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Sample records for high aa pulp

  1. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  2. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  4. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  5. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  6. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  7. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions

  9. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  10. Factors affecting the optimal performance of a high-yield pulping operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, G [Noranda Technology Centre, Pointe-Claire, PQ (Canada); Paris, J [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Valada, J L [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Strategies for operating a chemical-mechanical pulp mill were investigated from data based on process models from some one hundred pilot scale pulping runs. Optimal values for 55 process and pulp quality variables have been calculated by applying a genetic algorithm search to a fuzzy model of the overall system. Best pulp quality was achieved and maintained when the chemical pretreatment was conducted at moderately low temperatures using a high SO{sub 2} concentration, which produced high sulphonation and high yield at the same time. By characterizing the quality of the pulp at the fibre level, optimization results were said to be more easily transferable to other high yield pulping systems. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  12. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  14. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  15. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  16. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO 4 . 7H 2 O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  17. Application of response surface methodology to optimize uranium biological leaching at high pulp density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatemi, Faezeh; Arabieh, Masoud; Jahani, Samaneh [NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to carry out uranium bioleaching via optimization of the leaching process using response surface methodology. For this purpose, the native Acidithiobacillus sp. was adapted to different pulp densities following optimization process carried out at a high pulp density. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the uranium bioleaching. The effects of six key parameters on the bioleaching efficiency were investigated. The process was modeled with mathematical equation, including not only first and second order terms, but also with probable interaction effects between each pair of factors.The results showed that the extraction efficiency of uranium dropped from 100% at pulp densities of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% to 68% at 12.5% of pulp density. Using RSM, the optimum conditions for uranium bioleaching (12.5% (w/v)) were identified as pH = 1.96, temperature = 30.90 C, stirring speed = 158 rpm, 15.7% inoculum, FeSO{sub 4} . 7H{sub 2}O concentration at 13.83 g/L and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration at 3.22 g/L which achieved 83% of uranium extraction efficiency. The results of uranium bioleaching experiment using optimized parameter showed 81% uranium extraction during 15 d. The obtained results reveal that using RSM is reliable and appropriate for optimization of parameters involved in the uranium bioleaching process.

  18. High levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas: effects on enamel and pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, George; Zaidel, Lynette; Lin, Nora; Stranick, Michael; Bagley, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Limited data are available to assess the safety of high levels of hydrogen peroxide in overnight tooth-whitening formulas. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrogen peroxide on enamel microhardness, pulp penetration, and enamel morphology. Colgate Platinum Professional Overnight Whitening System (Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Canton, MA, USA) (10% carbamide peroxide, equivalent to 3.5% hydrogen peroxide) was compared with two prototype formulations containing either 7.0% or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide. In the pulp chamber studies, human extracted teeth were exposed to 3.5%, 7.0%, or 12.0% hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes, 4 hours, or 7 hours. Microhardness, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atomic force microscopy evaluations were made from enamel blocks cut from human extracted molars. The enamel blocks were evaluated following 14 7-hour treatments (98 h total). At 7 hours' post-treatment, hydrogen peroxide penetrated the pulp chamber at 23.12 +/- 10.09, 24.58 +/- 6.90, and 26.39 +/- 5.43 microg for 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. With regard to enamel morphology, pulp penetration, microhardness, and elemental composition, no statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups following 98 hours of treatment. Hydrogen peroxide does not adversely affect enamel morphology or microhardness. The levels recovered in pulp indicate that hydrogen peroxide is not expected to inhibit pulpal enzymes. Overnight tray products containing levels of hydrogen peroxide of 3.5%, 7.0%, and 12.0% are not expected to adversely affect the enamel or pulpal enzymes. Additional safety studies are needed to assess the potential for tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation.

  19. Correlation, by multivariate statistical analysis, between the scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species and the bioactive compounds from frozen fruit pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Cynara Vissotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, and ascorbic acid (AA of 18 frozen fruit pulps and their scavenging capacities against peroxyl radical (ROO•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (•OH were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that TPC (total phenolic compounds and AA (ascorbic acid presented positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against ROO•, and TF (total flavonoids showed positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against •OH and ROO• However, the scavenging capacity against H2O2 presented low correlation with TF (total flavonoids, TPC (total phenolic compounds, and AA (ascorbic acid. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA allowed the classification of the fruit pulps into three groups: one group was formed by the açai pulp with high TF, total flavonoids, content (134.02 mg CE/100 g pulp and the highest scavenging capacity against ROO•, •OH and H2O2; the second group was formed by the acerola pulp with high TPC, total phenolic compounds, (658.40 mg GAE/100 g pulp and AA , ascorbic acid, (506.27 mg/100 g pulp contents; and the third group was formed by pineapple, cacao, caja, cashew-apple, coconut, cupuaçu, guava, orange, lemon, mango, passion fruit, watermelon, pitanga, tamarind, tangerine, and umbu pulps, which could not be separated considering only the contents of bioactive compounds and the scavenging properties.

  20. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  1. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, B.M. Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO 2 ) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10–35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13 GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). Micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3 GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then

  2. High consistency cellulase treatment of hardwood prehydrolysis kraft based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    For enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp, there is a need to improve the process to facilitate its commercialization. For this purpose, the high consistency cellulase treatment was conducted based on the hypothesis that a high cellulose concentration would favor the interactions of cellulase and cellulose, thus improves the cellulase efficiency while decreasing the water usage. The results showed that compared with a low consistency of 3%, the high consistency of 20% led to 24% increases of cellulase adsorption ratio. As a result, the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase at consistency of 20% were enhanced from 510 mL/g and 70.3% to 471 mL/g and 77.6%, respectively, compared with low consistency of 3% at 24h. The results on other properties such as alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and molecular weight distribution also supported the conclusion that a high consistency of cellulase treatment was more effective than a low pulp consistency process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  5. Optimization of extraction of high purity all-trans-lycopene from tomato pulp waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Passamonti, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of pure all-trans-lycopene from the pulp fractions of tomato processing waste. A full factorial design (FFD) consisting of four independent variables including extraction temperature (30-50 °C), time (1-60 min), percentage of acetone in n-hexane (25-75%, v/v) and solvent volume (10-30 ml) was used to investigate the effects of process variables on the extraction. The absolute amount of lycopene present in the pulp waste was found to be 0.038 mg/g. The optimal conditions for extraction were as follows: extraction temperature 20 °C, time 40 min, a solvent composition of 25% acetone in n-hexane (v/v) and solvent volume 40 ml. Under these conditions, the maximal recovery of lycopene was 94.7%. The HPLC-DAD analysis demonstrated that, lycopene was obtained in the all-trans-configuration at a very high purity grade of 98.3% while the amount of cis-isomers and other carotenoids were limited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  7. Biobleaching chemistry of laccase-mediator systems on high-lignin-content kraft pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakar, F.S.; Ragauskas, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A high-lignin-content softwood kraft pulp was reacted with laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (NHA), and violuric acid (VA). The biodelignification response with violuric acid was superior to both 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and N-acetyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine. NMR analysis of residual lignins isolated before and after the biobleaching treatments revealed that the latter material was highly oxidized and that the magnitude of structural changes was most pronounced with the laccase - violuric acid biobleaching system. An increase in the content of carboxylic acid groups and a decrease in methoxyl groups were noted with all three laccase-mediator systems. The oxidation biobleaching pathway is directed primarily towards noncondensed C5 phenolic lignin functional structures for all three laccase-mediated systems. The laccase - violuric acid system was also reactive towards C5-condensed phenolic lignin structures. (author)

  8. High-speed double-disc TMP [thermomechanical pulp] from northern and southern softwoods: One or two refining stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.J. (Andritz Sprout-Bauer, Inc., Springfield, OH (United States)); Cort, J.B.; Musselman, R.L. (Andritz Sprout-Bauer, Inc., Muncy, PA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Pilot-plant studies were carried out to evaluate one- and two-stage high-speed refining processes for production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) at minimal energy consumption. Both northern (black spruce/balsam fir) and southern (lobolly pine) wood species were tested. Preliminary results indicate both one- and two-stage high-speed refining are suitable for the production of TMP from spruce and fir. Single-stage, high-speed refining of spruce/fir resulted in over 25% energy savings compared to conventional TMP production. The resulting TMP had improved optical and shive content properties, with slightly reduced pulp strength and long fiber content. Two stages of refining were necessary to optimize pulp quality from the lobolly pine furnish. A 15% energy reduction was obtained when comparing high-speed and conventional TMP pulping of lobolly pine at similar operating conditions. The high-speed pine TMP had comparable bonding strength, shive content, and lower tear than conventional two-stage lobolly pine TMP. 14 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Pulp & paper markets cope with high energy prices and growth in Asia : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2006-01-01

    \\tPulp and paper markets in the UNECE region were influenced by higher energy prices and demand growth in Asia in 2005 and 2006. Important developments in Europe included the launching of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which was followed by substantial increases in electrical energy prices. High global energy prices pushed up costs of production and prices for pulp...

  10. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunya Tancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1. RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  11. Ozone bleaching of South African Eucalyptus grandis kraft pulps containing high levels of hexenuronic acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone use in conjunction with chlorine dioxide during pulp bleaching offers several advantages over conventional bleaching sequences that make use of chlorine dioxide only. Despite this, in South Africa, only one mill uses ozone. The current study...

  12. A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zeng, Weimin; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage. PMID:24242252

  13. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  15. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies.

  16. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... The results showed that the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum contained essential ... seed of the plant is a good source of oil which is ... Sample Collection and Treatment ... AAS machine due to its good precision and.

  17. Microstructure and high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium alloy modified by Sc, Mg and Zr additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, P. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: puvvala_nagaraju@yahoo.com; Srinivasa Rao, K. [Metallurgical Engineering Department, Andhra University, Visakapatnam 530003 (India); Reddy, G.M. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500258 (India); Kamaraj, M.; Prasad Rao, K. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, IIT-Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-08-25

    The present work pertains to the improvement of high temperature stability of age hardenable AA2219 aluminium-copper (6.3%) alloy. Addition of scandium, magnesium and zirconium to the base metal AA2219 was adopted to improve this high temperature stability. These additions were systematically varied by preparing alloys of different composition using gas tungsten arc melting. Long time ageing studies and impression creep technique were used to study the high temperature stability of the alloys. These modified compositions of the alloy resulted in fine equiaxed grains, refined eutectics, large number of high temperature stable and finer precipitates. Among all the compositions, 0.8% Sc + 0.45% Mg + 0.2% Zr addition was found to be significant in improving the high temperature stability of AA2219 alloy. This may be attributed to the possible microstructural changes, solute enrichment of the matrix and pinning of the grain boundaries by the finer precipitates.

  18. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein; Tafti, Rooholla Azizi; Rahmani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  19. Forming limit diagram of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures by bulge tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Naeini, Hassan Moslemi; Liaghat, Gholamhossein [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafti, Rooholla Azizi [Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahmani, Farzad [Kar Higher Education Institute, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A free bulge test and ductile fracture criteria were used to obtain the forming limit diagrams (FLD) of aluminum alloy AA6063 tubes at high temperatures. Ductile fracture criteria were calibrated using the results of uniaxial tension tests at various elevated temperatures and different strain rates through adjusting the Zener-Holloman parameter. High temperature free bulge test of tubes was simulated in finite element software Abaqus, and tube bursting was predicted using ductile fracture criteria under different loading paths. FLDs which were obtained from finite element simulation were compared to experimental results to select the most accurate criterion for prediction of forming limit diagram. According to the results, all studied ductile fracture criteria predict similarly when forming condition is close to the uniaxial tension, while Ayada criterion predicts the FLD at 473 K and 573 K very well.

  20. High Triterpenic Acids Production in Callus Cultures from Fruit Pulp of Two Apple Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Giancarlo; Gorassini, Andrea; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious (GD) and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" (MRM), and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures. Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents (MeOH and EtOAc). The quali-quantitative analysis of the methanolic extract of both cultures was carried out by ESI-MS n and GC-MS techniques. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of triterpenic acids, in particular, oleanolic, ursolic, maslinic, pomolic, tormentic, corosolic and annurcoic acid along with a phytosterol, β-sitosterol. In addition, GD callus culture produced phloridzin, absent in the MRM culture. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps. Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the polyphenols and antioxidant activity of plantain pulp (Musa paradisiaca AAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Miriam C; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Ramírez-de León, José A; Paz-Gamboa, Ernestina; Vivar-Vera, Maria A

    2017-06-01

    The impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) on the polyphenol (PP) content and antioxidant activity (AOX) of plantain pulp was evaluated. Pressures of 400, 500 and 600 MPa were applied to plantain pulp for 90 and 180 s at room temperature (25 °C). Polyphenoloxidase activity, extractable (EPP) and non-extractable PP (NEPP) contents, flavonoid content and AOX (FRAP, ABTS •+ ) were evaluated. In addition, PP identification was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenoloxidase activity was inhibited after HPP under all of the conditions studied. Increases of 110.80% and 137.40% in EPP content under conditions of 500 MPa/180 s and 600 MPa/90 s were observed with a simultaneous improvement in the AOX with increments of up to 128.71%. The treatment under conditions of 500 MPa/90 s had the highest total PP content, including the highest content of flavonoids (0.22 g ellagic acid equivalents kg -1  dry weight) and the proportion of NEPP that contained hydrolysable PPs (91.12 g gallic acid equivalents kg -1  dry weight with high AOX. The identified PPs included catechin, quercetin, gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids. HPP performed at a room temperature can be used for improving the total content of PP compounds in plantain pulp under specific pressure and time conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementat...

  4. Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Björn; Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2018-05-01

    The activated sludge process within the pulp and paper industry is generally run to minimize the production of waste activated sludge (WAS), leading to high electricity costs from aeration and relatively large basin volumes. In this study, a pilot-scale activated sludge process was run to evaluate the concept of treating the wastewater at high rate with a low sludge age. Two 150 L containers were used, one for aeration and one for sedimentation and sludge return. The hydraulic retention time was decreased from 24 hours to 7 hours, and the sludge age was lowered from 12 days to 2-4 days. The methane potential of the WAS was evaluated using batch tests, as well as continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) in 4 L reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Wastewater treatment capacity was increased almost four-fold at maintained degradation efficiency. The lower sludge age greatly improved the methane potential of the WAS in batch tests, reaching 170 NmL CH 4 /g VS at a sludge age of 2 days. In addition, the continuous AD showed a higher methane production at thermophilic conditions. Thus, the combination of high-rate wastewater treatment and AD of WAS is a promising option for the pulp and paper industry.

  5. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  6. High speed machinability of the aerospace alloy AA7075 T6 under different cooling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Stano; Rinaldi, Sergio; Suarez, Asier Gurruchaga; Arrazola, Pedro J.; Umbrello, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation aimed to st udy the machinability of AA7075 T6 (160 HV) for aerospace industry at high cutting speeds. The paper investigates the effects of different lubri-cooling strategies (cryogenic, M QL and dry) during high speed turning process on cutting forces, tool wear, chip morphology and cutting temperatures. The cutting speeds selected were 1000m/min, 1250m/min and 1500 m/min, while the feed rate values used were 0.1mm/rev and 0.3 mm/rev. The results of cryogenic and M QL application is compared with dry application. It was found that the cryogenic and M QL lubri-cooling techniques could represent a functional alternative to the common dry cutting application in order to implement a more effect ive high speed turning process. Higher cuttingparameters would be able to increase the productivity and reduce the production costs. The effects of the cutting parameters and on the variables object of study were investigated and the role of the different lubri-cooling conditions was assessed.

  7. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  8. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Marrazzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1% was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  9. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Pasquale; Paduano, Francesco; Palmieri, Francesca; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H 2 O 2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use.

  10. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically.

  11. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  12. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  13. Dynamic Behavior of AA2519-T8 Aluminum Alloy Under High Strain Rate Loading in Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A. T.; Owolabi, G. M.; Odeshi, A. G.; Yilmaz, N.; Zeytinci, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of strain rate on the dynamic behavior, microstructure evolution and hence, failure of the AA2519-T8 aluminum alloy were investigated under compression at strain rates ranging from 1000 to 3500 s-1. Cylindrical specimens of dimensions 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm (L/D = 1) were tested using the split-Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with a digital image correlation system. The microstructure of the alloy was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Results showed that the dynamic yield strength of the alloy is strain rate dependent, with the maximum yield strength attained by the material being 500 MPa. The peak flow stress of 562 MPa was attained by the material at 3500 s-1. The alloy also showed a significant rate of strain hardening that is typical of other Al-Cu alloys; the rate of strain hardening, however, decreased with increase in strain rate. It was determined that the strain rate sensitivity coefficient of the alloy within the range of high strain rates used in this study is approximately 0.05 at 0.12 plastic strain; a more significant value than what was reported in literature under quasi-static loading. Micrographs obtained showed potential sites for the evolution of adiabatic shear band at 3500 s-1, with a characteristic circular-shaped surface profile comprising partially dissolved second phase particles in the continuous phase across the incident plane of the deformed specimen. The regions surrounding the site showed little or no change in the size of particles. However, the constituent coarse particles were observed as agglomerations of fractured pieces, thus having a shape factor different from those contained in the as-received alloy. Since the investigated alloy is a choice material for military application where it can be exposed to massive deformation at high strain rates, this study provides information on its microstructural and mechanical responses to such extreme loading condition.

  14. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  15. Acid-base synergistic flame retardant wood pulp paper with high thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Yuansen; Xu, Changan; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi

    2017-12-15

    Acid-catalytic degradation caused by acid source flame retardants is the main reason for a decline in thermal stability of flame-retarded lignocellulosic materials. In the present research, a guanidine phosphate (GP)/borax (BX) flame retardant system based on acid-base synergistic interaction was designed and used in wood pulp paper (WPP) to solve this problem. Results showed that the treated WPP obtained good flame retardancy with a limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 35.7%. As a basic flame retardant, borax could chemically combine with the acids released by guanidine phosphate, thus decreasing the acidity of the system in the initial heating stage. In this way, acid-catalytic degradation is greatly retarded on the lignocelluloses to improve thermal stability (the temperature of maximum degradation peak from 286°C to 314°C). Meanwhile, borax was also advantageous to form a denser and firmer condensed phase through reinforcement of the acid-base reaction product, borophosphates, allowing it to provide a protective barrier with higher quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  17. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  18. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  19. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  20. Fractionation of high Kappa number kraft pulps of the South African softwoods and sulfonating of coarse fibre enriched fraction for production of sack paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available properties except tear strength: Tensile index (54%), TEA index (104%), Burst index (65%) and sheet density (23%). A tear index decrease (30%) could be attrib- uted to a high proportion of short and fine fibres in the accept stream. The reject stream... gave pulp samples with inferior strength properties with exception of tear strength. This may be due to high proportion of coarse fibres which have limited fibre collapsibility. Poor fibre collapsibility leads to a limited fibre bond- ing ability...

  1. Aluminium Alloy AA6060 surface treatment with high temperature steam containing chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment process was employed to produce a conversion coating on aluminium alloy AA6060. The changes in microstructure and its effect on corrosion resistance properties were investigated. Various concentrations of KMnO4 containing Ce(NO3)3 was injected into the steam and its effect...... on the formation of steam-based conversion coating was evaluated. The use of Mn-Ce into the steam resulted in incorporation of these species into the conversion coating, which resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the alloy substrate....

  2. Abia, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abia, AA. Vol 4, No 6 (2010) - Articles Studies on the kinetics and intraparticle diffusivities of BOD, colour and TSS reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1996-0786. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  3. Influence of lignocellulose and low or high levels of sugar beet pulp on nutrient digestibility and the fecal microbiota in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulose is an alternative fiber source for dogs; however, it has not yet been studied as a feed ingredient for the nutrition of dogs. Eight adult Beagles were involved in the study, which consisted of 3 feeding periods of 8 to 12 wk each. All dogs received 3 different diets, which either had the same concentration of fiber sources (2.7% sugar beet pulp or lignocellulose) or were formulated for a similar concentration of approximately 3% crude fiber: 12% sugar beet pulp (highSBP; 3.1% crude fiber), 2.7% sugar beet pulp (lowSBP; 0.96% crude fiber), or 2.7% lignocellulose (LC; 2.4% crude fiber). Feces samples were collected at the end of each feeding period, and the apparent nutrient digestibility, daily amount, and DM content of feces and fecal cell numbers of relevant bacteria were analyzed. The daily feces amount was lower and the feces DM was higher when dogs were fed the LC diet and the lowSBP diet compared with the highSBP diet ( dogs fed LC and lowSBP had lower concentrations of acetate ( dogs fed highSBP. The concentration of -butyrate was higher in the feces of dogs fed with LC compared with dogs fed high and low sugar beet pulp (SBP; dogs was highest followed by lowSBP- and highSBP-fed dogs ( dog feed has different impacts on the fecal microbiota and the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, different areas of application should be considered.

  4. High-energy radiation processing, a smart approach to obtain PVP-graft-AA nanogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, N.; Sabatino, M.A.; Przybytniak, G.; Kaluska, I.; Bondì, M.L.; Bulone, D.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.; Dispenza, C.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-grafted-acrylic acid biocompatible nanogels (NGs) were prepared using an exiting industrial-type electron accelerator and setups, starting from semi-dilute aqueous solutions of a commercial PVP and the acrylic acid monomer. As a result, NGs with tunable size and structure can be obtained quantitatively. Sterility was also imparted at the integrated dose absorbed. The chemical structure of the NGs produced was confirmed through Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular and physico-chemical properties of NGs, such as the hydrodynamic dimensions and surface charge densities, for various polymer and monomer concentrations in the irradiated solutions, are discussed here. - Highlights: • Aqueous solutions of PVP and AA were irradiated by industrial electron accelerator. • NGs with different physico-chemical and molecular properties can be obtained. • Carboxyl-functionalized NGs produced are promising building blocks for bio-devices

  5. Identification/quantification of free and bound phenolic acids in peel and pulp of apples (Malus domestica) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Chan, Bronte Lee Shan; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-01-15

    Free and bound phenolic acids were measured in the pulp and peel of four varieties of apples using high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-five phenolic acids were identified and included: 8 hydroxybenzoic acids, 11 hydroxycinnamic acids, 5 hydroxyphenylacetic acids, and 1 hydoxyphenylpropanoic acid. Several phenolics are tentatively identified for the first time in apples and include: methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, hydroxy phenyl acetic acid, three phenylacetic acid isomers, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and homoveratric acid. With exception of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, most phenolic acids were quantified for the first time in apples. Significant varietal differences (pacids were higher in the pulp as compared to apple peel (dry weight) in all varieties. Coumaroylquinic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic and t-ferulic acids were present in free forms. With exception of chlorogenic acid, all other phenolic acids were present only as bound forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  7. Study of corrosion processes on Al-AA 6061 crevices immersed in high purity water and sodium citrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Sebastian A.; Haddad, Roberto; Lanzani, Liliana A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental approach has been developed to study the corrosion behavior of artificial crevices manufactured with high purity aluminum and AA 6061 alloy, immersed in dematerialised water and sodium citrate solution (96,5 μS/cm). Alkaline attack was found on the surrounding of iron rich particles in the external zone of the crevice, as a result of localized oxygen reduction reaction on these sites. This attack was not observed in the zone inside the crevice. Study of the phase Mg 2 Si by EDS allowed establishing that there is not preferential dissolution inside the crevice. The formation of a stable and non-soluble complex between Al and citrate anion inhibited the production of Al(OH) 3 precipitate, which was observed on the surface of specimens immersed in pure water. Investigations of the aluminum oxide evolution on AA 6061 surfaces in water showed that it was composed by two layers: an internal one made of Bohemite and an external one in direct contact with the water, with a Bayerite structure. The surface analysis was accomplished using XR, OM and SEM techniques. (author) [es

  8. Green synthesis of highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots from sugarcane bagasse pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thambiraj, S. [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi Shankaran, D., E-mail: dravishankaran@hotmail.com [Nano-Bio Materials and Sensors Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore, 641 004, Tamil Nadu (India); National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of CQDs from sugarcane bagasse carbon. - Highlights: • CQDs were synthesised from sugarcane bagasse waste with top down approaches. • Synthesis method is green, simple and efficient process. • CQDs possess high quantum yield, good stability and highly fluorescent in nature. • The morphological and topographical study of CQDs was done by HR-TEM and AFM and was observed that the average size is 4.1 ± 0.17 nm and surface thickness is 5 nm. - Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have great potential due to its advantageous characteristics of highly fluorescent nature and good stability. In this study, we aimed to develop a simple and efficient method for the green synthesis of fluorescent CQDs from sugarcane bagasse, a renewable and sustainable resource. The process involves the top down approach of chemical oxidation followed by exfoliation of sugarcane carbon. The synthesized CQDs was characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Spectrofluorophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The synthesized CQDs possess stable fluorescent properties, good bio-compatibility and high quantum yield. The CQDs are highly crystalline with longitudinal dimensions of 4.1 ± 0.17 nm with an average roughness of around 5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicates that the synthesized CQDs possess face centred cubic crystal structure. The results suggest that the proposed CQDs could be utilized for bio-sensor, bio-imaging and drug delivery applications.

