in eggs, we performed immunofluoresence on live, zona-free eggs using antibodies to HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP78, calreticulin and calnexin. Results The putative surface-labeled proteins identified by biotinylation included the molecular chaperones HSP70 (MW 70 KDa, pI 5.5, HSP90a (MW 85 KDa, pI 4.9, GRP94 (MW 92 KDa, pI 4.7, GRP78 (MW 72 KDa, pI 5.0, Oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150; MW 111 KDa, pI 5.1, Calreticulin (MW 48 KDa, pI 4.3, Calnexin (MW 65 KDa, pI 4.5, and Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; MW 57 KDa, pI 4.8. Immunofluoresence results showed that antibodies to HSP90, GRP94, GRP78 and calreticulin were reactive with oolemmal proteins. We were unable to

  6. Oolemmal proteomics--identification of highly abundant heat shock proteins and molecular chaperones in the mature mouse egg and their localization on the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Meredith E; Digilio, Laura C; Herr, John C; Coonrod, Scott A

    2003-02-14

    The mature mouse egg contains the full complement of maternal proteins required for fertilization, the transition to zygotic transcription, and the beginning stages of embryogenesis. Many of these proteins remain to be characterized, therefore in this study we have identified highly abundant egg proteins using a proteomic approach and found that several of these proteins also appear to localize to the egg surface. Characterization of such molecules will provide important insight into the cellular events of fertilization and early development. In order to identify some of the more abundant egg proteins, whole egg extracts were resolved on coomassie-stained two-dimensional (2D) PAGE gels. Several highly abundant protein spots were cored and microsequenced by tandem mass spectrometry (TMS), and determined to be molecular chaperone proteins. Concurrent experiments were performed to identify oolemmal proteins using 2D avidin blotting. Proteins spots that appeared to be surface labeled by biotinylation were correlated with the initial coomassie-stained reference gel. Surprisingly, some of the surface labelled proteins corresponded to those abundant chaperone proteins previously identified. To confirm whether these molecules are accumulating at the oolemmal surface in eggs, we performed immunofluoresence on live, zona-free eggs using antibodies to HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP78, calreticulin and calnexin. The putative surface-labeled proteins identified by biotinylation included the molecular chaperones HSP70 (MW 70 KDa, pI 5.5), HSP90a (MW 85 KDa, pI 4.9), GRP94 (MW 92 KDa, pI 4.7), GRP78 (MW 72 KDa, pI 5.0), Oxygen regulated protein 150 (ORP150; MW 111 KDa, pI 5.1), Calreticulin (MW 48 KDa, pI 4.3), Calnexin (MW 65 KDa, pI 4.5), and Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; MW 57 KDa, pI 4.8). Immunofluoresence results showed that antibodies to HSP90, GRP94, GRP78 and calreticulin were reactive with oolemmal proteins. We were unable to confirm surface localization of HSP70 or

  7. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinical...... application. The more important changes are the addition of an internal standard, mercaptopropionylglycine, and the use of a plasma/serum based calibration material. The method consists of the following steps: reduction of the sample with tri-n-butylphosphine, precipitation of proteins, derivatisation...... with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulphonate, and HPLC separation followed by fluorescence detection. The linearity of the assays is established and the coefficient of variation is 3.0%. Stability studies show that blood samples must be cooled or centrifuged immediately after venipuncture...

  8. Detection and quantitation of twenty-seven cytokines, chemokines and growth factors pre- and post-high abundance protein depletion in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Beom Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors (CCGFs in human plasma are analyzed for identification of biomarkers. However concentrations of CCGFs are very low; it is difficult to identify and quantify low abundance proteins in the presence of the high abundance proteins (HAPs unless HAPs are removed prior to analysis. However, there is a concern that the low abundance proteins such as CCGFs may also be removed during the HAP depletion process. In this study, we have examined whether or not depletion of the HAPs enhances detection of the CCGFs by immuno-assays. Top 14 HAPs were depleted from 10 healthy volunteers’ plasma using MARS-14 immuno-depletion column and a total of 27 CCGFs were analyzed by bead-based multiplexed immuno-assay. All 27 CCGFs were detected in neat plasma (NP, 25 were detected in flow through fraction (FT and 21 were detected in bound protein (BP fraction. Concentrations of 22 CCGFs were significantly higher in NP compared to FT and BP. Only one CCGF had higher concentration in FT compared to NP. The remaining 2 CCGFs were not different between NP and FT. It was counter-productive for the detection of 24 CCGFs after HAP removal, primarily due to post-depletion protein precipitation and/or re-suspension of pellets.

  9. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    CERN Document Server

    Madonna, S; Sterling, N C; Luridiana, V

    2016-01-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R$\\sim$40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R$\\sim$4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 $\\mu$m to 2.50 $\\mu$m. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-...

  10. Neutron-capture element abundances in the planetary nebula NGC 5315 from deep high-resolution optical and near-IR spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Sterling, N. C.; Luridiana, V.

    2017-03-01

    We have done a spectroscopical analysis of the type I planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315, through high-resolution (R ˜ 40000) optical spectroscopy with UVES at the 8.2m Very Large Telescope, and medium-resolution (R ˜ 4800) near-IR spectroscopy with FIRE at the 6.5m Magellan Baade telescope, covering a wide spectral range from 0.31 μm to 2.50μm. The main aim of this work is to investigate the slow neutron(n)-capture process (the s-process) in the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star progenitor of a type I PNe. We detected and identified about 700 features, including lines from the n-capture elements Kr, Se, and possibly Br and Xe. We compute physical conditions using line ratios of common ions. Ionic abundances are computed for the species with available atomic data. We calculate total abundances using recent ionization correction factors (ICFs) or by summing ionic abundances. Our results for common elements are in good agreement with previous works on the same object. We do not find a substantial s-process enrichment in NGC 5315, which is typical for type I PNe.

  11. Highly efficient human serum filtration with water-soluble nanoporous nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pujia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Pujia1, Francesco De Angelis1,2, Domenica Scumaci3, Marco Gaspari3, Carlo Liberale1,2, Patrizio Candeloro1, Giovanni Cuda3, Enzo Di Fabrizio1,21BIONEM Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Germaneto (CZ, Italy; 2IIT, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy; 3Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Germaneto (CZ, ItalyBackground: Human serum has the potential to become the most informative source of novel biomarkers, but its study is very difficult due to the incredible complexity of its molecular composition. We describe a novel tool based on biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles (NPNPs that allows the harvesting of low-molecular-weight fractions of crude human serum or other biofluids. NPNPs with a diameter of 200 nm and pore size of a few nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. When incubated with a solution, the NPNPs harvest only the molecules small enough to be absorbed into the nanopores. Then they can be recovered by centrifugation and dissolved in water, making the harvested molecules available for further analyses.Results: Fluorescence microscopy, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to show the enrichment of low-molecular-weight fraction of serum under physiological conditions, with a cut-off of 13 kDa and an enrichment factor >50.Conclusion: From these findings, we conclude that ability to tune pore size, combined with the availability of hundreds of biomolecule cross-linkers, opens up new perspectives on complex biofluid analysis, discovery of biomarkers, and in situ drug delivery.Keywords: nanoporous silicon, nanoparticle, biomarker discovery, human serum proteomics, harvesting

  12. Effects of Diets High in Palmitoleic Acid on Serum Lipid Levels and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    reflected by the rise in serum triglycerides, were more available than those using ground or whole nuts. None of the diets had a glycemic effect. These...concentrations were excluded, as well as diabetics-juvenile or adult onset. All subjects were within normal Body Mass Index (BMI < 27.8). Treatment Each...the 11.7g difference. Test meals consisted of commercially available foods: hot oatmeal (Quaker Oats . Barrington, IL) with skim milk, fruit, Saffola

  13. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (pserum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (pSerum fibroblast growth factor-23, soluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases.

  14. High Level Serum Procalcitonin Associated Gouty Arthritis Susceptibility: From a Southern Chinese Han Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    Full Text Available To study the serum Procalcitonin (PCT level in inflammatory arthritis including gouty arthritis (GA, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS without any evidence of infection were evaluated the possible discriminative role of PCT in gouty arthritis susceptibility in southern Chinese Han Population.From Feb, 2012 to Feb, 2015, 51 patients with GA, 37 patients with RA, 41 patients with AS and 33 healthy control were enrolled in this study with no evidence of infections. The serum level of PCT (normal range < 0.05 ng/ml was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA. Disease activity was determined by scores of VAS (4.07 ± 1.15, DAS28 (4.97 ± 1.12, and ASDAS (2.97 ± 0.81 in GA, RA and AS groups respectively. Other laboratory parameters such as, serum creatinine (CRE, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, uric acid (UA and white blood cells (WBC were extracted from medical record system.Serum PCT level was predominantly higher in gouty arthritis than in RA and AS patients, especially in the GA patients with tophi. PCT was significantly positively correlated with VAS, CRP and ESR in gouty arthritis and CRP in AS. PCT also had positive correlation-ship with ESR, DAS28 and ASDAS in RA and AS patients respectively, but significant differences were not observed.These data suggested that PCT is not solely a biomarker for infection, but also an indicator in inflammatory arthritis, especially in gouty arthritis.

  15. High-throughput spectrophotometric assay of reactive oxygen species in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ikue; Morishita, Yukari; Imai, Kazue; Nakamura, Masakazu; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2007-07-10

    The derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROM) test has been developed to determine the amount of oxygen-centered free radicals in a blood sample as a marker of oxidative stress. This study aims to improve the D-ROM test and develop an automated assay system by use of a clinical chemistry analyzer. Five microliters of serum was added to 1 well of a 96-well microtiter plate for a total 240microl of reaction solution containing alkylamine and metals. This was followed by automatic mixing, incubation and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as a color development at 505nm using a spectrophotometer with catalytic capability for transition metals. This assay system was used to measure serum levels of ROS in cigarette smokers and never-smokers, by way of example. The levels of serum ROS determined by this system correlate with the amounts of free radicals and peroxides, which reacted with various molecules in the body and formed stable metabolites. This test can use frozen sera as well as fresh ones. The inter- and intra-deviation of this system was within 5% and showed consistent linearity in the range between 4 and 500mg/l of hydrogen peroxides. Serum ROS levels among smokers increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (36.5% increment per pack per day; P<0.0001). This assay system will be a simple, inexpensive, and reliable tool for assessing oxidative stress in human populations. Our preliminary results on cigarette smoking imply that this assay system has potential for application in various epidemiological and clinical settings.

  16. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  17. The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis severity is highly age-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrez, Iris; Van Steen, Kristel; Segaert, Siegfried; Gils, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated, and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring that is aiming to optimize the psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every 3 months for a period of 1 year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the oldest age group (+59 years) showed the opposite trend (β =0.22). Similar age effects were observed in the relation of etanercept concentration with BSA (P=0.02) and PGA (P=0.02). The influence of age and length of time in therapy on the etanercept concentration-disease severity relation was unaffected by body mass index (BMI) or any other possible confounder. Incidence of anti-etanercept antibodies was low (2%). The age-dependent relation between etanercept serum concentrations is both unexpected and intriguing and needs further investigation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. High maternal serum ferritin in early pregnancy and risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambalia, Amina Z; Collins, Clare E; Roberts, Christine L; Morris, Jonathan M; Powell, Katie L; Tasevski, Vitomir; Nassar, Natasha

    2015-08-14

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent associations between maternal serum ferritin concentrations and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Fe biomarkers, including serum ferritin concentrations, and the risk of total ( 75th percentile ( ≥ 43 μg/l) (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.06, 2.10) and >90th percentile ( ≥ 68 μg/l) (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.25, 2.96). Increased odds of early and moderate-to-late sPTB were associated with ferritin levels >90th percentile (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.32, 4.73) and >75th percentile (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03, 2.37), respectively. No association was found between the risk of sPTB and elevated sTfR levels or Fe deficiency. In conclusion, elevated maternal serum ferritin levels in early pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of sPTB from 34 weeks of gestation. The usefulness of early pregnancy ferritin levels in identifying women at risk of sPTB warrants further investigation.

  19. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozarova de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V; Tataranni, P Antonio; Volarova de Courten, Barbora

    2004-05-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels of this adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29 +/- 7 years, body fat 31 +/- 8%, resistin 3.7 +/- 1.1 ng/ml [means +/- SD]), who were characterized for body composition (assessed by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), whole-body insulin sensitivity (M; assessed by hyperinsulinemic clamp), basal hepatic glucose output (BHGO) and hepatic glucose output during low-dosage insulin infusion of a hyperinsulinemic clamp (HGO; a measure of hepatic insulin resistance), and acute insulin secretory response (AIR; assessed by 25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test). Follow-up measurements of M, BHGO, HGO, and AIR were available for 34 subjects who had normal glucose tolerance at baseline and remained nondiabetic at follow-up. The average time to follow-up was 4.5 +/- 2.7 years. In cross-sectional analyses, serum resistin levels were positively associated with percent body fat (r = 0.37, P = 0.0001) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.19, P = 0.04), respectively. Serum resistin levels were not associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels, M, BHGO, HGO, or AIR (r = 0.17, 0.12, -0.13, -0.06, -0.03, and -0.04, respectively; all P > 0.05). After adjusting for percent body fat, there was no association between serum resistin levels and 2-h glucose (r = 0.06, P = 0.6). In prospective analyses, high serum resistin levels at baseline were not associated with a decline in M (r = -0.1, P > 0.5). Resistin levels were, however

  20. Resting Serum Concentration of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) in Sportsmen and Untrained Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyi-Odumosu, F A; Bello, O A; Biliaminu, S A; Owoyele, B V; Abu, T O; Dominic, O L

    2017-03-06

    There is an inverse relationship between regular physical activity and concentration of serum inflammatory markers, with variations in resting CRP in trained and untrained subjects. The effect of acute and prolonged exercises has been studied on inflammatory markers with dearth of information and controversies on the resting serum values of high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP). Therefore, this study sought to identify and compare variations that occur in serum levels of high sensitivity CRP in groups of sportsmen (6) and physically active untrained subjects. Eighty-one healthy male participants made up of 21 untrained (control), 10 footballers, 10 athletes, 10 karates, 10 volleyballers, 10 basketballers, and 10 baseballers voluntarily participated in the study. Participants rested while in sitting position for about 30 minutes during which blood pressures and heart rates were taken. 5 mls of venous blood was withdrawn from the antecubital vein of the participants (aseptically) between 7:00 and 10:00 am into lithium heparin bottles following an overnight fast. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 3000 rpm, serum was collected and stored at -20ºC prior to biochemical assay which was done with the use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for hs-CRP. Differences in the means within the sporting groups were analysed using one-way ANOVA while the difference between the trained sportsmen and untrained young adults was analysed using the independent T-test. Statistical significance was set at p hs-CRP (µg/ml) was 1.0±0.2 in the untrained, 2.6±0.7 in footballers, 3.6±2.1 in track athletes, 2.4±0.5 in basketballers, 2.2±0.5 in volleyballers, 2.4±1.3 in baseballers, and 1.7±0.5 in karate respectively. There was no significant difference in the resting hs-CRP amongst the sporting groups, and in the sportsmen and untrained group. Resting serum levels of hs-CRP falls within normal range, and varies insignificantly in groups of sports, and in sportsmen

  1. An autopsy case of acute pancreatitis with a high serum IgG4 complicated by amyloidosis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuki Ichikawa; Kazuhiko Nakao; Keisuke Hamasaki; Kazuaki Ohkubo; Kan Toriyama; Katsumi Eguchi

    2005-01-01

    We report an autopsy case of acute pancreatitis with a high serum IgG4 concentration complicated by systemic amyloid A amyloidosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The patient was a 42-year-old Japanese female with a 22-year history of rheumatoid arthritis. She was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis when she was 31-year old. At the onset of pancreatitis, the patient was anti-nuclear antibody-positive,and had high serum gamma globulin and IgG4 levels.Dexamethasone and conventional therapy induced clinical remission and significantly decreased the serum IgG4 and gamma globulin. However, despite the decreased disease parameters, the patient developed a bleeding pseudocyst and died of cardiac failure. In the autopsy examination, it was determined that pancreatitis was probably caused by ischemia due to vascular obstruction caused by amyloid deposition in the pancreas. Even though acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in RA patients, we speculate that an autoimmune pancreatitis-related mechanism and ischemia due to vascular obstruction by amyloid deposition might be attributable to a single source that leads to acute pancreatitis in our particular case.

  2. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY WEIGHT, SERUM LEPTIN IN HIGH CALORIE DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhi; Ma Aiqun; Yang Chun; Tian Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the change of body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) in obese rats, clarify relationships between BP and BW and other factors. Methods Male Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either with normal diet (ND) or high calorie diet (HC) for 20 weeks. BW and BP of tail artery were observed biweekly and tetraweekly respectively; serum leptin and fasting insulin (FINS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsordent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and free fatty acid(FFA) were measured by conventional means. Results BW, abdominal fat weight (AFW), ratio of abdominal fat weight to body weight (RF/W), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum levels of leptin and FINS, FPG, FFA increased in the HD group after 20 weeks diet intervention (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SBP was strongly correlated with BW, leptin, FINS and FFA (P<0.05), DBP was correlated with FFA (r=0.47, P<0.05). In addition, leptin was positively correlated with BW, AFW, RF/W, FINS and FFA (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion In this study of high calorie-diet induced rats, the gain of BW is accompanied by increased BP. The obese rats have hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia which may have important effects on the development of obesity-related hypertension. RF/W is the key factor in which affect serum leptin level.

  3. Quantification of antidepressants and antipsychotics in human serum by precipitation and ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo

    2011-01-01

    for therapeutic drug monitoring. The method was developed to replace old techniques which applied solid phase extraction and ultra-violet detection. The old methods had reached their limit of capacity regarding the number of samples and co-medicated drugs interfering with the detection. Serum samples were...... precipitated with zinc sulphate and methanol containing a stable isotope labelled analog for each analyte. Quantitative analysis was performed by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography combined with a tandem mass spectrometer using a Zorbax SB-C8 column (2.0×50mm; 1.8m) with a mobile phase consisting of 0...... time, reduced interference from other drugs, avoided acetonitrile usage, and reduced the amount of serum needed for analysis 50-fold....

  4. [A case of advanced gastric cancer showing high serum CYFRA21-1 level responding to chemotherapy with S-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Akihito; Watanabe, Hiroaki

    2008-12-01

    The patient was a 75-year-old man whose complaint was back pain and appetite loss. He was diagnosed with unresectable advanced gastric cancer due to multiple liver metastases and direct invasion of pancreas and spleen. He underwent gastrostomy because of esophageal stenosis, and we administered S-1 80 mg/body(4 weeks administration and 2 weeks rest)to the patient through a gastrostogavage tube. On blood examination, the serum level of CYFRA21- 1 was significantly high, while those of CEA and CA19-9 were within normal ranges. After the first course of this chemotherapy, the serum CYFRA21-1 level significantly decreased with reduction of the cancer. After the second course, it sensitively increased before image views detected the progression of the cancer. This case shows that CYFRA21- 1 could be a useful tumor marker of advanced gastric cancer.

  5. Serum-induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed with high-speed atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaixing Jiang[1,2,3; Shuai Zhang[2,3; Chuanxu Yang[2; Jorgen Kjems[2; Yudong Huang[1; Flemming Besenbacher[2; Mingdong Dong[2

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential for the encapsulation and selective release of therapeutic drugs. Observations of the real-time performance of these structures in physiological environments will contribute to the development of future applications. We investigated the degradation kinetics of 3D DNA box origami in serum by using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allowed to characterize the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA boxes origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the digestion process is a combination of rapid collapse and slow degradation phases. Damage to box origami occurs mainly in the collapse phase. Thus, the structural stability of 3D DNA box origami should be improved, especially in the collapse phase, before these structures are used in clinical applications.

