WorldWideScience

Sample records for high 30-month ec

  1. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contact...

  2. ULTRAPLATE 30 month management report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    2003-01-01

    In the period from month 24 to month 30 focus has been on the work-package 3 activities concerning optimisation of the newly developed ULTRAPLATE technology towards specific industrial applications. Three main application areas have been pursued: 1) High- speed plating of lead free solder contacts......, 2) electroforming of tools for moulding of low-cost precision polymer devices and 3) deposition of magnetic alloys to be used in new planar micro-devices. Within each of the three studied application areas, the targeted output is a finished demonstrator to show the potential of the new ULTRAPLATE...

  3. High-Statistics β+ / EC -Decay Study of 122Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jigmeddorj, Badamsambuu; S1292 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Xe isotopes are centrally located in the Z > 50 , N vibrational structure influenced by proton subshell gaps, perhaps leading to shape-coexistence that could give rise to strong E 0 transitions. Recent work on 124Xe has established nearly identical quadrupole collectivity for the pairing vibrational 03+ band and the ground state band. However, in 122Xe, the 03+ state has not been firmly identified. A high-statistics 122Cs β+ / EC decay experiment to obtain detailed spectroscopic data for low-spin states was performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility using the 8 π γ-ray spectrometer and its auxiliary detectors including PACES, an array of five Si(Li) detectors, for conversion electron spectroscopy. The decay scheme has been considerably extended through a γ- γ coincidence analysis, and 0+ states have been identified via γ- γ angular correlations. This work supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.

  4. IUDs as EC? Limited awareness and high reported acceptability: evidence from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, Margaret; Arribas, Lia; Coccio, Elina; Heredia, Graciela; Jagroep, Sherani; Palermo, Tia

    2014-11-01

    We explored knowledge and attitudes regarding the copper intrauterine device (IUD) as emergency contraception (EC) among women in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We interviewed a convenience sample of women attending a family planning center at a public hospital. Participants were asked about knowledge and use of contraceptives, including EC (pre-script). Then they were given information about the IUD as EC and subsequently asked about acceptability of using the copper IUD as EC (post-script), the primary outcome in this analysis. We analyzed data on 273 women. While only 1.83% of participants knew the IUD served as EC at baseline, 79.85% said they would be willing to use the device as such if the need arose after given relevant information. Multivariate results from a pre-script revealed that women with low levels of education and those born outside of Argentina were less knowledgeable about EC pills. Only previous use of the IUD was associated with high levels of IUD knowledge. Post-script, results indicated that being Argentine [odds ratio (OR)=2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21, 3.81] and previous IUD use (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.07, 4.19) were positively associated with considering the IUD as EC. Nulliparity was negatively associated with willingness to use the IUD as EC (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.22, 0.86). We examined acceptability of the copper IUD as EC in a Latin American setting and found that, while prior levels of knowledg'e were low, acceptability of the IUD as EC was high. Implications for programming and policy include outreach and education regarding this highly effective method and advocacy to change existing regulations in Argentina prohibiting the use of IUD as EC. After given information about the IUD as a method of EC, women interviewed said they would be willing to use the IUD EC despite their limited prior knowledge of this method. With more widespread information and availability of the IUD as EC, more women may opt for this highly effective method, which

  5. Characterization of integrons among Escherichia coli in a region at high incidence of ESBL-EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Ming; Wang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Jun; Li, Qin; Zhu, Ya-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aim of study was to investigate the distribution of the integrons in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates, and analyze the possible relationship between the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the integrons. Methods : The antimicrobial profiles of 376 E. coli strains were analysed by disk diffusion test. The integron genes and variable regions were detected by PCR. Some amplicons were sequenced to determine the gene cassettes style. Results : Of 376 isolates, 223 isolates (59.3%) were confirmed as ESBL-EC. Comparison to ESBL-negative E. coli, the high rates of resistance to the third and fourth generation of cephalosporins, penicillins and amikacin were found in ESBL-EC. Only class 1 was integron detected in the isolates, and the prevalence of it was 66.5%. It was commonly found in ESBL-EC (77.6%, 173/223), which was higher than that of ESBL-negative E. coli (50.3%, 77/153) (pESBL-EC, while in 9.1% isolates of ESBL-negative E.coli. Conclusion : The high incidence of ESBL-EC with resistance to multiple antibiotics were detected in the isolates from Blood stream infection (BSI). More resistant gene cassettes in ESBL-EC may partially underlie the high resistance to amikacin, while no relation exists between the high incidence of ESBL-EC and classes 1~ 3 integrons in this region.