  9. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste (MSW) pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW, yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated. The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s...

  10. Hypothetical accidents at disposal facilities for high-level liquid radioactive wastes and pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zagainov, V.A.; Lishnikov, A.A.; Nazin, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Four accidents are postulated and analyzed for interim storage of high-level, liquid radioactive wastes at a fuel reprocessing facility. Normal waste storage operation is based on wastes stored in steel drums, partially buried in concrete canyons, and equipped with heat exchangers for cooling and ventilation systems for removal of explosive gases and vapors. The accident scenarios analyzed are: (1) shutdown of ventilation with open entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (2) shutdown of ventilation with closed entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (3) shutdown of the cooling system with normally functioning ventilation, and (4) simultaneous cooling and ventilation system failure (worst case). A mathematical model was developed and used to calculate radiation consequences of various accidents. Results are briefly presented for the worst case scenario and compared to an actual accident for model validation. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Very High Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation Mechanism in Nugget Zone of AA 7075 Friction Stir Welded Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high cycle fatigue behavior of nugget zone in AA 7075 friction stir welded joint was experimentally investigated using ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz to clarify the crack initiation mechanism. It was found that the fatigue strength of nugget zone decreased continuously even beyond 107 cycles with no traditional fatigue limits. Fatigue cracks initiated from the welding defects located at the bottom side of the friction stir weld. Moreover, a special semicircular zone could be characterized around the crack initiation site, of which the stress intensity factor approximately equaled the threshold of fatigue crack propagation rate. Finally, a simplified model was proposed to estimate the fatigue life by correlating the welding defect size and applied stress. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  13. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  14. Impact of pH and Total Soluble Solids on Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics during High Pressure Processing of Mango (Mangifera indica) Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neelima; Nadella, Tejaswi; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to enhance the enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing (HPP) with pH and total soluble solids (TSS) as additional hurdles. Impact of mango pulp pH (3.5, 4.0, 4.5) and TSS (15, 20, 25 °Brix) variations on the inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were studied during HPP at 400 to 600 MPa pressure (P), 40 to 70 °C temperature (T), and 6- to 20-min pressure-hold time (t). The enzyme inactivation (%) was modeled using second order polynomial equations with a good fit that revealed that all the enzymes were significantly affected by HPP. Response surface and contour models predicted the kinetic behavior of mango pulp enzymes adequately as indicated by the small error between predicted and experimental data. The predicted kinetics indicated that for a fixed P and T, higher pulse pressure effect and increased isobaric inactivation rates were possible at lower levels of pH and TSS. In contrast, at a fixed pH or TSS level, an increase in P or T led to enhanced inactivation rates, irrespective of the type of enzyme. PPO and POD were found to have similar barosensitivity, whereas PME was found to be most resistant to HPP. Furthermore, simultaneous variation in pH and TSS levels of mango pulp resulted in higher enzyme inactivation at lower pH and TSS during HPP, where the effect of pH was found to be predominant than TSS within the experimental domain. Exploration of additional hurdles such as pH, TSS, and temperature for enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing of fruits is useful from industrial point of view, as these parameters play key role in preservation process design. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  16. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation of a stable subpopulation of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) with high proliferation, migration, and regeneration potential is independent of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masashi; Iohara, Koichiro; Hayashi, Yuki; Takeuchi, Norio; Takei, Yoshifumi; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakashima, Misako

    2014-01-01

    Insights into the understanding of the influence of the age of MSCs on their cellular responses and regenerative potential are critical for stem cell therapy in the clinic. We have isolated dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) subsets based on their migratory response to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) (MDPSCs) from young and aged donors. The aged MDPSCs were efficiently enriched in stem cells, expressing high levels of trophic factors with high proliferation, migration and anti-apoptotic effects compared to young MDPSCs. In contrast, significant differences in those properties were detected between aged and young colony-derived DPSCs. Unlike DPSCs, MDPSCs showed a small age-dependent increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) production and senescence markers including p16, p21, Interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, -8, and Groα in long-term culture. There was no difference between aged and young MDPSCs in telomerase activity. The regenerative potential of aged MDPSCs was similar to that of young MDPSCs in an ischemic hindlimb model and an ectopic tooth root model. These results demonstrated that the stem cell properties and the high regenerative potential of MDPSCs are independent of age, demonstrating an immense utility for clinical applications by autologous cell transplantation in dental pulp regeneration and ischemic diseases.

  18. Analysis of the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment and enterocin AS-48 addition on the bacterial communities of cherimoya pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Toledo, Julia; Grande, M José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas, Rosario

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, pulp obtained from cherimoya pulp (Annona cherimola) was inoculated with epiphytic microbiota collected from cherimoya fruits, and supplemented or not with the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 (50μg/g) and then packed under vacuum. Samples supplemented or not with enterocin were treated by high hydrostatic pressure (600MPa, 8min) and then stored at 5°C for 30days. The single AS-48 treatment only delayed microbial growth non-significantly (p>0.05). HHP treatment reduced microbial counts by five log cycles, but it did not prevent further growth of survivors by day 7. The combined treatment (AS-48+HHP) was the most effective, keeping bacterial cell densities at ≤1.5 log CFU/g for up to 15days. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis was done on amplicon libraries from the growth on TSA plates seeded with ten-fold dilutions of pulp suspensions and incubated at 22°C for 24h. The results obtained are limited by the experimental conditions used in the study, and only concern the bacterial fraction that was selected by the TSA and growth conditions used. Pantoea (Pantoea agglomerans, Pantoea vagans) were the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected at highest relative abundance in bacterial biomass grown from control samples for the first 7days of storage, followed by Enterococcus gallinarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides during late storage. The single HHP treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of OTUs belonging to Pantoea and strongly increased that of endosporeformers (mainly Bacillus firmus and Bacillus stratosphericus) early after treatment, although Pantoea became again the predominant OTUs during storage. Samples singly treated with enterocin AS-48 revealed a strong inhibition of E. gallinarum as well as an early decrease in the relative abundance of Pantoea and an increased relative abundance of OTUs belonging to other Gram-negative species (mainly from genera Serratia and Pseudomonas). The strong microbial

  19. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  20. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  1. [High frequency of dyslipidemia in VIH-infected patients in aa peruvian public hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondan, Paola L; Flores-Flores, Oscar; Doria, Nicole A; Valencia-Mesias, Gustavo; Chávez-Pérez, Víctor; Soria, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a Peruvian public hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with complete lipid profile after receiving at least six months of HAART. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the criteria of the NCEP-ATP III. We reviewed 2 975 clinical histories, and included 538 (18.1%) in the analysis. The frequency of dyslipidemia was 74.7%. HAART regimens which include protease inhibitors (PI) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; confidence interval at 95% [CI 95%]: 1.11-1.33) and to be older than 40 years (OR: 1.17; CI 95%: 1.05-1.28) were associated with dyslipidemia, adjusted by viral load, CD4 lymphocyte level and gender. In conclusion, dyslipidemia was very common in our sample and was mainly associated with the use of PI. It is necessary to promote the dyslipidemia control as part of the comprehensive care of the patient with HIV.

  2. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  3. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  4. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  5. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  6. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  7. High isostatic pressure and thermal processing of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Martius): Effect on pulp color and inactivation of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Ana Laura Tibério de; Leite, Thiago Soares; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of high isostatic pressure (HIP) on the activity of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from açaí. Açaí pulp was submitted to several combinations of pressure (400, 500, 600MPa), temperature (25 and 65°C) for 5 and 15min. The combined effect of HIP technology and high temperatures (690MPa by 2 and 5min at 80°C) was also investigated and compared to the conventional thermal treatment (85°C/1min). POD and PPO enzyme activity and instrumental color were examined after processing and after 24h of refrigerated storage. Results showed stability of POD for all pressures at 25°C, which proved to be heat-resistant and baro-resistant at 65°C. For PPO, the inactivation at 65°C was 71.7% for 600MPa after 15min. In general, the increase in temperature from 25°C to 65°C reduced the PPO relative activity with no changes in color. Although the thermal treatment and the HIP (690MPa) along with high temperature (80°C) reduced the PPO relative activity, and relevant darkening was observed in the processed samples. Thus, it can be concluded that POD is more baro-resistant than PPO in açaí pulp subjected to the same HIP processing conditions and processing at 600MPa/65°C for 5min may be an effective alternative for thermal pasteurization treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of Microstructure and Texture during Annealing of Aluminum AA1050 Cold Rolled to High and Ultrahigh Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure and texture of commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) have been investigated after cold rolling to von Mises strains of 3.6 to 6.4 followed by recovery and recrystallization during annealing. The evolution of structural parameters of the deformed microstructure, such as boundary...

  9. Prospect of trema orientalis as a pulping raw material in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in Bangladesh is looking for new raw materials with high productivity per hectare. Currently, bamboo and Gmelina arborea are the main pulping raw materials for the pulp and paper industry of the country. Trema orientalis is one of the fastest growing woods in the tropical region. This paper reviews the literature on the topic, in particular, related to the chemical, morphological and physical properties of T. orientalis and its suitability for pulping. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of various ulping processes proposed in the literature were critically analyzed. It was concluded that T. orientalis is a potential pulp wood for the Bangladesh pulp and paper industry. (author)

  10. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  11. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  12. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found.

  13. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  14. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-Abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-03-01

    Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  15. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  17. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  18. Aa Ah Nak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  19. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  20. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  1. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A highly thermostable alkaline cellulase-free xylanase from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. JB 99 suitable for paper and pulp industry: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinivas, Dengeti; Savitha, Gunashekaran; Raviranjan, Kumar; Naik, Gajanan Ramchandra

    2010-11-01

    A highly thermostable alkaline xylanase was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatant of Bacillus sp. JB 99 using DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration with 25.7-fold increase in activity and 43.5% recovery. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase was found to be 20 kDA by SDS-PAGE and zymogram analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 70 °C, pH 8.0 and stable over pH range of 6.0-10.0.The relative activity at 9.0 and 10.0 were 90% and 85% of that of pH 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed high thermal stability at 60 °C with 95% of its activity after 5 h. The K (m) and V (max) of enzyme for oat spelt xylan were 4.8 mg/ml and 218.6 µM min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Analysis of N-terminal amino acid sequence revealed that the xylanase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11 from thermoalkalophilic Bacillus sp. with basic pI. Substrate specificity showed a high activity on xylan-containing substrate and cellulase-free nature. The hydrolyzed product pattern of oat spelt xylan on thin-layer chromatography suggested xylanase as an endoxylanase. Due to these properties, xylanase from Bacillus sp. JB 99 was found to be highly compatible for paper and pulp industry.

  3. Process controls for improving bioleaching performance of both Li and Co from spent lithium ion batteries at high pulp density and its thermodynamics and kinetics exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhirui; Zou, Yikan; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi; Liu, Changhao; Li, Yuping

    2014-08-01

    Release of Co and Li from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by bioleaching has attracted growing attentions. However, the pulp density was only 1% or lower, meaning that a huge quantity of media was required for bioleaching. In this work, bioleaching behavior of the spent LIBs at pulp densities ranging from 1% to 4% was investigated and process controls to improve bioleaching performance at pulp density of 2% were explored. The results showed that the pulp density exerted a considerable influence on leaching performance of Co and Li. The bioleaching efficiency decreased respectively from 52% to 10% for Co and from 80% to 37% for Li when pulp density rose from 1% to 4%. However, the maximum extraction efficiency of 89% for Li and 72% for Co was obtained at pulp density of 2% by process controls. Bioleaching of the spent LIBs has much greater potential to occur than traditional chemical leaching based on thermodynamics analysis. The product layer diffusion model described best bioleaching behavior of Co and Li. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  5. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  6. Direct Fungal Production of Ethanol from High-Solids Pulps by the Ethanol-fermenting White-rot Fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kamei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A white-rot fungus, Phlebia sp. MG-60, was applied to the fermentation of high-solid loadings of unbleached hardwood kraft pulp (UHKP without the addition of commercial cellulase. From 4.7% UHKP, 19.6 g L-1 ethanol was produced, equivalent to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum. The highest ethanol concentration (25.9 g L-1, or 46.7% of the theoretical maximum was observed in the culture containing 9.1% UHKP. The highest filter paper activity (FPase was observed in the culture containing 4.7% UHKP, while the production of FPase in the 16.5% UHKP culture was very low. Temporarily removing the silicone plug from Erlenmeyer flasks, which relieved the pressure and allowed a small amount of aeration, improved the yield of ethanol produced from the 9.1% UHKP, which reached as high as 37.3 g L-1. These results indicated that production of cellulase and ensuing saccharification and fermentation by Phlebia sp. MG-60 is affected by water content and benefits from a small amount of aeration.

  7. Path analysis for selection of feijoa with greater pulp weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donazzolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to identify the direct and indirect effects of feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana traitson pulp weight, in order to use these traits in indirect genotypes selection. Fruits of five feijoa plants were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, in the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Six traits were evaluated: diameter, length, total weight, pulp weight, peel thickness and number of seeds per fruit. In the path analysis, with or without ridge regression, pulp weight was considered as the basic variable, and the other traits were considered as explanatory variables. Total weight and fruit diameter had high direct effect, and are the main traits associated with pulp weight. These traits may serve as criteria for indirect selection to increase feijoa pulp weight, since they are easy to be measured.

  8. Gamma ray induced chromophore modification of softwood thermomechanical pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, S.; Daneault, C.; Viel, C.; Lepine, F.

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on bleaching a softwood (black spruce, balsam fur) thermomechanical pulp with gamma rays. Gamma rays are known for their enormous penetrating power, along with their ionizing properties. They can generate highly energetic radicals capable of oxidizing lignin chromophores. The authors studied the influence of isopropyl alcohol, sodium borohydride, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide and water along with gamma ray irradiation of the pulps. The authors measured the optimal dose and dose rate, along with the influence of the radical scavengers like oxygen on the bleaching effect of gamma irradiated pulps. They observe various degrees of bleaching of these pulps. Evidence relates this bleaching to the generation of perhydroxyl anions upon irradiation of water. Also, they were able to pinpoint the influence of the dose rate on the rate of formation and disappearance of these perhydroxyl anions and their influence on bleaching kinetics. Stability toward photoyellowing, and photoyellowing's kinetic of papers from these pulps was also studied

  9. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  10. High-Temperature Tensile and Tribological Behavior of Hybrid (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 In Situ Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, G.; Kumar, N.; Mohan, A.; Gautam, R. K.; Mohan, S.

    2016-09-01

    During service life, components such as piston, cylinder blocks, brakes, and discs/drums, have to work under high-temperature conditions. In order to have appropriate material for such applications high-temperature studies are important. Hybrid (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 in situ composite has been investigated from ambient to 523 K (250 °C) at an interval of 50 deg. (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 in situ composite has been fabricated by the direct melt reaction of AA5052 alloy with zirconium and boron salts. Microstructure studies show refinement in the grain size of base alloy on in situ formation of reinforcement particles. Al3Zr particles are observed in rectangular and polyhedron shapes. It is observed from the tensile studies that ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percentage elongation decrease with increase in test temperature. Similar kind of behavior is also observed for flow curve properties. The tensile results have also been correlated with fractography. Wear and friction results indicate that the wear rate increases with increase in normal load, whereas coefficient of friction shows decreasing trend. With increasing test temperature, wear rate exhibits a typical phenomenon. After an initial increase, wear rate follows a decreasing trend up to 423 K (150 °C), and finally a rapid increase is observed, whereas coefficient of friction increases continuously with increase in test temperature. The mechanisms responsible for the variation of wear and friction with different temperatures have been discussed in detail with the help of worn surfaces studies under scanning electron microscope (SEM) & 3D-profilometer and debris analysis by XRD.

  11. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  12. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  13. Correlation, by multivariate statistical analysis, between the scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species and the bioactive compounds from frozen fruit pulps Correlação, por análise estatística multivariada, entre desativação de espécies reativas de oxigênio e compostos bioativos de polpas de frutas congeladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Cynara Vissotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, and ascorbic acid (AA of 18 frozen fruit pulps and their scavenging capacities against peroxyl radical (ROO•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (•OH were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that TPC (total phenolic compounds and AA (ascorbic acid presented positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against ROO•, and TF (total flavonoids showed positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against •OH and ROO• However, the scavenging capacity against H2O2 presented low correlation with TF (total flavonoids, TPC (total phenolic compounds, and AA (ascorbic acid. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA allowed the classification of the fruit pulps into three groups: one group was formed by the açai pulp with high TF, total flavonoids, content (134.02 mg CE/100 g pulp and the highest scavenging capacity against ROO•, •OH and H2O2; the second group was formed by the acerola pulp with high TPC, total phenolic compounds, (658.40 mg GAE/100 g pulp and AA , ascorbic acid, (506.27 mg/100 g pulp contents; and the third group was formed by pineapple, cacao, caja, cashew-apple, coconut, cupuaçu, guava, orange, lemon, mango, passion fruit, watermelon, pitanga, tamarind, tangerine, and umbu pulps, which could not be separated considering only the contents of bioactive compounds and the scavenging properties.Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais (CFT, flavonoides totais (FT e ácido ascórbico (AA foram determinados em 18 polpas de frutas congeladas, assim como a capacidade antioxidante na desativação do radical peroxila (ROO•, peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e radical hidroxila (•OH. De acordo com a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP, CFT e AA apresentaram correlação positiva com a capacidade de desativar o ROO• e o teor de FT apresentou correlação positiva com a capacidade de desativar o •OH e ROO•. Entretanto, a

  14. High proportions of Staphylococcus epidermidis in dental caries harbor multiple classes of antibiotics resistance, significantly increase inflammatory interleukins in dental pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Muzaheed; Aldeyab, Sultan Salem; Alfawaz, Sara A; AlKheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ahmed Khan, Aftab

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources. Dental caries strains were more resistant with high MIC 50 and MIC 90 value. These isolates also showed the presence of mecA gene and another virulence gene i. e sea and seb comparatively more than healthy individual isolates. SCCmec types, III and IV was more prevalent in dental caries isolates where an as healthy individual was more non-typable. Additionally, the quantity of IL-1β and IL-8 caused due to dental caries isolates was seen more which indicate dental caries isolates are able to induce. This study showed that S. epidermidis a normal flora of oropharyngeal are more diverse to those strains which cause dental caries. S. epidermidis owns a prodigious genetic plasticity that permits to obtain, lose or regulate genetic elements that provide compensations to improve its colonization in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  16. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING PULP FROM TREMA ORIENTALIS (NALITA) BY PREHYDROLYSIS KRAFT AND SODA-ETHYLENEDIAMINE (EDA) PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Quaiyyum; A. Noori; Labooni Ahsan; M. Sarwar Jahan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita). Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. orientalis was investigated. Prehydrolysis at 150 and 170 oC did not produce pulp with high α-cellulose content when using the kraft process. But addition of 0.25 % H2SO4 in prehydrolysis liquor increased the purity of the pulp with the sacrifice of pulp yield and viscosity. ...

  17. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or

  18. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The mission was featured on the front pages of 450 newspapers worldwide on every single continent (including Antartica!)New Horizons reached the Moon in9 HOURSafter launch (compared to the ~3 days it took the Apollo missions)The mission controllers were aiming for a 100km window of space all the way from EarthThere was a window of ~400seconds which the probe had to arrive within the probe arrived90 seconds early! Putting tardy astronomers everywhere to shame.Charon was the only satellite of Pluto known at the time of the mission proposalThe canyon found on Charon is not only bigger than the Grand Canyon but bigger than Mariner Valley on Mars which is already4000 km (2500 mi) long and reaches depths of up to 7 km (4 mi)!Charons surface. Tectonic feature runs about 1500 km, around 10 km deep. Eat it, Mars. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/blewwJaXEn Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016The mountains ringing the Sputnik Planum (aka the heart of Pluto) are over 4km high and are snow capped with methane icePlutos mountain ranges. Means surface nitrogen layer is thin, probably water ice according to @AlanStern. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/0yyHZvpBOE Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016Plutos atmosphere has a dozendistincthaze layers but how they arecreated is a mystery#aas227 hazes on Pluto wow pic.twitter.com/VPx99ZhPj1 Lisa StorrieLombardi (@lisajsl) January 5, 2016Alan also spoke about the future of New Horizons there is a new mission proposal for a fly by of a Kuiper Belt object 2014MU69 in Jan 2019 which should give us a better understanding of this icy frontier at the edge ofthe Solar System. As a parting gift Alan playedthemost gorgeously detailed fly over video of Plutos surface that had all in the room melting into their flip flops. Its safe to say that the whole room is now Pluto-curious and wondering whether a change of discipline is in order!Press Conference: Black Holes and Exoplanets (by Susanna Kohler)This morning marked the first press conference of the meeting

  19. High-Speed Friction Stir Welding of AA7075-T6 Sheet: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Micro-texture, and Thermal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2018-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a cost-effective and high-quality joining process for aluminum alloys (especially heat-treatable alloys) that is historically operated at lower joining speeds (up to hundreds of millimeters per minute). In this study, we present a microstructural analysis of friction stir welded AA7075-T6 blanks with high welding speeds up to 3 M/min. Textures, microstructures, mechanical properties, and weld quality are analyzed using TEM, EBSD, metallographic imaging, and Vickers hardness. The higher welding speed results in narrower, stronger heat-affected zones (HAZs) and also higher hardness in the nugget zones. The material flow direction in the nugget zone is found to be leaning towards the welding direction as the welding speed increases. Results are coupled with welding parameters and thermal history to aid in the understanding of the complex material flow and texture gradients within the welds in an effort to optimize welding parameters for high-speed processing.