  6. Serum-free medium supplemented with high-concentration FGF2 for cell expansion culture of human ear chondrocytes promotes redifferentiation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Erik W; van der Veen, Simone W; Verhaar, Jan A N; van Osch, Gerjo J V M

    2002-08-01

    For tissue engineering of autologous cartilage, cell expansion is needed to obtain the cell numbers required. Standard expansion media contain bovine serum. This has several disadvantages, that is, the risk of transmitting diseases and serum-batch variations. The aim of this study was to find a serum-free medium with at least the same potential to expand cell numbers as serum-containing media. Ear chondrocytes of three young children were expanded in either serum-containing medium (SCM; DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum) or serum-free medium (SFM; DMEM with ITS+) supplemented with 5 or 100 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). To promote cell adherence onto the culture flask, the serum-free conditions were cultured with 10% serum for 1 day after each trypsinization. After the fourth passage, the chondrocytes were encapsuled in alginate beads and redifferentiated in a SFM (DMEM with ITS+, hydrocortisone, and L-ascorbic acid) supplemented with 10 ng/mL IGF-I and 10 ng/mL TGFbeta-2. Results showed that expansion in SFM with 100 ng/mL FGF2 was comparable to expansion in SCM. Redifferentiation with SFM with IGF-I and TGFbeta-2 showed high collagen type II expression and high GAG/DNA production regardless of which expansion medium had been used. However, chondrocytes expanded in SFM with 100 ng/mL FGF2 resulted in less positive cells for collagen type I and 11-fibrau (a fibroblast membrane marker). The present study shows that it is possible to use serum-free medium for tissue engineering of cartilage. Expansion of immature ear chondrocytes in SFM supplemented with high-concentration FGF2 resulted in high cell numbers, which in addition had better redifferentiation capacity than cells expanded in medium with 10% serum.

  7. A genome-wide association study of monozygotic twin-pairs suggests a locus related to variability of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, Ida; Whitfield, John B; Perola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein...

  8. Changes of High Mobility Group box 1 in Serum of Pig Acute Hepatic Failure Model and Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan ZHANG; Yongwen HE; Zhongping DUAN

    2008-01-01

    The role of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) in acute hepatic failure and the ef- fect of artificial liver support system treatment on HMGB-1 level were investigated. Pig models of acute hepatic failure were induced by D-galactosamine and randomly divided into two groups with or without artificial liver support system treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were detected by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the expression of HMGB-1 by Western blot, and serum levels of HMGB-1, liver function and hepatic pathology were observed after artificial liver support system treatment. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were increased and reached the peak at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group, then quickly decreased. The serum level of HMGB-1 was increased at 24th h in the acute hepatic failure group and reached the peak at 48th h, then kept a stable high level. Significant liver injury appeared at 24th h and was continuously getting worse in the pig models of acute hepatic failure. In contrast, the liver injury was significantly alleviated and serum level of HMGB-1 was significantly decreased in the group treated with artificial liver support system (P<0.05). It was suggested that HMGB-1 may participate in the inflammatory response and liver injury in the late stage of the acute liver failure. Artificial liver support system treatment can reduce serum HMGB-1 level and relieve liver pathological damage.

  9. Abundance and diversity of bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Biological nitrification/denitrification is frequently used to remove nitrogen from tannery wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia. However, information is limited about the bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs due to the low-throughput of the previously used methods. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, combined with molecular methods, were used to comprehensively characterize structures and functions of nitrification and denitrification bacterial communities in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of two full-scale tannery WWTPs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that Proteobacteria and Synergistetes dominated in the aerobic and anaerobic sludge, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB amoA gene cloning revealed that Nitrosomonas europaea dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in the WWTPs. Metagenomic analysis showed that the denitrifiers mainly included the genera of Thauera, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Comamonas and Azoarcus, which may greatly contribute to the nitrogen removal in the two WWTPs. It is interesting that AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea had low abundance although both WWTPs demonstrated high ammonium removal efficiency. Good correlation between the qPCR and metagenomic analysis is observed for the quantification of functional genes amoA, nirK, nirS and nosZ, indicating that the metagenomic approach may be a promising method used to comprehensively investigate the abundance of functional genes of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the environment.

  10. High serum apolipoprotein E determines hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias, coronary disease and apoA-I dysfunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Ornek, Ender; Ayhan, Erkan; Erginel-Ünaltuna, Nihan; Murat, Sani N

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of serum apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels to two hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias has not been clarified. We explored, in a cross-sectional (and short-term prospective) evaluation, the independent relationship of serum apoE to the atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia with elevated apoB (HtgB) and to apoA-I dysfunctionality, previously shown in Turkish adults to be independent of apoE genotype. Serum apoE concentrations were measured by immunonephelometry in 1,127 middle-aged adults. In multivariable regression analysis, apoE concentrations showed log-linear associations with apoB and apoA-I levels, waist circumference, independent of C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and other confounders. The likelihood of atherogenic dyslipidemia and of HtgB roughly tripled per 1-SD increment in apoE concentrations, additively to apoE genotype, HOMA, apoA-I, CRP concentrations and waist circumference; yet apoA-I, protective against atherogenic dyslipidemia, appeared to promote HtgB, a finding consistent with apoA-I dysfunctionality in this setting. Each 1-SD increment in the apoE level was moreover, associated in both genders with MetS (at OR 1.5), after adjustment for sex, age, apoB, apoA-I and CRP, or for apoE genotypes. Circulating apoE predicted in both genders age-adjusted prevalent and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), independent of apoE genotype and CRP (OR 1.32 [95 % CI 1.11; 1.58]). To conclude, in a general population prone to MetS, elevated apoE concentrations are strongly linked to HtgB and atherogenic dyslipidemia, irrespective of apoE genotype, are associated with MetS and CHD. Excess apoE reflects pro-inflammatory state and likely autoimmune activation.

  11. Possible factors influencing high serum Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA in Indonesian patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Rahardjo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH cases in Indonesia frequently associated with high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA. To explore possible factors that could increase serum PSA level, we performed a retrospective, cross-sectional study on 805 consecutive patients in Sumber Waras and Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospitals from 1994 to 1997. Clinical manifestations were evaluated and prostate biopsies were performed if indicated. Complete histopathological data were only available in 82 BPH patients with no urinary retention from 1998-1999 and a thin section of paraffin blocks of BPH patients which still could be found from 1994-1999 was analyzed using flow cytometer to obtain the S-phase fraction as a parameter of proliferative activity, From 805 patients, 461 (57% presented with urinary retention and need to be catheteized. Catheteization significantly increased PSA level if compared to noncatheterized patients (16.3 vs. 6,8 ng/mL, p= 0,000. Another data of 82 uncatheteized patients from 1998-1999 has revealed that 79 patients (96.3% had chronic prostatitis and 19 (23.2% showed the presence of prostatic-intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN with an increase of PSA level (5.4 ng/mL. The S-phase fraction of BPH without PIN cases was significantly higher in cases with PSA > 4 ng/ml than patients with PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml (I3.1% vs. 8.9%, p=0,008. As conclusion, the high serum PSA level was mostly due to urethral catheteization and increased prostate volume. There was a tendency of increasing PSA in subclinical inflammation and PIN. Cases with high PSA also showed high proliferative activities which is suggestive of mitogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2001; 10:22-8Keywords: BPH, high PSA, PIN, proliferative activity, s-phase fraction

  12. High Serum Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Levels in Chronic Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, M. C.; Bava, A. J.; Guereño, M. T.; Berardi, V. E.; Silaf, M. R.; Negroni, R.; Diez, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    In patients with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis (n = 10), levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10, and interleukin-2 in serum, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in picograms per milliliter, as mean ± standard error of the mean), were higher than in normal controls (n = 8): 186 ± 40 versus 40 ± 7 (P < 0.05), 203 ± 95 versus 20 ± 8 (P = 0.001), and 96.3 ± 78.57 versus 1.19 ± 1.19 (P = 0.045), respectively. Gamma interferon and interleukin-4 levels were similar in patients and controls. PMID:11527826

  13. High abundance of salps in the coastal Gulf of Alaska during 2011: A first record of bloom occurrence for the northern Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaizhi; Doubleday, Ayla J.; Galbraith, Moira D.; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2016-10-01

    Atypical high abundances of two salp species occurred in the coastal Gulf of Alaska during 2011. Salpa aspera dominated numerically in aggregate form during spring, and became uncommon during summer, while Cyclosalpa bakeri increased from low during spring to high abundance during summer. Both species were absent, or nearly so, by fall. C. bakeri abundance was positively correlated to surface temperature in spring and summer, and both species abundances were negatively correlated to chlorophyll a. The proportion of aggregate forms of both species was higher than that of solitary forms during spring and summer. The length-frequency of S. aspera aggregate individuals ranged primarily from 10 to 50 mm, and solitary forms reached 130 mm, while C. bakeri aggregates were 10-25 mm, with solitary forms up to 75 mm. Estimated biomass of S. aspera was 0.35±0.64 mg C m-3 in southeastern Alaska during spring then decreased to 0.03±0.12 mg C m-3 during summer. Estimated biomass of C. bakeri was 0.03±0.06 mg C m-3 over the entire sampling domain during spring, then rose to 0.15±0.25 mg C m-3 during summer. The volume of water filtered daily by S. aspera was estimated to be up to 17% of the 200 m water column at some stations during spring, but only up to ~3.5% during summer. Substantially higher grazing impact was possible if animals were largely confined to the surface mixed layer (typically 20-30 m thick). The average volume filtrated was higher during spring for S. aspera, but for C. bakeri it was higher during summer. We propose that the combined effect of the northward transport of seed populations, their rapid biomass increase through asexual reproduction, and the high clearance rate of salps contributed to atypically low chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Alaska during spring and summer of 2011. This unusual event impacted ecosystem function during 2011, and might be expected to increase in frequency as the Gulf continues to respond to climate variations.

  14. Improvements of high-throughput culturing yielded novel SAR11 strains and other abundant marine bacteria from the Oregon coast and the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series study site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich; Tripp, Harry James; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing (HTC) of marine bacterioplankton using sterilized natural sea water as media yielded isolates of many abundant but previously uncultured marine bacterial clades. In early experiments, bacteria from the SAR11 cluster (class Alphaproteobacteria), which are presumed to be the most abundant prokaryotes on earth, were cultured. Although many additional attempts were made, no further strains of the SAR11 clade were obtained. Here, we describe improvements to the HTC technique, which led to the isolation of 17 new SAR11 strains from the Oregon coast and the Sargasso Sea, accounting for 28% and 31% of all isolates in these experiments. Phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region showed that the isolates from the Oregon coast represent three different subclusters of SAR11, while isolates from the Sargasso Sea were more uniform and represented a single ITS cluster. A PCR assay proved the presence of proteorhodopsin (PR) in nearly all SAR11 isolates. Analysis of PR amino-acid sequences indicated that isolates from the Oregon coast were tuned to either green or blue light, while PRs from strains obtained from the Sargasso Sea were exclusively tuned to maximum absorbance in the blue. Interestingly, phylogenies based on PR and ITS did not correlate, suggesting lateral gene transfer. In addition to the new SAR11 strains, many novel strains belonging to clusters of previously uncultured or undescribed species of different bacterial phyla, including the first strain of the highly abundant alphaproteobacterial SAR116 clade, were isolated using the modified methods.

  15. High serum palmitic acid is associated with low antiviral effects of interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Hiasa, Yoichi; Hirooka, Masashi; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takao; Furukawa, Shinya; Ueda, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Shin; Kumagi, Teru; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection alters fatty acid synthesis and metabolism in association with HCV replication. The present study examined the effect of serum fatty acid composition on interferon (IFN)-based therapy. Fifty-five patients with HCV were enrolled and received IFN-based therapy. Patient characteristics, laboratory data (including fatty acids), and viral factors that could be associated with the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy were evaluated. The effects of individual fatty acids on viral replication and IFN-based therapy were also examined in an in-vitro system. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the level of serum palmitic acid before treatment and HCV genotype were significant predictors for rapid virological response (RVR), early virological response (EVR), and sustained virological response (SVR). High levels of palmitic acid inhibited the anti-HCV effects of IFN-based therapy. HCV replication assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of palmitic acid on anti-HCV therapy. The concentration of serum palmitic acid is an independent predictive factor for RVR, EVR, and SVR in IFN-based antiviral therapy. These results suggest that the effect of IFN-based antiviral therapy in patients with HCV infection might be enhanced by treatment that modulates palmitic acid levels.

  16. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effct of Apple Vinegar on Spermatogenesis and Serum Total Antioxidant Status in Rats Under High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Rudkhaneei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD has side effcts on male fertility. Th aim of this study was to evaluate the effct of apple vinegar on spermatogenesis and serum total antioxidant status (TAS in rats under HFD. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided to three groups, including (n = 8: control, HFD, HFD + apple vinegar. Th control group received 16.6 kcal/day and the other two groups received HFD containing 51.6 kcal/day. Aftr 16 weeks, group 3 received %5 apple vinegar in drinking water orally for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, epididymis sperm parameters including: count, morphology and motility, were measured. Serum level of TAS, testosterone and estradiol was assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Testicular apoptosis was assayed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL and spermatogenesis was studied with quantitative histologic method. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Apple vinegar increased count and forward motility of sperms, when compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, it was not effctive on morphology. Numbers of apoptotic cells reduced in the vinegar-treated group (P < 0.001. Vinegar increased serum levels of testosterone and TAS compared with HFD (P < 0.05. However, estradiol level was not changed. Vinegar reduced the lee index, when compared with HFD (P < 0.001. Th numbers of spermatogonia, primary pachytene and leptotene spermatocyte, and round spermatids were not changed. However, the numbers of elongated spermatids were increased compared with HFD (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ths study indicated that daily use of apple vinegar in rats under HFD for six weeks improved spermatogenesis through reduction of testis apoptosis, increasing serum TAS and testosterone.

  18. Reversible skeletal disease and high fluoride serum levels in hematologic patients receiving voriconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard; Guggenberger, Roman; Fasler, David; Nair, Gayathri; Manz, Markus G; Stussi, Georg; Schanz, Urs

    2012-09-20

    We here investigate the occurrence of fluoride intake-associated alterations in patients with hematologic disease on triazol antifungal medication. Clinical, laboratory, and radiology data of overall 43 patients with hematologic malignancies taking voriconazole (n = 20), posaconazole (n = 8), and itraconazole (n = 4), and a hematologic patient control group (n = 11) are described. Bone pain and radiologic evidence of periostitis were exclusively observed in patients receiving long-term voriconazole. Cessation of treatment led to clinical improvement in all cases. In line with clinical evidence, fluoride serum concentration was elevated in patients receiving voriconazole (median, 156.5 μg/L; interquartile range, 96.8 μg/L; normal < 30 μg/L) but not in the other treatment groups (P < .001 for all comparisons vs voriconazole). We conclude that serum fluoride levels were elevated on average 5-fold above normal levels in hematologic patients receiving voriconazole. Clinically relevant skeletal disease was associated with renal insufficiency and above 10-fold elevated fluoride levels, and was reversible on termination of voriconazole treatment.

  19. Serum-free spheroid suspension culture maintains high proliferation and differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimperti, Stella; Wen, Yuan; Lei, Pedro; Tian, Jun; Campbell, Andrew; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2016-01-01

    There have been many clinical trials recently using ex vivo-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat several indications such as graft-versus-host disease, acute myocardial infarction, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the conventional 2-dimensional (2D) culture of MSCs is laborious and limited in scale potential. The large dosage requirement for many of the indications further exacerbates this manufacturing challenge. In contrast, spheroid MSC culture does not require a cell attachment surface and is amenable to large-scale suspension cell culture techniques, such as stirred-tank bioreactors. In this present study, we developed and optimized serum free media for culturing MSC spheroids. We used Design of Experiment (DoE)-based strategies to systematically evaluate media mixtures and a panel of different components. The optimization yielded two prototype media that could allow MSCs to form aggregates and proliferate in both static cultures and dynamic cultures. The expanded MSCs expressed the expected surface markers for mesenchymal cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105). In addition, the expanded cells demonstrated multipotency and differentiated to the osteocyte, chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages, which showed similar or enhanced differentiation levels compared with serum-containing adherent cultures. PMID:24616445

  20. High abundance of genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total fecal pollution in pristine alpine soils suggests lack in specificity for feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Kollanur, Denny; Blöschl, Günter; Reischer, Georg H.

    2012-01-01

    Two frequently applied genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total fecal pollution (AllBac and BacUni) were found in high numbers in pristine soil samples of two alpine catchment areas casting doubt on their value as fecal indicators. This finding underlines the necessity to evaluate assays locally and against non-intestinal samples before application. PMID:22285854

  1. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more...... season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to cold winter air, but most species studied are resistant to changes....

  2. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Nicolas; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frédéric E; Labrecque, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood), suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50% of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry.

  3. A gestational high protein diet affects the abundance of muscle transcripts related to cell cycle regulation throughout development in porcine progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In various animal models pregnancy diets have been shown to affect offspring phenotype. Indeed, the underlying programming of development is associated with modulations in birth weight, body composition, and continual diet-dependent modifications of offspring metabolism until adulthood, producing the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome is permanently altered depending on maternal diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess alterations of the offspring's transcriptome due to gestational protein supply, German Landrace sows were fed isoenergetic diets containing protein levels of either 30% (high protein--HP or 12% (adequate protein--AP throughout their pregnancy. Offspring muscle tissue (M. longissimus dorsi was collected at 94 days post conception (dpc, and 1, 28, and 188 days post natum (dpn for use with Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays and subsequent statistical and Ingenuity pathway analyses. Numerous transcripts were found to have altered abundance at 94 dpc and 1 dpn; at 28 dpn no transcripts were altered, and at 188 dpn only a few transcripts showed a different abundance between diet groups. However, when assessing transcriptional changes across developmental time points, marked differences were obvious among the dietary groups. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, short- and long-term effects were observed for mRNA expression of genes related to cell cycle regulation, energy metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the abundance of transcripts related to cell cycle remained divergent among the groups during development. CONCLUSION: Expression analysis indicates that maternal protein supply induced programming of the offspring's genome; early postnatal compensation of the slight growth retardation obvious at birth in HP piglets resulted, as did a permanently different developmental alteration and responsiveness to the common environment of the

  4. High sensitive C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A are inversely related to serum bilirubin : effect-modification by metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bilirubin has been implicated in cardiovascular protection by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. The metabolic syndrome is featured by enhanced low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Serum amyloid A (SAA) impairs anti-oxidative properties of hig

  5. A Highly Selective Colorimetric Sensor for Cysteine in Water Solution and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric sensor, 2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione, has been developed for the Cysteine detection. The sensor showed its best performance in a mixture of ethanol and HEPES (5 : 5, v/v solution at pH of 7.0. The results of UV-vis and fluorescence indicated that 2-bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione was selective and sensitive for Cysteine detection without the interference of other amino acids (Cysteine, Alanine, Arginine, Aspartinie, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, and Hydroxyproline. 2-Bromonaphthalene-1,4-dione also showed binding ability for Cysteine in bovine serum albumin and could be used as a potential colorimetric sensor among eighteen kinds of natural amino acids. Importantly, the recognition of CySH could be observed by naked eye.

  6. HIGH SERUM ERYTHROPOIETIN AND FERRITIN LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH ANEMIA RESPONSE IN MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Omari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a common finding in lymphoma. There are few data available regarding the erythropoietin (EPO levels in conjunction with ferritin in lymphoma patients. We prospectively evaluated 55 patients diagnosed with malignant lymphoma during the period between November 2006 and March 2008 at King Abdullah University Teaching Hospital, Jordan. Our data showed that 74.4% of lymphoma patients were anemic. Furthermore, serum EPO and ferritin levels were higher in lymphoma patients compared with the healthy controls (P=0.001. The observed versus predicted EPO ratio showed also significantly higher levels in anemic lymphoma patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.03. There was an improvement in Hb level in lymphoma patients who were treated with at least 3-cycles of chemotherapy as compared with newly-diagnosed patients. An adequate increase of EPO levels was observed in anemic lymphoma patients and notably associated with higher ferritin levels and improvement of Hb (p

  7. High Serum Thyrotropin Levels are Associated with Current but not with Incident Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ittermann, Till; Tiller, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent data from a population-based study in children and adolescents suggests that serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (TSH) are associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. These results are in agreement with some, but not all population-based studies in adults....... Discrepancies in results might be explained by drug intake, different iodine supplies and sizes of populations investigated. In addition, it is not clear, whether an association between TSH and hypertension exists longitudinally rather than only cross-sectionally. Thus, our aim was to investigate cross......-sectional and longitudinal associations between thyroid function and arterial blood pressure in a large consortium of cohort studies in adults. Methods: Data from five population-based studies were pooled resulting in 17,023 individuals being available for cross-sectional and 10,048 individuals for longitudinal analyses...

  8. Properties of the Products Formed by the Activity of Serum Opacity Factor against Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Pownall, Henry J.; Courtney, Harry S.; Gillard, Baiba K.; Massey, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of ~100,000 plasma high density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Althou...