  6. Spectroscopic diagnostics of superthermal electrons with high-number harmonic EC radiation in tokamak reactor plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minashin P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of spectroscopic diagnostics of the average perpendicular-to-magnetic-field momentum of the superthermal component of the electron velocity distribution (EVD, based on the high-number-harmonic electron cyclotron (EC radiation, is suggested for nuclear fusion-reactor plasmas under condition of a strong auxiliary heating (e.g. in tokamak DEMO, a next step after tokamak ITER. The method is based on solving an inverse problem for reconstruction of the EVD in parallel and perpendicular-to-magnetic-field components of electron momentum at high and moderate energies responsible for the emission of the high-number-harmonic EC radiation.

  7. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ...

  8. EC blowers for school building ventilation. Wholesome climate and high energy efficiency; EC-Ventilatoren fuer Schullueftungskonzepte. Gesundes Klima bei hoher Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salig, Andreas [ebm-papst, Mulfingen (Germany). Verkauf Inland; Grohmann, Erwin [Grohmann Lueftungstechnik GmbH, Forchtenberg (Germany); Reiff, Ellen-Christine [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Government funds of several thousands of millions were provided in 2009 for the modernisation of school buildings. There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for this type of buildings which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this. (orig.)

  9. Stability of Child Behavioral Style in the First 30 Months of Life: Single Timepoint and Aggregated Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Schiller, Masha; Hayden, Lisa; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the stability of temperament over time. Observers and mothers rated child behavior at eight timepoints across three assessment waves (8, 15, and 30 months of age). Internal consistency reliability of aggregates of the eight observer reports and eight mother reports were high. When considering single timepoint…

  10. Stability of Child Behavioral Style in the First 30 Months of Life: Single Timepoint and Aggregated Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Schiller, Masha; Hayden, Lisa; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the stability of temperament over time. Observers and mothers rated child behavior at eight timepoints across three assessment waves (8, 15, and 30 months of age). Internal consistency reliability of aggregates of the eight observer reports and eight mother reports were high. When considering single timepoint…

  11. NTM stabilization by alternating O-point EC current drive using a high-power diplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, W.; Doelman, N.; Stober, J.; Maraschek, M.; Zohm, H.; Monaco, F.; Eixenberger, H.; Klop, W.; Wagner, D.; Schubert, M.; Schütz, H.; Grünwald, G.; Plaum, B.; Munk, R.; Schlüter, K. H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-12-01

    At the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, experiments to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) by electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive in the O-points of the magnetic islands were performed. For the first time, injection into the O-points of the revolving islands was performed via a fast directional switch, which toggled the EC power between two launchers synchronously to the island rotation. The switching was performed by a resonant diplexer employing a sharp resonance in the transfer function, and a small frequency modulation of the feeding gyrotron around the slope of the resonance. Thus, toggling of the power between the two outputs of the diplexer connected to two articulating launchers was possible. Phasing and control of the modulation were performed via a set of Mirnov coils and appropriate signal processing. In the paper, technological issues, the design of the diplexer, the tracking of the diplexer resonance to the gyrotron frequency, the generation and processing of control signals for the gyrotron, and the typical performance concerning switching contrast and efficiency are discussed. The plasma scenario is described, and plasma experiments are presented, where the launchers scanned the region of the resonant surface continuously and also where the launchers were at a fixed position near to the q  =  1.5-surface. In the second case, complete stabilization of a 3/2 NTM could be reached. These experiments are also seen as a technical demonstration for the applicability of diplexers in large-scale ECRH systems.