  20. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  1. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  2. Evaluation of temperature variation in pulp chamber after high power diode laser irradiation (λ=830 nm) on dental enamel: 'in vitro' study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the variation of temperature in the pulp chamber caused by irradiation of a commercial diode laser operating in continuous wave with wavelength 830 nm over the dental enamel. In the first part of this study, two types of tooth models were tested: 3,5 mm slice and whole tooth. In the second part, we irradiated the buccal si de of the enamel in 2 primary lower incisors from cattle with Opus 10 diode laser for 10 s with power levels of 1 W and 2 W, always using an absorber. Two thermocouples were used. The first one was inserted in the dentin wall closest to the irradiation site, while the second was inserted in the middle of the pulp chamber. It was observed that the thermocouples registered different temperatures. Always, the dentin thermocouple registered higher temperatures. Considering the dentin records, the irradiation of 1 W for 10 s can be safe for the pulp. Further studies must be developed related to the correct positioning of the thermocouples inside the pulp chamber. This was a first step of using diode laser in enamel, and in this study, we concluded that the Opus 10 diode laser shown to be safe for this use, with 1 W power for 10 S. (author)

  3. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  4. [Risk control of traditional Chinese medicines containing aristolochis acids (AAs) based on influencing factors of content of AAs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-Zhuo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2017-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) widely exist in such plants as Aristolochia and Asarum. The renal toxicity of AAs as well as its carcinogenicity to urinary system have been widely known. In 2003 and 2004, China prohibited the use of Aristolochiae Radix, Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis and Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, and required administering other AAs-containing medicines in accordance with the regulations for prescription drugs. In this paper, we retrieved literatures on the content determination of AAs in recent 10 years in China. It suggested that the AAs content is lower in Asarum herb, especially in its roots and rhizomes, and most of which do not show detectable amount of AA-I. Some of traditional Chinese medicines show fairly small amount of detectable AA-I. The AAs content in Aristolochia herb (including Fructus Aristolochiae, kaempfer dutchmanspipe root) is relatively high; however, there are fewer literatures for studying the content determination of AAs in Chinese patent medicines. There were many factors affecting AAs content, including the parts used, origins, processing methods, extraction process. It suggested that we should pay attention to the toxicity of Chinese medicines containing AAs and use these decoction pieces and traditional Chinese medicines cautiously. In addition, basic studies for the origins, processing methods and extraction process of Chinese patent medicines containing AAs, as well as supervision and detection of AAs content in traditional Chinese medicinal materials, decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicines shall be strengthened for reducing medication risk and guaranteeing clinical medication safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  6. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  7. Properties of cellulose micro/nanofibers obtained from eucalyptus pulp fiber treated with anaerobic digestate and high shear mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High production costs remain the single greatest factor limiting wider use of cellulose micro/nanofibers in the industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost bacteria-rich digestate (liquid anaerobic digestate – AD supernatant) on milled eucalyptus...

  8. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried....... This study determined the nutrient compositions of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of V. paradoxa. Laboratory analyses were undertaken to determine the micro and macro nutrients in the samples on fresh (FM) and dry matter (DM) basis following standard procedures and protocols. The potassium, sodium...

  9. Avoiding total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from sodium sulfite pulping recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, J.C.; Sell, N.J.; Ciriacks, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the current trends in paper-making with cellulose pulping is the use of high-yield processes. With yields greater than 65%, these processes include mechanical pulps (groundwood and thermomechanical pulps or TMP), and semichemical types (chemi-TMP or CTMP). Groundwood and TMP make up about 10% of North American pulp production. Semichemical pulp makes up about 7% and is mostly used for corrugating medium. High-yield pulping for linerboard, particularly using the alkaline sulfite process, is also likely to be used in the future. High-yield pulping is based primarily on the sulfite process using mostly sodium-based chemicals. A disadvantage of this process is the unavailability of a recovery system for the inorganic pulping chemicals. Generally, mills have not accepted any particular recovery system for this process. For this and other reasons, sulfite processes constitute only 3-4% of the total North American pulp production. If high-yield processes continue to increase in popularity, a sodium sulfite chemical recovery system will be needed. A number of chemical recovery systems have been developed in the past 30 years for sodium-based sulfite pulping processes, with most of the mills successfully using this process located in Scandinavia

  10. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  11. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  12. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1 digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2 outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3 digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2 . The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  13. Optimisation of thermo mechanical treatments using cryogenic rolling and aging of the high strength aluminium alloy AlZn5.5MgCu (AA7075)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunger, S.; Scholze, M.; Hockauf, M.; Wagner, M.F.X. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemnitz (Germany); Fritsch, S.

    2011-07-15

    In this study, we consider the optimisation of mechanical properties and the microstructure of the high strength and difficult-to-work aluminium alloy AA7075 by cryogenic rolling. In order to reduce the grain size into the (ultra)fine-grained regime, cryogenic rolling is used to introduce different amount of plastic strain. We discuss how rolling at lower temperatures allows the introduction of higher strains on the one hand, and suppresses dynamic recovery and aging effectively on the other hand. Our results demonstrate that, in combination with an appropriate post-processing aging treatment, an outstanding combination of strength and ductility can be achieved. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A comprehensive investigation of the strengthening effects of dislocations, texture and low and high angle grain boundaries in ultrafine grained AA6063 aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, S.; Eivani, A. R.; Samaee, M.; Jafarian, H. R.; Zhou, J.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA6063 aluminum alloy was investigated. For this purpose, samples of AA6063 aluminum alloy were deformed up to 10 passes using ECAP and the evolution of microstructure, texture and dislocation

  15. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  16. EFSA ND A Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and “ reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the d evelopment of attention, difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject...... of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less...

  17. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental p...

  18. Isolation and characterization of lignocellulose nanofibers from different wheat straw pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Espinosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Loaiza, Javier Mauricio; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    Wheat straw was cooked under different pulping processes: Soda (100°C, 7% NaOH, 150min), Kraft (170°C, 16% alkalinity, 25% sulfidity, 40min) and Organosolv (210°C, 60% ethanol, 60min). Once the pulps were obtained, lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) were isolated by mechanical process and TEMPO-mediated oxidation followed by a high pressure homogenization. After pulping process, the different pulps were characterized and its chemical composition was determined. The pulps characterization indicates that the Soda process is the process that, despite producing less delignification, retains much of the hemicelluloses in the pulp, being this content a key factor in the nanofibrillation process. Regarding the LCNF obtained by mechanical process, those nanofibers isolated from Organosolv wheat pulp (OWP) and Kraft wheat pulp (KWP) show low values for nanofibrillation yield, specific surface area and greater diameter. However, those nanofibers isolated from Soda wheat pulp (SWP) reach much higher values for these parameters and presents a diameter of 14nm, smaller than those obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation from OWP. Smaller diameters are generally obtained in TEMPO-oxidized LCNF. This work concludes that the lignin content does not affect greatly to obtain LCNF as does the hemicellulose content, so it is accurate to use a soft pulping process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Hemicelluloses in Bleached Kraft Pulp Using Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Hu, Thomas Q; Jang, Ho Fan; Grant, Edward

    2016-12-01

    The hemicellulose composition of a pulp significantly affects its chemical and physical properties and thus represents an important process control variable. However, complicated steps of sample preparation make standard methods for the carbohydrate analysis of pulp samples, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), expensive and time-consuming. In contrast, pulp analysis by attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) requires little sample preparation. Here we show that ATR FT-IR with discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing offers a convenient means for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of hemicelluloses in bleached kraft pulp and alkaline treated kraft pulp. The pulp samples investigated include bleached softwood kraft pulps, bleached hardwood kraft pulps, and their mixtures, as obtained from Canadian industry mills or blended in a lab, and bleached kraft pulp samples treated with 0-6% NaOH solutions. In the principal component analysis (PCA) of these spectra, we find the potential both to differentiate all pulps on the basis of hemicellulose compositions and to distinguish bleached hardwood pulps by species. Partial least squares (PLS) multivariate analysis gives a 0.442 wt% root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for the prediction of xylan content and 0.233 wt% RMSEP for the prediction of mannan content. These data all support the idea that ATR FT-IR has a great potential to rapidly and accurately predict the content of xylan and mannan for bleached kraft pulps (softwood, hardwood, and their mixtures) in industry. However, the prediction of xylan and mannan concentrations presented a difficulty for pulp samples with modified cellulose crystalline structure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Obtaining value prior to pulping with diethyl oxalate and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.R. Kenealy; E. Horn; C.J. Houtman; J. Laplaza; T.W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Pulp and paper are converted to paper products with yields of paper dependent on the wood and the process used. Even with high yield pulps there are conversion losses and with chemical pulps the yields approach 50%. The portions of the wood that do not provide product are either combusted to generate power and steam or incur a cost in waste water treatment. Value prior...

  2. Process parameters affecting the delignification of eucalyptus kraft pulp with peroxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandranupap, P.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Various process parameters affecting eucalyptus kraft pulp delignification with peroxyacetic acid were investigated. The results showed that pH was an important factor. The delignification rate increased with increasing pH to the value of 6. High delignification rate was obtained when the pulp was chelated with Na4-EDTA prior to the peroxyacetic acid stage. Therefore, delignification reaction rate depends on peroxyacid charge, temperature, pH and metal content of pulp.

  3. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  4. Achieving ultrafine grained and homogeneous AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite with well-developed high angle grain boundaries through accumulative press bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirkhanlou, Sajjad, E-mail: s.amirkhanlou@aut.ac.ir [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Askarian, Masoomeh [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carreño, Fernando [Department of Physical Metallurgy, CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    Aluminum matrix nanocomposites with 2 vol% ZnO nanoparticles were produced using accumulative press bonding (APB) as a very effective and novel severe plastic deformation process. Microstructural evaluation and mechanical properties of specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile test. Microstructure of AA1050/ZnO nanocomposite showed a uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles throughout the aluminum matrix. STEM and EBSD observations revealed that ultrafine-grained Al/ZnO nanocomposite with the average grain size of <500 nm and well-developed high angle grain boundaries (80% high angle boundaries and 37° average misorientation angle) was successfully obtained by performing 14 cycles of the APB process. When the number of APB cycles increased the tensile strength of Al/ZnO nanocomposite improved and reached 228 MPa after 14 cycles, which was 2.6 and 1.3 times greater than the obtained values for annealed (raw material, 88 MPa) and monolithic aluminum (180 MPa), respectively.

  5. High-Speed Friction Stir Welding of AA7075-T6 Sheet: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Micro-texture, and Thermal History

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingyi; Upadhyay, Piyush; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2017-11-20

    Friction-stir-welding (FSW) is a cost-effective and high quality joining process for aluminum alloys (especially heat-treatable allo ys) that has been applied successfully in the aerospace industry. However, the full potential of FSW on more cost-sensitive applications is still limited by the production rate, namely the welding speed of the process. The majority of literature evaluating FSW of aluminum alloys is based on welds made in the range of welding speeds around hundreds of millimeters per minute, and only a handful are at a moderate speed of 1 m/min. In this study we present a microstructural analysis of friction stir welded AA7075-T6 blanks with welding speeds up to 3 m/min. Textures, microstructures, mechanical properties, and weld quality are analyzed using TEM, EBSD, metallographic imaging, and Vickers hardness. Results are coupled with welding parameters to aid in the understanding of the complex material flow and texture gradients within the welds in an effort to optimize welding parameters for high speed processing.

  6. CD146 positive human dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of dentin/pulp-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mikiko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tsutsui, Takeo W

    2018-04-01

    CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 - ) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146 + and CD146 - cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146 + cells and 75% CD146 - cells (CD146 +/- ). Cell growth assays indicated that CD146 + cells exhibit an approximate 3-4 h difference in doubling time, compared with CD146 - cells. Cell cycle distributions were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 - and non-separated cells. In contrast to CD146 - and non-separated cells, prompt mineralization was observed in CD146 + cells. Subsequently, qRT-PCR revealed high mRNA expression of CD146 and Alkaline phosphatase in mineralization-induced CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells were also observed high adipogenic ability by Oil red O staining. Histological examinations revealed an increased area of dentin/pulp-like structures in transplanted CD146 + cells, compared with CD146 - and CD146 +/- cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), as well as human mitochondria, in transplanted DPSCs. Co-expression of CD146 and GFP indicated that CD146 was expressed in transplanted CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy.

  7. Alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Khider, T

    2005-01-01

    Soda-anthraquinone (soda-AQ), alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) and alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol (ASAM) pulping of date palm rachis and leaves from Sudan was carried under different conditions, and pulps with variable yields and mechanical properties were obtained. The date palm rachis gave best yields and mechanical properties with the AS-AQ or the ASAM process, while the leaves were best pulped with the soda method with low yield, but very good strength properties. Blending with 10% and 30% kenaf bark pulp was beneficial, especially for the AS-AQ pulps. Totally chlorine free (TCF) bleached rachis pulps were obtained of high brightness and strength properties suitable for use in writing and printing papers.

  8. De-pulping and Seed Separation from Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, Vishvambhar Dayal

    2017-09-01

    Tumba ( Citrullus colocynthis) contains spongy pulp in which seeds are embedded unevenly. Seeds contain about 26% fats and 13% protein. The process of seed separation is highly time consuming and labour intensive. Two weeks are required to separate its seeds with traditional methods. The developed prototype, for separating tumba seeds, mainly consists of chopper, de-pulping screw, barrel assembly and seed separation unit. The de-pulping screw and barrel assembly was divided in two sections i.e. conveying (feeding zone) and compression sections (de-pulping zone). The performance of developed machine was evaluated at different screw speed in the range of 40-100 rpm. Maximum pulp removal efficiency of 78.1% was achieved with screw speed of 60 rpm. Seed separation from the pulp was carried out by adding different chemicals. Use of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide produced seed separation up to 99%.

  9. Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA. Vol 12 (2008) - Articles Hypoglycaemic And Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities Of Fermented Seeds Of Parkia Biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Abstract. ISSN: 1118-6267. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  10. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S; Kaack, Karl Viggo

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects...... with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated...

  11. Metallic ions catalysis for improving bioleaching yield of Zn and Mn from spent Zn-Mn batteries at high pulp density of 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhirui; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Jia; Yang, Yiran; Xin, Baoping; Chen, Shi

    2015-11-15

    Bioleaching of spent batteries was often conducted at pulp density of 1.0% or lower. In this work, metallic ions catalytic bioleaching was used for release Zn and Mn from spent ZMBs at 10% of pulp density. The results showed only Cu(2+) improved mobilization of Zn and Mn from the spent batteries among tested four metallic ions. When Cu(2+) content increased from 0 to 0.8 g/L, the maximum release efficiency elevated from 47.7% to 62.5% for Zn and from 30.9% to 62.4% for Mn, respectively. The Cu(2+) catalysis boosted bioleaching of resistant hetaerolite through forming a possible intermediate CuMn2O4 which was subject to be attacked by Fe(3+) based on a cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). However, poor growth of cells, formation of KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and its possible blockage between cells and energy matters destroyed the cycle of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), stopping bioleaching of hetaerolite. The chemical reaction controlled model fitted best for describing Cu(2+) catalytic bioleaching of spent ZMBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Akira [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Bainy, Afonso C.D. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  13. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  14. Dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles in a AA2024 aluminum alloy by a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2024-SiC NP nanocomposite by mechanical milling process. • SiC nanoparticles improved mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024 matrix. • A homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles were observed in the matrix • Compressive and hardness properties of the composite are improved significantly. -- Abstract: Al 2024 alloy was reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NP ), whose concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 5 wt.%; some composites were synthesized with the mechanical milling (MM) process. Structure and microstructure of the consolidated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were investigated by compressive tests and hardness measurements. The microstructural evidence shows that SiC NP were homogeneously dispersed into the Al 2024 alloy using high-energy MM after 2 h of processing. On the other hand, an increase of the mechanical properties (yield stress, maximum strength and hardness) was observed in the synthesized composites as a direct function of the SiC NP content. In this research several strengthening mechanisms were observed, but the main was the obstruction of dislocations movement by the addition of SiC NP

  15. Effect of Flotation Time on the Deinking Process and Properties of Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami İmamoğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flotation time on the ink removal and physical properties of resulting deinked pulp. Flotation deinking of high quality office paper, printed in a digital duplicating machine based on screen-printing system, was studied using a laboratory cell with a nominal capacity of 10 L. Formamidine sulfinic acid was used in a pulper and pulping conditions such as temperature, retention time, chemical dosage and consistency were held constant prior to flotation process. During the flotation process while pulp consistency, agitation speed, air flow rate and other conditions keeping constant, only flotation time were analyzed in terms of physical properties of resulting pulp quality, pulp yield, filler and fibre balance and waste water quality aspects at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 minutes. Increased flotation time substantially affected optical properties of pulp up to some point then became steady. Yield losses increased as might be expected with increasing flotation time by the 9th minute as flotation sludge skimmed off on top of the flotation cell. Filler content of flotation sludge increased with increasing flotation time while fibre content was decreasing to a certain extent. Thanks to removal of ink and filler materials from pulp physical properties of evaluated handsheets enhanced. The overall results demonstrate that increasing flotation time increased physical and optical properties of resulting pulp. On the other hand flotation time should be increased up to critical point. Exceeding critical point increased yield losses, consumed time and energy without gaining significant pulp qualities.

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  17. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  18. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  19. Healthy Dental Pulp Oxygen Saturation Rates in Subjects with Homozygous Sickle Cell Anemia: A Cross-Sectional Study Nested in a Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Costa, Cyrene Piazera Silva

    2017-12-01

    To compare the percentage of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in healthy teeth with confirmed pulp vitality between individuals with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) and normal hemoglobin A (HbAA). This is a cross-sectional study nested within a cohort. Samples (n = 2543) comprised teeth with intact crowns and pulp vitality confirmed by thermal sensitivity tests and no history of caries, periodontal disease, or dental trauma. A total of 728 teeth of 113 individuals with HbSS and 1815 teeth of 246 individuals with HbAA were evaluated. Data analysis was performed using the χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests and Spearman correlation analysis (α = 0.05). The study groups were comparable in terms of age, race, and sex (P > .05). Subjects with HbSS exhibited lower median SpO 2 levels in the body and upper teeth, excluding canines, than subjects with HbAA (P  .05). Compared with individuals with HbAA, those with HbSS exhibited lower SpO 2 in maxillary teeth with confirmed pulp vitality, except in the canines. There was no correlation between SpO 2 levels of the body and dental pulp in individuals with HbSS or HbAA. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  1. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2018-01-01

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL -1 ) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL -1 as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesta/Kenaf as raw material for Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, V. P.; Shiveshwar, R. M.; Meshramkar, P. M.; Deb, U. K.; Jaspal, N. S.; Biyani, B. P.

    1980-03-15

    In recent years, the shortage of conventional raw materials for pulping has intensified a world-wide search for alternate raw materials. Among other cellulosic materials, attention has focused on agricultural residues and annual plants. In this category, Kenaf, also called Mesta, has been studied as a fiber source in many countries including the USA, Phillippines and India. A comprehensive study on kraft pulping of mesta was carried out where the fiber morphology, pulping, bleaching and papermaking characteristics were investigated. Black liquor properties were also determined. The results of this study are reported and compared to the conventional raw material bamboo. The investigation has shown that mesta is easily pulped and bleached and forms sheets of excellent strength properties, comparable to or better than bamboo pulps. The black liquor from mesta is similar to bamboo in calorific value but is very low in silica, which is highly desirable from the chemical recovery point of view. As with all agricultural residues and annual plants, mesta has a high bulk per unit weight. The problems arising from this, e.g., baling, transportation, proper utilization of digester capacity, have to be studied before mesta can be widely accepted in the paper industry.

  3. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  4. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  5. Fabrication of microfibrillated cellulose gel from waste pulp sludge via mild maceration combined with mechanical shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusheng Chen; Junyong Zhu; Zhaohui Tong

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a facile route, which combines mild maceration of waste pulp sludge and a mechanical shearing process, to prepare microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) with a high storage modulus. In the maceration, the mixture of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide was used to extract cellulose from never-dried waste pulp sludge. Then, two different mechanical...

  6. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  7. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  8. The AA disappearing under concrete shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    When the AA started up in July 1980, the machine stood freely in its hall, providing visitors with a view through the large window in the AA Control Room. The target area, in which the high-intensity 26 GeV/c proton beam from the PS hit the production target, was heavily shielded, not only towards the outside but also towards the AA-Hall. However, electrons and pions emanating from the target with the same momentum as the antiprotons, but much more numerous, accompanied these through the injection line into the AA ring. The pions decayed with a half-time corresponding to approximately a revolution period (540 ns), whereas the electrons lost energy through synchrotron radiation and ended up on the vacuum chamber wall. Electrons and pions produced the dominant component of the radiation level in the hall and the control room. With operation times far exceeding original expectations, the AA had to be buried under concrete shielding in order to reduce the radiation level by an order of magnitude.

  9. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  10. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  12. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  13. Quality evaluation of dissolving pulp fabricated from banana plant stem and its potential for biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Ohi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-20

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dissolving pulp of Musa sapientum L. (banana) plant stem and its potential for biorefinery. Introduction of pre-hydrolysis prior to any alkaline pulping process helps to reduce the content of hemicellulose and consequently produce acceptably high content of cellulose pulp. Water pre-hydrolysis was done at 150°C for 90min. The amount of lignin, xylan and glucan in the extracted pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was 1.6, 4.9 and 1.6%, respectively. Pulping of pre-extracted chips was done following soda-AQ, alkaline sulfite and kraft process. The ratio of chip to liquor was 1:7 for both pre-hydrolysis and pulping. The kraft pulping process with 20% active alkali and 25% sulfidity at 150°C for 90min showed the best result. The lowest kappa number was 26.2 with a considerable pulp yield of 32.7%. The pulp was bleached by acidic NaClO2 and the consistency was 10% based on air-dried pulp. The lowest amount of 7% NaClO2 was used for the bleaching sequence of D0ED1ED2. After D0ED1ED2 bleaching, the pulp showed that α-cellulose, brightness and ash were 91.9, 77.9 and 1.6% respectively. The viscosity was 19.9cP. Hence, there is a possibility to use banana plant stem as a raw material for dissolving grade pulp and other bioproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microarray evaluation of age-related changes in human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranasi, Michelangelo; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Zizzari, Vincenzo; D'Apolito, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Salini, Luisa; Stuppia, Liborio; Tetè, Stefano

    2009-09-01

    The dental pulp undergoes age-related changes that could be ascribed to physiological, defensive, or pathological irritant-induced changes. These changes are regulated by pulp cell activity and by a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules, playing important roles in growth regulation, tissue differentiation and organization, formation of calcified tissue, and defense mechanisms and reactions to inflammatory stimuli. The aim of this research was to better understand the genetic changes that underlie the histological modification of the dental pulp in aging. The gene expression profile of the human dental pulp in young and older subjects was compared by RNA microarray analysis that allowed to simultaneously analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes. Data were statistically analyzed by Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Semiquantitative and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to confirm the results. Microarray analysis revealed several differentially expressed genes that were categorized in growth factors, transcription regulators, apoptosis regulators, and genes of the ECM. The comparison analysis showed a high expression level of the biological functions of cell and tissue differentiation, development, and proliferation and of the immune, lymphatic, and hematologic system in young dental pulp, whereas the pathway of apoptosis was highly expressed in older dental pulp. Expression profile analyses of human dental pulp represent a sensible and useful tool for the study of mechanisms involved in differentiation, growth and aging of human dental pulp in physiological and pathological conditions.