  9. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  10. An update on medium- and low-abundant blood plasma proteome of horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyński, A; Ożgo, M; Dratwa-Chałupnik, A; Robak, P; Pyć, A; Zaborski, D; Herosimczyk, A

    2017-07-10

    The main objectives of the study were to: (1) deeply analyse the serum protein composition of Equus caballus, (2) assess the effectiveness of the high-abundant protein depletion and improve the concentration of medium- and low-abundant proteins. The analysis were performed on the blood plasma of three healthy part-Arabian mares. The implementation of two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation - time of flight mass spectrometry allowed us to establish a horse plasma proteome map. Serum proteins were resolved at pH 4 to 7, followed by 12% SDS-PAGE. As a result 136 spots were successfully identified, representing the products of 46 unique genes. Of these, 22 gene products have not been previously identified in horse serum/plasma samples using proteomic tools. Gene ontology analysis showed that almost 30% of all identified gene products belong to the coagulation and complement cascades. These results can undoubtedly serve as a useful and prospective prerequisite for the future analysis of horse plasma proteome changes in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The use of the medium- and low-abundant protein enrichment tool increased their abundance and allowed us to identify a higher number of protein gene products. The highest depletion efficiency was observed for the most abundant plasma proteins, that is albumin, IgG heavy chains and serotransferrin.

  11. Association between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yuying; Xu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huihong; Liu, Liping; Tian, Zhiyan

    2016-08-26

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) could be a good predictor of vascular disease outcomes. To evaluate the association between serum non-HDL-C and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 725 hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They received conventional treatment. Cognitive function was assessed on the 3rd day after admission using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, and Hamilton depression rating scale 21-item (HAMD-21). Lipid profile and biochemical markers were measured, and non-HDL-C was calculated. Compared with patients with normal non-HDL-C, those with high non-HDL-C showed lower MMSE (23.1 ± 4.9 vs. 26.0 ± 4.6, P acute ischemic stroke (P = 0.034, odds ratio = 3.115, 95 % confidence interval: 1.088-8.917). High serum non-HDL-C levels, age, education, homocysteine levels, and HAMD score were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The risk of cognitive disorders after acute ischemic stroke increased with increasing non-HDL-C levels. This parameter is easy to assess in the clinical setting.

  12. Multidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography on Pinkerton ISRP and RP18 columns: direct serum injection to quantify creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, A; Dülffer, T; Kobold, U

    1992-10-02

    A two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of creatinine with direct serum injection without sample pretreatment has been developed. The column-switching technique allowed a switch from columns packed with internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP) material to columns of almost any other material, even if the eluents necessary in a particular case do not appear to be directly compatible. A Pinkerton ISRP column, which stands out because of its very good stability when loaded with undiluted serum samples, was used as precolumn. The creatinine-containing fraction was switched to a reversed-phase Shandon RP18 column and was focused there by alteration of the eluent from pH 6.5 to phosphoric acid-ion-pair reagent. The separation occurs via a pH gradient, with ultraviolet detection at 234 nm. This method stands out particularly for its good long-term stability, simple sample handling without pretreatment, high selectivity, a broad linearity (0.3-30 mg/dl creatinine), good reproducibility (inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 3%) and high recovery (97-100%) relative to values obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  13. High fasting serum insulin level due to autoantibody interference in insulin immunoassay discloses autoimmune insulin syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Sault, Corinne; Renard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Insulin-antibodies are a cause of misleading results in insulin immunoassays. They may also mediate deleterious blood glucose variations. A patient presented with overtiredness, recurrent episodes of sweating, dizziness and fainting fits. A fasting serum insulin assay performed on a Modular platform (Modular analytic E170, Roche Diagnostic, Meylan, France) showed a highly elevated value of 194.7 mIU/L, whereas on the same sample glucose and C-peptide levels were normal. Other immunometric insulin assays were performed, as well as antibodies anti-insulin radiobinding assay (RBA) and gel filtration chromatography (GFC). While complementary insulin assays yielded closer to normal fasting levels, the free insulin concentration assessed after PEG precipitation was 14.0 mIU/L and the RBA was positive. GFC revealed that most of the insulin was complexed with a 150 kDa molecule, corresponding to an immunoglobulin G (IgG). A high fasting serum insulin level in a patient with neuroglucopenic symptoms was related to a high insulin-antibody level, suggesting an insulin autoimmune syndrome.

  14. Simultaneous preparation of naturally abundant and rare catechins by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guobin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Songbai

    2014-05-15

    Simultaneous preparation of naturally rare catechins, EGC and EC, has been realized by tannase-mediated biotransformation combining high speed counter current chromatography. In addition, simultaneous preparation of the four catechins, EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC in green tea extract has also been achieved by HSCCC under the normal phase and the reversed phase modes. The identity of the catechins was determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and quantification of the catechins was performed by HPLC-DAD. In a typical HSCCC separation, 27.2 mg 98.8% EGCG, 14.1 mg 94.7% EGC, and 9.3 mg 97.5% EC were obtained. This new method is efficient, time-saving and valuable for biological studies.

  15. Systematic assessment of survey scan and MS2-based abundance strategies for label-free quantitative proteomics using high-resolution MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Sheng, Quanhu; Zhang, Ming; Qu, Jun

    2014-04-04

    Survey-scan-based label-free method have shown no compelling benefit over fragment ion (MS2)-based approaches when low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used, the growing prevalence of high-resolution analyzers may have changed the game. This necessitates an updated, comparative investigation of these approaches for data acquired by high-resolution MS. Here, we compared survey scan-based (ion current, IC) and MS2-based abundance features including spectral-count (SpC) and MS2 total-ion-current (MS2-TIC), for quantitative analysis using various high-resolution LC/MS data sets. Key discoveries include: (i) study with seven different biological data sets revealed only IC achieved high reproducibility for lower-abundance proteins; (ii) evaluation with 5-replicate analyses of a yeast sample showed IC provided much higher quantitative precision and lower missing data; (iii) IC, SpC, and MS2-TIC all showed good quantitative linearity (R(2) > 0.99) over a >1000-fold concentration range; (iv) both MS2-TIC and IC showed good linear response to various protein loading amounts but not SpC; (v) quantification using a well-characterized CPTAC data set showed that IC exhibited markedly higher quantitative accuracy, higher sensitivity, and lower false-positives/false-negatives than both SpC and MS2-TIC. Therefore, IC achieved an overall superior performance than the MS2-based strategies in terms of reproducibility, missing data, quantitative dynamic range, quantitative accuracy, and biomarker discovery.

  16. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Allan; Rondini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU) at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA) method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay. PMID:28192483

  17. Fasting serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients intended to be treated for dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovefa D Kolovou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genovefa D Kolovou1, Katherine Anagnostopoulou1, Nektarios D Pilatis1, Klelia D Salpea1, Ioannis S Hoursalas1, Ilias Petropoulos1, Helen I Bilianou2, Dennis V Cokkinos11Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 2Cardiology Department, Tzanio State Hospital, Piraeus, GreeceObjective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of serum triglycerides (TG on other plasma lipids in patients to be treated for dyslipidemia.Methodology: Lipid profiles of a cohort of 801 patients (487 males and 314 females aged 57 ± 9 years (mean ± SD were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to their plasma lipid levels. They were divided into various groups on the basis of serum TG (≥ 150 or < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (≥ 40 or < 40 mg/dL.Results: Patients with TG ≥ 150 mg/dL had a higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels compared with those with TG < 150 mg/dL, (p < 0.001. Patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL had a lower serum total cholesterol and higher TG compared with those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In all patients as well as in the subgroups, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C was found (r = –0.377, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Although, the metabolic pathway for TG and HDL-C is closely linked, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C levels seems to exist in the entire sampled population. This correlation also appears to persist in fasting patients with low levels of TG.Keywords: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dyslipidemia

  18. Impact of Serum Leptin to Adiponectin Ratio on Regression of Metabolic Syndrome in High-Risk Individuals: The ARIRANG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Ryong; Yadav, Dhananjay; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The ratio of serum leptin to adiponectin (L/A ratio) could be used as a marker for insulin resistance. However, few prospective studies have investigated the impact of L/A ratio on improvement of metabolic components in high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome. We examined the association between L/A ratio and the regression of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. Materials and Methods A total of 1017 subjects (431 men and 586 women) with metabolic syndrome at baseline (2005–2008) were examined and followed (2008–2011). Baseline serum levels of leptin and adiponectin were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive ability of L/A ratio for the regression of metabolic syndrome. Results During an average of 2.8 years of follow-up, metabolic syndrome disappeared in 142 men (32.9%) and 196 women (33.4%). After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for regression of metabolic syndrome in comparisons of the lowest to the highest tertiles of L/A ratio were 1.84 (1.02–3.31) in men and 2.32 (1.37–3.91) in women. In AUROC analyses, L/A ratio had a greater predictive power than serum adiponectin for the regression of metabolic syndrome in both men (p=0.024) and women (p=0.019). Conclusion Low L/A ratio is a predictor for the regression of metabolic syndrome. The L/A ratio could be a useful clinical marker for management of high-risk individuals with metabolic syndrome. PMID:28120564

  19. High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with the XMM-Newton RGS CNO Element Abundance Measurements and Density Diagnostics of a Photoionized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Zane, S; Ramsay, G

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1, an intermediate-mass X-ray binary, which was observed with the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer. We measure the elemental abundance ratios by use of spectral models, and we detect material processed through the CNO-cycle. The CNO abundances, and in particular the ratio N/O > 4.0 times solar, provide stringent constraints on the evolution of the binary system. The low and short-on flux states of Her X-1 exhibit narrow line emission from C VI, N VI, N VII, O VII, O VIII, Ne IX, and Ne X ions. The spectra show signatures of photoionization. We measure the electron temperature, quantify photoexcitation in the He alpha lines, and set limits on the location and density of the gas. The recombination lines may originate in the accretion disk atmosphere and corona, or on the X-ray illuminated face of the mass donor (HZ Her). The spectral variation over the course of the 35 d period provides additional evidence for the precession of the disk. Duri...

  20. The Abundance, Ortho/Para Ratio, and Deuteration of Water in the High-Mass Star Forming Region NGC 6334 I

    CERN Document Server

    Emprechtinger, M; Rolffs, R; Schilke, P; Monje, R R; Comito, C; Ceccarelli, C; Neufeld, D A; van der Tak, F F S

    2012-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of 30 transitions of water isotopologues toward the high-mass star forming region NGC 6334 I. The line profiles of H_2^{16}O, H_2^{17}O, H_2^{18}O, and HDO show a complex pattern of emission and absorption components associated with the embedded hot cores, a lower-density envelope, two outflow components, and several foreground clouds, some associated with the NGC 6334 complex, others seen in projection against the strong continuum background of the source. Our analysis reveals an H2O ortho/para ratio of 3 +/- 0.5 in the foreground clouds, as well as the outflow. The water abundance varies from ~10^{-8} in the foreground clouds and the outer envelope to ~10^{-6} in the hot core. The hot core abundance is two orders of magnitude below the chemical model predictions for dense, warm gas, but within the range of values found in other Herschel/HIFI studies of hot cores and hot corinos. This may be related to the relatively low gas and dust temperature (~100 K), or time depende...

  1. Serum levels of GFAP and EGFR in primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas: correlation to tumor volume, molecular markers, and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Aida; Gardberg, Maria; Frantzén, Janek; Parkkola, Riitta; Vuorinen, Ville; Pesola, Marko; Minn, Heikki

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to study the association of two potential serum biomarkers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with prognostic markers such as IDH1 mutation, tumor burden, and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG). Additionally, our objective was to evaluate the potential of serum EGFR as a surrogate marker for EGFR status in the tumor. Pre-operative serum samples were prospectively collected from patients with primary (n = 17) or recurrent (n = 10) HGG. Serum GFAP and EGFR levels were determined by ELISA and studied for correlation with molecular markers including EGFR amplification, tumor volume in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI, and progression-free survival (PFS). Pre-operative serum GFAP level of ≥0.014 ng/ml was 86 % sensitive and 85 % specific for the diagnosis of glioblastoma. High GFAP was related to the lack of IDH1 mutation (P = 0.016), high Ki67 proliferation index (P < 0.001), and poor PFS (HR 5.9, CI 1.2-29.9, P = 0.032). Serum GFAP correlated with enhancing tumor volume in primary (r = 0.64 P = 0.005), but also in recurrent HGGs (r = 0.76 P = 0.011). In contrast, serum EGFR levels did not differ between HGG patients and 13 healthy controls, and were not related to EGFR status in the tumor. We conclude that high serum GFAP associates with IDH1 mutation-negative HGG, and poor PFS. Correlation with tumor burden in recurrent HGG implicates the potential of serum GFAP for detection of tumor recurrence. Our results suggest that circulating EGFR is not derived from glioma cells and cannot be used as a marker for EGFR status in the tumor.

  2. reSpect: Software for Identification of High and Low Abundance Ion Species in Chimeric Tandem Mass Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Sun, Zhi; Schmidt, Frank; Deutsch, Eric W.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-11-01

    Most shotgun proteomics data analysis workflows are based on the assumption that each fragment ion spectrum is explained by a single species of peptide ion isolated by the mass spectrometer; however, in reality mass spectrometers often isolate more than one peptide ion within the window of isolation that contribute to additional peptide fragment peaks in many spectra. We present a new tool called reSpect, implemented in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), which enables an iterative workflow whereby fragment ion peaks explained by a peptide ion identified in one round of sequence searching or spectral library search are attenuated based on the confidence of the identification, and then the altered spectrum is subjected to further rounds of searching. The reSpect tool is not implemented as a search engine, but rather as a post-search engine processing step where only fragment ion intensities are altered. This enables the application of any search engine combination in the iterations that follow. Thus, reSpect is compatible with all other protein sequence database search engines as well as peptide spectral library search engines that are supported by the TPP. We show that while some datasets are highly amenable to chimeric spectrum identification and lead to additional peptide identification boosts of over 30% with as many as four different peptide ions identified per spectrum, datasets with narrow precursor ion selection only benefit from such processing at the level of a few percent. We demonstrate a technique that facilitates the determination of the degree to which a dataset would benefit from chimeric spectrum analysis. The reSpect tool is free and open source, provided within the TPP and available at the TPP website.

  3. reSpect: software for identification of high and low abundance ion species in chimeric tandem mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Hoopmann, Michael R; Sun, Zhi; Schmidt, Frank; Deutsch, Eric W; Moritz, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Most shotgun proteomics data analysis workflows are based on the assumption that each fragment ion spectrum is explained by a single species of peptide ion isolated by the mass spectrometer; however, in reality mass spectrometers often isolate more than one peptide ion within the window of isolation that contribute to additional peptide fragment peaks in many spectra. We present a new tool called reSpect, implemented in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), which enables an iterative workflow whereby fragment ion peaks explained by a peptide ion identified in one round of sequence searching or spectral library search are attenuated based on the confidence of the identification, and then the altered spectrum is subjected to further rounds of searching. The reSpect tool is not implemented as a search engine, but rather as a post-search engine processing step where only fragment ion intensities are altered. This enables the application of any search engine combination in the iterations that follow. Thus, reSpect is compatible with all other protein sequence database search engines as well as peptide spectral library search engines that are supported by the TPP. We show that while some datasets are highly amenable to chimeric spectrum identification and lead to additional peptide identification boosts of over 30% with as many as four different peptide ions identified per spectrum, datasets with narrow precursor ion selection only benefit from such processing at the level of a few percent. We demonstrate a technique that facilitates the determination of the degree to which a dataset would benefit from chimeric spectrum analysis. The reSpect tool is free and open source, provided within the TPP and available at the TPP website. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Label-Free Proteomics of Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govorukhina, N.I; Horvatovich, P.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a method to analyze human serum with the goal of discovering disease-related changes in the serum proteome. The methodology is based on the removal of the six most abundant serum proteins by immunoaffinity chromatography. This step is followed by trypsin digestion and

  5. Outcome of lithium prophylaxis: a prospective follow-up of affective disorder patients assigned to high and low serum lithium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Per; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer; Brodersen, Anders Torp

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the outcome of long-term lithium treatment in consecutively admitted affective disorder patients assigned to high and low serum lithium levels. A total of 91 patients were diagnosed according to DSM-III criteria and randomly allocated to two open treatment...... on lithium, and 42 patients (46%) discontinued lithium or were lost to follow-up. No effect of treatment group was seen, either for the total patient group or for the large subgroup of bipolar patients when analysed separately. A number of patients did not maintain their original assignment to the high serum...... groups in which prophylactic lithium was administered in high (serum lithium 0.8-1.0 mmol L-1) and low (serum lithium 0.5-0.8 mmol L-1) doses, respectively. The patients were followed for 2 years or until discontinuation of lithium treatment or readmission to hospital for recurrence of affective illness...

  6. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  7. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  8. 尿酸与胰岛素抵抗的关系及影响因素筛查%Relationship between serum uric acid levels and insulin resistance and risk factors screening for high serum uric acid in patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄞国书; 徐冬川; 孙如琼; 王平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the levels of serum uric acid in three groups of patients with different glucose tolerance status, and to investigate the relationships between serum uric acid and insulin resistance and to screen the risk factors for high serum uric acid in patients. Methods 99 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT group), 76 patients with impaired of glucose tolerance (IGT group) and 72 patients with T2DM (T2DM group) were enrolled in this study. Levels of serum aldosterone, serum uric acid concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA) were determined in all patients. Fasting plasma glucose concentration and plasma glucose concentration after glucose load, fasting serum insulin concentration and serum insulin concentration after glucose load were determined in 132 participants. The levels of serum uric acid concentration were compared among the three groups of patients. Correlation coefficients between serum uric acid concentration and serum insulin concentration as well as HOMA-IR were studied according to the Pearson analysis. The affecting factors for high serum uric acid concentration were screened by multiple liner regression analysis. Results The levels of serum uric acid concentration were higher in the T2DM group than those in the NGT group, with no statistical difference with those in the IGT group. Serum uric acid concentration was positively correlated with serum insulin level, including fasting and after glucose lord, and Log-HOMA-IR, with the correlation coefficient index 0.28 (P < 0.01), 0.222 (P < 0.01) and 0.242 (P < 0.01), respectively. The affecting factors for high serum uric acid concentration were PRA, BMI, creatinine and serum sodium concentration with the β value 0.167 (P < 0.05), 0.314 (P < 0.01), 0.175 (P<0.01) and 0.161 (P<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The level of serum uric acid increased in the patients with type 2 diabetes is positively correlated with insulin resistance. The risk factors for high serum uric acid are

  9. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  10. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in major depression and in depressed men with serious suicidal attempts: relationship with immune-inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Vandoolaeghe, E; Van Gastel, A; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Wauters, A; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Recently, there have been some reports that changes in serum lipid composition may be related to suicide, major depression and immune-inflammatory responses. Findings from our laboratory suggest that major depression is accompanied by reduced formation of cholesteryl esters and perhaps by impairment of reverse cholesterol transport. The latter is reportedly accompanied by lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The aim of this study was to examine whether (i) major depression is accompanied by lower serum HDL-C or by abnormal levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) or vitamin E, (ii) suicidal attempts are related to lower serum HDL-C and (iii) there are significant associations between serum HDL-C and immune/inflammatory markers. A total of 36 subjects with major depression, of whom 28 patients showed treatment resistance, as well as 28 normal control subjects, had blood sampled for the assay of the above lipids, serum zinc (Zn), albumin (Alb) and flow cytometric determination of the T-helper/T-suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio. In total, 28 depressed subjects had repeated measures of these variables both before and after treatment with antidepressants. Serum HDL-C and total cholesterol, as well as the HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, were significantly lower in subjects with major depression than in normal controls. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly lower in depressed men who had at some time made serious suicidal attempts than in those without such suicidal behaviour. Treatment with antidepressants for 5 weeks did not significantly alter either serum HDL-C or other lipid variables. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly and negatively correlated with the (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio, and positively correlated with serum Alb and Zn. These results suggest that (i) lower serum HDL-C levels are a marker for major depression and suicidal behaviour in depressed men, (ii) lower serum HDL-C levels are probably

  11. Elevated serum microRNA levels associate with absence of high-grade prostate cancer in a retrospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L Mihelich

    Full Text Available To reduce treatment of indolent prostate cancer (PCa, biomarkers are needed to improve identification of patients with a low-risk of having aggressive disease. Over-treatment of these patients occurs because of uncertainty in the aggressiveness of the entire tumor based on the biopsies, which do not accurately sample multifocal tumors. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs are stable serum markers and differential miRNA levels occur in men with PCa. The goal of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs that were associated with aggressive or indolent PCa. We measured circulating miRNAs in 150 patients prior to surgery and compared the miRNA levels to the pathology of the entire radical prostatectomy specimen. For this study we used an exceptionally well-characterized cohort of patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, low-grade or high-grade PCa. Low-grade was defined as patients with 100% Gleason grade 3 tumor as determined by step-wise sectioning. High-grade PCa patients had 30-90% Gleason grade 4+5 in the tumor. BPH patients had at least two biopsies negative for PCa. Twenty one miRNAs were selected for analysis. The miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR and analyzed by logistic regression. High levels of 14 miRNAs were exclusively present in the serum from patients with low-grade PCa or BPH, compared to men with high-grade PCa who had consistently low levels. The expression levels of the 14 miRNAs were combined into a "miR Score" which had a negative predictive value (NPV of 0.939 to predict absence of high-grade PCa among PCa and BPH patients. Biochemical recurrence (BCR was known for the PCa patients and a combined "miR Risk Score" accurately classified a subset of patients with low risk of BCR (NPV 0.941. In summary, measurement of serum miRNAs may have pre-surgical utility in combination with clinical risk calculators to identify patients with low risk of harboring aggressive PCa.