  12. High-Statistics Study of the β+/EC-Decay of 110In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela A. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the 110In β+/EC decay was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC facility to probe the nuclear structure of 110Cd. The data were collected in scaled-down γ-ray singles, γ − γ coincidence, and γ-electron coincidence mode. The data were sorted and a random-background subtracted γ − γ matrix was created containing a total of 850 million events. We expanded the level scheme of 110Cd significantly by identifying 75 levels under 3.8 MeV, including 12 new ones, and increased the number of previously observed transitions from these levels to 273. The γ-ray branching intensities have been extracted through an analysis of the coincidence intensities. The branching ratios were combined with a reanalysis of lifetimes measurements obtained in an (n, n'γ reaction with monoenergetic neutrons for the calculation of B(E2 values and these results have lead to the proposal of a γ-soft rotor, or O(6 nucleus, rather than a vibrational, or U(5 pattern for the nature of the low-lying, low-spin levels in 110Cd.

  13. Computer Science in High School Graduation Requirements. ECS Education Trends (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Allowing high school students to fulfill a math or science high school graduation requirement via a computer science credit may encourage more student to pursue computer science coursework. This Education Trends report is an update to the original report released in April 2015 and explores state policies that allow or require districts to apply…

  14. Development of dual frequency gyrotron and high power test of EC components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In JAEA, development of high-power long-pulse gyrotrons is underway. The output power of the gyrotron was applied for high-power long-pulse tests of the transmission line (TL and the equatorial launcher (EL mock up for ITER. The feature of design in the dual frequency gyrotron is the simultaneously satisfying the matching of both frequencies at a window and the same radiation angle at an internal mode convertor for both frequencies. The dual frequency gyrotron was developed and high power operations at 170 GHz and 137 GHz were carried out. The 170 GHz high power experiment of 40 m length ITER relevant TL was carried out and transmission efficiency and mode purity change caused by long pulse operation were measured. The mock-up model of EL was also tested using 170 GHz gyrotron. The power transmission through the quasi-optical beam line in EL was demonstrated using the full scale mock up model. Furthermore, the high power test results of the transmission components will be summarized.

  15. EC Bananarama 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Brent; Maw-Cheng Yang

    1990-01-01

    The disparate banana import policies currently operating in member states of the European Community (EC) are inconsistent with the Community's objective of full economic integration in 1992. Under separate national legislation, widely varying banana prices apply across different member states, varying duties and import quotas apply to the external (world) market, and internal trade is virtually excluded. The inconsistencies are obvious and politically they are highly transparent. Community im...

  16. Disability transitions after 30 months in three community-dwelling diagnostic groups in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about changes in disability over time among community-dwelling patients. Accordingly, this study sought to assess medium-term disability transitions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 300 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure and stroke patients living at home in Madrid were selected from general practitioner lists. In 2009, disability was assessed after a mean of 30 months using the World Health Organisation (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0. Follow-up was completed using death registries. Losses to follow-up were due to: death, 56; institutionalisation, 9; non-location, 18; and non-participation, 17. Changes in WHODAS 2.0 scores and life status were described and analysed using Cox and multinomial regression. Disability at end of follow-up was imputed for 56 deceased and 44 surviving patients. RESULTS: Mean disability scores for 200 surviving patients at end of follow-up were similar to baseline scores for the whole group, higher than their own baseline scores, and rose by 16.3% when imputed values were added. The strongest Cox predictors of death were: age over 84 years, adjusted hazard ratios with 95%CI 8.18 (3.06-21.85; severe/complete vs. no/mild disability, 5.18 (0.68-39.48; and stroke compared to COPD, 1.40 (0.67-2.91. Non-participants and institutionalised patients had higher proportions with severe/complete baseline disability. A one-point change in baseline WHODAS 2.0 score predicted independent increases in risk of 12% (8%-15% for severe/complete disability or death. CONCLUSIONS: A considerably high proportion of community-dwelling patients diagnosed with COPD, CHF and stroke undergo medium-term changes in disability or vital status. The main features of the emerging pattern for this group appear to be as follows: approximately two-thirds of patients continue living at home with moderately reduced functional status; 1/3 die or worsen to severe/complete disability; and 1

  17. EC motors for blowers; EC-Motoren fuer Luefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Thomas; Reiff, Ellen-Christine

    2009-10-15

    There are highly flexible commercial ventilation and air conditioning systems for server rooms which combine energy savings with optimum room air quality. EC blowers contribute to this and reduce also body sound. (orig./GL)

  18. An Investigation of the Validity and Reliability of the Battelle Developmental Inventory with a Population of Children Younger than 30 Months with Identified Handicapping Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the Batelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) with 40 disabled children under 30 months of age. Subjects were also given the Bayley Scales and Vine Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Results indicated high concurrent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency for the BDI. (Author/DB)

  19. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Hulett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379 with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction.