  16. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  17. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  18. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  19. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  1. The influence of lignin on steam pretreatment and mechanical pulping of poplar to achieve high sugar recovery and ease of enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Richard P; Chu, QiuLu; Hu, Jinguang; Zhong, Na; Lin, Mandy; Lee, Jin-Suk; Saddler, Jack

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of enhancing overall carbohydrate recovery and reducing enzyme loading refiner mechanical pulping and steam pretreatment (210°C, 5 min) were used to pretreat poplar wood chips. Neutral sulphonation post-treatment indicated that, although the lignin present in the steam pretreated substrate was less reactive, the cellulose-rich, water insoluble component was more accessible to cellulases and Simons stain. This was likely due to lignin relocation as the relative surface lignin measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy increased from 0.4 to 0.8. The integration of sulphite directly into steam pretreatment resulted in the solubilisation of 60% of the lignin while more than 80% of the carbohydrate present in the original substrate was recovered in the water insoluble fraction after Na2CO3 addition. More than 80% of the sugars present in the original cellulose and xylan could be recovered after 48 h using an enzyme loading of 20 mg protein/g cellulose at a 10% substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A.W.; Lips, Steef J.; Bakker, Robert R.; Mars, Astrid E.; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Food and Biobased Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced which might be related to uptake of glucose and fructose by different types of transport systems. With T. neapolitana the fructose consumption rate and consequently the hydrogen productivity were low. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2.7-2.8 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose with 10 g/L sugars from carrot pulp hydrolysate. With 20 g/L sugars the yield of T. neapolitana was 2.4 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose while the yield of C. saccharolyticus was reduced to 1.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol hexose due to high lactate production in the stationary growth phase. C. saccharolyticus was able to grow on carrot pulp and utilized soluble sugars and, after adaptation, pectin and some (hemi)cellulose. No growth was observed with T. neapolitana when using carrot pulp in agitated fermentations. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction prior to fermentation increased the hydrogen yield with almost 10% to 2.3 g/kg of hydrolyzed carrot pulp. (author)

  3. A LARCH BIOREFINERY: INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND PS CHARGE ON PRE-EXTRACTION PSAQ PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna S. Hörhammer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with a biorefinery concept based on larch wood. Wood chips of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Lebed. were treated with water before pulping at the optimal pre-extraction (PE condition of 150 °C and 90 minutes. Through PE, about 12.4% of the wood mass is dissolved, mainly from the arabinogalactan hemicellulose component. Fermentation of the hemicellulose-rich larch extract with Bacillus coagulans resulted in consumption of all C6 and C5 sugars and produced lactic acid in high yield. PE before pulping resulted in lower (4 to 5% pulp yield than for control kraft pulps. However, the pulp yield loss may be reduced by addition of polysulfide (PS and anthraquinone (AQ. The present study focuses on the effect of the degree of washing of the extracted chips and that of the PS charge in PSAQ pulping on the final properties of the pulp. Three different levels of washing and three different PS charges were tested. The characteristics of the extract, wash water, pulp, and black liquor samples were determined. The amount of sugars in the combined stream of collected extract and wash water obtained by mild washing was 10.2% on o.d. wood.

  4. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  5. Modeling of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the irradiation with neodymium and diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Patricia Bahls de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    During the development of applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine, adverse thermal effects into the entire dental structure, including the pulp, must be verified. The measurement of the temperature in the intact pulp, however, is not a solved problem. For this purpose, models have been used frequently, using extracted teeth, with pulpal cavities filled with materials that simulate only thermal properties of the pulp. Current models, however, do not simulate optical properties of the pulp, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can cause local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed, using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with water (simulating pulp thermal characteristics) without (model 1) and with (model 2) an optical absorbent. Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: up to 11 % higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated; and up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp), indicating that the level of the remaining radiation is relevant for the construction of models excited by the neodymium and diode lasers. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  7. The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Kadam, PhD

    2006-11-30

    The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about 1/3 of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

  8. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    ?).Peebles: expect surprises and think outside the box yes! #aas228 Kevin Schawinski (@kevinschawinski) June 15, 2016His comparison of local vs. high-redshift cosmology in terms of scales of problems was outstanding, and he encouraged the audience and the community to keep an open mind. After all, in Sean Carrolls words, we do live in a preposterous universe, and the time is almost right to explain it all.This The Limits of Scientific Cosmology series at #aas228 has been absolutely fantastic. @AAS_Office please put videos on youtube! Kevin Schawinski (@kevinschawinski) June 15, 2016Press Conference Black Holes and Gamma-Ray Bursts (by Susanna Kohler)The final press conference of the meeting covered three topics from the categories of black holes and gamma-ray bursts.Fred Rasio (CIERA/Northwestern University) opened the conference with a discussion of how the systems that LIGO detected might have formed. There are two primary models for how these black-hole binaries are created. In the first, they start out as binary systems of two massive stars. If the binary survives the process of both stars collapsing into black holes, then a binary black hole system results.Rasio focused on the second theory, in which that black holes are formed in dense stellar clusters. These black holes then sink (via dynamical friction) to the centers of the clusters like dust particles settling on the floor of a room, where they form binaries in a black hole mosh pit eventually getting kicked out of the cluster by dynamical interactions. You can read more about their research in the press release here.Rasio presents a pretty awesome animation of this black hole mosh pit. https://t.co/AkewctI7uK#aas228 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The effects of a spinning black hole on the spacetime around it. [J.P. Eekels J.M. Overduin]Next up was Richard Henry (Johns Hopkins University), who spoke about the internal structure of spinning black holes (known as Kerr black holes). Because no light can escape from

  9. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Soichiro Sonoda; Haruyoshi Yamaza; Lan Ma; Yosuke Tanaka; Erika Tomoda; Reona Aijima; Kazuaki Nonaka; Toshio Kukita; Songtao Shi; Fusanori Nishimura; Takayoshi Yamaza

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we...

  10. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  11. [Daily practice and pulp diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmein, S; Claisse, A

    1990-09-01

    Constructive or destructive processes of pulp tissue depend on many factors: anatomic topography, particular physiology, or intensity and duration of infectious, mechanical and chemical aggression. Also irritation of the pulpo-dentinal complex induce histologic and physiologic changes. The positive diagnosis of hyperemia, acute or chronic pulpitis, pulpal necrosis and acute or chronic apical abscess is performed by clinical investigations which allow a differential diagnosis with other dental or extra-dental diseases. These multiple steps lead to an adapted and appropriate treatment.

  12. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Society, which was the culmination of several years of supportive interaction. This new relationship is described further in the press release just issued by AAS.First plenary: The Ocean World Enceladus (by Chris Faesi)Enceladus takes its place in the lineup of potential life-bearing solar system bodies.In the first plenary session of the AAS 228th meeting, Christopher Glein of the University of Toronto took the audience on an exciting tour of the ocean world Enceladus. This small, icy moon of Saturn had been thought rather unremarkable for most of the 2+ centuries since its discovery in 1789, but theCassini spacecrafts extended visit over the last decade has revealed it to be a surprisingly dynamic and unique little world. From Cassinis 23 flybys, we now know that Enceladus is composed of roughly equal parts rock and ice, and, with analbedo of 99%, is the most reflective body in the solar system.The moons surface is not entirely cratered, as are most solar system objects such as our own Moon, but has a southern hemisphere with long fissures that look like tiger stripes on an otherwise smooth surface. Follow-up with the satellites highly sensitive instruments revealed that these stripes were heated up to 200 K much hotter than Enceladuss typical 75 K surface temperature. There seems to be an energy shortage: the heating expected from Saturns tidal influence on the moon is a factor of about ten smaller than what would be required to heat the surface this much. Unraveling this discrepancy is still an area of active study today.Learning about the chemistry of Enceladuss plumes. It always amazes me how much we can learn from light! #aas228 pic.twitter.com/yklpClPjRD astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Enceladus also spews powerful jets of salty water and water ice far into space viacryovolcanism, making it the smallest geologically active body in the solar system. Perhaps most intriguingly, this 500 km-diameter moon may be a promising target in the search for

  13. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  14. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  15. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  16. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  17. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  18. Definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Larsen, Dorte Møller; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    of these polysaccharides from the potato pulp. The pH and temperature optima of two selected pectin lyases from Emericella nidulans (formerly known as Aspergillus nidulans) and Aspergillus niger were determined to 8.6 and 4.0, respectively, at ≥100°C within 1min of reaction. The optima for the two selected......Potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. The objective of the present study...

  19. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  20. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  1. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  2. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H O

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  3. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  4. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  5. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  6. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  7. Cassava Pulp as a Biofuel Feedstock of an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuma’ali Djuma’ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12% w/v, particle size <320 μm hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min and yielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction and saccharification by a thermo-stable α-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  8. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  11. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, M.; Baier, U.

    2003-07-01

    Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production. In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp. The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0.38 m{sup 3} biogas per kg of organic matter. The anaerobic degradability was higher than 70%. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors. Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss. Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions (silage) until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. (author)

  12. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  13. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  14. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  15. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  16. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  17. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  18. Experimental transmission of AA amyloidosis by injecting the AA amyloid protein into interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Uchida, K; Chambers, J K; Tei, M; Shoji, A; Ushio, N; Nakayama, H

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of AA amyloidosis is high in humans with rheumatoid arthritis and several animal species, including cats and cattle with prolonged inflammation. AA amyloidosis can be experimentally induced in mice using severe inflammatory stimuli and a coinjection of AA amyloid; however, difficulties have been associated with transmitting AA amyloidosis to a different animal species, and this has been attributed to the "species barrier." The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mouse, a rodent model of human rheumatoid arthritis, has been used in the transmission of AA amyloid. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with mouse AA amyloid together with a subcutaneous pretreatment of 2% AgNO3, all mice from both strains that were injected with crude or purified murine AA amyloid developed AA amyloidosis. However, the amyloid index, which was determined by the intensity of AA amyloid deposition, was significantly higher in IL-1raKO mice than in BALB/c mice. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified bovine AA amyloid together with the pretreatment, 83% (5/6 cases) and 38% (3/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 17% (1/6 cases) and 0% (0/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. Similarly, when IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified feline AA amyloid, 33% (2/6 cases) and 88% (7/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 0% (0/6 cases) and 29% (2/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. These results indicated that IL-1raKO mice are a useful animal model for investigating AA amyloidogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Antibiofilm activity of cashew juice pulp against Staphylococcus aureus, high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and interference on antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Dias-Souza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections has evolved in recent years, as this species is a major Gram-positive pathogen associated with healthcare services. The antimicrobial resistance of this species raises an urgent need for new treatment strategies. Fruits play important nutritional and economic roles in society, but their biological and pharmacological features are poorly explored when compared to nonedible parts of plants such as barks and leaves. In this study, we show that the cashew apple juice [cashew juice pulp (CJP] extract is active against the planktonic cells of S. aureus strains, and for the first time, we show that CJP is also active against S. aureus biofilms. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were conducted to prospect for polyphenols and free carbohydrates, respectively. Cashew apple juice, which is rich in nutrients, is widely consumed in Brazil; therefore, the quality attributes of CJPs were investigated. Samples were evaluated for pH, total titratable acidity, vitamin C levels, and total soluble solids. We also detected an antagonistic interference of CJP when it was combined with different antimicrobial drugs.

  20. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Germgard; Muhammad Asif Javed

    2011-01-01

    In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out...

  1. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  2. Influence of Various Pulp Properties on the Adhesion Between Tissue Paper and Yankee Cylinder Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Boudreau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the adhesion between the paper and the drying Yankee cylinder is of great importance with respect to the final properties of a tissue paper product. Therefore, the effects of a few potentially important pulp properties have been evaluated in laboratory experiments. Four highly different kraft pulps were used, and the adhesion strength was measured by means of the force required when scraping off a paper from a metal surface with a specifically designed knife mounted on a moving cart. The adhesion strength was observed to increase with increasing grammage and increasing degree of beating of the pulp. It was also found that pulps containing more fines, or with higher hemicellulose content, gave rise to higher adhesion strength.

  3. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  5. Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

    A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions. About 88% of the pulp substrat can be converted into gas and a volumic load of 7 kg.m/sup 3/ of dry solids was converted in 24 hours. Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. It was not tested with high loads, but bioconversion rate was about 75%.

  6. Microfibrillated cellulose from bamboo pulp and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Song, Hainong; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Pang, Chunsheng; Liu, Shijie

    2012-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was obtained by disintegrating bleached kraft bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) pulp with a procedure of chemical pretreatment and high-pressure homogenization. The influences of sodium hydroxide dosage and homogenization times were evaluated by water retention value (WRV) of MFC. The properties, such as the surface morphology, rheological property and carboxyl acid content of MFC were also characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), rheometer and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) separately.

  7. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  8. Microstructural features of friction stir welded dissimilar Aluminium alloys AA2219-AA7475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Khan, Noor; Ubaid, Mohammed; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman; Chen, Xizhang; Haider Abidi, Mustufa

    2018-05-01

    High strength, good corrosion resistance, light weight make aluminium alloys a material of choice in many industrial sectors like aerospace, marine etc. Problems associated with welding of these alloys by fusion welding processes restricted their use in various industries. Friction stir welding (FSW), a clean solid-state joining process, easily overcomes various difficulties encountered during conventional fusion welding processes. In the present work, the effect of rotational speed (710 rpm, 900 rpm and 1120 rpm) on micro-hardness distribution and microstructure of FSWed dissimilar aluminium alloy joints were analyzed. Plates of AA7475-T761 and AA2219-O having thickness of 2.5 mm were welded by fixing AA7475 on retreating side (RS) and AA2219 on advancing side (AS). Welded joints were characterized by Vickers micro-hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). Results revealed that rotational speed significantly affects the micro-hardness due to increase in grain size, coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates and re-precipitation. Higher micro-hardness values were observed in stir zone due to grain refinement and re-precipitation. Minimum micro-hardness value was observed at the TMAZ/HAZ of advancing side due to thermal softening.

  9. Comparison of Gingiva, Dental Pulp, and Periodontal Ligament Cells From the Standpoint of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Koji; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Suda, Hideaki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The specific properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in oral tissues still remain unknown though their existence has been previously reported. We collected gingiva, dental pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues from removed teeth and isolated MSCs. These MSCs were compared in terms of their yields per tooth, surface epitopes, and differentiation potentials by patient-matched analysis. For in vivo calcification analysis, rat gingival and dental pulp cells mounted on β-tricalcium phospateTCP were transplanted into the perivertebral muscle of rats for 6 weeks. Gingival cells and dental pulp cells showed higher yield per tooth than periodontal ligament cells (n=6, ppulp cells expressed MSC markers such as CD44, CD90, and CD166. Gingival and dental pulp cells obtained phenotypes of chondrocytes and adipocytes in vitro. Approximately 60% of the colonies of gingival cells and 40% of the colonies of dental pulp cells were positively stained with alizarin red in vitro, and both gingival and dental pulp cells were calcified in vivo. We clarified properties of MSCs derived from removed teeth. We could obtain a high yield of MSCs with osteogenic potential from gingiva and dental pulp. These results indicate that gingiva and dental pulp are putative cell sources for hard tissue regeneration. PMID:26858852

  10. Improved pulp bleaching potential of Bacillus subtilis WB800 through overexpression of three lignolytic enzymes from various bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Aysegul; Uzuner, Ugur; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Ay Sal, Fulya; Belduz, Ali Osman; Deniz, Ilhan; Canakci, Sabriye

    2017-12-29

    A chemical bleaching process of paper pulps gives off excessive amount of chlorinated organic wastes mostly released to environment without exposing complete bioremediaton. Recent alternative and eco-friendly approaches toward pulp bleaching appear more responsive to environmental awareness. Here we report, direct use of a recombinant Bacillus subtilis bacterium for pulp bleaching, endowed with three ligninolytic enzymes from various bacteria. In addition, efficient bleaching performance from glutathione-S-transferase (GST) biocatalyst tested for the first time in pulp bleaching applications was also achieved. Simultaneous and extracellular overproduction of highly active GST, laccase, and lignin peroxidase catalysts were also performed by Bacillus cells. Both enhanced bleaching success and improved delignification rates were identified when enzyme combinations tested on both pine kraft and waste paper pulps, ranging from 69.75% to 79.18% and 60.89% to 74.65%, respectively. Furthermore, when triple enzyme combination applied onto the papers from pine kraft and waste pulps, the best ISO brightness values were identified as 66.45% and 64.67%, respectively. The delignification rates of pulp fibers exposed to various enzymatic bleaching sequences were comparatively examined under SEM. In conclusion, the current study points out that in near future, a more fined-tuned engineering of pulp-colonizing bacteria may become a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical bleaching. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Characteristics of AA amyloidosis patients in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejmi, Hiba; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Olson, Jean L; James, Sam H; Sam, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    AA amyloidosis due to subcutaneous injection of drugs of abuse has been described in the USA, but all the existing literature is from more than 20 years ago. There is more recent literature from Europe. We have observed a high incidence of AA amyloidosis in the county hospital in San Francisco. Here, we describe 24 patients who had kidney biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis from our hospital from 1998 to 2013. All the patients were thought to have AA amyloidosis from skin popping of illicit drugs after having exhausted the intravenous route. These patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis were analysed further. All patients were found to have hepatitis C infection, hypertension was not common, most had advanced kidney failure, and acidosis was common as was tubulointerstitial involvement on the kidney biopsy. Other organ involvement included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in a number of patients; direct myocardial involvement was not seen, but pulmonary hypertension, history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were common. The prognosis of these patients was poor. The mortality rate approached 50% 1 year after biopsy, and most of the patient needed dialysis shortly after diagnosis. Cessation of drug use seemed beneficial but rarely achievable. AA amyloidosis from skin popping is common in San Francisco. Most patients with renal involvement end up on dialysis, and mortality rates are exceedingly high. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles banana pulp noodles peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered.

  13. Rapid determination of fluorine in the pulp process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Levitskaya, O.N.

    1994-01-01

    The control of enrichment of mineral raw materials in order to increase the yield of enriched minerals is an important problem of modern industry. A possible solution is an automatic control system (ACS), which makes possible the monitoring and optimization of the enrichment. In terms of future applications, the nuclear-physical analysis, which is based on the use of a radionuclide source of neutrons, is a promising method. The advantages of this method (high rate, the possibility of performing the analysis directly in the flow, high accuracy, and high sensitivity) make themselves evident in the determination of short-lived isotopes, such as F, Ag, Si, Al, V, etc. Both an instrumental complex and a method for the rapid neutron activation determination (RNAD) of fluorine in the pulp flow of the enrichment process of raw materials were developed at the Institute of Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences. The analytical complex for RNAD comprises an activator; a densitometer; a pump; a pulp-feed system; a gamma-ray detector; a data acquisition apparatus; and a computer for processing the input/output data and controlling the analysis. The authors found that the RNAD of fluorine using radionuclide Pu-Be sources allows the determination in a 6-L pulp under recirculation conditions with an error of less than 1% in 3-5 minutes. The method allows the routine monitoring of the enrichment process of mineral raw materials

  14. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  15. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  16. Pulp tissue from primary teeth: new source of stem cells

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    Paloma Dias Telles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth represent a population of postnatal stem cells capable of extensive proliferation and multipotential differentiation. Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED are highly proliferative cells derived from an accessible tissue source, and therefore hold potential for providing enough cells for clinical applications. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about dental pulp stem cells and discuss tissue engineering approaches that use SHED to replace irreversibly inflamed or necrotic pulps with a healthy and functionally competent tissue that is capable of forming new dentin.

  17. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  18. Interleukin 1-beta analysis in chronically inflamed and healthy human dental pulp

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    Šubarić Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proinflammatory cytokines can act like endogenous pyrogen interleukin 1 (IL-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF α which regulate the synthesis of secondary mediators and other proinflammatory cytokines through macrophages and mesenchymal cells. They stimulate acute-phase proteins and attract inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to determine interleukin 1-β (IL-1 β concentrations in chronically inflamed and healthy dental pulps. Methods. A total of 41 pulps (19 from patients with pulpitis chronic causa and 22 from patients with pulpatis chronic aperta, divided into two groups, were obtained from teeth with chronic pulp inflammation. The control group consisted of 12 teeth with healthy pulp. After extirpation, pulp samples were immediately placed in sterile Eppendorf tubes and frozen. After that, homogenisation was performed by a Teflon® pestle in ice-cold phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 whose volume was adjusted according to the weight of tissue. The supernatant was then frozen at -70°C until the performance of appropriate biochemical analyses. Cytokine IL-1 β value was determined by a commercial enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test. We applied the high sensitivity system technique, which may register low levels of cytokines, ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 pg/mL for IL-1 β. Results. By comparing the mean value of IL-1β, in the pulps we can see a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01 among them. The highest value of IL-1 β was in the subjects with pulpitis chronica clausa and it was 6.21 ± 2.70 pg/mL. Conclusion. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β is present in detectable quantities in the pulp tissue of all vital pulps. Its highest concentrations were found in the sample group with pulpitis chronica clausa.

  19. Investigation of functional activity human dental pulp stem cells at acute and chronic pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustiashvili, M; Kordzaia, D; Mamaladze, M; Jangavadze, M; Sanodze, L

    2014-09-01

    It is already recognized that together with the other connective tissues organ-specific progenic stem cells are also found in postnatal dental pulp. This group of undifferentiated cells is only 1% of total cell population of the pulp. The aim of the study was the identification of stem cells in human dental pulp, detection of their localization and assessment of functional activity during inflammation process and/or at norm. The obtained results showed that at acute pulpitis the pulp stroma is hypocellular in comparison with the norm but cells proliferative activity is low. CD 133 and NCAM (CD 56) positive stem cells were found in perivascularl space of the pulp stroma and in Hohle layer. At process prolongation and transition to the chronic phase pulp stroma is hypercellular, the cells with large, rounded or oval-shaped nuclei with clear chromatin appear together with fibroblasts. They are distributed as about entire thickness of the stroma as especially Hohle layer. In such cells higher proliferative activity (Ki67 expression) was observed. The cells in the mentioned proliferation phase are intensively marked by CD133, the rate of which is high in Hohle layer and along it. A large number of NCAM (CD 56) positive cells appear in pulp stroma. During pulpitis an involvement of stem cells into the process of reparative dentinogenesis should be conducted stepwise. In acute cases of the disease, stem cell perivascularl mobilization and proliferation and its migration to Hohle layer occur in response to irritation /stimulation. Chronification of the process leads not only to the migration of stem cells to the periphery of the pulp but also s their В«maturationВ» (increase of NCAM expression in the stem cells), which causes an increase the number of dentin producing active odontoblasts and initiation of reparative dentinogenesis.