  12. THE ABUNDANCE, ORTHO/PARA RATIO, AND DEUTERATION OF WATER IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION NGC 6334 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D. C.; Monje, R. R. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rolffs, R.; Schilke, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Comito, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ceccarelli, C. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Tak, F. F. S., E-mail: dcl@caltech.edu [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research and Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of 30 transitions of water isotopologues toward the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I. The line profiles of H{sup 16} {sub 2}O, H{sup 17} {sub 2}O, H{sup 18} {sub 2}O, and HDO show a complex pattern of emission and absorption components associated with the embedded hot cores, a lower-density envelope, two outflow components, and several foreground clouds, some associated with the NGC 6334 complex, others seen in projection against the strong continuum background of the source. Our analysis reveals an H{sub 2}O ortho/para ratio of 3 {+-} 0.5 in the foreground clouds, as well as the outflow. The water abundance varies from {approx}10{sup -8} in the foreground clouds and the outer envelope to {approx}10{sup -6} in the hot core. The hot core abundance is two orders of magnitude below the chemical model predictions for dense, warm gas, but within the range of values found in other Herschel/HIFI studies of hot cores and hot corinos. This may be related to the relatively low gas and dust temperature ({approx}100 K), or time-dependent effects, resulting in a significant fraction of water molecules still locked up in dust grain mantles. The HDO/H{sub 2}O ratio in NGC 6334 I, {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, is also relatively low, but within the range found in other high-mass star-forming regions.

  13. Formation of Apollo 16 impactites and the composition of late accreted material: Constraints from Os isotopes, highly siderophile elements and sulfur abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleißner, Philipp; Becker, Harry

    2017-03-01

    Fe-Ni metal-schreibersite-troilite intergrowths in Apollo 16 impact melt rocks and new highly siderophile element (HSE) and S abundance data indicate that millimeter-scale closed-system fractional crystallization processes during cooling of impactor-derived metal melt droplets in impact-melts are the main reason for compositional variations and strong differences in abundances and ratios of HSE in multiple aliquots from Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. Element ratios obtained from linear regression of such data are therefore prone to error, but weighted averages take into account full element budgets in the samples and thus represent a more accurate estimate of their impactor contributions. Modeling of solid metal-liquid metal partitioning in the Fe-Ni-S-P system and HSE patterns in impactites from different landing sites suggest that bulk compositions of ancient lunar impactites should be representative of impact melt compositions and that large-scale fractionation of the HSE by in situ segregation of solid metal or sulfide liquid in impact melt sheets most likely did not occur. The compositional record of lunar impactites indicates accretion of variable amounts of chondritic and non-chondritic impactor material and the mixing of these components during remelting of earlier ejecta deposits. The non-chondritic composition appears most prominently in some Apollo 16 impactites and is characterized by suprachondritic HSE/Ir ratios which increase from refractory to moderately volatile HSE and exhibit a characteristic enrichment of Ru relative to Pt. Large-scale fractional crystallization of solid metal from sulfur and phosphorous rich metallic melt with high P/S in planetesimal or embryo cores is currently the most likely process that may have produced these compositions. Similar materials or processes may have contributed to the HSE signature of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE).

  14. Abundance analysis of DAZ white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kawka, Adela; Dinnbier, Frantisek; Cibulkova, Helena; Nemeth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present an abundance analysis of a sample of 33 hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs. We have used archival high-resolution spectra to measure abundances of calcium, magnesium and iron in a set of 30 objects. In addition, we present preliminary calcium abundances in three new white dwarfs based on low-dispersion spectra. We investigate some abundance ratios (Mg/Ca, Fe/Ca) that may help uncover the composition of the accretion source.

  15. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  16. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  17. Effects of Labisia pumila var alata extracts on the lipid profile, serum antioxidant status and abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Amran, Athirah Zawani

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats. We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats. The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination. The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation. LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  18. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Bimatoprost, Latanoprost and Travoprost in Eyelash Enhancing Cosmetic Serums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Marchei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most common prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost, are licensed for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but their non approved use as eyelash enhancers is becoming popular, especially in patients with eyelashes hypotrichosis. A fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost in cosmetic serums freely web-sold to increase eyelash length, thickness and darkness. The analytes and the internal standard (reserpine were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium acetate with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase A and 5 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (95/5; v/v with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase B by gradient elution and detected with tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linearity between 1 and 500 μg/g shows good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.99 for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 11%. This method was successfully applied to analyze cosmetic serums freely sold on the Internet websites.

  19. Quantification of Iohexol in Serum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Faye B; Vespa, Gina; Miller, Alan; Haymond, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Iohexol is a nonradioactive contrast medium, and its clearance from serum or urine is used to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR is the most useful indicator of kidney function and progression of kidney disease. GFR determination using iohexol clearance is increasingly being applied in clinical practice, given its advantages over and correlation with inulin. We describe a high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for iohexol clearance, requiring only 50 μL of serum. The sample preparation involves protein precipitation with LC/MS-grade methanol, containing ioversol as the internal standard. Samples are centrifuged and supernatant is dried under nitrogen gas at room temperature. Samples are reconstituted with mobile phase (ammonium acetate-formic acid-water). Iohexol is separated using an HPLC gradient method on a C-8 analytical column. MS/MS detection is in the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and the transitions monitored are m/z 822.0 to m/z 804.0 and m/z 807.0 to m/z 588.0 for iohexol and ioversol, respectively.

  20. High Serum Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Jer-Chuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP is a key mediator of obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between A-FABP concentration and MetS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 165 type 2 DM volunteers. MetS and its components were defined using diagnostic criteria from the International Diabetes Federation. Among 165 DM patients, 113 patients (68.5% had MetS. Diabetic persons who had MetS had significantly higher A-FABP levels (P<0.001 than those without MetS. Female DM persons had higher A-FABP level than man (P<0.001. No statistically significant differences in A-FABP levels were found in use of statin, fibrate, or antidiabetic drugs. Multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that body fat mass (P<0.001, logarithmically transformed creatinine (log-creatinine; P<0.001, female DM patients (P<0.001, and logarithmically transformed high sensitive C-reactive protein (log-hs-CRP; P=0.013 were positively correlated, while albumin (P=0.004 and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.043 were negatively correlated with serum A-FABP levels in type 2 DM patients. In this study, higher serum A-FABP level was positively associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients.

  1. Serum protein profile study of clinical samples using high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence: case of cervical and oral cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Gopal; Sujatha, .; Rai, Lavanya; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh C., .

    2009-02-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for establishing the ability of HPLC-LIF protein profiling technique for discrimination, using hard clustering and Fuzzy clustering methods. The clustering algorithms have quite successfully classified the profiles as belonging to normal, cancer of cervix, and oral cancer conditions.

  2. Serum high-sensitivity C-reaction protein and heart fatty acid binding protein level and cardiac accidents in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红秋

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reaction protein (hs-CRP) and heart fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) on cardiac accidents in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Methods Serum levels of hs-CRP, h-FABP, cardiac troponin-Ⅰ(cTn-Ⅰ) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) were measured and cardiac accidents within 2 weeks after the test were observed in 74 patients (male

  3. High-Throughput Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Testing with Automated Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Serum from bar-coded tubes, and then internal standard, are pipetted to 96-well plates with an 8-channel automated liquid handler (ALH). The first precipitation reagent (methanol:ZnSO4) is added and mixed with the 8-channel ALH. A second protein precipitating agent, 1 % formic acid in acetonitrile, is added and mixed with a 96-channel ALH. After a 4-min delay for larger precipitates to settle to the bottom of the plate, the upper 36 % of the precipitate/supernatant mix is transferred with the 96-channel ALH to a Sigma Hybrid SPE(®) plate and vacuumed through for removal of phospholipids and precipitated proteins. The filtrate is collected in a second 96-well plate (collection plate) which is foil-sealed, placed in the autosampler (ALS), and injected into a multiplexed LC-MS/MS system running AB Sciex Cliquid(®) and MPX(®) software. Two Shimadzu LC stacks, with multiplex timing controlled by MPX(®) software, inject alternately to one AB Sciex API-5000 MS/MS using positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and a 1.87 min water/acetonitrile LC gradient with a 2.1 × 20 mm, 2.7 μm, C18 fused core particle column (Sigma Ascentis Express). LC-MS/MS through put is ~44 samples/h/LC-MS/MS system with dual-LC channel multiplexing. Plate maps are transferred electronically from the ALH and reformatted into LC-MS/MS sample table format using the Data Innovations LLC (DI) Instrument Manager middleware application. Before collection plates are loaded into the ALS, the plate bar code is manually scanned to download the sample table from the DI middleware to the LC-MS/MS. After acquisition-LC-MS/MS data is analyzed with AB Sciex Multiquant(®) software using customized queries, and then results are transferred electronically via a DI interface to the LIS. 2500 samples/day can be extracted by two analysts using four ALHs in 4-6 h. LC-MS/MS analysis of those samples on three dual-channel LC multiplexed LC-MS/MS systems requires 19-21 h and data analysis can be

  4. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

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    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  5. Aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film for high-performance direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye, E-mail: zhuye@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Chuqing; Yan, Xupeng; Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang@tjut.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy Materials & Low-Carbon Technologies, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-07-09

    Highlights: • NPGF exhibits excellent catalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA. • The perfect combination of NPGF with aptamer ensures high sensitivity and selectivity. • The detection limit is determined to be 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. • The detection limit is 15-fold lower than gold nanoparticle-based sensor. • The sensor was successfully applied to detect BPA in human serum samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film (NPGF) was successfully developed for direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA). NPGF was prepared by dealloying Ag from Au/Ag alloy leaf in concentrated nitric acid. The obtained NPGF was attached onto glassy carbon electrode and then was functionalized with BPA-specific aptamer via the formation of Au−S bond. The fabrication of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NPGF exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA, which ensured high sensitivity of the sensor. The aptamer-captured BPA showed a pair of redox peaks around 0.35/0.28 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The experimental parameters in terms of aptamer concentration, reaction time, pH, and temperature were optimized. The calibration plot showed a linear range from 0.1 nM to 100 nM BPA with a remarkable detection limit of 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. Particularly, the successful application of the developed sensor for the detection of BPA in human serum samples suggests its promising potential for clinical diagnosis.

  6. Sequential extraction results in improved proteome profiling of medicinal plant Pinellia ternata tubers, which contain large amounts of high-abundance proteins.

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    Xiaolin Wu

    Full Text Available Pinellia ternata tuber is one of the well-known Chinese traditional medicines. In order to understand the pharmacological properties of tuber proteins, it is necessary to perform proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. However, a few high-abundance proteins (HAPs, mainly mannose-binding lectin (agglutinin, exist in aggregates of various sizes in the tubers and seriously interfere with proteome profiling by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Therefore, selective depletion of these HAPs is a prerequisite for enhanced proteome analysis of P. ternata tubers. Based on differential protein solubility, we developed a novel protocol involving two sequential extractions for depletion of some HAPs and prefractionation of tuber proteins prior to 2-DE. The first extraction using 10% acetic acid selectively extracted acid-soluble HAPs and the second extraction using the SDS-containing buffer extracted remaining acid-insoluble proteins. After application of the protocol, 2-DE profiles of P. ternata tuber proteins were greatly improved and more protein spots were detected, especially low-abundance proteins. Moreover, the subunit composition of P. ternata lectin was analyzed by electrophoresis. Native lectin consists of two hydrogen-bonded subunits (11 kDa and 25 kDa and the 11 kDa subunit was a glycoprotein. Subsequently, major HAPs in the tubers were analyzed by mass spectrometry, with nine protein spots being identified as lectin isoforms. The methodology was easy to perform and required no specialized apparatus. It would be useful for proteome analysis of other tuber plants of Araceae.

  7. Use of a porous silicon-gold plasmonic nanostructure to enhance serum peptide signals in MALDI-TOF analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Tan, Jie; Yu, Jiekai; Feng, Jiandong; Pan, Aiwu; Zheng, Shu; Wu, Jianmin

    2014-11-07

    Small peptides in serum are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. The identification of peptide biomarkers in human plasma/serum has become an area of high interest in medical research. However, the direct analysis of peptides in serum samples using mass spectrometry is challenging due to the low concentration of peptides and the high abundance of high-molecular-weight proteins in serum, the latter of which causes severe signal suppression. Herein, we reported that porous semiconductor-noble metal hybrid nanostructures can both eliminate the interference from large proteins in serum samples and significantly enhance the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) yields of peptides captured on the nanostructure. Serum peptide fingerprints with high fidelity can be acquired rapidly, and successful discrimination of colorectal cancer patients based on peptide fingerprints is demonstrated.

  8. Both high and low serum vitamin D concentrations are associated with tuberculosis: a case-control study in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Skifte, Turid; Andersson, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    . The association between vitamin D status and TB was examined to assess the feasibility of vitamin D supplementation in Greenland. This was examined in a case-control study involving seventy-two matched pairs of TB patients (cases) and controls aged 8-74 years. Cases were diagnosed with TB during 2004-6 based.......9, 22.2) had higher risks of active TB (P = 0.003; adjustment for alcohol and ethnicity). Supplementing individuals with low vitamin D to normalise serum 25(OH)D concentrations was estimated to result in a 29% reduction in the number of TB cases. The study indicated that vitamin D supplementation may...... be beneficial to individuals with insufficient vitamin D concentrations but may increase the risk of TB among individuals with normal or high concentrations....

  9. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-04-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized.

  10. Properties of the Products Formed by the Activity of Serum Opacity Factor against Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J.; Courtney, Harry S.; Gillard, Baiba K.; Massey, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of ~100,000 plasma high density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Although the surface microviscosity of HDL is higher than that of CERM, they have similar total microviscosities because cholesterol partitions into the neutral lipid core. Because of its unique surface properties apo E preferentially associates with the CERM. In contrast, the composition and properties of neo HDL make it a potential acceptor of cellular cholesterol and its esterification. Thus, neo HDL and CERM are possible vehicles for improving cholesterol transport to the liver. PMID:18838065

  11. Properties of the products formed by the activity of serum opacity factor against human plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J; Courtney, Harry S; Gillard, Baiba K; Massey, John B

    2008-11-01

    Serum opacity factor from Streptococcus pyogenes transfers the cholesteryl esters (CE) of approximately 100,000 plasma high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL) to a CE-rich microemulsion (CERM) while forming neo HDL, a cholesterol-poor HDL-like particle. HDL, neo HDL, and CERM are distinct. Neo HDL is lower in free cholesterol and has lower surface and total microviscosities than HDL; the surface polarity of neo HDL and HDL are similar. CERM is much larger than HDL and richer in cholesterol and CE. Although the surface microviscosity of HDL is higher than that of CERM, they have similar total microviscosities because cholesterol partitions into the neutral lipid core. Because of its unique surface properties apo E preferentially associates with the CERM. In contrast, the composition and properties of neo HDL make it a potential acceptor of cellular cholesterol and its esterification. Thus, neo HDL and CERM are possible vehicles for improving cholesterol transport to the liver.

  12. Dietary whey protein lowers serum C-peptide concentration and duodenal SREBP-1c mRNA abundance, and reduces occurrence of duodenal tumors and colon aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-treated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rijin; Carter, Julie A; Linz, Amanda L; Ferguson, Matthew; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated partially hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) for inhibitory effects on the development of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and intestinal tumors in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their progeny were fed AIN-93G diets containing casein (CAS, control diet) or WPH as the sole protein source. Colons and small intestines from the male progeny were obtained at 6, 12, 20 and 23 weeks after AOM treatment. At 6 and 23 weeks, post-AOM, WPH-fed rats had fewer ACF than did CAS-fed rats. Intestinal tumors were most frequent at 23 weeks, post-AOM. At this time point, differences in colon tumor incidence with diet were not observed; however, WPH-fed rats had fewer tumors in the small intestine (7.6% vs. 26% incidence, P=.004). Partially hydrolized whey protein suppressed circulating C-peptide concentration (a stable indicator of steady-state insulin secretion) at all four time points relative to the corresponding CAS-fed animals. The relative mRNA abundance for the insulin-responsive, transcription factor gene, SREBP-1c, was reduced by WPH in the duodenum but not colon. Results indicate potential physiological linkages of dietary protein type with circulating C-peptide (and by inference insulin), local expression of SREBP-1c gene and propensity for small intestine tumorigenesis.

  13. TEMPORAL VARIATION IN THE ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POECILIOPSIS FASCIATA IN NEAR-SHORE HABITAT OF THE HIGH ELEVATION LAKE, LAGO DE ACHICHILCA, PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya-Ayala Raymundo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of organisms within a pond or lake can reflect the result of a variety of factors. We examined the distribution and abundance of the fish, Poecilioposis fasciata, in Lago de Achichilca, Puebla, Mexico, as well as how the distribution and abundance varied among months. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity varied among months. The abundance of P. fasciata peaked in December and February. For the months when fish were observed, their abundances were positively related to dissolved oxygen concentration and were generally not related to temperature. Our results make it clear that there is substantial seasonal variation in the abundances of P. fasciata and that within months, their distributions are likely driven more by dissolved oxygen than either temperature or salinity.

  14. High throughput LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous analysis of multiple vitamin D analytes in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Adams, John S; Stewart, Paul M; Hewison, Martin; Keevil, Brian G

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7αC4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220μL of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease.

  15. Periodontal disease and high doses of inhaled corticosteroids alter NTPDase activity in the blood serum of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabelot, Vanessa L; Cavagni, Juliano; Medeiros, Liciane F; Detânico, Bernardo; Rozisky, Joanna R; de Souza, Andressa; Daudt, Luciana Dondonis; Gaio, Eduardo José; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Battastini, Ana Maria O; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-08-01

    Certain drugs such as glucocorticoids may interfere with the modulation of periodontal disease. In contrast, corticosteroid treatment has been associated with a protective effect with regard to periodontal breakdown, depending on the dose, pathway, and exposure time. Considering the potential relevance of nucleotidases in coordinating the cardiovascular system and inflammation processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of rats with periodontal disease exposed chronically to inhaled corticosteroids. Adult male Wistar rats (n=26) were randomly assigned to one of the following four study groups: a control group that received no intervention; a periodontal disease group that received saline solution; a 'low dose' group that received 30 μg of budesonide daily; and a corresponding 'high dose' group that received 100 μg daily over a 15-day time course. The hydrolysis of ATP, ADP, and AMP were analysed in blood serum. Periodontal disease diminished the hydrolysis of ATP and enhanced the hydrolysis of ADP. Repeated administration of either a low or high dose in the periodontal disease model of inhaled corticosteroids reversed the observed increase in ADP hydrolysis, and only the repeated administration of low doses of inhaled corticosteroids was able to reverse the decrease in the hydrolysis of ATP induced by periodontal disease. The variables investigated in this study may be involved in the pathophysiology of periodontal disease and may participate in the mechanisms that mediate the development of some of the side effects of inhaled corticosteroids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Purified human pancreatic duct cell culture conditions defined by serum-free high-content growth factor screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A Hoesli

    Full Text Available The proliferation of pancreatic duct-like CK19+ cells has implications for multiple disease states including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. The in vitro study of this important cell type has been hampered by their limited expansion compared to fibroblast-like vimentin+ cells that overgrow primary cultures. We aimed to develop a screening platform for duct cell mitogens after depletion of the vimentin+ population. The CD90 cell surface marker was used to remove the vimentin+ cells from islet-depleted human pancreas cell cultures by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Cell sorting decreased CD90+ cell contamination of the cultures from 34±20% to 1.3±0.6%, yielding purified CK19+ cultures with epithelial morphology. A full-factorial experimental design was then applied to test the mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF, KGF and VEGF. After 6 days in test conditions, the cells were labelled with BrdU, stained and analyzed by high-throughput imaging. This screening assay confirmed the expected mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF on CK19+ cells and additionally revealed interactions between these factors and VEGF. A serum-free medium containing bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF led to CK19+ cell expansion comparable to the addition of 10% serum. The methods developed in this work should advance pancreatic cancer and diabetes research by providing effective cell culture and high-throughput screening platforms to study purified primary pancreatic CK19+ cells.