  20. Prenatal Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: A follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Hernández, María del Carmen; Valencia, Erika Osorio; Hernández, Rosa María García; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the persistency of the association between DDE and infant neurodevelopment we assessed mental and psychomotor development between 12 and 30 months of age in an ongoing cohort in Mexico.

  1. Perforated duodenal ulcer presenting with massive hematochezia in a 30-month-old child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Mi Lee; Sin Weon Yun; Soo Ahn Chae; Byoung Hoon Yoo; Seong Jae Cha; Byung Kook Kwak

    2009-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is uncommon in children and rarely suspected as a cause of abdominal complaints in this age group; the diagnosis is therefore made almost exclusively when complications develop. Peptic ulcer disease is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients. We present the case of a 30-month-old boy with duodenal perforation due to a peptic ulcer without a known etiology. The patient was admitted through the emergency department due to severe hematochezia and ongoing anemia; he presented with neither abdominal pain nor abdominal distension. There were no medical problems, and no drugs, such as corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, had been prescribed or administered recently. We tried to control the active bleeding by medical treatment including arterial embolization, but the active bleeding was not controlled. Finally, an exploratory laparotomy was performed. A discrete anterior perforation with active bleeding of the duodenal wall was found. After the operation, there were no complications and the patient recovered fully.

  2. Mu desynchronization during observation and execution of facial expressions in 30-month-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Rayson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulation theories propose that observing another’s facial expression activates sensorimotor representations involved in the execution of that expression, facilitating recognition processes. The mirror neuron system (MNS is a potential mechanism underlying simulation of facial expressions, with like neural processes activated both during observation and performance. Research with monkeys and adult humans supports this proposal, but so far there have been no investigations of facial MNS activity early in human development. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG to explore mu rhythm desynchronization, an index of MNS activity, in 30-month-old children as they observed videos of dynamic emotional and non-emotional facial expressions, as well as scrambled versions of the same videos. We found significant mu desynchronization in central regions during observation and execution of both emotional and non-emotional facial expressions, which was right-lateralized for emotional and bilateral for non-emotional expressions during observation. These findings support previous research suggesting movement simulation during observation of facial expressions, and are the first to provide evidence for sensorimotor activation during observation of facial expressions, consistent with a functioning facial MNS at an early stage of human development.

  3. The Natural History of Depression in Parkinson’s Disease within 30-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common and persistent nonmotor syndromes occurring in 35% of patients diagnosed with PD. However, little information is known about the longitudinal study of its natural history of depression in PD. In this study, we identified 110 patients who are diagnosed with idiopathic PD and recruited them for assessing information about their PD related motor and nonmotor symptoms and rating scales. A follow-up evaluation was performed in 103 patients 30 months later. About 66.7% depressed patients at baseline were still depressed at follow-up, and 24.4% had incident depression among subjects without depression at baseline. Greater decline on MMSE (P=0.029, higher baseline UPDRS-II (P<0.001 score, change of UPDRS-II (P=0.026, and female (P<0.001 were associated with the worsening of HDRS scores. Higher baseline HDRS score (P<0.001 and greater decline on MMSE (P=0.001 were related to the occurrence of depression. In conclusion, cognitive decline is a disease related factor of worsening and the occurrence of depression. Activities of Daily Living (ADL symptoms in PD and female gender may be crucial factors of increasing depressive symptoms.

  4. EC declaration of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, M E

    1996-05-01

    The CE-marking procedure requires that manufacturers draw up a written declaration of conformity before placing their products on the market. However, some companies do not realize that this is a requirement for all devices. Also, there is no detailed information concerning the contents and format of the EC declaration of conformity in the medical device Directives or in EC guidance documentation. This article will discuss some important aspects of the EC declaration of conformity and some of the guidance that is available on its contents and format.