  20. PENGGUNAAN ASAM PERASETAT PADA PROSES DELIGNIFIKASI PULP ACETOSOLV DARI AMPAS TEBU DAN BAMBU BETUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sapta Zuidar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetosolv process produced dark pulp because of the high lignin content.  Therefore ,  delignification  process is needed. This process uses peracetic acid to improve pulp qualities. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of different concentrations of peracetic acid against the characteristics of pulp acetosolv from bagasse and bamboo betung.  The research was arranged in a Complete Randomized Block Design with a single treatment and 4 replications.  The treatment used peracetic acid with six levels concentration (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%, 19% at a temperature of 85oC for 3 hours. The homogenity and additivity of the data were  analyzed using Bartlett and Tuckey Tests, then they were analyze for ANOVA to see if there is any difference among means, and then processed further using  Least Significant Difference at level of 1% and 5%.  The results showed that the concentration of peracetic acid had significant effect on yield, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and organoleptic color pulp from bagasse and bamboo betung.  The best results showed that the concentration of peracetic acid 15% with cooking duration of  3 hours gave the best pulp. The pulp contained 85.837% of cellulose , 7.757% of hemicellulose , 1.758% of lignin , 73.048% of yield  and  the average organoleptic score for the pulp color was 4.3. Keywords:   acetosolv pulp,  baggase, bamboo,  delignification, paracetic acid

  1. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  2. Design and system developments of pulping and paper making equipment for reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, A.

    1980-03-15

    Due to unprecedented price rise of energy, acute shortages and uncertainties in securing new and reliable energy sources, continuous technological developments have been taking place in equipment and system design in the field of pulp and paper industry. The possibility of energy reduction in areas of pulping, bleaching and cleaning of pulp, black liquor evaporation, approach flow system and drying of paper are analyzed. Specific energy consumption in terms of both heat and electricity can be considerably reduced by adopting continuous pulping methods, incorporating new concepts of counter-current impregnation, cooking high heat diffusion washing and displacement bleaching. Use of cleaners based on improved design can reduce electric energy use considerably by cleaning pulp at higher consistency and at reduced reject rates without impairing cleaning efficiency. Pre-evaporation of spent liquor in vapor recompression evaporators and use of falling film evaporation for scale forming black liquors can reduce steam demand in evaporation. Specific steam demand in paper drying can be reduced by 6 to 10% using thermo-rings or by modifications of dryer inner surface. Effects of energy consumption by integration of pulp and paper mills and by implementation of effluent treatment program are indicated.

  3. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  4. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The dynamics of TGF-β in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Takahiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Hajime; Karakida, Takeo; Chiba, Risako; Hu, Jan C-C; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C; Gomi, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-13

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11). Activated TGF-β1 enhances the mRNA expression levels of MMP20 and full-length dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in dental pulp cells, coinciding with the induction of odontoblast differentiation. Latent TGF-β1 synthesized in odontoblasts is primarily activated by MMP2 and MMP20 in both odontoblasts and dentin. The activity level of TGF-β1 was reduced in the dentin of MMP20 null mice, although the amount of latent TGF-β1 expression did not change between wild-type and MMP20 null mice. TGF-β1 activity was reduced with the degradation of DSPP-derived proteins that occurs with ageing. We propose that to exert its multiple biological functions, TGF-β1 is involved in a complicated dynamic interaction with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or DSPP-derived proteins present in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

  6. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions.

  7. Efeito da alta pressão hidrostática na atividade de enzimas da polpa de açaí High hydrostatic pressure effect on enzyme activity of açai pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mayra da Silva Menezes

    2008-12-01

    case, High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP use can be an alternative to traditional processing techniques for enzyme activation or inactivation. Peroxidases (POD and Polyphenoloxidases (PPO are the main enzymes responsible for undesirable changes in the original characteristics of vegetable products, but using HHP to inactivate them, it is possible to avoid enzymatic browning maintaining sensorial properties. Aiming to evaluate HHP effect on POD and PPO, present in the açaí pulp, the variables pressure, temperature, and time were adopted. Enzyme activities, expressed in percentages, indicate a more stable POD, achieving percentages close to 100% (control. The lowest activities were at 90.74%, and when applied 300 and 500 MPa, 25 °C for 5 minutes treatments, the activities increased (112.34 and 132.98%, respectively. PPO activity rose up to 83.03% in relation to the to control even though inactivation was present in most of the processes (35 °C/5 minutes at 300 and 500 MPa, 53.25, and 53.75%, respectively. Under the experimental conditions, HHP proved effective for the partial inactivation of açaí pulp oxidases.

  8. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  9. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  10. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  11. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  12. Electrothermal debracketing: patient acceptance and effects on the dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgan, J S; Walton, R E; Bishara, S E

    1995-09-01

    Adhesives bond ceramic brackets so effectively that their removal by mechanical forces can fracture the brackets and may damage the tooth surface. Electrothermal debracketers have been developed to facilitate removal; whether the heat generated will damage the underlying pulp is unclear. In our experiment, a prototype device with a high heat tip was used to remove brackets from premolars in patients. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) time required for removal, (2) patient acceptance, and (3) histologic effect on the pulp. Forty-eight experimental teeth planned for orthodontic extraction were bonded by a filled Bis-GMA composite resin and a monocrystalline sapphire bracket. After the chemically cured composite set, debracketing was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Seventeen premolars were not etched or bracketed and served as controls. The interval between heat application and removal of the bracket was timed. Patients were questioned as to sensations during debracketing. Teeth were extracted at 5 to 7 or 28 to 32 days and histologically prepared. Pulps were evaluated for alterations. Brackets were removed in an average of 2.1 seconds, usually at the bracket/composite interface. Patient acceptance was generally positive. Pulpal necrosis was not observed but, in a number of specimens, slight inflammation and odontoblastic disruption occurred at both observation periods.

  13. Dental Pulp: Correspondences and Contradictions between Clinical and Histological Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuroiu, Cristian Levente; Căruntu, Irina-Draga; Lozneanu, Ludmila; Melian, Anca; Vataman, Maria; Andrian, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp represents a specialized connective tissue enclosed by dentin and enamel, the most highly mineralized tissues of the body. Consequently, the direct examination as well as pathological evaluation of dental pulp is difficult. Within this anatomical context, our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between dental pulp lesions and clinical diagnosis. Pulpectomies were performed for 54 patients with acute and chronic irreversible pulpitides and for 5 patients (control group) with orthodontic extractions. The morphological features were semiquantitatively assessed by specific score values. The clinical and morphological correspondence was noted for 35 cases (68.62%), whereas inconsistency was recorded for 16 cases (31.38%). The results of the statistical analysis revealed the correlations between clinically and pathologically diagnosed acute/chronic pulpitides. No significant differences were established between the score values for inflammatory infiltrate intensity, collagen depositions, calcifications and necrosis, and acute, respectively chronic pulpitides. We also obtained significant differences between acute pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate and calcifications and between chronic pulpitides and inflammatory infiltrate, collagen deposition, and calcifications. On the basis of the predominant pathological aspects, namely, acute and chronic pulpitis, we consider that the classification schemes can be simplified by adequately reducing the number of clinical entities. PMID:26078972

  14. Energy conservation in pulp and paper industry: some thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadawarte, N. S.; Prasad, A. K.; Khanolkar, V. D.; Shenoy, S. C.

    1980-03-15

    The pulp and paper industry is highly energy intensive. In view of the spiralling fuel prices and rising power costs, there is an urgent need to conserve energy through better management of various operations in the industry, from the optimal utilization of the forest residues to the shipment of the final product. The total energy concept, e.g., energy generation, distribution and utilization in Indian paper industry is discussed. The need for an energy audit is emphasized and the formats of energy reporting forms are included. Short and long term measures to be enforced to achieve energy savings in the pulp and paper mills are outlined. Some important energy conservation approaches are also discussed. Factors affecting energy efficiency in a pulp and paper mill are reviewed. Some areas where sustained R and D efforts should be focused to make the paper industry nearly self-sufficient in energy generation and utilization are also given. It is essential to have a National Energy Policy clearly defining achievable targets of energy conservation for industry. The Indian paper industry could advantageously form its own committee to review the operation of the various mills in the country and come out with concrete solutions for higher energy efficiency and more effective conservation of energy.

  15. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  16. Optimizing residence time, temperature and speed to improve TMP pulp properties and reduce energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Xu, E.; Cort, B.; Boileau, I.; Waller, A.

    1997-04-01

    The concept of reducing energy consumption in pulp mills by increasing the disc speed of refining has been established using single disc and double disc refiners in both pilot plant and mill applications. The RTS study evaluated in this paper reviews the effect of high-speed single disc refining coupled with shortdwell-high pressure retention conditions. Coupling these variables permitted evaluation of an optimum residence time, temperature and speed (RTS) operational window. The objective of the RTS conditions to sufficiently soften the wood chips through high temperature such that the fibre is more receptive to initial defiberization at high intensity. The improved pulp from the primary refiner at high intensity could potentially demonstrate improvements in physical pulp properties at a reduced specific energy requirement. The spruce/fir RTS-TMP described here required significantly less specific energy and produced TMP with slightly improved strength properties and equivalent optical properties compared to conventional TMP pulp. Studies on the radiate pine furnish indicated that the physical pulp property/specific energy relationships could be adjusted by manipulating the residence time. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  18. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  19. Davallialactone reduces inflammation and repairs dentinogenesis on glucose oxidase-induced stress in dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Go-Eun; Song, Yong-Beom; Paudel, Usha; Lee, Nan-Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2013-11-01

    The chronic nature of diabetes mellitus (DM) raises the risk of oral complication diseases. In general, DM causes oxidative stress to organs. This study aimed to evaluate the cellular change of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress by glucose oxidase with a high glucose state. The purpose of this study was to test the antioxidant character of davallialactone and to reduce the pathogenesis of dental pulp cells against glucose oxidative stress. The glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration was tested for hydroxy peroxide (H2O2) production, cellular toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, induction of inflammatory molecules and disturbance of dentin mineralization in human dental pulp cells. The anti-oxidant effect of Davallilactone was investigated to restore dental pulp cells' vitality and dentin mineralization via reduction of H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation and inflammatory molecules. The treatment of glucose oxidase with a high glucose concentration increased H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, and inflammatory molecules and disturbed dentin mineralization by reducing pulp cell activity. However, davallialactone reduced H2O2 production, cellular toxicity, ROS formation, inflammatory molecules, and dentin mineralization disturbances even with a long-term glucose oxidative stress state. The results of this study imply that the development of oral complications is related to the irreversible damage of dental pulp cells by DM-induced oxidative stress. Davallialactone, a natural antioxidant, may be useful to treat complicated oral disease, representing an improvement for pulp vital therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  1. Core–corona PSt/P(BA–AA) composite particles by two-stage emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Delong; Ren, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinya, E-mail: cexyzh@scut.edu.cn; Liao, Shijun [South China University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Raspberry-shaped composite particles with polystyrene (PSt) as core and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(BA–AA)) as corona were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The random copolymer, P(BA–AA), was pre-prepared and used as a polymeric surfactant, its emulsifying properties adjusted by changing the mass ratio of BA and AA. The morphology of the resulting core–corona composite particles, P(St/P(BA–AA)), could be regulated and controlled by varying the concentrations of P(BA–AA) or the mass ratio of BA:AA in P(BA–AA). The experimental results indicate that 3.0–6.0 wt% of P(BA–AA) is required to obtain stable composite emulsions, and P(BA–AA) with a mass ratio of BA:AA = 1:2 is able to generate distinct core–corona structures. A mechanism of composite particle formation is proposed based on the high affinity between the PSt core and the hydrophobic segments of P(BA–A). The regular morphology of the colloidal film is expected to facilitate potential application of core–corona particles in the field of light scattering. Furthermore, the diversity of core–corona particles can be expanded by replacing P(BA–AA) corona particles with other amphiphilic particles.

  2. An investigation of dentinal fluid flow in dental pulp during food mastication: simulation of fluid-structure interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

    2014-06-01

    This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of a premolar tooth (enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical bone, and cancellous bone) and food particle were created. Food particles with elastic modulus of 2,000 and 10,000 MPa were used, respectively. The external displacement loading (5 μm) was gradually directed to the food particle surface for 1 and 0.1 s, respectively, to simulate the chewing of food particles. The displacement and stress on tooth structure and fluid flow in the dental pulp were selected as evaluation indices. The results show that masticating food with a high elastic modulus results in high stress and deformation in the tooth structure, causing faster dentinal fluid flow in the pulp in comparison with that obtained with soft food. In addition, fast chewing of hard food particles can induce faster fluid flow in the pulp, which may result in dental pain. FSI analysis is shown to be a useful tool for investigating dental biomechanics during food mastication. FSI simulation can be used to predict intrapulpal fluid flow in dental pulp; this information may provide the clinician with important concept in dental biomechanics during food mastication.

  3. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Henri Darnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

  4. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  5. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  6. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  7. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  8. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  9. Constitutive behavior of as-cast AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Magnin, B.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent thermomechanical modeling to calculate the stress field in industrially direct-chill (DC) cast-aluminum slabs has been successful, but lack of material data limits the accuracy of these calculations. Therefore, the constitutive behavior of three aluminum alloys (AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182) was determined in the as-cast condition using tensile tests at low strain rates and from room temperature to solidus temperature. The parameters of two constitutive equations, the extended Ludwik equation and a combination of the Sellars-Tegart equation with a hardening law, were determined. In order to study the effect of recovery, the constitutive behavior after prestraining at higher temperatures was also investigated. To evaluate the quantified constitutive equations, tensile tests were performed simulating the deformation and cooling history experienced by the material during casting. It is concluded that both constitutive equations perform well, but the combined hardening-Sellars-Tegart (HST) equation has temperature-independent parameters, which makes it easier to implement in a DC casting model. Further, the deformation history of the ingot should be taken into account for accurate stress calculations.

  10. Pulp-mill related polychlorinated organic compounds in Baltic Sea sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Per (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden)); Rappe, C.; Kjeller, L.O. (Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Kierkegaard, A. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research); Haakansson, L. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences); Jonsson, Bjoern (County Adm. Board, Umeaa (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Baltic basin were analyzed for PCDD/Fs, alkyl-CDFs, chloroguaiacols and EOCl. The EOCl distribution pattern in the Iggesund pulp-mill area shows high sediment concentrations close to the mill, and decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the mill. Two series of alkyl-CDFs have been identified. The PCDD/Fs in offshore surficial sediments from the Baltic proper show a typical incineration pattern, while sediments collected in the vicinity of the mill show enhanced levels of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD, 2,3,7,8- and 1,2,7,8-tetraCDF, and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD. These PCDD/F congeners are statistically correlated to di-, tri-, and tetrachloroguaiacols, alkyl-CDFs, EOCl, and to the distance from the pulp mill, indicating the same source and transportation regime. Principal component analysis of the data set supports this conclusion. The three 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-substituted PCDD/F congeners have formerly been found in high concentrations in sediments and crab hepatopancreas close to a pulp mill on the Swedish west coast. Our results from a pulp mill on the Swedish east coast support the conclusion that these congeners are typically associated with pulp bleaching. Deep layer sediments have significantly lower levels of PCDD/Fs. The isomer profiles are different in the surficial and the deep sediments, indicating a more natural preindustrial production of PCDD/Fs. (53 refs., 7 figs.).

  11. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  12. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  13. Desempenho e características da carcaça de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados, recebendo dietas com alto concentrado e níveis crescentes de polpa cítrica peletizada Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis bulls, fed high concentrate diets with increasing levels of dehydrated citrus pulp pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wignez Henrique

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela polpa cítrica peletizada sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça de tourinhos Santa Gertrudes confinados. Vinte e oito animais, com nove meses de idade e peso inicial de 277 kg, foram confinados em baias individuais. O período experimental foi de 92 dias, após 21 dias de adaptação. Os animais receberam dietas contendo 20% da matéria seca como silagem de milho, com 40% de grãos. Foram testados os níveis de 0, 25, 40 e 55% de participação da polpa cítrica peletizada na matéria seca da dieta. Não houve efeito do nível de polpa cítrica na dieta sobre ganho de peso, ingestão diária de matéria seca, eficiência alimentar, rendimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo e peso da gordura renal-pélvica-inguinal. Os pesos do fígado e da carcaça foram significativamente maiores com o aumento da polpa cítrica na dieta, que também determinou decréscimo linear na espessura de gordura sobre a 12ª costela. O pH das fezes foi semelhante entre os níveis de participação da polpa cítrica. Não foi verificada a ocorrência de abscessos no fígado em nenhum tratamento, apesar da dieta conter alto teor de concentrado. A polpa cítrica peletizada pode compor até 55% da matéria seca de dietas, substituindo o milho em grão, para tourinhos em terminação recebendo altos níveis de concentrado, apenas com diminuição da espessura de gordura.The experiment was developed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of corn grain by dehydrated citrus pulp pellets on the performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Gertrudis young bulls fed high concentrate diets. Twenty-eight bulls, with average age of nine months and an initial weight of 277 kg, were kept in individual pens and fed during 92 days, after 21 days of adaptation. The animals were fed a diet with 20% of the dry matter as corn silage, with 40% of grain. Treatments

  14. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  15. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  16. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    also other applications like in the chemical industry. (Biermann, 1993). Therefore pulp is a very .... digester was maintained at an operating condition of. 170°C, pressure of 2 bars, with liquor to wood ratio of 4:1. Cooking ... The effects of different concentrations of pulping liquor on the yield of pulp from the wood species are ...

  17. Organosolv pulping and test paper characterization of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, F.H.A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Tjeerdsma, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The autocatalyzed ethanol pulping of hemp to produce chemical-grade pulp was examined. Batch delignification conditions were developed for hemp core, hemp bast, and hemp whole stem. Although successful pulping of both hemp core and bast fibre is possible, further research is necessary.

  18. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  19. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  20. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  1. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  2. MASS BALANCE OF SILICA IN STRAW FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SILICA REDUCTION IN STRAW PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The high silica content of wheat straw is an important limiting factor for straw pulping. High silica content complicates processing and black liquor recovery, wears out factory installations, and lowers paper quality. Each section of wheat straw has different cells and chemical compositions and thus different silica content. In this work, the silica content of balled straw samples were examined according to their physical components, including internodes, nodes, leaves (sheath and blade, rachis, grain, other plant bodies, and other plant spikes. Mass distribution of silica was determined by a dry ashing method. Half (50.90% of the silica comes from leaves, and its mechanical separation will reduce the silica content in wheat straw pulp significantly. Destroying silica bodies by sonication will increase the strength properties of straw pulp.

  3. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior of high strength AA7075 aluminium alloy friction stir welds – Effect of post weld heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    It was observed that the hardness and strength of weld were observed to be comparatively high in peak aged (T6 condition but the welds showed poor corrosion resistance. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved and the mechanical properties were maintained by RRA treatment. The resistance to pitting corrosion was improved in RRA condition with the minimum loss of weld strength.

  4. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  5. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  6. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  7. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  8. Effects of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Variables on the Durian Rind Pulp and Paper Characteristics: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Rahmad Talib, Mohd; Sian, Lau Lee

    2017-08-01

    Good combination of pulping variables is required to obtain the quality pulp and paper characteristics. Thus, in this preliminary work, naturally dried durian rind were pulped under Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with 18% to 22% alkali charge, 0% to 0.1% Anthraquinone (AQ) charge, 90 minutes to 150 minutes of cooking time and 150°C to 170°C to investigate the effect of pulping variables on the characteristics of the pulp and paper. Pulping condition with 0% of AQ charge was also conducted for comparison. Results indicated that the best screen yield percentage, reject yield percentage, freeness, drainage time, tear index, number of folds and optical properties were shown by the pulp produced with combination of the highest active alkali (22%), AQ charge (0.1%), cooking time (150 minutes) and cooking temperature (170°C) except apparent density, tensile index and burst index. This preliminary result shows that the optimum quality of durian rind pulp as a potential papermaking raw material pulp could be produced by selecting the good combination of pulping variables which influences the pulp and paper characteristics.

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  10. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo; Lacerda de Carvalho, Acácia Fernandes; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Pereira, Lygia da Veiga; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp is a source of mesenchymal stem cells. To better understand the biological properties of these cells we isolated and characterized stem cells from the dental pulp of EGFP transgenic mice. The pulp tissue was gently separated from the roots of teeth extracted from C57BL/6 mice, and cultured under appropriate conditions. Flow cytometry, RT-PCR, light microscopy (staining for alkaline phosphatase) and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the expression of stem cell markers. The presence of chromosomal abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were positive for alkaline phosphatase. The karyotype was normal until the 5th passage. The Pou5f1/Oct-4 and ZFP42/Rex-1, but not Nanog transcripts were detected in mDPSC. Flow cytometry and fluorescence analyses revealed the presence of a heterogeneous population positive for embryonic and mesenchymal cell markers. Adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was achieved after two weeks of cell culture under chemically defined in vitro conditions. In addition, some elongated cells spontaneously acquired a contraction capacity. Our results reinforce that the dental pulp is an important source of adult stem cells and encourage studies on therapeutic potential of mDPSC in experimental disease models. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  12. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  13. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  14. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  15. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  16. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  17. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  18. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  19. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  20. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  3. Making ET AAS Determination Less Dependent on Vapourization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The quantification of the analytes in ET AAS is normally attained by the measurement and integration of transient absorbance. High degree of atomization and constant vapour transportation rate for the analyte atoms in the absorption volume are considered to be crucial to grant correctness of the measurements. However ...

  4. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  5. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  6. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  7. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  8. Effect of pasteurisation and freezing method on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of strawberry pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilma Auxiliadora Santos; Resende, Nathane Silva; Carvalho, Elisângela Elena Nunes; Resende, Jaime Vilela de; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the stability of strawberry pulp subjected to three factors, pasteurisation (pasteurised and unpasteurised), freezing method (static air and forced air) and storage time (0, 2, 4 and 6 months). Pasteurisation favoured vitamin C retention during storage but enhanced the total loss of phenolics without affecting anthocyanin levels. Freezing by forced air was more effective in retaining phenolics during the first 4 months of storage, although the freezing method did not affect the anthocyanin levels. Processing and storage reduced the levels of individual phenolics. Freezing by forced air was more effective than static air in retaining antioxidant activity of the pulp. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme levels were relatively stable and independent of pasteurisation, freezing and storage time. Even after 6 months of frozen storage, strawberry pulp is a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds and retains high antioxidant capacity independent of pasteurisation and freezing method.

  9. [Correlation between PMI and DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ren; Wang, Wei-ping; Xiong, Ping

    2005-08-01

    To probe the correlation between the postmortem interval (PMI) and the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death, and to seek a new method for estimating PMI. The image cytometry was used to measure the DNA degradation under different ambient temperatures (30-35 degrees C, 15-20 degrees C) in 0-15 days after death. The average DNA content of two kinds of tissue was degradated with the prolongation of PMI. But there was a plateau period of 0-4 days for dental pulp cells of human being in 15-20 degrees C. There was a high negative correlativity PPMI. PMI could be estimated accurately according to the DNA degradation of costicartilage and dental pulp cells in human being after death.