  17. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  18. Determination of etoposide serum concentrations in small pediatric samples by an improved method of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

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    Kato Y

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Several specific assays have been developed for the measurement of etoposide in biological fluids. As large samples are required for high sensitivity, these systems are not appropriate for a pediatric practice. In the present study, however, an improved method for the determination of serum levels of the anticancer drug etoposide was developed, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fixed-wavelength ultraviolet detection. Etoposide was extracted from serum using dichloromethane. The efficiency of extraction from serum was 85.7 +/- 7.7% for etoposide and 81.1 +/- 8.4% for diphenylhydantoin, the internal standard. The serum concentrations of etoposide were measured in 0.2-ml serum samples. The lower limit of detection was 50 ng/ml. Each measurement was completed within 5 min. The linear quantitation range for etoposide was 0.05-50 microg/ml. This assay presents an alternative method for routine measurement of serum levels of etoposide in the pediatric oncology setting.

  19. The Rise of the AGB in the Galactic Halo: Mg Isotopic Ratios and High Precision Elemental Abundances in M71 Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution (R ~ 100 000), high signal-to-noise spectra of M71 giants have been obtained with HIRES at the KeckI Telescope in order to measure their Mg isotopic ratios, as well as elemental abundances of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Ni, Zr and La. We demonstrate that M71 has two populations, the first having weak CN, normal O, Na, Mg, and Al, and a low ratio of 26Mg/Mg (~4%) consistent with models of galactic chemical evolution with no contribution from AGB stars. The Galactic halo could have been formed from the dissolution of globular clusters prior to their intermediate mass stars reaching the AGB. The second population has enhanced Na and Al accompanied by lower O and by higher 26Mg/Mg (~8%), consistent with models which do incorporate ejecta from AGB stars via normal stellar winds. All the M71 giants have identical [Fe/H], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe] and [Ni/Fe] to within sigma = 0.04 dex (10%). We therefore infer that the timescale for formation of the first generation of stars we see today in thi...

  20. High Uric Acid (UA Negatively Affects Serum Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qi Wu

    Full Text Available Bone metastases often occur in the majority of patients with advanced cancer, such as prostate cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b, a novel bone resorption marker, has been used gradually in the clinics as a specific and sensitive marker of bone resorption for the early diagnosis of cancer patients with bone metastasis. Here, we reported that high concentrations of uric acid (UA lead to decrease of TRACP 5b levels and determined whether TRACP 5b level was associated with UA in interference experiment.A total of 77 patients with high concentrations of UA and 77 healthy subjects were tested to evaluate the differences in their TRACP 5b levels. Serial dilutions of UA were respectively spiked with a known concentration of TRACP 5b standard sample, then Serum TRACP 5b was detected by using bone TRAP® Assay. A correction equation was set to eliminate UA-derived TRACP 5b false-decrease. The effect of this correction was evaluated in high-UA individuals.The average TRACP level of the high-UA individuals (1.47 ± 0.62 U/L was significantly lower than that of the healthy subjects (2.62 ± 0.63 U/L (t-test, p < 0.0001. The UA correction equation derived: ΔTRACP 5b = -1.9751lgΔUA + 3.7365 with an R2 = 0.98899. Application of the UA correction equation resulted in a statistically non-significant difference in TRACP 5b values between the healthy subjects and high-UA individuals (p = 0.24.High UA concentrations can falsely decrease TRACP 5b levels due to a method-related systematic error. To avoid misdiagnoses or inappropriate therapeutic decisions, increased attention should be paid to UA interference, when TRACP 5b is used for early diagnosis of cancer patients with bone metastasis, evaluation of the aggressiveness of osteosarcoma or prediction of survival in prostate cancer and breast cancer with bone metastases.

  1. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol in Inuit of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Mortensen, S.A.; Rhode, M.

    1999-01-01

    .001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  2. High levels of soluble serum hemojuvelin in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalev, H.; Perez-Avraham, G.; Kapelushnik, J.; Levi, I.; Rabinovich, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Brasse-Lagnel, C.; Tamary, H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) is a rare group of red blood cell disorders with ineffective erythropoiesis and secondary hemochromatosis. Inappropriate suppression of hepcidin and high levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) have been described in CDA I and II patien

  3. High levels of soluble serum hemojuvelin in patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalev, H.; Perez-Avraham, G.; Kapelushnik, J.; Levi, I.; Rabinovich, A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Brasse-Lagnel, C.; Tamary, H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) is a rare group of red blood cell disorders with ineffective erythropoiesis and secondary hemochromatosis. Inappropriate suppression of hepcidin and high levels of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) have been described in CDA I and II patien

  4. High-throughput 1,536-well fluorescence polarization assays for α(1-acid glycoprotein and human serum albumin binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Yasgar

    Full Text Available Two major plasma proteins in humans are primarily responsible for drug binding, the α(1-acid-glycoprotein (AGP and human serum albumin (HSA. The availability of at least a semiquantitative high-throughput assay for assessment of protein binding is expected to aid in bridging the current gap between high-throughput screening and early lead discovery, where cell-based and biochemical assays are deployed routinely to test up to several million compounds rapidly, as opposed to the late-stage candidate drug profiling methods which test at most dozens of compounds at a time. Here, we describe the miniaturization of a pair of assays based on the binding- and displacement-induced changes in fluorescence polarization (FP of fluorescent small molecule probes known to specifically target the drug-binding sites of these two proteins. A robust and reproducible assay performance was achieved in ≤4 µL assay volume in 1,536-well format. The assays were tested against a validation set of 10 known protein binders, and the results compared favorably with data obtained using protein-coated beads with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The miniaturized assays were taken to a high-throughput level in a screen of the LOPAC(1280 collection of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. The adaptation of the AGP and HSA FP assays to a 1,536-well format should allow their use in early-stage profiling of large-size compound sets.

  5. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  6. Association between serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein and inflammation activity in chronic gastritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Asghar; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jafari Heirdarlo, Ali; Abangah, Ghobad; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis is an important premalignant lesion and recent studies suggested a production of inflammatory cytokine-like C-reactive protein during gastritis. This study aimed to determine any relationship between high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and inflammation activity among patients with gastritis. Demographic and clinical variables of participants were collected by a validated questionnaire. Using histology of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori status was investigated and serum concentrations of hs-CRP were measured among dyspeptic patients. Correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and inflammation activities was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The relation between active inflammation and other variables was evaluated by logic link function model. Totally 239 patients (56.6% female) were analysed. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe inflammation activities was 66.5%, 23.8% and 9.6% respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among men and women were 2.85 ± 2.84 mg/dl and 2.80 ± 4.80 mg/dl (p = 0.047) respectively. Mean ± SD of hs-CRP among patients with H. pylori infection, gland atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia were 2.83 ± 3.80 mg/dl, 3.52 ± 5.1 mg/dl, 2.22 ± 2.3 mg/dl and 5.3 ± 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Relationship between hs-CRP and inflammation activities (p gastritis, elevated hs-CRP levels may be considered as a predictive marker of changes in gastric mucosa and a promising therapeutic target for patients with gastritis.

  7. Analysis of naltrexone and its metabolite 6-beta-naltrexol in serum with high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinälä Pekka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naltrexone has been proven to be an effective treatment option for the treatment of alcohol dependency. In this article we introduce a reliable and simple method developed for the simultaneous determination of naltrexone and 6-β-naltrexol in human serum by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Findings Liquid-liquid extraction with butyl acetate from basic solutions (pH 9 was chosen for extraction with nalorphine as an internal standard (IS. Analytes were back-extracted from organic solvent into perchloric acid. The acid extract was chromatographed by HPLC with a reverse-phase ODS-column and electrochemical detector. The mobile phase was a NaH2PO4-solution with acetonitrile as an organic modifier and octanesulphonic acid and tetraethylammonium hydrogen sulphate as ion-pair reagents. The recovery of the extraction method was 48% for naltrexone and 75% for 6-β-naltrexol. The limit of quantification was 5.0 ng/ml for naltrexone and 1.0 ng/ml for 6-β-naltrexol. The analysed concentrations of naltrexone differed from the theoretic concentrations by 0.7 to 2.3% and those of 6-β-naltrexol by 2.6%. The relative standard deviation of within-day assay was from 0.9 to 5.7% for naltrexone and from 0.8 to 4.2% for 6-β-naltrexol; for the between-day assay it was 5.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that the developed method is suitable for determination of naltrexone and 6-β-naltrexol in human serum.

  8. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Masafumi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin–low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL) complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin®, a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD. Patients and methods This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I–II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin® or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated. Results There were no differences between the Theracurmin® and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020) lower in the Theracurmin® group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Theracurmin® reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects. PMID:27616885

  9. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Antigens of the human immunodeficiency virus in serum of high risk people in the city of Monterrey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Carmona, M C; Flores de Castañeda, M S; Garza Elizondo, M A; Pérez Rivera, L I

    1989-01-01

    One hundred forty human sera distributed in 2 groups were analyzed. In group I, 50 serum samples from healthy individuals that did not belong to the high-risk acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population were included. In group II, there were 90 individuals, most of whom were apparently healthy but were at high risk of getting AIDS through their life styles or by transfusion. Of the 90 persons, 5 had a clinical picture of AIDS. All sera were analyzed by the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anti VIH antibodies. The positive cases were confirmed by the Western blot assay. In all samples the presence of the human immune deficiency virus antigens was sought. The results showed that the 50 healthy individuals (control group) were negative for both HIV antigens and antibodies. Of the 90 sera for the high-risk group, 50 were negative for antibodies, and 2 of them (4%) were positive for HIV antigens. Forty sera were positive for anti HIV antibody and among them, 5 patients were diagnosed as AIDS, and showed positive for antigen and antibody. The other 35 patients were all positive for HIV antibody and in 8 of them HIV antigen was also present.

  11. The apogee red-clump catalog: Precise distances, velocities, and high-resolution elemental abundances over a large area of the Milky Way's disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Girardi, Léo; Rodrigues, Thaíse S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Zasowski, Gail [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Holtzman, Jon; Hayden, Michael R. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Epstein, Courtney; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Andrews, Brett [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Stello, Dennis [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: bovy@ias.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2014-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III's Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey covering all of the major components of the Galaxy, including the dust-obscured regions of the inner Milky Way disk and bulge. Here we present a sample of 10,341 likely red-clump stars (RC) from the first two years of APOGEE operations, selected based on their position in color-metallicity-surface-gravity-effective-temperature space using a new method calibrated using stellar evolution models and high-quality asteroseismology data. The narrowness of the RC locus in color-metallicity-luminosity space allows us to assign distances to the stars with an accuracy of 5%-10%. The sample extends to typical distances of about 3 kpc from the Sun, with some stars out to 8 kpc, and spans a volume of approximately 100 kpc{sup 3} over 5 kpc ≲ R ≲ 14 kpc, |Z| ≲ 2 kpc, and –15° ≲ Galactocentric azimuth ≲ 30°. The APOGEE red-clump (APOGEE-RC) catalog contains photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, reddening estimates, distances, line-of-sight velocities, stellar parameters and elemental abundances determined from the high-resolution APOGEE spectra, and matches to major proper motion catalogs. We determine the survey selection function for this data set and discuss how the RC selection samples the underlying stellar populations. We use this sample to limit any azimuthal variations in the median metallicity within the ≈45° azimuthal region covered by the current sample to be ≤0.02 dex, which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the radial metallicity gradient. This result constrains coherent non-axisymmetric flows within a few kiloparsecs from the Sun.

  12. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funamoto M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masafumi Funamoto,1,2 Yoichi Sunagawa,1–3 Yasufumi Katanasaka,1–3 Yusuke Miyazaki,1,2 Atsushi Imaizumi,4 Hideaki Kakeya,5 Hajime Yamakage,2 Noriko Satoh-Asahara,2 Maki Komiyama,2 Hiromichi Wada,2 Koji Hasegawa,2 Tatsuya Morimoto1–3 1Division of Molecular Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, 2Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka, 4Theravalues Corporation, Kioicho, Tokyo, 5Department of System Chemotherapy and Molecular Sciences, Division of Bioinformatics and Chemical Genomics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin–low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin®, a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD.Patients and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I–II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin® or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated.Results: There were no differences between the Theracurmin® and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure

  13. High serum interleukin-6 level is associated with increased risk of delirium in elderly patients after noncardiac surgery:a prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Pei; LI Ya-wei; WANG Xiao-shan; ZOU Xi; ZHANG Da-zhi; WANG Dong-xin; LI Shi-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between inflammation and delirium remains to be determined.The purposes of this study were to investigate the association between serum interleukin-6 levels and the occurrence of delirium in elderly patients after major noncardiac surgery.Methods A total of 338 elderly patients (60 years of age and over) undergoing major noncardiac surgery were enrolled.Blood samples were obtained before anesthesia and in the first postoperative morning and serum interleukin-6 concentrations were measured.Delirium was assessed twice daily by the confusion assessment method for the Intensive Care Unit during the first three postoperative days.Survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the serum IL-6 level and the occurrence of postoperative delirium.Results Postoperative delirium occurred in 14.8% (50 of 338) of patients.High serum interleukin-6 levelsafter surgery were significantly associated with increased risk of the occurrence of postoperative delirium (hazard ratio 1.514,95% confidence interval 1.155-1.985,P=0.003).Other independent predictors of delirium included increasing age,poor preoperative New York Heart Association classification,low preoperative Mini-Mental State Examination score,and high total postoperative Visual Analogue Scale pain score.Patients who developed delirium had a prolonged hospital stay after surgery.Conclusions Delirium is a frequent complication in elderly patients after noncardiac surgery.High serum interleukin-6 level after surgery is associated with increased risk of the occurrence of postoperative delirium.

  14. Primordial Deuterium Abundance Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Takahara, F; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.; Takahara, Fumio

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium abundances measured recently from QSO absorption-line systems lie in the range from 3 10^{-5} to 3 10^{-4}, which shed some questions on standard big bang theory. We show that this discordance may simply be an artifact caused by inadequate analysis ignoring spatial correlations in the velocity field in turbulent media. The generalized procedure (accounting for such correlations) is suggested to reconcile the D/H measurements. An example is presented based on two high-resolution observations of Q1009+2956 (low D/H) [1,2] and Q1718+4807 (high D/H) [8,9]. We show that both observations are compatible with D/H = 4.1 - 4.6 10^{-5}, and thus support SBBN. The estimated mean value = 4.4 10^{-5} corresponds to the baryon-to-photon ratio during SBBN eta = 4.4 10^{-10} which yields the present-day baryon density Omega_b h^2 = 0.015.

  15. Distribution of Prokaryotic Abundance and Microbial Nutrient Cycling Across a High-Alpine Altitudinal Gradient in the Austrian Central Alps is Affected by Vegetation, Temperature, and Soil Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Katrin; Lamprecht, Andrea; Pauli, Harald; Illmer, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Studies of the altitudinal distributions of soil microorganisms are rare or have led to contradictory results. Therefore, we studied archaeal and bacterial abundance and microbial-mediated activities across an altitudinal gradient (2700 to 3500 m) on the southwestern slope of Mt. Schrankogel (Central Alps, Austria). Sampling sites distributed over the alpine (2700 to 2900 m), the alpine-nival (3000 to 3100 m), and the nival altitudinal belts (3200 to 3500 m), which are populated by characteristic plant assemblages. Bacterial and archaeal abundances were measured via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Moreover, microbial biomass C, microbial activity (dehydrogenase), and enzymes involved in carbon (CM-cellulase), nitrogen (protease), phosphorus (alkaline phosphatase), and sulfur (arylsulfatase) cycling were determined. Abundances, microbial biomass C, and activities almost linearly decreased along the gradient. Archaeal abundance experienced a sharper decrease, thus pointing to pronounced sensitivity toward environmental harshness. Additionally, abundance and activities were significantly higher in soils of the alpine belt compared with those of the nival belt, whereas the alpine-nival ecotone represented a transitional area with intermediate values, thus highlighting the importance of vegetation. Archaeal abundance along the gradient was significantly related to soil temperature only, whereas bacterial abundance was significantly related to temperature and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations explained most of the variance in enzyme activities involved in the cycling of C, N, P, and S. Increasing temperature could therefore increase the abundances and activities of microorganisms either directly or indirectly via expansion of alpine vegetation to higher altitudes and increased plant cover.

  16. Serum opacity factor unmasks human plasma high-density lipoprotein instability via selective delipidation and apolipoprotein A-I desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Massey, John B; Pownall, Henry J

    2007-11-13

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are important vehicles in reverse cholesterol transport, the cardioprotective mechanism by which peripheral tissue-cholesterol is transported to the liver for disposal. HDL is the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a substance produced by Streptococcus pyogenes that turns mammalian serum cloudy. Using a recombinant (r) SOF, we studied opacification and its mechanism. rSOF catalyzes the partial disproportionation of HDL into a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) and a new HDL-like particle, neo HDL, with the concomitant release of lipid-free (LF)-apo A-I. Opacification is unique; rSOF transfers apo E and nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles into a single large CERM whose size increases with HDL-CE content (r approximately 100-250 nm) leaving a neo HDL that is enriched in PL (41%) and protein (48%), especially apo A-II. rSOF is potent; within 30 min at 37 degrees C, 10 nM rSOF opacifies 4 microM HDL. At respective low and high physiological HDL concentrations, LF-apo A-I is monomeric and tetrameric. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid sequential steps. According to the reaction products and kinetics, rSOF is a heterodivalent fusogenic protein that uses a docking site to displace apo A-I and bind to exposed CE surfaces on HDL; the resulting rSOF-HDL complex recruits additional HDL with its binding-delipidation site and through multiple fusion steps forms a CERM. rSOF may be a clinically useful and novel modality for improving reverse cholesterol transport. With apo E and a high CE content, CERM could transfer large amounts of cholesterol to the liver for disposal via the LDL receptor; neo HDL is likely a better acceptor of cellular cholesterol than HDL; LF-apo A-I could enhance efflux via the ATP-binding casette transporter ABCA1.

  17. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: control standard diet (CS, control high-fat diet (CH, continuous training standard diet (CTS, continuous training high-fat diet (CTH, interval training standard diet (ITS, and interval training high-fat diet (ITH. The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  18. Human serum transferrin: Is there a link between autism, high oxalate and iron deficiency anemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Ashley N.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Kaltashov, Igor A.; Mason, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously suggested that high amounts of oxalate in plasma could play a role in autism by binding to the bilobal iron transport protein transferrin (hTF) thereby interfering with iron metabolism by inhibiting iron delivery to cells. By examining the effect of the substitution of oxalate for the physiologically utilized synergistic carbonate anion in each lobe of hTF we sought to provide a molecular basis for or against such a role. Our work clearly shows both qualitatively (6 M urea gels) and quantitatively (kinetic analysis by stop flow spectrofluorimetry) that the presence of oxalate in place of carbonate in each binding site of hTF does indeed greatly interfere with iron removal from each lobe (both in the absence and presence of the specific hTF receptor). However, we also clearly demonstrate that once the iron is bound within each lobe of hTF, neither anion can displace the other. Additionally, as verified by urea gels and electrospray mass spectrometry, formation of completely homogeneous hTF-anion complexes requires that all iron must first be removed and hTF then reloaded with iron in the presence of either carbonate or oxalate. Of significance, experiments described herein show that carbonate is the preferred binding partner, i.e., even if an equal amount of each anion is available during the iron loading process the hTF-carbonate complex is formed. PMID:24152109

  19. High serum uric acid and increased risk of type 2 diabetes: a systemic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Lv

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Current evidence suggests high serum uric acid may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but the association is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and future risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed database through April 2012. Prospective cohort studies were included in meta-analysis that reported the multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the association between serum uric acid and risk of type 2 diabetes. We used both fix-effects and random-effects models to calculate the overall effect estimate. The heterogeneity across studies was tested by both Q statistic and I(2 statistic. Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used to assess the potential publication bias. RESULTS: We retrieved 7 eligible articles derived from 8 prospective cohort studies, involving a total of 32016 participants and 2930 incident type 2 diabetes. The combined RR of developing type 2 diabetes for the highest category of serum uric acid level compared with the lowest was 1.56(95% CI, 1.39-1.76. Dose-response analysis showed the risk of type 2 diabetes was increased by 6% per 1 mg/dl increment in serum uric acid level (RR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04-1.07. The result from each subgroup showed a significant association between serum uric acid and risk of type 2 diabetes. In sensitive analysis, the combined RR was consistent every time omitting any one study. Little evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies provided strong evidence that high level of serum uric acid is independent of other established risk factors, especially metabolic syndrome components, for developing type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older people.