  5. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  6. Lexical, Morphological and Syntactic Development in Toddlers between 16 and 30 Months Old: A Comparison across European Portuguese and Galician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Pérez-Pereira, Miguel; Cadime, Irene; Silva, Carla; Santos, Sandra; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between the lexical size and the emergence of morphological and syntactic markers in toddlers between the ages of 16 and 30 months and to compare these results between Galician and European Portuguese. Parents of 3012 Portuguese toddlers and those of 1081 Galician toddlers completed…

  7. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  8. Prevention programme for eating disturbances in adolescents. Is their effect on body image maintained at 30 months later?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2013-03-01

    We assessed changes in the body image of Spanish adolescents who participated in a programme aimed at preventing disordered eating, with a 30-month follow-up. 254 girls and 189 boys aged 12-14 were assigned to a control group (n=201) or one of two possible experimental conditions: media literacy programme (ML, n=143) and media literacy plus nutrition awareness programme (ML+NUT, n=99). Body image was assessed with the Body Image Questionnaire (Qüestionari d'Imatge Corporal; QÜIC). Pre-test, post-test, 7- and 30-month follow-up measurements were taken. Linear model analyses were carried out with a 2×3×3 ANOVA (sex×group×phase), adjusted by the baseline level. At 30-month follow-up, ML and ML+NUT participants showed fewer body problems and more body satisfaction than the control group. There is a need for prevention programmes addressing eating and body image disturbances that involve both boys and girls.

  9. Socioemotional skills between 12 and 30 months of age on Chilean children: When do the competences of adults matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Chamarrita; Vallotton, Claire D; Strasser, Katherine; Santelices, María Pía; Himmel, Erika

    2017-09-23

    Due to the rapid growth in early socioemotional skills during the first three years of life, significant variations in socioemotional development begin early and increase with time. Family competences as sensitivity and mentalization, contribute to differences among children of the same age. This study examines whether the level of socioemotional skills is stable or changes between 12 and 30 months of age, and whether primary caregiver sensitivity and mentalization, as well as educational level, are associated with changes in the level of socioemotional skills. One hundred and three Chilean children were evaluated. The results showed a significant change in socioemotional level between 12 and 30 months. Primary caregivers' sensitivity was associated with socioemotional skills at 12 months of age, and caregivers' educational levels was the strongest predictor. At 30 months, caregivers' sensitivity and educational level did not contribute additional influence, and only child socioemotional skills reported at 12 months acted as a predictor. Results indicate that family competences contribute to infants' socioemotional development in the first year of life, which subsequently influences their later skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive symptoms and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent survivors 30 months after 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuliang eShi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: This study longitudinally investigated the changes of depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors over two years and a half after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China, as well as the predictive effects of demographic characteristics, earthquake exposure, negative life events, social support and dispositional resilience on the risk of depressive symptoms at two time points after the earthquake.Methods: Participants were 1573 adolescent survivors (720 males and 853 females, mean age at initial survey =15 ± 1.26, whose depressive symptoms were assessed at 6 months (T6m and 30 months (T30m post-earthquake. Data on demographics, earthquake exposure and dispositional resilience were collected at T6m. Negative life events and social support were measured at T6m and 24 months (T24m post-earthquake.Results: The prevalence rates of probable depression, 27.5% at T6m and 27.2% at T30m, maintained relatively stable over time. Female gender was related with higher risk of depressive symptoms at both T6m and T30m, while being only-child could only predict higher risk of depressive symptoms at T30m. Negative life events and social support at T6m, as well as earthquake exposure, were concurrently associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms at T6m, but not associated with the risk of depressive symptoms at T30m, while negative life events and social support at T24m could predict depressive symptoms at T30m, all of which suggested that these variables may have strong but short-term effect on adolescents’ depressive symptoms post-earthquake. Besides, dispositional resilience was evidenced as a relatively stable negative predictor for depressive symptoms.Conclusions: These findings could inform mental health professionals regarding how to screen adolescent survivors at high risk for depression, so as to provide them with timely and appropriate mental health services based on the identified risk and protective factors for depressive

  11. Radiation effects on the Gaia CCDs after 30 months at L2

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, Cian; Kohley, Ralf; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Beaufort, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Since the launch of ESA's Gaia satellite in December 2013, the 106 large-format scientific CCDs onboard have been operating at L2. Due to a combination of the high-precision measurement requirements of the mission and the predicted proton environment at L2, the effect of non-ionizing radiation damage on the detectors was early identified pre-launch as potentially imposing a major limitation on the scientific value of the data. In this paper we compare pre-flight radiation-induced Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) predictions against in-flight measurements, focusing especially on charge injection diagnostics, as well as correlating these CTI diagnostic results with solar proton event data. We show that L2-directed solar activity has been relatively low since launch, and radiation damage (so far) is less than originally expected. Despite this, there are clear cases of correlation between earth-directed solar coronal mass ejection events and abrupt changes in CTI diagnostics over time. These sudden jumps are ly...