  10. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    kraft fibre was found to be 240 +- 20. There are indications that the glucomannan needs a minimum chain length higher than 100 to be retained, as opposed to xylan. There may be error factors in using the traditional intrinsic viscosity (limiting viscosity number) for the determination of the degree of polymerization for cellulose. However, using intrinsic viscosity and the fraction of hemicellulose and cellulose, a much more accurate estimate of the degree of polymerization of cellulose is found, correlating well with the molecular mass of cellulose found by SEC. Brownstock pulping yield can be estimated using three pulp properties; Kappa number, glucomannan and xylan content of pulp in addition to a contribution for the use of AQ. The main error in the yield determination originates from uncertainties in cellulose yield determination. The model seems to be robust and can be used on several softwood species. The influence of hemicellulose content on handsheet properties is studied. Sheet density is used to evaluate the fibre flexibility. The fibre flexibility is closely related to the average fibre wall thickness, hemicellulose content and drying. The drying of pulps and more thick-walled fibres reduces the fibre flexibility while increased hemicellulose content is favourable for high fibre flexibility. Load-elongation properties like tensile index, tensile stiffness index and elongation at rupture have been evaluated. Pulps with a high hemicellulose content are more easily beaten and this results in higher tensile index for pulps with increased hemicellulose content. The reason is that increased swelling of fibres with higher hemicellulose content increases the straightness of fibres resulting in more easily activated fibre segments in the sheet network. However, the extensibility for sheets made of pulps with increased hemicellulose content is reduced. This indicates that the fibres with increased hemicellulose content have more rigid fibre walls that resist axial

  11. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  12. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  13. Modeling of thermal and optical effects in dental pulp during the irradiation with neodymium and diode lasers; Modelagem dos efeitos termicos e opticos na polpa dentaria durante a irradiacao com os lasers de diodo de neodimio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhat, Patricia Bahls de Almeida

    2003-07-01

    During the development of applications of high intensity lasers in the enamel and dentine, adverse thermal effects into the entire dental structure, including the pulp, must be verified. The measurement of the temperature in the intact pulp, however, is not a solved problem. For this purpose, models have been used frequently, using extracted teeth, with pulpal cavities filled with materials that simulate only thermal properties of the pulp. Current models, however, do not simulate optical properties of the pulp, not taking the remaining radiation in the pulp chamber into account. The aim of this study was to verify if the remaining radiation from neodymium and diode lasers that reach the pulp chamber, at the models using extracted bovine teeth, can cause local thermal effects. For this purpose, two models were developed, using extracted bovine teeth with their pulp chambers filled with water (simulating pulp thermal characteristics) without (model 1) and with (model 2) an optical absorbent. Models were radiated with 1 W. The obtained results show that, for both lasers, the temperature rise in model 2 pulp chamber is: up to 11 % higher than in the model 1 when the enamel is radiated; and up to 37% higher than in the model 1 when dentine is radiated (1 mm from the pulp), indicating that the level of the remaining radiation is relevant for the construction of models excited by the neodymium and diode lasers. (author)

  14. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  15. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunolocalization of bone-resorptive cytokines in rat pulp and periapical lesions following surgical pulp exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani-Ishii, N; Wang, C Y; Stashenko, P

    1995-08-01

    The bone-resorptive cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including pulpitis and apical periodontitis.To further elucidate their role in these disorders, we have identified cells that express IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha in infected pulps and in developing rat periapical lesions after surgical pulp exposure. As detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-1 alpha- and TNF alpha-positive cells were present as early as 2 days after pulp exposure in both the pulp and periapical region. The numbers of cytokine-expressing cells increased up to day 4 in the pulp and up to day 30 in the periapex. In contrast, cells expressing IL-1 beta and TNF beta, the homologous forms of these mediators, were not found in pulp or periapical lesions during this period. Cells expressing IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were identified primarily as macrophages and fibroblasts, with occasional staining of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also positive, whereas lymphocytes were negative. In general, cytokine-expressing cells were located proximal to abscesses and the root apex. These findings demonstrate that cells that express bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha are present immediately after pulp exposure in this model, which supports the hypothesis that these mediators play a key role in pulpal and periapical pathogenesis, including the concomitant bone destruction. They also indicate that both resident connective tissue cells as well as infiltrating cells express bone-resorptive cytokines in response to infection in these lesions.

  17. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  18. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  19. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  20. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  1. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  2. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  3. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  4. The Use of Mg(OH2 in the Final Peroxide Bleaching Stage of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alkali is an attractive alkaline source for the peroxide bleaching of high-yield pulp. However, little information is available on Mg(OH2 application in the final peroxide bleaching stage of wheat straw pulp. The use of Mg(OH2 was demonstrated as a partial replacement for NaOH in the peroxide bleaching of a chelated oxygen-delignified wheat straw pulp. The yield, viscosity, and strength properties of bleached pulp significantly increased with increasing replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, while the chemical oxygen demand load (COD of filtrate was decreased. For similar brightness of bleached pulp at a 24% replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, the tensile and tear indices were higher, by 2.1 Nm.g-1 and 1.75 mN*m2.g-1, respectively, than that of control pulp bleached with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When the MgSO4 was eliminated and the dosage of Na2SiO3 was decreased in the bleaching process, the tear and burst indices of the bleached pulp were also enhanced, with the brightness maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that more swelling occurred in the fibers of bleached pulp from the Mg(OH2-based bleaching process. Fiber analysis indicated that peroxide bleaching with Mg(OH2 increased the proportion of fiber lengths between 0.20 to 1.20 mm and 1.20 to 7.60 mm.

  5. The odontogenic potential of STRO-1 sorted rat dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Dolder, J. van den; Walboomers, X.F.; Zhang, W.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of heterogeneous cell populations in dental pulp may count for the considerable variation in the outcome of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Here, we intended to determine whether a minor cell sub-population of high proliferation and odontogenic potential existed among a larger

  6. Biotechnological application of enzymes for making paper pulp from green jute/kenaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M.H.B.; Lips, S.J.J.; Maas, R.H.W.; Kamp, op den R.G.M.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Jong, de E.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the tasks of Agrotechnology & Food Innovation (formerly ATO) in the project are: to determine at laboratory level the best conditions for producing high-yield pulps from whole jute for utilisation in wood containing papers; to test the potential of using recommended enzyme

  7. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp : structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  8. Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Doreen Mann; D.P. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs...

  9. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas

  10. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  11. Morphological development of cellulose fibrils of a bleached eucalyptus pulp by mechanical fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R. Gleisner; T.A. Kuster; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from a bleached eucalyptus pulp using a commercial stone grinder. Scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy imaging were used to reveal morphological development of CNF at micro and nano scales, respectively. Two major structures were identified (1) highly kinked, naturally...

  12. Mesenchymal and embryonic characteristics of stem cells obtained from mouse dental pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Cruz, Gabriela Silva; de Jesus, Alan Araújo

    2011-01-01

    abnormalities was evaluated by G banding. RESULTS: The mouse dental pulp stem cells (mDPSC) were highly proliferative, plastic-adherent, and exhibited a polymorphic morphology predominantly with stellate or fusiform shapes. The presence of cell clusters was observed in cultures of mDPSC. Some cells were...

  13. The water footprint of wood for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    This paper presents the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector related to roundwood production for lumber, pulp, paper, fuel and firewood. For the period 1961-2010, we estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to various

  14. Industry evolution in developing countries : the Indonesian pulp and paper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van M.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all empirical research on industry evolution has been conducted on high or medium technology industries in industrialised countries. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the life cycle of Indonesia's pulp and paper industry is presented as case study to investigate industry evolution in

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofibers from Two Commercial Hardwood and Softwood Pulps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Sanadi, Anand R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the mechanical fibrillation process for the preparation of cellulose nanofibers from two commercial hard- and softwood cellulose pulps. The process consisted of initial refining and subsequent high-pressure homogenization. The progress in fibrillation was studied...

  16. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment. PMID:26775677

  17. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus PULP AND NANOFIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jonoobi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone and three-stage bleaching (DEpD processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high-pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the studies showed that the isolated nanofibers from unbleached and bleached pulp had diameters between 10-90 nm, while their length was in the micrometer range. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased in the pulping process and that lignin was almost completely removed during bleaching. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that both pulp types as well as the nanofibers displayed a superior thermal stability as compared to the raw kenaf. Finally, X-ray analyses showed that the chemo-mechanical treatments altered the crystallinity of the pulp and the nanofibers: the bleached pulp had a higher crystallinity than its unbleached counterpart, and the bleached nanofibers presented the highest crystallinity of all the investigated materials.

  18. Interferon-gamma improves impaired dentinogenic and immunosuppressive functions of irreversible pulpitis-derived human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Soichiro; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Ma, Lan; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tomoda, Erika; Aijima, Reona; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Kukita, Toshio; Shi, Songtao; Nishimura, Fusanori; Yamaza, Takayoshi

    2016-01-18

    Clinically, irreversible pulpitis is treated by the complete removal of pulp tissue followed by replacement with artificial materials. There is considered to be a high potential for autologous transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in endodontic treatment. The usefulness of DPSCs isolated from healthy teeth is limited. However, DPSCs isolated from diseased teeth with irreversible pulpitis (IP-DPSCs) are considered to be suitable for dentin/pulp regeneration. In this study, we examined the stem cell potency of IP-DPSCs. In comparison with healthy DPSCs, IP-DPSCs expressed lower colony-forming capacity, population-doubling rate, cell proliferation, multipotency, in vivo dentin regeneration, and immunosuppressive activity, suggesting that intact IP-DPSCs may be inadequate for dentin/pulp regeneration. Therefore, we attempted to improve the impaired in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro immunosuppressive functions of IP-DPSCs to enable dentin/pulp regeneration. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) treatment enhanced in vivo dentin regeneration and in vitro T cell suppression of IP-DPSCs, whereas treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha did not. Therefore, these findings suggest that IFN-γ may be a feasible modulator to improve the functions of impaired IP-DPSCs, suggesting that autologous transplantation of IFN-γ-accelerated IP-DPSCs might be a promising new therapeutic strategy for dentin/pulp tissue engineering in future endodontic treatment.

  19. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  20. A First Step in De Novo Synthesis of a Living Pulp Tissue Replacement Using Dental Pulp MSCs and Tissue Growth Factors, Encapsulated within a Bioinspired Alginate Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoj, Manasi; Zhang, Chengfei; Green, David W

    2015-07-01

    A living, self-supporting pulp tissue replacement in vitro and for transplantation is an attractive yet unmet bioengineering challenge. Our aim is to create 3-dimensional alginate-based microenvironments that replicate the shape of gutta-percha and comprise key elements for the proliferation of progenitor cells and the release of growth factors. An RGD-bearing alginate framework was used to encapsulate dental pulp stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a ratio of 1:1. The alginate hydrogel also retained and delivered 2 key growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 and fibroblast growth factor, in a sufficient amount to induce proliferation. A method was then devised to replicate the shape of gutta-percha using RGD alginate within a custom-made mold of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide. Plugs of alginate containing different permutations of growth factor-based encapsulates were tested and evaluated for viability, proliferation, and release kinetics between 1 and 14 days. According to scanning electron microscopic and confocal microscopic observations, the encapsulated human endothelial cells and dental pulp stem cell distribution were frequent and extensive throughout the length of the construct. There were also high levels of viability in all test environments. Furthermore, cell proliferation was higher in the growth factor-based groups. Growth factor release kinetics also showed significant differences between them. Interestingly, the combination of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor synergize to significantly up-regulate cell proliferation. RGD-alginate scaffolds can be fabricated into shapes to fill the pulp space by simple templating. The addition of dual growth factors to cocultures of stem cells within RGD-alginate scaffolds led to the creation of microenvironments that significantly enhance the proliferation of dental pulp stem cell/human umbilical vein endothelial cell combinations. Copyright

  1. Pembuatan Pulp dari Alang-alang

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Wibisono Aylianawati

    2011-01-01

    Alang-alang merupakan tanaman gulma yang jumlahnya cukup besar di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini pemanfaatan dalam jumlah yang besar terhadap alang-alang di Indonesia belum ada. Alang-alang mempunyai kandungan selulosa yang cukup tinggi. Pada penelitian pendahuluan terhadap bahan baku alang-alang mengandung kadar alfa selulosa sekitar 41,7% dan mempunyai bilangan Kappa sebesar 37,1886. Maka alang-alang bisa dijadikan sebagai bahan dari pulp untuk pembuatan kertas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ...

  2. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  3. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Anna; Cederlund, Ella; Palmberg, Carina; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Gaunitz, Stefan; Nordling, Kerstin; Ågren, Erik; Ihse, Elisabet; Westermark, Gunilla T; Tjernberg, Lars; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  4. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Dental Pulp: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Ledesma-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells of dental pulp (DPSCs were isolated and characterized for the first time more than a decade ago as highly clonogenic cells that were able to generate densely calcified colonies. Now, DPSCs are considered to have potential as stem cell source for orthopedic and oral maxillofacial reconstruction, and it has been suggested that they may have applications beyond the scope of the stomatognathic system. To date, most studies have shown that, regardless of their origin in third molars, incisors, or exfoliated deciduous teeth, DPSCs can generate mineralized tissue, an extracellular matrix and structures type dentin, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp, as well as other structures. Different groups worldwide have designed and evaluated new efficient protocols for the isolation, expansion, and maintenance of clinically safe human DPSCs in sufficient numbers for various therapeutics protocols and have discussed the most appropriate route of administration, the possible contraindications to their clinical use, and the parameters to be considered for monitoring their clinical efficacy and proper biological source. At present, DPSC-based therapy is promising but because most of the available evidence was obtained using nonhuman xenotransplants, it is not a mature technology.

  6. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  7. Side effects of AAS abuse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Perilli, G; Di Paolo, M; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic - androgenic steroids (AAS) were originally developed to promote growth of skeletal muscle. AAS abuse is commonly associated with bodybuilders, weightlifters, and other athletes. The issue of AAS toxicity is not yet completely understood since the adverse effects outline a varied scenario with side effects reported affecting many organs and systems in humans. The true incidence of AAS related medical problems is not known, due to several drawbacks in human studies. The entity of side effects depends on the sex, the dose, the duration of treatment, whether they are taken during exercise training or under sedentary conditions, and the susceptibility of the individuals themselves to androgen exposure partly depending on genetic factors. Both the acute and the chronic effects can lead to toxicity, but generally the serious and even fatal effects depend on the time and the duration of AAS administration. A limitation of human studies is represented by the fact that information about the intake of steroids are, generally, self reported and it is hardly possible to assess the exact dosage. AAS are often used in combination with other dugs or substances, so it is difficult to separate their toxic effects from those caused by the other drugs abused. Hence experimental studies conducted on animal models are mandatory to investigate the mechanisms underlying to AAS toxicity and the organ alterations due to these substances. Finally, clinicians should be aware of the complex and varied pattern of toxicity so as to be able to perform correct diagnoses and treatments.

  8. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  9. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  10. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  11. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Green Bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro Keng f. for Dissolving Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources. In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp, the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization (DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index (CrI of cellulose were investigated. The experimental results show that green bamboo has potential for use as dissolving pulp because it has a lower Runkel ratio and fines content than moso bamboo, and a much lower lignin content and similar α-cellulose and hemicellulose contents compared to softwoods and hardwoods. Compared to the cortex and culm, the node had the shortest fibers and more than 30% of fines, the highest content of extractives and lignin, and the lowest α-cellulose content. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp. The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was 4487 ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node.

  12. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate...... of caries progression is reflected by the quality of the tertiary dentin. Slowly progressing lesions create tertiary dentin resembling normal tubular dentin. Rapidly progressing lesions lead to the production of a tubular dentin or complete absence of tertiary dentin, as well as pulp necrosis and apical...

  13. Method of increasing efficiency of uranium sorption from acid pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Hinterholzinger, O.; Baloun, S.; Homolka, V.; Vanek, J.; Vebr, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Acid pulp containing uranium is adjusted to pH 2.5 to 4 with alkaline agents, such as alkaline pulp, lime milk, finely ground limestone or soda, or a combination thereof. The treated pulp is put into contact with an ion exchanger whose pH has been adjuste to a range of 2.5 to 4. Partial pulp neutralization causes the hydrolysis of the iron present and an overall reduction in salt contents and a significant increase in the ion exchanger sorptio capacity and thus the overall sorption efficiency. The quality o the eluate and of the uranium concentrate improves. (B.S.)

  14. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  15. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  16. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  17. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  18. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  19. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis

  20. Dehydrated chicory pulp as an alternative soluble fibre source in diets for growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maertens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soluble fibre (SF is an important nutrient to enhance fermentative activity and gut health in rabbits. The main source of SF in rabbit diets is sugar beet pulp (SBP, whereas, due to its high content of SF (34%, dried chicory pulp (ChP could be an alternative to SBP. In a fattening trial with 192 hybrid weanlings 32 d old weighing 837±45 g, chicory pulp was used in replacement of SBP to study effects on production performances and slaughter characteristics. Rabbits were fed one of 4 iso-energetic (9.65 MJ digestible energy/kg and isonitrogenous (15.6% crude protein diets: a negative control (NC diet with a low dietary SF content (7.3%, a positive control diet with quite a high SBP level (13.5% and SF content (10.6% and 2 diets with respectively 10% and 20% of chicory pulp (ChP10: 9.9% SF and ChP20: 13.7% SF. The SF content was measured as the difference between total dietary fibre and neutral detergent fibre, the latter corrected for ash and protein content. Each dietary treatment consisted of 12 replicates of 4 rabbits. Weight gain was high (on av. 54 g/d and comparable for the NC, SBP and ChP diets. However, feed conversion ratio was improved (P<0.05 with the ChP20 diet compared to the NC diet (2.88 vs. 2.97. Mortality was low and not influenced by the dietary treatment. Slaughter data were very similar and no effect of the SF level on caecal weight or slaughter yield was observed. It was concluded that chicory pulp is a good alternative soluble fibre source in balanced diets for rabbits and can be used at least up to 20% inclusion rate.

  1. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  2. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  3. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  4. Development and initial testing of a pulse oximetry prototype for measuring dental pulp vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M.; Ferreira, M.; Caramelo, F.

    2015-05-01

    The guiding principle of endodontic treatment is to preserve teeth while maintaining its aesthetic and functional roles. To accomplish this goal the assessment of teeth pulp vitality is very important since it will determine the procedures that should be adopted and define the therapy strategy. Currently, the most commonly tests for determining dental pulp state are the thermal and the electrical tests, which are based on nerve response and, because of that, have a relatively high rate of false positives and false negatives cases. In this work we present a simple test to be used in the clinical setting for evaluating noninvasively the existence of blood perfusion in dental pulp. This test is based on pulse oximetry principle that was devised to indirectly measure the amount of oxygen in blood. Although pulse oximetry has already demonstrated its usefulness in clinical environment its usage for the determination of dental pulp vitality has been frustrated by several factors, notably the absence of a suitable sensor to the complex shape of the various coronary teeth. We developed a suitable sensor and present the first trials with promising results, regarding the ability for distinguish teeth with and without blood perfusion.

  5. Activated carbon prepared from coffee pulp: potential adsorbent of organic contaminants in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Maraisa; Guerreiro, Mário César; Ramos, Paulize Honorato; de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Alves; Sapag, Karim

    2013-01-01

    The processing of coffee beans generates large amounts of solid and liquid residues. The solid residues (pulp, husk and parchment) represent a serious environmental problem and do not have an adequate disposal mechanism. In this work, activated carbons (ACs) for adsorption of organic compounds were prepared from coffee pulp by controlled temperature at different pulp/Na2HPO4 ratios (4:1, 2:1, 5:4 and 1:1). The N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms showed ACs with high quantities of mesopores and micropores and specific surface areas of 140, 150, 450 and 440 m(2)g(-1) for AC 4:1, AC 2:1, AC 5:4 and AC 1:1, respectively. The prepared material AC 5:4 showed a higher removal capacity of the organic contaminants methylene blue (MB), direct red (DR) and phenol than did a Merck AC. The maximum capacities for this AC are approximately 150, 120 and 120 mg g(-1) for MB, DR and phenol, respectively. Thus, a good adsorbent was obtained from coffee pulp, an abundant Brazilian residue.

  6. Effect of acid concentration and pulp properties on hydrolysis reactions of mercerized sisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Talita M; Zambon, Márcia D; Frollini, Elisabete

    2013-03-01

    The influence of sulfuric acid concentration (H2SO4 5-25%, 100°C), crystallinity and fibers size on the hydrolysis reaction of sisal pulps were investigated, with the goal of evaluating both the liquor composition, as an important step in the production of bioethanol, and the residual non-hydrolyzed pulp, to determine its potential application as materials. Aliquots were withdrawn from the reaction media, and the liquor composition was analyzed by HPLC. The residual non-hydrolyzed pulps were characterized by SEM, their average molar mass and crystallinity index, and their size distribution was determined using a fiber analyzer. Sulfuric acid 25% led to the highest glucose content (approximately 10gL(-1)), and this acid concentration was chosen to evaluate the influence of both the fiber size and crystallinity of the starting pulp on hydrolysis. The results showed that fibers with higher length and lower crystallinity favored glucose production in approximately 12%, with respect to the highly crystalline shorter fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, M.C.; Fuente, E.; Blanco, A.; Negro, C.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven million tonnes of waste are produced yearly by the European pulp and paper industry, of which 70% originates from the production of deinked recycled paper. Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp, although with less inorganics. Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes. Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments

  8. Transcriptomic analysis reveals key genes related to betalain biosynthesis in pulp coloration of Hylocereus polyrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eQingzhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Betalains have high nutritional value and bioactivities. Red pulp pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus is the only fruit containing abundant betalains for consumer. However, no information is available about genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus. Herein, two cDNA libraries of pitaya pulps with two different coloration stages (white and red pulp stages of Guanhuahong (H. polyrhizus were constructed. A total of about 12 Gb raw RNA-Seq data was generated and was de novo assembled into 122,677 transcripts with an average length of 1,183 bp and an N50 value of 2008. Approximately 99.99% of all transcripts were annotated based on seven public databases. A total of 8,871 transcripts were significantly regulated. Thirty-three candidate transcripts related to betalain biosynthesis were obtained from the transcriptome data. Transcripts encoding enzymes involved in betalain biosynthesis were analyzed using RT-qPCR at the whole pulp coloration stages of H. Polyrhizus (7-1 and H. Undatus (132-4. Nine key transcripts of betalain biosynthesis were identified. They were assigned to four kinds of genes in betalain biosynthetic pathway, including tyrosinase, 4, 5-DOPA dioxygenase extradiol, cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase. Ultimately, a preliminary betalain biosynthetic pathway for pitaya was proposed based on betalain analyses and gene expression profiles.

  9. Magnetic horn of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    In the 1960s, the invention of this "current sheet lens" has helped to greatly improve the flux of neutrino beams. It was used again at the AA, collecting antiprotons from the production target at angles too large to fit into the acceptance of the AA. It was machined from aluminium to a thickness of 1.4 mm and pulsed at 400 kA for 15 microseconds (half-sine).

  10. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  11. Cell-derived micro-environment helps dental pulp stem cells promote dental pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuexin; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Luo, Xiangyou; Yang, Hefeng; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    The function of the dental pulp is closely connected to the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, and ECM has received significant attention due to its biological functions for regulating cells. As such, the interaction between the ECM niche and cells is worth exploring for potential clinical uses. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-derived ECM (DPM) was prepared through cell culture and decellularization to function as the cell niche, and changes in DPSC behaviour and histological analysis of dental pulp tissue regeneration were evaluated following the DPM culture. DPM promoted the replication of DPSCs and exhibited retention of their mineralization. Then, the DPM-based culture strategy under odontogenic culture medium was further investigated, and the mineralization-related markers showed that DPSCs were regulated towards odontogenic differentiation. Dental pulp-like tissue with well-arranged ECM was harvested after a 2-month subcutaneous implantation in nude mice with DPM application. Additionally, DPSCs cultured on the plastic culture surface showed the up-regulation of mineralization makers in vitro, but there was a disorder in matrix formation and mineralization when the cells were cultured in vivo. DPM-based cultivation could serve as a cell niche and modulate DPSC behaviour, and this method also provided an alternative to harvest tissue-specific ECM and provided a strategy for ECM-cell interaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  13. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  14. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  15. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A; Boostani, H R

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended.