  20. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  1. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  2. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with a high quantum yield and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Changchang; Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liuxiang@ahut.edu.cn; Cui, Ping, E-mail: cokecp@sohu.com

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cheap carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield were prepared. • The preparation process and surface functionalization on CQDs are rather facile. • Such functionalized CQDs can be attached to BSA covalently. • This predicts that some biomolecules can be labeled by the fluorescent CQDs. - Abstract: An economic and green approach of manufacturing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield (denoted with HQY-CQDs) and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin (BSA) were described in detail in this work. Firstly, the cheap resources of citric acid and glycine were pyrolysed in drying oven for preparing the CQDs. Then the product was immersed in tetrahydrofuran for 8 h. HQY-CQDs were obtained by removing tetrahydrofuran from the supernate and were evaluated that they possessed a much higher quantum yield compared with that without dealing with tetrahydrofuran and a wonderful photo-bleaching resistance. Such HQY-CQDs could be functionalized by N-hydroxysuccinimide and successively combined with BSA covalently. Thus fluorescent labeling on BSA was realized. The HQY-CQDs were demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and the chemical modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide was proved by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Labeling BSA with the HQY-CQDs was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging.

  3. Long-Term In Vitro Degradation of a High-Strength Brushite Cement in Water, PBS, and Serum Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ajaxon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss and fractures may call for the use of bone substituting materials, such as calcium phosphate cements (CPCs. CPCs can be degradable, and, to determine their limitations in terms of applications, their mechanical as well as chemical properties need to be evaluated over longer periods of time, under physiological conditions. However, there is lack of data on how the in vitro degradation affects high-strength brushite CPCs over longer periods of time, that is, longer than it takes for a bone fracture to heal. This study aimed at evaluating the long-term in vitro degradation properties of a high-strength brushite CPC in three different solutions: water, phosphate buffered saline, and a serum solution. Microcomputed tomography was used to evaluate the degradation nondestructively, complemented with gravimetric analysis. The compressive strength, chemical composition, and microstructure were also evaluated. Major changes from 10 weeks onwards were seen, in terms of formation of a porous outer layer of octacalcium phosphate on the specimens with a concomitant change in phase composition, increased porosity, decrease in object volume, and mechanical properties. This study illustrates the importance of long-term evaluation of similar cement compositions to be able to predict the material’s physical changes over a relevant time frame.

  4. Long-Term In Vitro Degradation of a High-Strength Brushite Cement in Water, PBS, and Serum Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaxon, Ingrid; Öhman, Caroline; Persson, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Bone loss and fractures may call for the use of bone substituting materials, such as calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). CPCs can be degradable, and, to determine their limitations in terms of applications, their mechanical as well as chemical properties need to be evaluated over longer periods of time, under physiological conditions. However, there is lack of data on how the in vitro degradation affects high-strength brushite CPCs over longer periods of time, that is, longer than it takes for a bone fracture to heal. This study aimed at evaluating the long-term in vitro degradation properties of a high-strength brushite CPC in three different solutions: water, phosphate buffered saline, and a serum solution. Microcomputed tomography was used to evaluate the degradation nondestructively, complemented with gravimetric analysis. The compressive strength, chemical composition, and microstructure were also evaluated. Major changes from 10 weeks onwards were seen, in terms of formation of a porous outer layer of octacalcium phosphate on the specimens with a concomitant change in phase composition, increased porosity, decrease in object volume, and mechanical properties. This study illustrates the importance of long-term evaluation of similar cement compositions to be able to predict the material's physical changes over a relevant time frame.

  5. Sunspots, Starspots, and Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doschek, George A.; Warren, Harry P.

    2017-08-01

    The composition of plasma in solar and stellar atmospheres is not fixed, but varies from feature to feature. These variations are organized by the First Ionization Potential (FIP) of the element. Solar measurements often indicate that low FIP elements (10 eV, such as C, N, O, Ar, He) compared to abundances in the photosphere. Stellar observations have also shown similar enrichments. An inverse FIP effect, where the low FIP elements are depleted, has been observed in stellar coronae of stars believed to have large starspots in their photospheres. The abundances are important for determining radiative loss rates in models, tracing the origin of the slow solar wind, and for understanding wave propagation in the chromosphere and corona. Recently, inverse FIP effects have been discovered in the Sun (Doschek, Warren, & Feldman 2015, ApJ, 808, L7) from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft. The inverse FIP regions seem always to be near sunspots and cover only a very small area (characteristic length = a few arcseconds). However, in pursuing the search for inverse FIP regions, we have found that in some sunspot groups the coronal abundance at a temperature of 3-4 MK can be near photospheric over much larger areas of the sun near the sunspots (e.g., 6,000 arcsec2). Also, sometimes the abundances at 3-4 MK are in between coronal and photospheric values. This can occur in small areas of an active region. It is predicted (Laming 2015, Sol. Phys., 12, 2) that the FIP effect should be highly variable in the corona. Several examples of coronal abundance variations are presented. Our work indicates that a comprehensive re-investigation of solar abundances is highly desirable. This work is supported by a NASA Hinode grant.

  6. High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Sugiura

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent epidemiological studies show that high intakes of carotenoids might be useful to maintain bone health, but little is known about the association of serum carotenoids with change of bone mineral density (BMD. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether serum carotenoids are associated with bone loss. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up on 146 male and 99 pre- and 212 post-menopausal female subjects from the Mikkabi study. Those who participated in previous BMD surveys and completed four years of follow-up were examined longitudinally. RESULTS: During a 4-year follow-up, 15 of the post-menopausal female subjects developed new-onset osteoporosis. In contrast, none of the male and pre-menopausal female subjects did. In male and pre-menopausal female subjects, the six serum carotenoids at the baseline were not associated with bone loss. On the other hand, in post-menopausal female subjects, the 4-year bone loss of radius was inversely associated with the serum carotenoid concentrations, especially in β-carotene. After adjustments for confounders, the odds ratios (OR for osteoporosis in the highest tertiles of serum β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin against the lowest tertiles were 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.05-1.21 and 0.07 (CI: 0.01-0.88, respectively. Serum β-cryptoxanthin was also inversely associated with the risk for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis (P for trend, 0.037. In addition, our retrospective analysis revealed that subjects who developed osteoporosis and/or osteopenia during the survey period had significantly lower serum concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene at the baseline than those in the normal group. CONCLUSIONS: Antioxidant carotenoids, especially β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, are inversely associated with the change of radial BMD in post-menopausal female subjects.

  7. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  8. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  9. Metabolomic serum profiling detects early-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina M; Monge, María Eugenia; Kim, Jaeyeon; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2015-02-06

    Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease killing more than any other gynecologic cancer. Nonspecific symptoms, combined with a lack of early detection methods, contribute to late diagnosis and low five-year survival rates. High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest subtype that results in 90% of ovarian cancer deaths. To investigate metabolic patterns for early detection of this deadly ovarian cancer, Dicer-Pten double knockout (DKO) mice that phenocopy many of the features of metastatic HGSC observed in women were studied. Using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), serum samples from 14 early-stage tumor (ET) DKO mice and 11 controls were analyzed in depth to screen for metabolic signatures capable of differentiating early-stage HGSC from controls. Iterative multivariate classification selected 18 metabolites that, when considered as a panel, yielded 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for classification. Altered metabolic pathways reflected in that panel included those of fatty acids, bile acids, glycerophospholipids, peptides, and some dietary phytochemicals. These alterations revealed impacts to cellular energy storage and membrane stability, as well as changes in defenses against oxidative stress, shedding new light on the metabolic alterations associated with early ovarian cancer stages.

  10. Preparation of carbon quantum dots with a high quantum yield and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Changchang; Liu, Xiang; Cui, Ping

    2016-04-01

    An economic and green approach of manufacturing carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with a high quantum yield (denoted with HQY-CQDs) and the application in labeling bovine serum albumin (BSA) were described in detail in this work. Firstly, the cheap resources of citric acid and glycine were pyrolysed in drying oven for preparing the CQDs. Then the product was immersed in tetrahydrofuran for 8 h. HQY-CQDs were obtained by removing tetrahydrofuran from the supernate and were evaluated that they possessed a much higher quantum yield compared with that without dealing with tetrahydrofuran and a wonderful photo-bleaching resistance. Such HQY-CQDs could be functionalized by N-hydroxysuccinimide and successively combined with BSA covalently. Thus fluorescent labeling on BSA was realized. The HQY-CQDs were demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and the chemical modification with N-hydroxysuccinimide was proved by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Labeling BSA with the HQY-CQDs was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence imaging.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Epinephrine, Noradrenaline and Dopamine in Human Serum Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Fu-Nan; ZHANG, Ying-Xue; ZHANG, Zhu-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique coupled with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of epinephrine (E),noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA). It was based on the analyte enhancement effect on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. The effects of various parameters, such as potassium ferricyanide concentration, luminol concentration, pH value and component of the mobile phase on chromatographic behaviors of the analytes (E, NA and DA) were investigated. The separation was carried out on C18 column using the mobile tions, E, NA and DA showed good linear relationships in the range of 1×10-8-5×10-6, 5.0×10-9-1.0× 10-6 and 5.0×10-9-1.0×10-6 g/mL respectively. The detection limits for E, NA and DA were 4.0×10-9, 1.0×10-9 and 8.0×10-10 g/mL. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the analysis of E, NA and DA in human serum samples.

  12. Effects of raftilose on serum biochemistry and liver morphology in rats fed with normal or high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; de-Sousa-Lopes, Hugo; Martins, Maria J; Azevedo, Isabel; Moura, Eduardo; Vieira-Coelho, Maria A

    2013-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of chronic liver injury in developed countries. Oligofructose (OFS) is a prebiotic with proven benefits for health. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of 10% OFS on hepatic morphology and lipid metabolism in Wistar Kyoto rats submitted to normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (FD). Animals were treated for 7 weeks. Lipid profile and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured and liver histology evaluated at the end of the study. Ten percent OFS reduced triglyceride (TAG) levels when added to any of the diet regimens; 10% OFS decreased plasmatic urea in ND and plasmatic and urinary urea levels in FD; ND + 10% OFS treated rats showed lower ALP activity than controls. FD increased ALP activity, an effect not reversed by OFS. Animals submitted to FD have microscopic hepatic changes: marked steatosis with disarranged centrilobular zone structure; enlarged sinusoids; enlarged mitochondria and an increase in number and volume of adiposomes. Supplementation with 10% OFS in FD reversed those effects. In conclusion, 10% OFS supplementation prevented deleterious effects of FD such as alterations on lipid profile (TAG elevation) and hepatic morphologic changes. OFS decreased ALP activity in animals subjected to ND, which may have contributed to the differences on lipid metabolism. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Chronic diarrhea associated with high serum level of immunoglobulin A and diffuse infiltration of plasma cell in small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junwen; Chen, Shuijiao; Chen, Linlin; Ouyang, Miao; Li, Fujun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage. Duodenal and ileac biopsies revealed atrophy and blunting villi. The bowel lamina propria was infiltrated with slightly increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and mainly with diffuse plasma cells. The following enzyme labeling immunohistochemistry results were strongly positive to alpha-heavy-chain. Computed tomography manifested she had diffuse thickening of small intestine wall. At last a diagnosis of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was made. Interventions and Outcomes: On the first month, the patient was treated with vitamin D supplements, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, folic acid, mecobalamin replacements and microflora probiotics. The patient frequency of water diarrhea alleviated slightly, but her weight loss, anxiety neurosis and other disorders were still severe. After taking with prednisone (40 mg per day, and gradually reduced to the lowest dose) for another month, the symptoms was gradually subsided. Lessons: The study shows that immunohistochemical staining for alpha-heavy chain proteins should be completed on small intestine biopsy specimens if the patient is suspected a diagnosis of immunoproliferative small intestinal disease. PMID:28151917

  14. Whole grains are associated with serum concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein among premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Mumford, Sunni L; Rovner, Alisha J; Zhang, Cuilin; Chen, Liwei; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-09-01

    In premenopausal women, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been associated with an increased risk of negative reproductive outcomes. Whole grain consumption has been associated with lower CRP concentrations in older women; however, less is known about this relationship in younger women. We investigated whether whole grain intake was associated with serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations in young women. BioCycle was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University of Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, which followed 259 healthy women aged 18-44 y for Whole grain intake was estimated by 24-h recalls whole grain food. Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >or= 1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers. Women who consumed >or= 1 serving/d of whole grain had a lower probability of having moderate (P = 0.008) or elevated (P = 0.001) hs-CRP according to the AHA criteria compared with nonconsumers. Given that elevated concentrations of hs-CRP have been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes and pregnancy complications, interventions targeting whole grain consumption may have the potential to improve health status among young women.

  15. Disruption of human plasma high-density lipoproteins by streptococcal serum opacity factor requires labile apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J; Pownall, Henry J

    2009-02-24

    Human plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipidscholesteryl esters and some triglyceridesurrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins [apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II]. A HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent, or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of approximately 100,000 HDL particles (D approximately 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D > 100 nm), leaving a new HDL-like particle [neo HDL (D approximately 5.8 nm)] while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics, suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physicochemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, a HDL containing nonlabile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. On the basis of kinetic cryo-electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 microM) to neo HDL via a stepwise mechanism in which intermediate-sized particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k of (4.400 +/- 0.004) x 10(-2) min(-1). Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy (DeltaH()), entropy (DeltaS(++)), and free energy (DeltaG()) of activation of 73.9 kJ/mol, -66.87 J/K, and 94.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the

  16. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumova, Sashka [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Rukova, Blaga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Todinova, Svetla [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Gartcheva, Lidia [National Specialized Hospital for Active Treating of Haematological Diseases, 6 Plovdivsko pole Str., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Milanova, Vihra [Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Sofia, 1 Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Toncheva, Draga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Taneva, Stefka G., E-mail: stefka.germanova@ehu.es [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment.

  17. Adjuvant effects of mannose-binding lectin ligands on the immune response to infectious bronchitis vaccine in chickens with high or low serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærup, Rikke Munkholm; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann;

    2014-01-01

    in the pathogenesis of IBV infection and the production of IBV-specific antibodies, which may be exploited in optimising IBV vaccine strategies. The present study shows that MBL has the capability to bind to IBV in vitro. Chickens from two inbred lines (L10H and L10L) selected for high or low MBL serum concentrations...

  18. The relationship of skin test positivity, high serum total IgE levels, and peripheral blood eosinophilia to symptomatic and asymptomatic airway hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, DF; Rijcken, B; Schouten, JP; Kraan, J; Weiss, ST; Timens, W; Postma, DS

    The relationships of skin test positivity, high serum total IgE levels (> 100 kU/L), and peripheral blood eosinophilia (greater than or equal to 275 cells/mu l) to symptomatic (either chronic cough, chronic phlegm, bronchitis episodes, dyspnea, wheeze, or asthma) and asymptomatic bronchial

  19. Genetically determined high serum levels of mannose-binding lectin and agalactosyl IgG are associated with ischemic heart disease in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Lone N; Garred, Peter; Madsen, Hans O.

    2007-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have excess morbidity and mortality due to ischemic heart disease. It has been suggested that high serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and agalactosyl IgG (IgG-G0) are associated with increased inflammation in RA. MBL also enhances inflammation-med...

  20. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Thunga

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Thunga G, Pandey S, Nair S, Mylapuri R, Vidyasagar S, Kunhikatta V, et al. Comparative Study of Continuous Pralidoxime Infusion versus Intermittent Dosing: Application of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method on Serum of Organophosphate Poisoned Patients. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:105-10.

  1. High serum YKL-40 concentration is associated with severe bone disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard; Abildgaard, N.; Johansen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In multiple myeloma (MM) YKL-40 is present in the bone marrow microenvironment and is suggested to play a role in remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, the association between serum YKL-40 and severity of bone disease in MM is investigated. Methods: Serum YKL-40 was measured...... in 34 MM patients at diagnosis. Bone disease was assessed by radiography and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy and followed for up to 30 months. Results: Patients with a serum YKL-40 elevated above the age specific reference range (56%) had...... a higher total X-ray score (P = 0.003) and higher levels of the markers of bone resorption serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (P = 0.003), urine pyridinoline (P = 0.04) and urine deoxypyridinoline (P = 0.002), while the levels of urine N-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (NTX-1...

  2. High serum YKL-40 levels in patients with primary breast cancer is related to short recurrence free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Riisbro, Rikke;

    2003-01-01

    YKL-40 is a growth factor for connective tissue cells and stimulates migration of endothelial cells. YKL-40 is secreted by cancer cells, and elevated serum YKL-40 in patients with metastatic breast cancer and colorectal cancer is associated with a poorer prognosis as compared to patients...... with normal serum YKL-40. In the present study we evaluated the associations of preoperative serum YKL-40 in 271 patients with primary breast cancer in relation to relapse-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up time was 5.9 years. There were 77 relapses and 69 patients died. The median serum...... YKL-40 in patients with primary breast cancer at time of operation is only elevated in a small group of patients, but these patients have a shorter recurrence free interval. Further studies are required to determine the biological function of YKL-40 in breast cancer....

  3. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The value of time-averaged serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in prediction of mortality and dropout in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Chen, Chao-Yu; Li, Yi-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Ku, Cheng-Lung; Tian, Ya-Chung

    2017-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a useful biomarker for prediction of long-term outcomes in patients undergoing chronic dialysis. This observational cohort study evaluated whether the time-averaged serum high-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP) level was a better predictor of clinical outcomes than a single HS-CRP level in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). We classified 335 patients into three tertiles according to the time-averaged serum HS-CRP level and followed up regularly from January 2010 to December 2014. Clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events, infection episodes, newly developed malignancy, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), dropout (death plus conversion to hemodialysis), and mortality were assessed. During a 5-year follow-up, 164 patients (49.0%) ceased PD; this included 52 patient deaths (15.5%), 100 patients (29.9%) who converted to hemodialysis, and 12 patients (3.6%) who received a kidney transplantation. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test revealed a significantly worse survival accumulation in patients with high time-average HS-CRP levels. A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that a higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, older age, and the occurrence of cardiovascular events were independent mortality predictors. A higher time-averaged serum HS-CRP level, the occurrence of cardiovascular events, infection episodes, and EPS were important predictors of dropout. The receiver operating characteristic analysis verified that the value of the time-average HS-CRP level in predicting the 5-year mortality and dropout was superior to a single serum baseline HS-CRP level. This study shows that the time-averaged serum HS-CRP level is a better marker than a single baseline measurement in predicting the 5-year mortality and dropout in PD patients.

  5. High levels of both serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase are independent preictors of mortality in patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca-Fontán, Fernando; Azevedo, Lilia; Bayo, Miguel Ángel; Gonzales-Candia, Boris; Luna, Enrique; Caravaca, Francisco

    High serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are associated with increased mortality in the general population. However, this association has scarcely been investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics of CKD patients with abnormally elevated serum GGT, and its value for predicting mortality. Retrospective observational study in a population cohort of adults with stage 4-5 CKD not yet on dialysis. Demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters of prognostic interest were recorded and used to characterise CKD patients with high levels of GGT (>36 IU/l). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse the influence of baseline serum GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels on mortality for whatever reason. The study group consisted of 909 patients (mean age 65±15 years). Abnormally elevated GGT or ALP levels at baseline were observed in 209 (23%) and 172 (19%) patients, respectively, and concomitant elevations of GGT and ALP in 68 (7%). High GGT levels were associated with higher comorbidity burden, and a biochemical profile characterised by higher serum concentration of uric acid, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, and C-reactive. During the study period, 365 patients (40%) died (median survival time=74 months). In adjusted Cox regression models, high levels of GGT (hazard ratio [HR]=1.39;CI 95%: 1.09-1.78, P=.009) and ALP (HR=1.31; CI95%: 1.02-1.68, P=.038) were independently associated with mortality. High serum levels of GGT are independent predictors of mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Yield Superovulation in Adult Mice by Anti-Inhibin Serum Treatment Combined with Estrous Cycle Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ayumi; Mochida, Keiji; Inoue, Hiroki; Noda, Yoshihiro; Endo, Tamao; Watanabe, Gen; Ogura, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Producing many mature oocytes is of great importance for assisted reproductive technologies. In mice, superovulation by consecutive injections of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been the gold standard for oocyte collection. However, the yield of mature oocytes by this regimen can fluctuate according to the stage of the estrous cycle, strain, and age. Therefore, our objective was to develop a high-yield superovulation protocol to collect higher numbers of oocytes from adult female mice of different strains and ages. First, we aimed to synchronize the estrous cycle using C57BL/6 (B6) female mice. Most (93%) were synchronized to metestrus after two daily injections of progesterone. Second, we found that with the injection of anti-inhibin serum (AIS) instead of eCG, the mean number of ovulated oocytes almost doubled (21 vs. 41 per mouse). Third, by combining estrous cycle synchronization with two AIS injections, we obtained 62 oocytes per mouse, about three times that with the eCG-hCG protocol. Importantly, this approach increased the proportion of mice that ovulated >25 oocytes from about 40% (eCG-hCG) to 90%. The same protocol was also effective in other inbred (BALB/cA), outbred (ICR), and hybrid (B6D2F1) strains. In addition, B6 female mice aged over 1 yr ovulated 1.8-fold more oocytes by this protocol. Thus, estrous cycle synchronization followed by AIS-hCG yielded a broadly applicable, highly efficient superovulation. This protocol should promote the effective use of invaluable female mouse strains and decrease the numbers of animals euthanized. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Identification of the Best Anthropometric Predictors of Serum High- and Low-Density Lipoproteins Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum Ju; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2015-09-01

    Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are associated with risk factors for various diseases and are related to anthropometric measures. However, controversy remains regarding the best anthropometric indicators of the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. The objectives of this study were to identify the best predictors of HDL and LDL cholesterol using statistical analyses and two machine learning algorithms and to compare the predictive power of combined anthropometric measures in Korean adults. A total of 13,014 subjects participated in this study. The anthropometric measures were assessed with binary logistic regression (LR) to evaluate statistically significant differences between the subjects with normal and high LDL cholesterol levels and between the subjects with normal and low HDL cholesterol levels. LR and the naive Bayes algorithm (NB), which provides more reasonable and reliable results, were used in the analyses of the predictive power of individual and combined measures. The best predictor of HDL was the rib to hip ratio (p =anthropometric measures, the body mass index (BMI), WHR, forehead to waist ratio, forehead to rib ratio, and forehead to chest ratio were the strongest predictors of LDL; these measures had similar predictive powers. The strongest predictor in men was BMI (p =anthropometric measures was higher for HDL than for LDL, and the predictive power for both HDL and LDL in women was higher than for men. A combination of anthropometric measures slightly improved the predictive power for both HDL and LDL cholesterol. The best indicator for HDL and LDL might differ according to the type of cholesterol and the gender. In women, but not men, age was the variable that strongly predicted HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings provide new information for the development of better initial screening tools for HDL and LDL cholesterol.

  8. 186Os-187Os and highly siderophile element abundance systematics of the mantle revealed by abyssal peridotites and Os-rich alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M. D.; Walker, Richard J.; Warren, Jessica M.

    2017-03-01

    Abyssal peridotites are oceanic mantle fragments that were recently processed through ridges and represent residues of both modern and ancient melting. To constrain the nature and timing of melt depletion processes, and the composition of the mantle, we report high-precision Os isotope data for abyssal peridotites from three ocean basins, as well as for Os-rich alloys, primarily from Mesozoic ophiolites. These data are complemented by whole-rock highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), trace- and major-element abundances for the abyssal peridotites, which are from the Southwest Indian (SWIR), Central Indian (CIR), Mid-Atlantic (MAR) and Gakkel Ridges. The results reveal a limited role for melt refertilization or secondary alteration processes in modifying abyssal peridotite HSE compositions. The abyssal peridotites examined have experienced variable melt depletion (2% to >16%), which occurred >0.5 Ga ago for some samples. Abyssal peridotites typically exhibit low Pd/Ir and, combined with high-degrees of estimated total melt extraction, imply that they were relatively refractory residues prior to incorporation into their present ridge setting. Recent partial melting processes and mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) generation therefore played a limited role in the chemical evolution of their precursor mantle domains. The results confirm that many abyssal peridotites are not simple residues of recent MORB source melting, having a more complex and long-lived depletion history. Peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge, SWIR, CIR and MAR indicate that the depleted MORB mantle has 186Os/188Os of 0.1198356 ± 21 (2SD). The Phanerozoic Os-rich alloys yield an average 186Os/188Os within uncertainty of abyssal peridotites (0.1198361 ± 20). Melt depletion trends defined between Os isotopes and melt extraction indices (e.g., Al2O3) allow an estimate of the primitive mantle (PM) composition, using only abyssal peridotites. This yields 187Os/188Os (0.1292 ± 25), and 186Os

  9. Gd Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Den Hartog, E A; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/- 5%, have been measured for 49 even-parity and 14 odd-parity levels of Gd II using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 611 lines of Gd II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of Gd II transition probabilities and the first using a high performance Fourier transform spectrometer. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Gd abundance, log epsilon = 1.11 +/- 0.03. Revised Gd abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, and HD 115444. The resulting Gd/Eu abundance ratios are in very good agreement with the solar-system r-process ratio. We have employed the increasingly accurate stellar abundance determinations, resulting in large part from the more precise laboratory atomic data, to predict directly the Solar System r-process elemental...

  10. SOLiD-SAGE of endophyte-infected red fescue reveals numerous effects on host transcriptome and an abundance of highly expressed fungal secreted proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen V Ambrose

    Full Text Available One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue-endophyte symbiosis.

  11. SOLiD-SAGE of endophyte-infected red fescue reveals numerous effects on host transcriptome and an abundance of highly expressed fungal secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Karen V; Belanger, Faith C

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue-endophyte symbiosis.

  12. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins: A combined spectroscopic and computational investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Ghosh; Bijan Kumar Paul; Nitin Chattopadhyay

    2014-07-01

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the three CDs interact differently on the fluorescence and fluorescence lifetimes of the serum albumins. However, fluorescence anisotropy and circular dichroism are not affected. Depending on their size, different CDs bind to the serum albumins in different positions, resulting in changes in the spectral behaviour of the proteins. Docking study suggests the probable binding sites of the three CDs with the proteins. Combined experimental and computational studies imply that sufficiently high concentration of CDs causes loosening of the rigid structures of these transport proteins, although their secondary structures remain intact. Thus, CDs are found to be safe for the serum proteins from the structural point of view.

  13. A link between high serum levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin and chorionic expression of its mature functional receptor (LHCGR in Down's syndrome pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG is released from placental trophoblasts and is involved in establishing pregnancy by maintaining progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum. Serum hCG is detected in the maternal circulation within the first 2–3 wks of gestation and peaks at the end of the first trimester before declining. In Down's syndrome (DS pregnancies, serum hCG remains significantly high compared to gestation age-matched uncompromised pregnancies. It has been proposed that increased serum hCG levels could be due to transcriptional hyper-activation of the CGB (hCG beta gene, or an increased half life of glycosylated hCG hormone, or both. Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormone's cognate receptor, LHCGR, leading to lack of hormone utilization. We have tested this hypothesis by quantifying the expression of the hCG beta (CGB RNA, LHCGR RNA and LHCGR proteins in chorionic villous samples. We demonstrate that chorionic expression of hCG beta (CGB mRNA directly correlates with high serum hCG levels. The steady-state synthesis of LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–5 in DS pregnancies was significantly higher than that of controls, but the expression of full-length LHCGR mRNA (exons 1–11 in DS was comparable to that of uncompromised pregnancies. However, the synthesis of high molecular weight mature LHCGR proteins was significantly reduced in DS compared to uncompromised pregnancies, suggesting a lack of utilization of circulating hCG in DS pregnancies.

  14. Crystallographic analysis reveals the structural basis of the high-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ali J; Chung, Chun-Wa; Curry, Stephen

    2011-04-18

    Iophenoxic acid is an iodinated radiocontrast agent that was withdrawn from clinical use because of its exceptionally long half-life in the body, which was due in part to its high-affinity binding to human serum albumin (HSA). It was replaced by Iopanoic acid, which has an amino rather than a hydroxyl group at position 3 on the iodinated benzyl ring and, as a result, binds to albumin with lower affinity and is excreted more rapidly from the body. To understand how iophenoxic acid binds so tightly to albumin, we wanted to examine the structural basis of its interaction with HSA. We have determined the co-crystal structure of HSA in complex with iophenoxic acid at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing a total of four binding sites, two of which--in drugs sites 1 and 2 on the protein--are likely to be occupied at clinical doses. High-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid occurs at drug site 1. The structure reveals that polar and apolar groups on the compound are involved in its interactions with drug site 1. In particular, the 3-hydroxyl group makes three hydrogen bonds with the side-chains of Tyr 150 and Arg 257. The mode of binding to drug site 2 is similar except for the absence of a binding partner for the hydroxyl group on the benzyl ring of the compound. The HSA-iophenoxic acid structure indicates that high-affinity binding to drug site 1 is likely to be due to extensive desolvation of the compound, coupled with the ability of the binding pocket to provide a full set of salt-bridging or hydrogen bonding partners for its polar groups. Consistent with this interpretation, the structure also suggests that the lower-affinity binding of iopanoic acid arises because replacement of the 3-hydroxyl by an amino group eliminates hydrogen bonding to Arg 257. This finding underscores the importance of polar interactions in high-affinity binding to albumin.

  15. Crystallographic analysis reveals the structural basis of the high-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid to human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Chun-wa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iophenoxic acid is an iodinated radiocontrast agent that was withdrawn from clinical use because of its exceptionally long half-life in the body, which was due in part to its high-affinity binding to human serum albumin (HSA. It was replaced by Iopanoic acid, which has an amino rather than a hydroxyl group at position 3 on the iodinated benzyl ring and, as a result, binds to albumin with lower affinity and is excreted more rapidly from the body. To understand how iophenoxic acid binds so tightly to albumin, we wanted to examine the structural basis of its interaction with HSA. Results We have determined the co-crystal structure of HSA in complex with iophenoxic acid at 2.75 Å resolution, revealing a total of four binding sites, two of which - in drugs sites 1 and 2 on the protein - are likely to be occupied at clinical doses. High-affinity binding of iophenoxic acid occurs at drug site 1. The structure reveals that polar and apolar groups on the compound are involved in its interactions with drug site 1. In particular, the 3-hydroxyl group makes three hydrogen bonds with the side-chains of Tyr 150 and Arg 257. The mode of binding to drug site 2 is similar except for the absence of a binding partner for the hydroxyl group on the benzyl ring of the compound. Conclusions The HSA-iophenoxic acid structure indicates that high-affinity binding to drug site 1 is likely to be due to extensive desolvation of the compound, coupled with the ability of the binding pocket to provide a full set of salt-bridging or hydrogen bonding partners for its polar groups. Consistent with this interpretation, the structure also suggests that the lower-affinity binding of iopanoic acid arises because replacement of the 3-hydroxyl by an amino group eliminates hydrogen bonding to Arg 257. This finding underscores the importance of polar interactions in high-affinity binding to albumin.

  16. Surprising abundance of Gallionella-related iron oxidizers in creek sediments at pH 4.4 or at high heavy metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisch, Maria; Beulig, Felix; Akob, Denise M; Küsel, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    We identified and quantified abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at three iron-rich, metal-contaminated creek sites with increasing sediment pH from extremely acidic (R1, pH 2.7), to moderately acidic (R2, pH 4.4), to slightly acidic (R3, pH 6.3) in a former uranium-mining district. The geochemical parameters showed little variations over the 1.5 year study period. The highest metal concentrations found in creek sediments always coincided with the lowest metal concentrations in creek water at the slightly acidic site R3. Sequential extractions of R3 sediment revealed large portions of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, U) bound to the iron oxide fraction. Light microscopy of glass slides exposed in creeks detected twisted stalks characteristic of microaerobic FeOB of the family Gallionellaceae at R3 but also at the acidic site R2. Sequences related to FeOB such as Gallionella ferruginea, Sideroxydans sp. CL21, Ferritrophicum radicicola, and Acidovorax sp. BrG1 were identified in the sediments. The highest fraction of clone sequences similar to the acidophilic "Ferrovum myxofaciens" was detected in R1. Quantitative PCR using primer sets specific for Gallionella spp., Sideroxydans spp., and "Ferrovum myxofaciens" revealed that ~72% (R2 sediment) and 37% (R3 sediment) of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies could be assigned to groups of FeOB with dominance of microaerobic Gallionella spp. at both sites. Gallionella spp. had similar and very high absolute and relative gene copy numbers in both sediment communities. Thus, Gallionella-like organisms appear to exhibit a greater acid and metal tolerance than shown before. Microaerobic FeOB from R3 creek sediment enriched in newly developed metal gradient tubes tolerated metal concentrations of 35 mM Co, 24 mM Ni, and 1.3 mM Cd, higher than those in sediments. Our results will extend the limited knowledge of FeOB at contaminated, moderately to slightly acidic environments.

  17. High abundances of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids, ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls in the mountaintop aerosols over the North China Plain during wheat burning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol (TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mount Tai (elevation: 1534 m a.s.l., 36.25° N, 117.10° E located in the North China Plain using a high-volume air sampler and pre-combusted quartz filters. Sampling was conducted on day/night or 3 h basis in the period from 29 May to 28 June 2006 during the field burning of wheat straw residue and the post-burning season. The filter samples were analyzed for low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids and α-dicarbonyls using capillary gas chromatography (GC and GC-MS employing water extraction and butyl ester derivatization. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids (C2-C11, 220–6070 ng m−3 were characterized by a predominance of oxalic (C2 acid (105–3920 ng m−3 followed by succinic (C4 or malonic (C3 acid. Unsaturated aliphatic diacids, including maleic (M, isomaleic (iM and fumaric (F acids, were also detected together with aromatic diacids (phthalic, isophthalic and terephthalic acids. ω-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9, 24–610 ng m−3 were detected as the second most abundant compound class with the predominance of glyoxylic acid (11–360 ng m−3, followed by α-ketoacid (pyruvic acid, 3–140 ng m−3 and α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal, 1–230 ng m−3 and methylglyoxal, 2–120 ng m−3. We found that these levels (>6000 ng m−3 for diacids are several times higher than those reported in Chinese megacities at ground levels. The concentrations of diacids increased from late May to early June, showing a maximum on 7 June, and then significantly decreased during the period 8–11 June, when the wind direction shifted from southerly to northerly. Similar temporal trends were found for ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls as well as total carbon (TC and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC. The temporal variations of water-soluble organics were interpreted by the direct emission from the field burning of agricultural wastes (wheat straw in the North China Plain and the

  18. Surprising abundance of Gallionella-related iron oxidizers in creek sediments at pH 4.4 or at high heavy metal concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eFabisch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We identified and quantified abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB at three iron-rich, metal-contaminated creek sites with increasing sediment pH from extremely acidic (R1, pH 2.7, to moderately acidic (R2, pH 4.4, to slightly acidic (R3, pH 6.3 in a former uranium-mining district. The geochemical parameters showed little variations over the 1.5 year study period. The highest metal concentrations found in creek sediments always coincided with the lowest metal concentrations in creek water at the slightly acidic site R3. Sequential extractions of R3 sediment revealed large portions of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, U bound to the iron oxide fraction. Light microscopy of glass slides exposed in creeks detected twisted stalks characteristic of microaerobic FeOB of the family Gallionellaceae at R3 but also at the acidic site R2. Sequences related to FeOB such as Gallionella ferruginea, Sideroxydans sp. CL21, Ferritrophicum radicicola, and Acidovorax sp. BrG1 were identified in the sediments. The highest fraction of clone sequences similar to the acidophilic ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’ was detected in R1. Quantitative PCR using primer sets specific for Gallionella spp., Sideroxydans spp., and ‘Ferrovum myxofaciens’ revealed that approximately 72% (R2 sediment and 37% (R3 sediment of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies could be assigned to groups of FeOB with dominance of microaerobic Gallionella spp. at both sites. Gallionella spp. had similar and very high absolute and relative gene copy numbers in both sediment communities. Thus, Gallionella-like organisms appear to exhibit a greater acid and metal tolerance than shown before. Microaerobic FeOB from R3 creek sediment enriched in newly developed metal gradient tubes tolerated metal concentrations of 35 mM Co, 24 mM Ni, and 1.3 mM Cd, higher than those in sediments. Our results will extend the limited knowledge of FeOB at contaminated, moderately to slightly acidic environments.

  19. Surprising abundance of Gallionella-related iron oxidizers in creek sediments at pH 4.4 or at high heavy metal concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabisch, Maria; Beulig, Felix; Akob, Denise M.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    We identified and quantified abundant iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at three iron-rich, metal-contaminated creek sites with increasing sediment pH from extremely acidic (R1, pH 2.7), to moderately acidic (R2, pH 4.4), to slightly acidic (R3, pH 6.3) in a former uranium-mining district. The geochemical parameters showed little variations over the 1.5 year study period. The highest metal concentrations found in creek sediments always coincided with the lowest metal concentrations in creek water at the slightly acidic site R3. Sequential extractions of R3 sediment revealed large portions of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, U) bound to the iron oxide fraction. Light microscopy of glass slides exposed in creeks detected twisted stalks characteristic of microaerobic FeOB of the family Gallionellaceae at R3 but also at the acidic site R2. Sequences related to FeOB such as Gallionella ferruginea, Sideroxydans sp. CL21, Ferritrophicum radicicola, and Acidovorax sp. BrG1 were identified in the sediments. The highest fraction of clone sequences similar to the acidophilic “Ferrovum myxofaciens” was detected in R1. Quantitative PCR using primer sets specific for Gallionella spp., Sideroxydans spp., and “Ferrovum myxofaciens” revealed that ~72% (R2 sediment) and 37% (R3 sediment) of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies could be assigned to groups of FeOB with dominance of microaerobic Gallionella spp. at both sites. Gallionella spp. had similar and very high absolute and relative gene copy numbers in both sediment communities. Thus, Gallionella-like organisms appear to exhibit a greater acid and metal tolerance than shown before. Microaerobic FeOB from R3 creek sediment enriched in newly developed metal gradient tubes tolerated metal concentrations of 35 mM Co, 24 mM Ni, and 1.3 mM Cd, higher than those in sediments. Our results will extend the limited knowledge of FeOB at contaminated, moderately to slightly acidic environments.