  16. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  17. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  18. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0640] FRL-9829-3 RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... comments on the May 23, 2013, proposed rule titled, ``Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review'' is being extended by...

  19. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  20. Study on Effectiveness of Processed and Unprocessed Black Liquor pulps in improving the properties of PPC mortar, Concrete and SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthkumar, M.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Prabha, B.

    2018-02-01

    The cost of construction materials is increasing day by day because of high demand, scarcity of raw materials and high price of energy. From the view point of energy saving and over consumption of resources, the use of alternative constituents in construction materials is now a global concern. From this, the extensive research and development works towards exploring new ingredients are required for producing sustainable and environment friendly construction materials. Bagasse pulp liquor is one such material that can be used as a chemical admixture which is obtained as a by-product of paper manufacturing process. Around 5 million tons of bagasse pulp is obtained throughout the world each year. since the material is a waste product from paper industry, this can be changed as a admixture by its effective use in concrete. In the present investigation black pulp liquor is added to fresh concrete in different dosages, the concrete is then tested for workability, compressive strength, flexural, split tensile strength and setting time. From results it is shown that 1% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the fresh properties of the concrete, 2% replacement of water with black pulp liquor increases the mechanical properties of the concrete and acts as a set retarder.

  1. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  2. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  3. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  4. Effect of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Conditions and Beating Revolution on the Mechanical Properties of Paper made from Gigantochloa scortechinii (Semantan Bamboo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Husna Mohd Hassan; Suhaimi Muhammed

    2013-01-01

    The effect of soda-AQ pulping conditions and beating revolution on the mechanical properties of paper made from Semantan bamboo (Gigantochloa scortechinii) was studied. The bamboo chips were pulped using MK digester pulping unit with 10 to 20 % alkali charge and 150 to 170 degree Celsius cooking temperature. The screened yield varies from 38.7 to 48.4 %, and each yield went through beating process at 1000 or 8000 beating revolutions. The bamboo pulp was then made into 60 g/ m 2 laboratory scale papers and their mechanical properties were assessed conforming to TAPPI standards. The results revealed that tensile index, bursting index, tearing index and folding endurance ranged from 42.04 to 91.09 Nm/ g, 2.68 to 7.10 kPa.m 2 /g, 11.03 to 26.64 mN.m 2 /g and 30 to 1127 double folds, respectively. The highest paper properties were found from pulping condition of 15 % alkali charge and 150 degree Celsius cooking temperature based on the fibre bonding index, with tensile index at 87.71 Nm/g, bursting index at 6.94 kPa.m 2 / g, tearing index at 12.72 mN.m 2 / g and folding endurance at 613 double folds. Such findings indicate that comparable high strength mechanical properties of paper can be produced from Semantan bamboo pulp with more environmentally friendly pulping process compared to the kraft pulping process that had been used in bamboo pulping. (author)

  5. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  6. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  7. Investigation of pulping and paper making potential of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of wood products accompanying with resource constraint has revealed the importance of nonwood based material. In this study, pulping and papermaking potential of three varieties of weeds including Xanthium spinosum, Carthamus tinctorius and Cyperus papyrus have been considered. At first, chemical components of the samples i.e. cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured following TAPPI standard test methods. Afterwards, pulping process based as soda and Kraft has been carried out and the pulp properties i.e. screen yield and reject, kappa number, caliper, bust index, tear index, brightness have been considered. According to the results, the amount cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured for the Xanthium spinosum %38.15, %13.5 and 4.72, respectively. Theses parameters have been estimated about %38.25, %10.3 and % 2.95 for Carthamus tinctorius and %38.8, %19.2 and 4.4 in case of papyrus. The yield of soda and Kraft pulp of the papyrus was more than Xanthium spinosum and Carthamus tinctorius. Among all treatments, the highest screen yield related to soda pulping of Cyperus papyrus by %39.8 which has been obtained by 175 centigrade as a maximum temperature, L/W: 6/1, active alkaline: %30 and 90 minutes as the time at temperature. The lowest and highest amounts of the tear index were related to soda pulp sample of the Carthamus tinctorius and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 2.49 and 8.1, respectively. In addition, the lowest and highest amounts of the bursting index were related to soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 0.61and 2.48, respectively. Meanwhile, soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus showed the highest amount of brightness with %45 ISO.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ISOLASI, SKRINING DAN IDENTIFIKASI JAMUR XILANOLITIK LOKAL YANG BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI AGENSIA PEMUTIH PULP YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN (Isolation, Screening and Identification Xylanolytic Local Fungi that Potentially as Pulp Bleaching Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Nurnawati

    2015-01-01

    Xylanase has great potential for industry application. Application of xylanase can be done in pretreatment of pulp bleaching in the pulp and paper industry. Enzyme application can reduce the use of chlorine compounds that are harmful to the environment. Therefore, xylanase that used in pulp bleaching should be free of cellulase activity. Fungi are one of the groups of microbes that are able to produce xylanase. The aims of this study was to obtain local xylanase-producing fungal isolates from soil that assumed contain of xylan. The source of fungal isolates were the soil around the pulp and paper industry; Acacia forests in the district Ogan Ilir and Muara Enim, South Sumatra; Wanagama, Yogyakarta; sawmills in Palembang and Yogyakarta; and Palembang landfill. Based on the initial screening in the agar basal medium, 111 fungal isolates were obtained. Most of them were the xylanase-producing fungi, but only 12 fungal isolates that have high xylanolytic capabilities. Further screening was performed on xylan liquid basal medium. The results showed that the fungus identified as Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus tamarii and Monocillium have higher xylanase specific activity than the other isolates. They were also have lignolytic and cellulolytic activities. Therefore, fungal xylanase potentially developed as a pulp bleaching agent.

  10. Obesity is a significant susceptibility factor for idiopathic AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2018-03-01

    To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.

  11. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  12. Histological evaluation of direct pulp capping of rat pulp with experimentally developed low-viscosity adhesives containing reparative dentin-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaya; Taira, Yoshihisa; Kato, Chikage; Shinkai, Koichi; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the wound healing process in exposed rat pulp when capped with experimental adhesive resin systems. Experimental adhesive resin system for direct pulp capping was composed of primer-I (PI), -II (PII), and -III (PIII) and an experimental bonding agent (EBA). PI was Clearfil(®) SE Bond(®)/Primer (CSP) containing 5.0 wt% CaCl2, PII was PI containing 10 wt% nanofiller (Aerosil(®) 380), and PIII was CSP containing 5.0 wt% of compounds of equal moles of synthetic peptides (pA and pB) derived from dentin matrix protein 1. EBA was Clearfil(®) SE Bond(®)/Bond (CSB) containing 10 wt% hydroxyapatite powders. Three experimental groups were designed. PI was assigned to experimental Groups 1 and 3. PII was assigned to experimental Groups 2 and 3. PIII and EBA were assigned to all experimental adhesive groups. Control teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide preparation (Dycal(®)), and CSP and CSB were applied to the cavity. The rats were sacrificed after each observation period (14, 28, 56, and 112 days). The following parameters were evaluated: pulp tissue disorganization, inflammatory cell infiltration, reparative dentin formation (RDF), and bacterial penetration. There were no significant differences among all the groups for all parameters and all observation periods (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). All groups showed initial RDF at 14 days postoperatively and extensive RDF until 112 days postoperatively. Groups 2 and 3 demonstrated higher quantity of mineralized dentin bridge formation compared with Group 1. Addition of nanofillers to the primer was effective in promoting high-density RDF. Experimentally developed adhesive resin systems induce the exposed pulp to produce almost the same quantity of reparative dentin as calcium hydroxide. However, we need further studies to elucidate whether the same results could be obtained in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from a hydrogel/nanoparticle composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-10-01

    Polymer excipients, such as low molar mass poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), have shown contradictory effects on protein stability when co-encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles. To gain further insight into these effects, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA) was encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles with vs. without PEG. PDGF-AA is a particularly compelling protein, as it has been demonstrated to promote cell survival and induce the oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show, for the first time, the controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from an injectable nanoparticle/hydrogel drug delivery system (DDS). PDGF-AA was encapsulated, with high efficiency, in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, and its release from the drug delivery system was followed over 21 d. Interestingly, the co-encapsulation of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) increased the PDGF-AA loading but, unexpectedly, accelerated the aggregation of PDGF-AA, resulting in reduced activity and detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the absence of PEG, released PDGF-AA remained bioactive as demonstrated with NSPC oligodendrocyte differentiation, similar to positive controls, and significantly different from untreated controls. This work presents a novel delivery method for differentiation factors, such as PDGF-AA, and provides insights into the contradictory effects reported in the literature of excipients, such as PEG, on the loading and release of proteins from polymeric nanoparticles. Previously, the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been used in many biomaterials applications, from surface coatings to the encapsulation of proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, low molecular weight PEG has a deleterious effect on the release of the encapsulated protein platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA). We also demonstrate release of bioactive PDGF-AA (in the absence of PEG

  14. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low) K-activity levels at British (Australian) observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  15. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low K-activity levels at British (Australian observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4.

  16. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  17. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  18. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  19. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  20. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  1. Improvement in rice straw pulp bleaching effluent quality by incorporating oxygen delignification stage prior to elemental chlorine-free bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi K; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Environmental degradation by industrial and other developmental activities is alarming for imperative environmental management by process advancements of production. Pulp and paper mills are now focusing on using nonwood-based raw materials to protect forest resources. In present study, rice straw was utilized for pulp production as it is easily and abundantly available as well as rich in carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicelluloses). Soda-anthraquinone method was used for pulp production as it is widely accepted for agro residues. Bleaching process during paper production is the chief source of wastewater generation. The chlorophenolic compounds generated during bleaching are highly toxic, mutagenic, and bioaccumulative in nature. The objectives of study were to use oxygen delignification (ODL) stage prior to elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching to reduce wastewater load and to study its impact on bleached pulp characteristics. ODL stage prior to ECF bleaching improved the optical properties of pulp in comparison to only ECF bleaching. When ODL stage was incorporated prior to bleaching, the tensile index and folding endurance of the pulp were found to be 56.6 ± 1.5 Nm/g and 140, respectively, very high in comparison to ECF alone. A potential reduction of 51, 57, 43, and 53% in BOD 3 , COD, color, and AOX, respectively was observed on adding the ODL stage compared to ECF only. Generation of chlorophenolic compounds was reduced significantly. Incorporation of ODL stage prior to bleaching was found to be highly promising for reducing the toxicity of bleaching effluents and may lead to better management of nearby water resources. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  2. Detection of AA76, a Common Form of Amyloid A Protein, as a Way of Diagnosing AA Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junji; Okuda, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yamada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Reactive amyloid deposits consist of amyloid A (AA) proteins, the degradation products of serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the most common species of AA is the amino terminal portion produced by cleavage between residues 76 and 77 of SAA (AA76), the presence of AA76 in tissues could be a consequence of AA amyloid deposition. This study assessed the diagnostic significance of the detection of AA76 for AA amyloidosis using two different approaches. Biopsy specimens (n=130 from 54 subjects) from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat (n=9 from 9 subjects) of patients who had already been diagnosed with or were suspected of having AA amyloidosis were used. Fixed mucosal sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a newly developed antibody recognizing the carboxyl terminal end of AA76 (anti-AA76). The non-fixed materials from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat were subjected to immunoblotting for detection of the size of AA76. Among the gastroduodenal specimens (n=115) from already diagnosed patients, the positive rates of Congo red staining, immunohistochemistry using anti-AA76, and immunoblotting were 68.4%, 73.0%, and 92.2%, respectively. The anti-AA76 did not stain the supposed SAA in the blood or leakage, which was stained by anti-SAA antibody. AA76 was not detected either by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblot in the materials from patients in whom AA amyloidosis had been ruled out. In the abdominal fat, the immunoblot detected AA76 in 8 materials from 8 already diagnosed patients and did not in 1 patient whose gastroduodenal mucosa was negative. In conclusion, the detection of AA76 may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. In immunohistochemistry for fixed specimens, the new anti-AA76 antibody can improve the specificity. Immunoblot for non-fixed materials, which can considerably improve the sensitivity, should be beneficial for small materials like abdominal fat. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  4. Economic evaluation of alternative wastewater treatment plant options for pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkamaci, Nurdan; Koken, Emre

    2010-11-15

    Excessive water consumption in pulp and paper industry results in high amount of wastewater. Pollutant characteristics of the wastewater vary depending on the processes used in production and the quality of paper produced. However, in general, high organic material and suspended solid contents are considered as major pollutants of pulp and paper industry effluents. The major pollutant characteristics of pulp and paper industry effluents in Turkey were surveyed and means of major pollutant concentrations, which were grouped in three different pollution grades (low, moderate and high strength effluents), and flow rates within 3000 to 10,000m(3)/day range with 1000m(3)/day steps were used as design parameters. Ninety-six treatment plants were designed using twelve flow schemes which were combinations of physical treatment, chemical treatment, aerobic and anaerobic biological processes. Detailed comparative cost analysis which includes investment, operation, maintenance and rehabilitation costs was prepared to determine optimum treatment processes for each pollution grade. The most economic and technically optimal treatment processes were found as extended aeration activated sludge process for low strength effluents, extended aeration activated sludge process or UASB followed by an aeration basin for medium strength effluents, and UASB followed by an aeration basin or UASB followed by the conventional activated sludge process for high strength effluents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzyme Enhanced Protein Recovery from Green Biomass Pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    of local protein resources based on upgrade from e.g. green plant biomass. In present work we consider different strategies for protein recovery from white clover and ryegrass screw press pulps, using aqueous extraction, as well as carbohydrases and proteases enhanced extraction. Protein recovery...... in these studies was determined as a yield of solubilized protein with regard to the total protein in a screw press pulp. Aqueous extraction at pH 8.0 resulted in approx. 40 % protein recovery, while proteases application (Savinase 16.0L, Novozymes) enabled twice higher protein yield. Application of plant cell...... pulp proteolyzates, generated by Savinase 16.0L protease....

  6. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  7. Using renewable sources in the pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, Aneta; Hazi, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is a major consumer of natural sources (wood) and energy (fossil fuels, electricity) and a significant contributor of pollutant discharges to the environment. In this paper there are presented pulp and paper making process and steam and power generation using renewable sources. This paper includes also an exergy analysis of the steam and power generation process for a pulp and paper mill. Based on the analysis, two sustainability indicators were calculated: the exergetic efficiency and the exergy renewability. (authors)

  8. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  9. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of NaOH to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/-treated waste wood chips (Hevea brasiliensis) increased long fiber fraction, Klason lignin content and bulk density, improved breaking length and tear factor, and decreased energy consumption in refining and brightness of resulting chemithermomechanical pulp. Lowering in brightness by alkali treatment was recovered by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, and bleaching with 8% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on pulp gave pulp with 61.3% brightness.

  10. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard [Bellevue, WA; Callis, James B [Seattle, WA; Mathews, Jeffrey D [Neenah, WI; Robinson, John [Issaquah, WA; Bruckner, Carsten A [San Mateo, CA; Suvamakich, Kuntinee [Seattle, WA

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  11. Development of continuous cooling precipitation diagrams for aluminium alloys AA7150 and AA7020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@outlook.com [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Milkereit, B. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Kessler, O. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Schick, C. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Rometsch, P.A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The DSC method was used for developing continuous cooling precipitation diagrams. • The quench-induced particles were observed by SEM for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. • There were more quench-induced particles in alloy AA7150. • Quench sensitivity of Al alloys can be evaluated by using the CCP diagrams. -- Abstract: Two commercial 7xxx series aluminium alloys with different solute contents and different quench-induced precipitation behaviour have been investigated by using a specialised differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to record exothermal heat outputs during continuous cooling. Together with hardness testing and microstructural analysis, this DSC method was used to develop continuous cooling precipitation (CCP) diagrams for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. The results show that the total precipitation heat for each alloy decreases with increasing cooling rate. However, the excess specific heat at a given cooling rate in alloy AA7150 is much higher than that in alloy AA7020. It is evident that there are atleast three different quench-induced reactions in different temperature regimes for alloy AA7150 cooled at various linear cooling rates, but only equilibrium MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase) and Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are at least two main precipitation peaks that can be found for alloy AA7020, which correspond to Mg{sub 2}Si and MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase). Furthermore, a method is developed to evaluate the quench sensitivity of an alloy based on a determination of the critical cooling rate. The maximum hardness values are reached at cooling rates that are faster than or similar to the critical cooling rate.

  12. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  13. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to

  14. CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Sudarwoko Adi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production. The fiber length of those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average and high value of holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is less suitable due to low values of holocellulose and a-cellulose.

  15. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  16. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  17. Overview of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    See photo 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  18. Overall view of AA (Bld 193)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  19. Overall view of AA in Bld. 193

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  20. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  1. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  2. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  3. Influence of titanium–boron additions on grain refinement of AA6082 gas tungsten arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore Babu, N.; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Dayou, Pan; Zheng, Sun; Jun, Wei; SivaPrasad, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ti in the weld metal resulted in grain refinement due to growth restriction effect. ► Weld metal strength improved due to grain refinement caused by Tibor™ addition. ► Weld metal responded to post-weld ageing treatment due to dilution from base metal. ► Weld metal with AA5356 filler are stronger then AA4043 for all Tibor™ additions. -- Abstract: Grain refinement of weld metal plays a vital role in improving mechanical properties (ductility and toughness) as well as weldability. The present study has investigated the influence of Tibor™ additions on the structure and mechanical properties of AA6082 gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments. Controlled amounts of Tibor™ grain refiner (containing Ti and B in a ratio of 5:1) were introduced into the molten pool of AA6082 by pre-deposited cast inserts (AA4043 and AA5356) under different welding conditions by GTA welding. Full penetration GTA welds were prepared using alternating current (AC). It was observed that grain size was decreased with increasing amounts of Tibor™. The grain refinement is mainly caused grain nucleation associated with constitutional undercooling during solidification. It has been shown that welds prepared with 5356 cast insert exhibited high strength and ductility when compared with other welds. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone hardness, strength and ductility.

  4. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT OF Eucalyptus globulus WOOD IN KRAFT PULPING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20,53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23,02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18,5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2,49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2,2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1,2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4,2% is obtained

  5. AL SAHLI, AA; OKOLI, JU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    area (the control site) showed a high degree of similarity, suggesting that pollen assemblages of ... Standard methods were used for the collection and analysis of soil .... environmental restoration activities (Adekanmbi, .... The refugia forest.

  6. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis.

  7. UTILIZATION OF Prosopis afiicana PULP FOR RABBIT FEEDING: 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBB

    The formulated diets contained similar crude protein content of 18%. The apparent ... These results indicate that Prosopis africana pulp can completely replace maize in the diets of ... serum albumin were determined by Biuret reactions. (Bush ...

  8. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement. ... The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 ... of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.

  9. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2017-01-27

    #, T. .... Briefly, 10 kg steamed cassava pulp (87.5% DM) was soaked with sterile water (1 : 1). .... The data on digestibility and retention of broilers are presented in Table 3. .... Taken together, the antioxidant capacity of A.

  10. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  11. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  12. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  13. Claustral single cell reactions to tooth pulp stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P; Sikora, M; Frydrychowski, A; Słoniewski, P

    1983-01-01

    Single unit activity in the central region of the claustrum, evoked by electrical stimulation of tooth pulp or paws was studied on cats under chloralose anesthesia. The majority of cells responded in similar manner to stimulation of tooth pulp or paws, but there were cells with clear preference to a given type of stimulation. Latencies of reactions evoked by tooth pulp stimulation were significantly shorter than those for limb stimulation. In the former case latencies as short as 8 rns were observed. It is postulated that the central region of the claustrum receives a projection from the tooth pulp, and that in those cases with very short latency the projection is direct and does not involve the cerebral cortex.

  14. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  15. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Aline; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2015-02-03

    Banana is a fruit with nutritional properties and also with acclaimed therapeutic uses, cultivated widely throughout the tropics as source of food and income for people. Banana peel is known by its local and traditional use to promote wound healing mainly from burns and to help overcome or prevent a substantial number of illnesses, as depression. This review critically assessed the phytochemical properties and biological activities of Musa spp fruit pulp and peel. A survey on the literature on banana (Musa spp, Musaceae) covering its botanical classification and nomenclature, as well as the local and traditional use of its pulp and peel was performed. Besides, the current state of art on banana fruit pulp and peel as interesting complex matrices sources of high-value compounds from secondary metabolism was also approached. Dessert bananas and plantains are systematic classified into four sections, Eumusa, Rhodochlamys, Australimusa, and Callimusa, according to the number of chromosomes. The fruits differ only in their ploidy arrangement and a single scientific name can be given to all the edible bananas, i.e., Musa spp. The chemical composition of banana's peel and pulp comprise mostly carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and biogenic amines. The biological potential of those biomasses is directly related to their chemical composition, particularly as pro-vitamin A supplementation, as potential antioxidants attributed to their phenolic constituents, as well as in the treatment of Parkinson's disease considering their contents in l-dopa and dopamine. Banana's pulp and peel can be used as natural sources of antioxidants and pro-vitamin A due to their contents in carotenoids, phenolics, and amine compounds, for instance. For the development of a phytomedicine or even an allopathic medicine, e.g., banana fruit pulp and peel could be of interest as raw materials riches in beneficial bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and follicle tissue of human third molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadegary Z

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: In the last decade, several studies have reported the isolation of stem cell population from different dental sources, while their mesenchymal nature is still controversial. The aim of this study was to isolate stem cells from mature human dental pulp and follicle and to determine their mesenchymal nature before differentiation based on the ISCT (International Society for Cellular Therapy criteria."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, intact human third molars extracted due to prophylactic or orthodontic reasons were collected from patients aged 18-25. After tooth extraction, dental pulp and follicle were stored at 4°C in RPMI 1640 medium containing antibiotics. Dental pulp and follicle were prepared in a sterile condition and digested using an enzyme solution containing 4mg/ml collagenase I and dispase (ratio: 1:1. The cells were then cultivated in α-MEM medium. Passage-3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD34, CD45, CD 73, CD90 and CD105 surface markers."nResults: Dental pulp and follicle were observed to grow in colony forming units, mainly composed of a fibroblast-like cell population. Flow cytometry results showed that dental pulp and follicle are highly positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 (mesenchymal stem cell markers and are negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD34 and CD 45."nConclusion: In this study we were able to successfully confirm that dental pulp and follicle stem cells isolated from permanent third molars have a mesenchymal nature before differentiation. Therefore, these two sources can be considered as an easy accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells for stem cell research and tissue engineering.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of arabinogalactan and dihydroquercetin simultaneously from Larix gmelinii as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Ma

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method using ethanol was applied for extracting arabinogalactan (AG and dihydroquercetin (DHQ simultaneously from larch wood, as a pretreatment for pulping and papermaking. The extraction parameters were optimized by a Box-Behnken experimental design with the yields of AG and DHQ as the response values. Under optimum conditions (three extractions, each using 40% ethanol, for 50 min, 200 W ultrasound power and 1∶18 solid-liquid ratio, the yields of AG and DHQ were 183.4 and 36.76 mg/g, respectively. After UAE pretreated, the wood chips were used for Kraft pulping (KP and high boiling solvent pulping (HBSP. The pulping yield after pretreatment was higher than that of untreated (the pulping yields of untreated HBSP and KP were 42.37% and 39.60%, and the pulping yields of HBSP and KP after UAE-pretreated were 44.23% and 41.50% respectively, as indicated by a lower kappa number (77.91 and 27.30 for untreated HBSP and KP; 77.01 and 26.83 for UAE-pretreated HBSP and KP. Furthermore, the characteristics of paper produced from pretreated wood chips were superior to those from the untreated chips: the basis weight was lower (85.67 and 82.48 g·cm(-2 for paper from untreated KP and HBSP; 79.94 and 80.25 g·cm(-2 for paper from UAE-pretreated KP and HBSP, and the tensile strengths, tearing strengths, bursting strengths, and folding strengths were higher than these of paper after UAE-pretreated, respectively.