  20. Varying relationship between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase with sunlight exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vivek G; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Mughal, Zulf M; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol and cholecalciferol are synthesized from a common substrate 7-dehydrocholesterol. 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to cholesterol by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase enzyme (DHCR7) and to cholecalciferol by ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight. To examine the effect of sunlight exposure and serum DHCR7 levels on cholecalciferol and cholesterol levels and studying any interrelationship. In a cross-sectional observational study, 307 apparently healthy men (aged 40-60 years) were assessed for sunlight exposure, lipid levels, serum DHCR7, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), body composition, and dietary milk calcium intake. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D sunlight exposure (P sunlight exposure (sunlight exposure (1-2 h/d), there was no significant association. However, with higher sunlight exposure (>2 h/d), serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly negatively associated with HDL-C (P sunlight exposure, an inverse significant relationship was observed between 25(OH)D and serum DHCR7 (P sunlight exposure, no significant relationship was seen. 25(OH)D seems to show a varying relationship with HDL-C and serum DHCR7 at different durations of sunlight exposure. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  2. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls serum levels in subjects living in a highly polluted area from 2003 to 2015: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffetti, Elena; Speziani, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesco; Leonardi, Lucia; Orizio, Grazia; Scarcella, Carmelo; Apostoli, Pietro; Magoni, Michele

    2017-04-01

    A chemical factory located in Brescia, an industrialized town in North Italy, produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) since the 1930s to the 1980s, determining a relevant pollution of soil, food and people. Since 2001, following a survey carried out in the general population living in the town, the individuals with PCB serum levels higher than the reference entered a follow-up study. We performed a prospective cohort study including subjects with at least three PCB measures during the period 2003-2015. We evaluated the temporal trends of total PCB serum levels, the most common PCB congeners (PCB 138,153, 170, 180, 194 and 209), and toxic equivalency of dioxin-like PCBs using univariate and multivariate mixed models with and without a cubic-spline term for time. A total of 128 subjects were enrolled (46.1% males, mean age at enrolment 57.7 years). The geometric mean of PCBs decreased from 35.4ng/ml at 0-3 years to 29.3ng/ml at 4-8 years and to 23.0ng/ml at 9-12 years. A 3.8% reduction of total PCB serum levels per year was estimated using both univariate and multivariate mixed models adjusted for age; a similar reduction was found for the most common PCB congeners and for toxic equivalency. Total PCB serum levels decreased over time for each age group: -3.9%, -4.0% and -3.4% for subjects aged ≤55 years, 56-65 and ≥66 years, respectively. A significant decrease of serum concentrations of PCBs was observed in subjects with high serum levels of these chemicals at enrolment over a twelve year period. The decrease was evident for each PCB congener and age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke

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    Hua-jun CHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relationship between serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP level and modified TOAST classification as well as OCSP subtypes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Serum hs-CRP was measured in 240 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 120 normal controls. All patients were classified according to modified TOAST classification and OCSP criteria. Serum hs-CRP levels in acute ischemic stroke group were significantly higher than those in normal control group [(13.68 ± 6.92 mg/L vs (3.98 ± 0.76 mg/L; t = 6.922, P = 0.002]. Among modified TOAST subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in cardioembolism (CE group [(16.82 ± 6.16 mg/L], followed by arterothrombosis (AT group [(15.17 ± 5.68 mg/L], stroke of undetermined etiology (SUD group [(10.06 ± 3.89 mg/L] and small artery disease (SAD group [(9.86 ± 3.75 mg/L, P = 0.027]. Among OCSP subtypes, the highest serum hs-CRP level was in total anterior circulation infarct (TACI group [(17.02 ± 6.98 mg/L], followed by posterior circulation infarct (POCI group [(15.91 ± 7.12 mg/L], partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI group [(12.83 ± 4.95 mg/L] and lacunar infarct (LACI group [(10.61 ± 5.73 mg/L, P = 0.005]. Serum hs-CRP levels are various in different modified TOAST and OCSP subtypes, which may reflect etiological and pathophysiological diversity of acute ischemic stroke, guide clinical treatment and help to predict prognosis. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.013

  4. Serum stimulation of CCR7 chemotaxis due to coagulation factor XIIa-dependent production of high-molecular-weight kininogen domain 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponda, Manish P; Breslow, Jan L

    2016-10-24

    Chemokines and their receptors play a critical role in immune function by directing cell-specific movement. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) facilitates entry of T cells into lymph nodes. CCR7-dependent chemotaxis requires either of the cognate ligands C-C chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) or CCL21. Although CCR7-dependent chemotaxis can be augmented through receptor up-regulation or by increased chemokine concentrations, we found that chemotaxis is also markedly enhanced by serum in vitro. Upon purification, the serum cofactor activity was ascribed to domain 5 of high-molecular-weight kininogen. This peptide was necessary and sufficient for accelerated chemotaxis. The cofactor activity in serum was dependent on coagulation factor XIIa, a serine protease known to induce cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) at sites of inflammation. Within domain 5, we synthesized a 24-amino acid peptide that could recapitulate the activity of intact serum through a mechanism distinct from up-regulating CCR7 expression or promoting chemokine binding to CCR7. This peptide interacts with the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin 4 (TSP4), and antibodies to TSP4 neutralize its activity. In vivo, an HK domain 5 peptide stimulated homing of both T and B cells to lymph nodes. A circulating cofactor that is activated at inflammatory foci to enhance lymphocyte chemotaxis represents a powerful mechanism coupling inflammation to adaptive immunity.

  5. High serum levels of HDV RNA are predictors of cirrhosis and liver cancer in patients with chronic hepatitis delta.

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    Raffaella Romeo

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with the hepatitis delta virus (HDV is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, but little is known whether the outcome of hepatitis is predicted by serum markers of HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate these correlations in 193 patients with chronic HDV infection who had been followed up for a median of 9.5 years (4.8-19.3. HDV-RNA was first measured by qualitative in-house nested RT-PCR and quantified by in-house real-time PCR. HDV RNA levels only appeared significantly associated to HCC (univariate analysis: OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02-1.71; p = 0.037; multivariate analysis: OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.95; p = 0.03. In non-cirrhotics at first presentation (n = 105, HDV RNA levels were associated with progression to cirrhosis (univariate analysis: OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.20-2.05, p<0.001; multivariate analysis: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.20-2.12, p = 0.007 and development of HCC (univariate analysis: OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.04-2.65, p = 0.033; multivariate analysis: OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.11-3.19, p = 0.019. ROC analysis showed that approximately 600,000 HDV RNA copies/mL was the optimal cut-off value in our cohort of patients for discriminating the development of cirrhosis. High levels of HDV viremia in non-cirrhotic patients are associated with a considerable likelihood of progression to cirrhosis and the development of HCC. Once cirrhosis has developed, the role of HDV replication as a predictor of a negative outcome lessens.

  6. Apolipoprotein AI deficiency inhibits serum opacity factor activity against plasma high density lipoprotein via a stabilization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Patel, Niket; Gillard, Baiba K; Yelamanchili, Dedipya; Yang, Yaliu; Courtney, Harry S; Santos, Raul D; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2015-04-14

    The reaction of Streptococcal serum opacity factor (SOF) against plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) produces a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), a smaller neo HDL that is apolipoprotein (apo) AI-poor, and lipid-free apo AI. SOF is active versus both human and mouse plasma HDL. In vivo injection of SOF into mice reduces plasma cholesterol ∼40% in 3 h while forming the same products observed in vitro, but at different ratios. Previous studies supported the hypothesis that labile apo AI is required for the SOF reaction vs HDL. Here we further tested that hypothesis by studies of SOF against HDL from apo AI-null mice. When injected into apo AI-null mice, SOF reduced plasma cholesterol ∼35% in 3 h. The reaction of SOF vs apo AI-null HDL in vitro produced a CERM and neo HDL, but no lipid-free apo. Moreover, according to the rate of CERM formation, the extent and rate of the SOF reaction versus apo AI-null mouse HDL were less than that against wild-type (WT) mouse HDL. Chaotropic perturbation studies using guanidine hydrochloride showed that apo AI-null HDL was more stable than WT HDL. Human apo AI added to apo AI-null HDL was quantitatively incorporated, giving reconstituted HDL. Both SOF and guanidine hydrochloride displaced apo AI from the reconstituted HDL. These results support the conclusion that apo AI-null HDL is more stable than WT HDL because it lacks apo AI, a labile protein that is readily displaced by physicochemical and biochemical perturbations. Thus, apo AI-null HDL is less SOF-reactive than WT HDL. The properties of apo AI-null HDL can be partially restored to those of WT HDL by the spontaneous incorporation of human apo AI. It remains to be determined what other HDL functions are affected by apo AI deletion.

  7. Streptococcal serum opacity factor increases the rate of hepatocyte uptake of human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2010-11-16

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ∼400000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins, and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E-dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The uptake of [(3)H]CE by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was 2.4 and 4.5 times faster, respectively, than from control HDL. CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[(3)H]CE but not HDL-[(3)H]CE uptake, thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases the rate of CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase the level of hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful.

  8. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data

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    Leo Lahti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae. These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes

  9. Associations between the human intestinal microbiota, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and serum lipids indicated by integrated analysis of high-throughput profiling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Leo; Salonen, Anne; Kekkonen, Riina A; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Jalanka-Tuovinen, Jonna; Palva, Airi; Orešič, Matej; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota regulates our physiology and metabolism. Bacteria marketed as probiotics confer health benefits that may arise from their ability to affect the microbiota. Here high-throughput screening of the intestinal microbiota was carried out and integrated with serum lipidomic profiling data to study the impact of probiotic intervention on the intestinal ecosystem, and to explore the associations between the intestinal bacteria and serum lipids. We performed a comprehensive intestinal microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray before and after Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG intervention. While a specific increase in the L. rhamnosus-related bacteria was observed during the intervention, no other changes in the composition or stability of the microbiota were detected. After the intervention, lactobacilli returned to their initial levels. As previously reported, also the serum lipid profiles remained unaltered during the intervention. Based on a high-resolution microbiota analysis, intake of L. rhamnosus GG did not modify the composition of the intestinal ecosystem in healthy adults, indicating that probiotics confer their health effects by other mechanisms. The most prevailing association between the gut microbiota and lipid profiles was a strong positive correlation between uncultured phylotypes of Ruminococcus gnavus-group and polyunsaturated serum triglycerides of dietary origin. Moreover, a positive correlation was detected between serum cholesterol and Collinsella (Coriobacteriaceae). These associations identified with the spectrometric lipidome profiling were corroborated by enzymatically determined cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Actinomycetaceae correlated negatively with triglycerides of highly unsaturated fatty acids while a set of Proteobacteria showed negative correlation with ether phosphatidylcholines. Our results suggest that several members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and

  10. High Concentrations of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Detected in Serum from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Be Explained by Non-Specific Antibody Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Ruge, Toralph; Nilsson, Solveig; Södergren, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is suggested to be a master regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Our aim was to study whether the previously reported high levels of ANGPTL4 detected in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by ELISA was due to any specific molecular form of this protein (oligomers, monomers or fragments). ANGPTL4 levels were first determined in serum from 68 RA patients and 43 age and sex matched control subjects and the mean values differed by a factor of 5.0. Then, ANGPTL4 was analyzed after size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of serum samples. With serum from one of the RA patients with high levels of ANGPTL4, the dominant reactivity was found in fractions corresponding to high-molecular weight proteins. In addition, a minor peak of reactivity eluting late from the column was found both in the patient and in controls. By the use of HeteroBlock®, and by careful selection of antibodies, we documented non-specific reactions for ANGPTL4 in 39% of samples from the RA patients, most likely due to cross-reactivity of the antibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF). The corresponding figure for control subjects was 6.3%. After corrections for non-specific reactions, the mean level of ANGPTL4 in serum from RA patients was still significantly higher than in control individuals (mean levels were 101±62 and 67±39 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.02). We re-analyzed samples from our previously published studies on ANGPL4 levels in patients on hemodialysis and patients with diabetes type 2. These samples did not show false positive reactions. The levels of ANGPTL4 were comparable to those detected previously. PMID:28107351

  11. A comparison of E15.5 fetus and newborn rat serum proteomes

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    Wei Lilong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum proteins carry out several functions in the circulation, including transfer, immunological functions, messenger functions, coagulation, and regulation of homeostasis. To investigate changes in serum proteins that occur during development, the serum proteomes of embryonic 15.5 (E15.5 fetuses and newborn rats were compared using LC-MS/MS. Results A total of 958 proteins were identified in the serum of rats at both developmental stages. The serum proteome pattern of newborn rats was compared to E15.5 fetuses by relative quantitation. The expression patterns of hemoglobin subunits were different at the two stages, with most of the subunits having decreased expression in newborn rats compared to E15.5 fetuses. In addition, 8 of 12 apolipoproteins were significantly decreased and 10 of 11 identified complement molecules were increased, with 4 exhibiting a significant increase. Moreover, 11 of 14 of the significantly increased enzyme regulators were inhibitors. The serum proteome patterns of different littermates from both developmental stages were also compared. We found that the levels of many highly abundant serum proteins varied between littermates, and the variations were larger than the variations of the technical control. Conclusions The serum proteomes of newborn rats and E15.5 fetuses were compared. The expression patterns of hemoglobin subunits were different at the two developmental stages, with most of the subunits having decreased expression. The majority of apolipoproteins had significantly decreased expression, while almost all identified complement proteins had increased expression. The levels of several highly abundant serum proteins also varied among littermates at these two developmental stages. This is the first study using LC-MS/MS to investigate serum proteome development.

  12. Screening of differentially expressed Iow-abundance proteins among serum samples from patients with different HBV-related hepatic diseases by SELDI-TOF-MS%小分子差异蛋白在HBV相关性肝病患者血清中的SELDI-TOF-MS筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁秋悦; 吴继周; 李国坚; 臧宁; 胡蝶飞; 吴健林; 陈茂伟; 万裴琦

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To screen differentially expressed lowabundance proteins among serum samples from patients with different HBV-related hepatic diseases and to evaluate their possible value in the diagnosis of these diseases.METHODS: The surface-enhanced laser desorption or ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to screen differentially expressed proteins among serum samples, in which high-abundance proteins had been removed with acetonitrile, collected from patients with asymptomatic chronic hepatitis B (ASC), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and normal controls.Diagnostic models for each disease were then established with differentially expressed proteins.Protein databases were searched to predict the possible structure and function of differentially expressed proteins.RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, 63 differentially expressed protein peaks were detected in the ASC group, of which 29 were up-regulated and 34 down-regulated (P < 0.05); 57 in the CHB group, of which 29 upregulated and 34 down-regulated; 68 in the LC group, of which 33 up-regulated and 35 downregulated; and 74 in the HCC group, of which 28 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated.A peak with a m/z of 15 889.8 corresponded to a protein whose expression was up-regulated gradually in an order of healthy controls, ASC, CHB and LC patients, and its expression level in the HCC group was lower than those in the CHB group and LC group.The expression of a protein with a m/z of 11 742.2 was higher in the LC group and HCC group than in other groups, and its expression was gradually increased in an order of healthy controls, CHB, and LC patients, or in another order of healthy controls, CHB, and HCC patients.The sensitivity and specificity using the protein peak at 11 742.2 for diagnosis of LC were 90% and 86.67% and for HCC were 93.33% and 83.33%, respectively.%目的:探讨乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)相关性肝病患者血清

  13. High levels of serum mannose-binding lectin are associated with the severity of clinical signs of leptospirosis

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    K.A. Miranda

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The clinical heterogeneity observed in leptospirosis may be associated with host factors or bacteria virulence. Human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL recognizes many pathogens, and low levels of this lectin are associated with susceptibility to infection. MBL is also implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory process. We determined the levels of serum MBL during leptospirosis infection. A double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to detect the immunoreactive serum MBL. The ELISA plates were coated with monoclonal antibody to MBL and bound MBL or recombinant human MBL were detected by rabbit anti-human MBL serum. HRPO-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody was used for detection of the reaction. Two groups of patients seen at referral hospitals in Recife, PE, Brazil, were divided according to the year of infection, 2001 (N = 61 or 2002 (N = 57 and compared in terms of disease severity and levels of serum MBL. A group of healthy volunteers (N = 97 matched by age, gender, and ethnic background was used as control. Patients infected in 2001 had more severe outcomes than those infected in 2002, including jaundice, hemorrhage, respiratory alteration, and renal complication (P = 0.0009; chi-square test. The frequency of patients producing serum MBL >1000 ng/mL was higher in the 2001 group than in the 2002 and control groups (P < 0.01, suggesting an association of MBL level with disease severity. The involvement of MBL and genetic variation of the MBL2 gene should be further evaluated to establish the role of this lectin in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS IN TYPE2 DIABETES PREDISPOSING TO ATEROSCLEROSIS

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    SK.Deepthi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase is physically associated with HDL and has been implicated in the detoxification of organophosphates and possibly in the prevention of LDL lipid peroxidation and therefore retards atherosclerosis. HDL levels are inversely related to the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We investigated the serum activity and concentration of paraoxonase and HDL levels in 104 subjects (42 diabetic patients without complications, 42 controls, 20 diabetic patients with complications.. Paraoxonase activity was found to be lower in diabetic patients than in controls. Similarly there was reduction in HDL levels in cases suggesting a positive correlation between HDL and paraoxonase levels.

  15. Fatty liver in men is associated with high serum levels of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

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    Hosoyamada Kaori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Our study addressed potential associations between fatty liver and small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-C levels using a cross-sectional analysis. Methods We enrolled 476 male subjects. Serum sd-LDL-C concentrations were determined using precipitation assays. Results Subjects were divided into four groups based on triglyceride (TG and LDL-C levels: A, TG  Conclusions Fatty liver is a significant determinant of serum sd-LDL-C levels independent of the presence of obesity or hyperglycemia. Fatty liver may alter hepatic metabolism of TG and LDL-C, resulting in increased sd-LDL-C levels.

  16. High levels of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord serum phospholipids predict allergy development.

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    Malin Barman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. METHODS: From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n = 794, we selected cases with atopic eczema (n = 37 or respiratory allergy (n = 44, as well as non-allergic non-sensitized controls (n = 48 based on diagnosis at 13 years of age. Cord and maternal sera obtained at delivery from cases and controls were analysed for proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids among serum phospholipids. RESULTS: The cord serum phospholipids from subject who later developed either respiratory allergy or atopic eczema had significantly higher proportions of 5/8 LCPUFA species, as well as total n-3 LCPUFA, total n-6 LCPUFA and total LCPUFA compared to cord serum phospholipids from controls who did not develop allergy (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conversely, individuals later developing allergy had lower proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acid 18∶1n-9 as well as total MUFA (p<0.001 among cord serum phospholipids. The risk of respiratory allergy at age 13 increased linearly with the proportion of n-3 LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001, n-6 LCPUFA (Ptrend = 0.001, and total LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001 and decreased linearly with the proportions of total MUFA (Ptrend = 0.025 in cord serum phospholipids. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier estimates of allergy development demonstrated that total LCPUFA proportion in cord serum phospholipids was significantly associated with respiratory allergy (P = 0.008 and sensitization (P = 0.002, after control for sex and parental allergy. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of long

  17. High serum leptin is an independent risk factor for non-response patients with low viremia to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuichiro Eguchi; Toshihiko Mizuta; Tsutomu Yasutake; Akitaka Hisatomi; Ryuichi Iwakiri; Iwata Ozaki; Kazuma Fujimoto

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether body weight and/or serum leptin were independent predictors of response to antiviral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C.METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 139 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with interferon (IFN) from 1996 to 2000. Sustained response was defined as negative by hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA analysis using PCR and normal transaminase at 24 wk after cessation of IFN therapy. Patients who remained positive for HCV RNA at the end of IFN treatment were defined as resistant to IFN therapy. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI) (≥ 25 vs < 25), complication of diabetes mellitus, serum leptin level (≥8.0 μg/L vs <8.0 μg/L),and the stage of liver fibrosis by needle biopsy (FL/F2 vs F3/F4) were examined.RESULTS: Sustained response was achieved in 33 patients (23.7%), while others failed to show a response to IFN therapy. Overall, the factors associated with sustained antiviral effects were HCV-RNA load, HCV genotype, serum leptin level, and stage of liver fibrosis evaluated by univariate analysis. BMI was not associated with any therapeutic effect of IFN. Multivariate analysis indicated that HCV-RNA load was a significant risk factor,but among the patients with low viremia (HCV-RNA < 100 MU/L), leptin level was an independent risk factor for IFN resistance. Namely, a high level of serum leptin attenuated the effect of IFN on both male and female patients with low viremia.CONCLUSION: High serum leptin level is a negative predictor of response to antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C with low viremia.

  18. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

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    Kasimir-Bauer Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20, primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31, metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32, and healthy individuals (n = 28 by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001, nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008, and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001. High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009. Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004. The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01 and DNA levels (p = 0.04, and protease activities (p = 0.008. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression.

  19. Abundance analysis of Barium stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Qing Liu; Yan-Chun Liang; Li-Cai Deng

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the chemical abundances of six barium stars and two CH subgiant stars based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra. The neu- tron capture process elements Y, Zr, Ba, La and Eu show obvious overabundances relative to the Sun, for example, their [Ba/Fe] values are from 0.45 to 1.27. Other elements, in- cluding Na, Mg, A1, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni, show comparable abundances to the Solar ones, and their [Fe/H] covers a range from -0.40 to 0.21, which means they belong to the Galactic disk. The predictions of the theoretical model of wind accretion for bi- nary systems can explain the observed abundance patterns of the neutron capture process elements in these stars, which means that their overabundant heavy-elements could be caused by accreting the ejecta of AGB stars, the progenitors of present-day white dwarf companions in binary systems.

  20. Early mid-trimester serum relaxin, soluble CD163, and cervical length in women at high risk for preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Goepfert, Alice R.; Møller, Holger Jon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum concentrations of relaxin and soluble CD163 with cervical length and preterm delivery in women with previous spontaneous preterm delivery. Study design: Sixty-one of 69 pregnant women with a previous spontaneous p...