  18. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction eyewear and computerized delivery of anesthesia during pulp therapy of primary molars in phobic child patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham; Gorduysus, Mehmet Omer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of audiovisual distraction technique with video eyewear and computerized delivery system-intrasulcular (CDS-IS) during the application of local anesthetic in phobic pediatric patients undergoing pulp therapy of primary molars. This randomized, crossover clinical study includes 60 children, aged between 4 and 7-year-old (31 boys and 29 girls). Children were randomly distributed equally into two groups as A and B. This study involved two treatment sessions of pulp therapy, 1-week apart. During treatment session I, group A had an audiovisual distraction with video eyewear, whereas group B had audiovisual distraction using projector display only without video eyewear. During treatment session II, group A had undergone pulp therapy without video eyewear distraction, whereas group B had the pulp treatment using video eyewear distraction. Each session involved the pulp therapy of equivalent teeth in the opposite sides of the mouth. At each visit scores on the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDAS) (f) were used to evaluate the level of anxiety before treatment. After the procedure, children were instructed to rate their pain during treatment on the Wong Bakers' faces pain scale. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded in every 10 min. From preoperative treatment session I (with video eyewear) to preoperative treatment session II (without video eyewear) for the MCDAS (f), a significant (P > 0.03) change in the mean anxiety score was observed for group A. Self-reported mean pain score decreases dramatically after treatment sessions' with video eyewear for both groups. The use of audiovisual distraction with video eyewear and the use of CDS-IS system for anesthetic delivery was demonstrated to be effective in improving children's cooperation, than routine psychological interventions and is, therefore, highly recommended as an effective behavior management technique for long invasive procedures of pulp

  19. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  20. Feasibility of the UV/AA process as a pretreatment approach for bioremediation of dye-laden wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Wu, Bingdang; Li, Qiuhao; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Haoran; Tian, Yu; Xie, Jiawen; Huang, Ping; Tan, Suo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shujuan

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradability and toxicity are two important indexes in considering the feasibility of a chemical process for environmental remediation. The acetylacetone (AA) mediated photochemical process has been proven as an efficient approach for dye decolorization. Both AA and its photochemical degradation products had a high bioavailability. However, the biocompatibility and ecotoxicology of the UV/AA treated solutions are unclear yet. In the present work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions at both biochemical and organismal levels. The biodegradability of the treated solution was evaluated with the ratio of 5-d biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a 28-d activated sludge assay (Zahn-Wellens tests). The UV/AA process significantly improved the biodegradability of the tested dye solutions. Toxicity was assessed with responses of microorganisms (microbes in activated sludge and Daphnia magna) and plants (bok choy, rice seed, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to the treated solutions, which showed that the toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions was lower or comparable to that of the UV/H 2 O 2 counterparts. The results are helpful for us to determine whether the UV/AA process is applicable to certain wastewaters and how the UV/AA process could be effectively combined into a sequential chemical-biological water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  2. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  3. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  4. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  5. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  6. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwint?, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be p...

  7. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  8. (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    applications, (iii) dental applications, (iv) injectable polymers, (v) ... PCL with AA grafted PCL(PCL-g-AA) on the structure ... porosity. Structure, morphology and crystallinity of PCL/ .... X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded, in reflection,.

  9. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Niehage

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2% or high (10% serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention.

  10. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH 4 /gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH 4 /gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal study of experimental induction of AA amyloidosis in mice seeded with homologous and heterologous AA fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naeem; Murakami, Tomoaki; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate pathogenesis and kinetics of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis seeded with homologous (murine) and heterologous (bovine) AA fibrils. Experimental AA amyloidosis was induced by administration of inflammatory stimulus and preformed AA fibrils to a total of 111 female C57/Black mice. In this longitudinal study, heterologous (bovine) as well as homologous (murine) AA fibrils were injected intraperitoneally to mice in various combinations. Re-stimulation was done at 120 or 300 days post first inoculation. To analyze the intensity of amyloid depositions in mice organs, immunohistochemical techniques and image J software were used. Assessment of cytokines level in sera was done using a Mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine CBA Kit. Incidence and severity of AA amyloidosis were quite low in mice inoculated with heterologous bovine AA fibrils than homologous murine one. Homologous AA fibrils administration at first and second inoculation caused maximum amount of amyloid depositions and severe systemic form of amyloidosis. Increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was observed after first inoculation, while second inoculation caused a further increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. AA amyloidosis can be induced by heterologous as well as homologous AA fibrils. Severity of AA amyloidosis induced with homologous AA fibrils is higher compared to heterologous AA fibrils.

  12. Mineralization Effect of Hyaluronan on Dental Pulp Cells via CD44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Lung, Jrhau; Yang, Yu-Chi; Yuan, Kuo

    2016-05-01

    CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in various cellular functions. Recent studies have suggested that CD44 is involved in early mineralization of odontoblasts. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the principal ligand for receptor CD44. Whether and how HA regulated the mineralization process of dental pulp cells were investigated. The effects of high-molecular-weight HA on differentiation and mineral deposition of dental pulp cells were tested by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and alizarin red S staining. Osteogenesis real-time polymerase chain reaction array, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting were performed to identify downstream molecules involved in the mineralization induction of HA. CD44 was knocked down and examined to confirm whether the mineralization effect of HA was mediated by receptor CD44. Immunohistochemistry was used to understand the localization patterns of CD44 and the identified downstream proteins in vivo. Pulse treatment of HA enhanced ALP activity and mineral deposition in dental pulp cells. Tissue-nonspecific ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), and type XV collagen (Col15A1) were upregulated via the HA-CD44 pathway in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of tooth sections showed that the staining pattern of BMP7 was very similar to that of CD44. Results of this study indicated that high-molecular-weight HA enhanced early mineralization of dental pulp cells mediated via CD44. The process involved important mineralization-associated molecules including tissue-nonspecific ALP, BMP7, and Col15A1. The findings may help develop new strategies in regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  14. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwinté, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-11-05

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  15. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Keller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  16. Water requirements of the pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville D.

    1955-01-01

    Water, of varied qualities, is used for several purposes in the manufacture of pulp and paper, as a vehicle for transporting the constituents of paper in the paper machines; as process water for cooking wood chips to make pulp; as a medium for heat transfer; and for washing the pulpwood, the woodpulp, and the machines that handle the pulp. About 3,200 million gallons of water was withdrawn from surface- and ground-water sources each day during 1950 for the use of the pulp and paper industry. This is about 4 percent of the total estimated industrial withdrawal of water in the Nation The paper industry in the United States has been growing at a rapid rate. It has increased about tenfold in the last 50 years and has doubled every 15 years. The 1950 production of paper was about 24 million tons, which amounts to about 85 percent of the domestic consumption. In 1950, the pulp mills of the country produced more than 14 million tons of woodpulp, which supplied about 85 percent of the demand by the paper mills and other industries. The remainder of the fiber for paper manufacture was obtained from imported woodpulp, from reclaimed wastepaper, and from other fibers including rags and straw. The nationwide paper consumption for 1955 has been estimated at 31,700,000 tons. Woodpulp is classified according to the process by which it is made. Every woodpulp has characteristics that are carried over into the many and diverse grades of paper. Groundwood pulp is manufactured by simply grinding up wood and refining the resulting product. Soda, sulfite, and sulfate pulps are manufactured by chemically breaking down the lignin that cements the cellulose of the wood together and removing, cleaning, and sometimes bleaching the resulting fibers. Some woodpulp is produced by other methods. Sulfate-pulp mills are increasing in number and in rated daily capacity and are manufacturing more than half of the present domestic production of woodpulp. Most of the newer and larger woodpulp mills

  17. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (pavocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (pavocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the

  18. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  19. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-AAS) -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atomic...... the point of sample injection/introduction to the point of detection. Hence, in FI-fAAS this feature allows not only to obtain improved repeatability but also improved accuracy, and because the wash to sample ratio is high it permits the handling of samples with elevated salt contents - which...

  20. Repair Responses of Dental Pulp to Tooth Injury and Biological Properties of Dentin-pulp Complex

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 勇人; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration-the creation of a new tissue after the original one has been lost-is the fundamental biological capability in an organism. Numerous organs are considered to contain stem cells referred to as adult stem cells, even in the adult. Adult stem cells can give rise to a limited set of adult tissue types. In the field of clinical dentistry, it is well-known that the dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries such as tooth replantation/transplantation or restorative pro...

  1. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  2. Human dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells promote wound healing and muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sarrà, Ester; Montori, Sheyla; Gil-Recio, Carlos; Núñez-Toldrà, Raquel; Costamagna, Domiziana; Rotini, Alessio; Atari, Maher; Luttun, Aernout; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2017-07-27

    Dental pulp represents an easily accessible autologous source of adult stem cells. A subset of these cells, named dental pulp pluripotent-like stem cells (DPPSC), shows high plasticity and can undergo multiple population doublings, making DPPSC an appealing tool for tissue repair or maintenance. DPPSC were harvested from the dental pulp of third molars extracted from young patients. Growth factors released by DPPSC were analysed using antibody arrays. Cells were cultured in specific differentiation media and their endothelial, smooth and skeletal muscle differentiation potential was evaluated. The therapeutic potential of DPPSC was tested in a wound healing mouse model and in two genetic mouse models of muscular dystrophy (Scid/mdx and Sgcb-null Rag2-null γc-null). DPPSC secreted several growth factors involved in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix deposition and improved vascularisation in all three murine models. Moreover, DPPSC stimulated re-epithelialisation and ameliorated collagen deposition and organisation in healing wounds. In dystrophic mice, DPPSC engrafted in the skeletal muscle of both dystrophic murine models and showed integration in muscular fibres and vessels. In addition, DPPSC treatment resulted in reduced fibrosis and collagen content, larger cross-sectional area of type II fast-glycolytic fibres and infiltration of higher numbers of proangiogenic CD206 + macrophages. Overall, DPPSC represent a potential source of stem cells to enhance the wound healing process and slow down dystrophic muscle degeneration.

  3. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  4. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  5. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  7. Analysis of gene expression during odontogenic differentiation of cultured human dental pulp cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seock Seo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives We analyzed gene-expression profiles after 14 day odontogenic induction of human dental pulp cells (DPCs using a DNA microarray and sought candidate genes possibly associated with mineralization. Materials and Methods Induced human dental pulp cells were obtained by culturing DPCs in odontogenic induction medium (OM for 14 day. Cells exposed to normal culture medium were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from cells and analyzed by microarray analysis and the key results were confirmed selectively by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. We also performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA of the microarray data. Results Six hundred and five genes among the 47,320 probes on the BeadChip differed by a factor of more than two-fold in the induced cells. Of these, 217 genes were upregulated, and 388 were down-regulated. GSEA revealed that in the induced cells, genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by wingless MMTV integration (Wnt were significantly upregulated. Conclusions Genes implicated in Apoptosis and Signaling by Wnt are highly connected to the differentiation of dental pulp cells into odontoblast.

  8. An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, J. M.; Fardim, Pedro; Hultén, Anette Heijnesson; Boisvert, Jean-Philippe; Ernstsson, Marie

    2005-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  9. The effect of dentin on the pulp tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Hanut, Aiham; Matalon, Shlomo; Baev, Valery; Slutzky, Hagay

    2013-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) have tissue dissolution capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of dentin on their tissue dissolution capacity in a novel dentin model. Dentin models were prepared from 25 freshly extracted human molar teeth; the crowns were separated from the roots, and a rectangular inner shape was prepared. Pulp tissue samples adjusted to similar weights of 6.5 ± 0.2 mg were randomly divided into 6 groups: NaOCl groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 hour, Ca(OH)2 groups in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week, and control groups saline in test tubes or dentin models for 1 week. The final weights after the experimental period were checked and compared with the initial weights. The differences were statistically analyzed. The tissue dissolution capacity of Ca(OH)2 was affected by the presence of dentin. Similarly, NaOCl lost its effect on the pulp tissue after incubation in dentin. Comparison between all test groups showed highly significant differences (P interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentin, and pulp tissue. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia, M.A.; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F.

    2002-01-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose

  11. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, M.A. E-mail: mavald@servidor.unam.mx; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  12. The effect of irradiation in the quality of the avocado frozen pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Ma. Ángeles; Bustos, Ma. Emilia; Ruiz, Javier; Ruiz, Luisa F.

    2002-03-01

    The quality of frozen avocado pulp irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at doses of: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 kGy, was studied. These are possible doses for reducing the content of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes by 1-4 log cycles. The study principally consisted of weekly evaluations of damages caused in lipids and chlorophyll pigment over a period of one year. No significant differences were found in either hydrolysis rancidity or in the oxidative rancidity for any of the doses. The concentrations of fatty acids and peroxides were below those established by Codex Alimentarius. This means that the quality of the oil in the frozen avocado pulp remains acceptable. The kinetic model for the oxidative rancidity is of first order and the shelf life of the product is of about 120 weeks. The concentrations of the fatty acids and of malondialdehyde were not high enough to produce off-flavors. It was also determined that the radiation doses did not influence the chemistry of the chlorophyll. The results were confirmed by the panelists, who accepted irradiated frozen pulp at the highest radiation dose.

  13. Alcohol Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells by Activating mTOR Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Huang, Qi-Ting; Weir, Michael D; Song, Zhi; Fouad, Ashraf F; Lin, Zheng-Mei; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-01-01

    Long-term heavy alcohol consumption could result in a range of health, social, and behavioral problems. People who abuse alcohol are at high risks of seriously having osteopenia, periodontal disease, and compromised oral health. However, the role of ethanol (EtOH) in the biological functions of human dental pulp cells (DPCs) is unknown. Whether EtOH affects the odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs through the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) remains unexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of EtOH on DPC differentiation and mineralization. DPCs were isolated and purified from human dental pulps. The proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs treated with EtOH were subsequently investigated. Different doses of EtOH were shown to be cytocompatible with DPCs. EtOH significantly activated the mTOR pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EtOH downregulated the alkaline phosphatase activity, attenuated the mineralized nodule formation, and suppressed the expression of odontoblastic markers including ALP, DSPP, DMP-1, Runx2, and OCN. Moreover, the pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, markedly reversed the EtOH-induced odontoblastic differentiation and cell mineralization. Our findings show for the first time that EtOH can suppress DPC differentiation and mineralization in a mTOR-dependent manner, indicating that EtOH may be involved in negatively regulating the dental pulp repair.

  14. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  15. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  16. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  17. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  18. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  19. Cynara cardunculus L. alkaline pulps: alternatives fibres for paper and paperboard production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, S; Amaral, M E; Costa, A P; Duarte, A P

    2007-11-01

    The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) was performed under conditions for kraft, kraft-AQ and soda-AQ processes. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0.20% of anthraquinone (AQ). The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees. The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp, giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture.

  20. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  1. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  2. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  3. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic extractives naturally occurring in wood tend to coalesce during pulping to form pitch deposits, which have particularly undesirable effects on the pulping process and quality of pulp produced. A chemical characterization of different...

  4. Scaffold-free Prevascularized Microtissue Spheroids for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, W L; Zhu, L; Hargreaves, K M; Jin, L; Zhang, C

    2014-12-01

    Creating an optimal microenvironment that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural pulp and securing an adequate blood supply for the survival of cell transplants are major hurdles that need to be overcome in dental pulp regeneration. However, many currently available scaffolds fail to mimic essential functions of natural ECM. The present study investigated a novel approach involving the use of scaffold-free microtissue spheroids of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in pulp regeneration. In vitro-fabricated microtissue spheroids were inserted into the canal space of tooth-root slices and were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. Histological examination revealed that, after four-week implantation, tooth-root slices containing microtissue spheroids resulted in well-vascularized and cellular pulp-like tissues, compared with empty tooth-root slices, which were filled with only subcutaneous fat tissue. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tissue found in the tooth-root slices was of human origin, as characterized by the expression of human mitochondria, and contained odontoblast-like cells organized along the dentin, as assessed by immunostaining for nestin and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Vascular structures formed by HUVECs in vitro were successfully anastomosed with the host vasculature upon transplantation in vivo, as shown by immunostaining for human CD31. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that prevascularized, scaffold-free, microtissue spheroids can successfully regenerate vascular dental pulp-like tissue and also highlight the significance of the microtissue microenvironment as an optimal environment for successful pulp-regeneration strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  5. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  6. Introducing the AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In response to two White Papers submitted to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey (1,2), a new AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics (WGAA) has been approved by the AAS Council at the 220th Meeting, June 2012, in Anchorage. The motivation for this WG is the growing importance of the interface between astronomy and various branches of applied mathematics, computer science and the emerging field of data science. With the new data-intensive projects envisioned for the coming decade, the need for advice derived from the focused attention of a group of AAS members who work in these areas is bound to increase. The Working Group is charged with spreading awareness of rapidly advancing computational techniques, sophsticated statistical methods, and highly capble software to further the goals of astronomical and astrophysical research. The three main strategic goals adopted by the WGAA Steering Committee for the next few years are to: (i) develop, organize and maintain methodological resources (such as software tools, papers, books, and lectures); (ii) enhance human resources (such as foster the creation of career paths, establish a Speakers' Bureau, establish and maintain an archived discussion forum, enable periodic news distribution); and (iii) organize topical meetings. The WGAA Steering Committee at this time includes twelve members: Kirk Borne, George Djorgovski, Eric Feigelson, Eric Ford, Alyssa Goodman, Joe Hilbe, Zeljko Ivezic (chair), Ashish Mahabal, Aneta Siemiginowska, Alex Szalay, Rick White, and Padma Yanamandra-Fisher. I will summarize our accomplishments since July 2012. (1) Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy (Borne & 90 coauthors), (2) The Astronomical Information Sciences: A Keystone for 21st-Century Astronomy (Loredo & 72 coauthors)

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40 CFR...

  8. Ash from a pulp mill boiler--characterisation and vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana S M; Monteiro, Regina C C; Davim, Erika J R; Fernandes, M Helena V

    2010-07-15

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterisation of the ash resulting from a pulp mill boiler was performed in order to investigate the valorisation of this waste material through the production of added-value glassy materials. The ash had a particle size distribution in the range 0.06-53 microm, and a high amount of SiO(2) (approximately 82 wt%), which was present as quartz. To favour the vitrification of the ash and to obtain a melt with an adequate viscosity to cast into a mould, different amounts of Na(2)O were added to act as fluxing agent. A batch with 80 wt% waste load melted at 1350 degrees C resulting in a homogeneous transparent green-coloured glass with good workability. The characterisation of the produced glass by differential thermal analysis and dilatometry showed that this glass presents a stable thermal behaviour. Standard leaching tests revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in the leaching solution was lower than those allowed by the Normative. As a conclusion, by vitrification of batch compositions with adequate waste load and additive content it is possible to produce an ash-based glass that may be used in similar applications as a conventional silicate glass inclusively as a building ecomaterial. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  10. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Vieira Alves

    Full Text Available Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83% and lipid (40.45%, with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%, antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  11. Future CO2 removal from pulp mills - Process integration consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hektor, Erik; Berntsson, Thore

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that capturing the CO 2 from flue gases in the recovery boiler at a pulp mill can be a cost-effective way of reducing mill CO 2 emissions. However, the CO 2 capture cost is very dependent on the fuel price. In this paper, the potential for reducing the need for external fuel and thereby the possibility to reduce the cost for capturing the CO 2 are investigated. The reduction is achieved by using thermal process integration. In alternative 1, the mill processes are integrated and a steam surplus made available for CO 2 capture, but still there is a need for external fuel. In alternative 2, the integration is taken one step further, the reboiler is fed with MP steam, and the heat of absorption from the absorption unit is used for generation of LP steam needed at the mill. The avoidance costs are in both cases lower than before the process integration. The avoidance cost in alternative 1 varies between 25.4 and 30.7 EUR/tonne CO 2 depending on the energy market parameters. For alternative 2, the cost varies between 22.5 and 27.2 EUR/tonne CO 2 . With tough CO 2 reduction targets and correspondingly high CO 2 emission costs, the annual earnings can be substantial, 18.6 MEUR with alternative 1 and 21.2 MEUR with alternative 2

  12. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose from Organosolv Straw Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Shniruk, O. M.

    2017-03-01

    The object of this work is to present a study of nanocellulose preparation from organosolv straw pulp (OSP) and its properties. OSP was obtained through thermal treatment in the system of isobutyl alcohol-H2O-KOH-hydrazine followed by processing in the mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide for bleaching and removal of residual non-cellulosic components. We have obtained nanocellulose from OSP through acid hydrolysis with lower consumption of sulfuric acid and followed by ultrasound treatment. The structural change and crystallinity degree of OSP and nanocellulose were studied by means of SEM and XRD techniques. It has been established that nanocellulose has a density up to 1.3 g/cm3, transparency up to 70%, crystallinity degree 72.5%. The TEM and AFM methods shown that nanocellulose have diameter of particles in the range from 10 to 40 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that nanocellulose films have more dense structure and smaller mass loss in the temperature range 220-260 °C compared with OSP. The obtained nanocellulose films had high Young's modulus up to 11.45 GPa and tensile strength up to 42.3 MPa. The properties of obtained nanocellulose from OSP exhibit great potential in its application for the preparation of new nanocomposite materials.

  14. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  15. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  16. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  17. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  18. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  19. Dentin and dental pulp regeneration by the patient's endogenous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahng G; Zheng, Ying; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Embree, Mildred C; Song, Karen; Jiang, Nan; Mao, Jeremy J

    2013-03-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the functions of the dental pulp-dentin complex. Two approaches are being applied toward dental pulp-dentin regeneration: cell transplantation and cell homing. The majority of previous approaches are based on cell transplantation by delivering ex vivo cultivated cells toward dental pulp or dentin regeneration. Many hurdles limit the clinical translation of cell transplantation such as the difficulty of acquiring and isolating viable cells, uncertainty of what cells or what fractions of cells to use, excessive cost of cell manipulation and transportation, and the risk of immune rejection, pathogen transmission, and tumorigenesis in associated with ex vivo cell manipulation. In contrast, cell homing relies on induced chemotaxis of endogenous cells and therefore circumvents many of the difficulties that are associated with cell transplantation. An array of proteins, peptides, and chemical compounds that are yet to be identified may orchestrate endogenous cells to regenerate dental pulp-dentin complex. Both cell transplantation and cell homing are scientifically valid approaches; however, cell homing offers a number of advantages that are compatible with the development of clinical therapies for dental pulp-dentin regeneration.

  20. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...