  12. The effects of visual discriminability and rotation angle on 30-month-olds’ search performance in spatial rotation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ebersbach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracking objects that are hidden and then moved is a crucial ability related to object permanence, which develops across several stages in early childhood. In spatial rotation tasks, children observe a target object that is hidden in one of two or more containers before the containers are rotated around a fixed axis. Usually, 30-month-olds fail to find the hidden object after it was rotated by 180°. We examined whether visual discriminability of the containers improves 30-month-olds’ success in this task and whether children perform better after 90° than after 180° rotations. Two potential hiding containers with same or different colors were placed on a board that was rotated by 90° or 180° in a within-subjects design. Children (N = 29 performed above chance level in all four conditions. Their overall success in finding the object did not improve by differently colored containers. However, different colors prevented children from showing an inhibition bias in 90° rotations, that is, choosing the empty container more often when it was located close to them than when it was farther away: This bias emerged in the same colors condition but not in the different colors condition. Results are discussed in view of particular challenges that might facilitate or deteriorate spatial rotation tasks for young children.

  13. The Effects of Visual Discriminability and Rotation Angle on 30-Month-Olds’ Search Performance in Spatial Rotation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Nawroth, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tracking objects that are hidden and then moved is a crucial ability related to object permanence, which develops across several stages in early childhood. In spatial rotation tasks, children observe a target object that is hidden in one of two or more containers before the containers are rotated around a fixed axis. Usually, 30-month-olds fail to find the hidden object after it was rotated by 180°. We examined whether visual discriminability of the containers improves 30-month-olds’ success in this task and whether children perform better after 90° than after 180° rotations. Two potential hiding containers with same or different colors were placed on a board that was rotated by 90° or 180° in a within-subjects design. Children (N = 29) performed above chance level in all four conditions. Their overall success in finding the object did not improve by differently colored containers. However, different colors prevented children from showing an inhibition bias in 90° rotations, that is, choosing the empty container more often when it was located close to them than when it was farther away: This bias emerged in the same colors condition but not in the different colors condition. Results are discussed in view of particular challenges that might facilitate or deteriorate spatial rotation tasks for young children. PMID:27812346

  14. Temporomandibular joint, skull base and mandibular ramus functional reconstruction with homologous bank tissue and free flap: a case report with 30 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzano, Massimo; Rizzo, Roberto; Cicognini, Alessandro; Sorato, Renzo; Recchia, Guglielmo; De Grazia, Raffaella; Di Paola, Francesco; Paolin, Adolfo; Mazzoleni, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Big craniofacial resections for highly invasive malignant neoplasm, including skull base and maxillary bones, always represent a difficult chance for the reconstructive surgeon. In these cases it is not easy to restore anatomy and function simultaneously even adopting complex microsurgical techniques. In maxillofacial and oral surgery, simple bone homotransplantation for small bone segments reconstruction has been developing as popular technique and tissue banks offer not only bone segments but also many different tissues including complex body parts. In this paper we present, a case report of a homotransplantation of a complete temporomandibular joint (TMJ) together with a portion of the medial skull base and mandibular ramus folded with an ante-brachial fascio-periosteal free flap as secondary reconstruction after nearly 5 years from the removal of a sarcoma of the TMJ involving the skull base and a follow up of more than 30 months.

  15. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  16. Mass measurements of singly and highly charged radioactive ions at TITAN: A new Q{sub EC}-value measurement of {sup 10}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, Anna A.; Chaudhuri, Ankur; Schultz, Bradley E.; Simon, Martin C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chowdhury, Usman [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gallant, Aaron T.; Macdonald, Tegan D.; Dilling, Jens [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    Superallowed {beta}-decay strengths or corrected F t values provide some of the most stringent limits for physics beyond the standard three-quark model. For this reason, the Q{sub EC} -value {sup 10}C has been measured and found to be 3468.31(51) keV with the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. The facility is unique in coupling such an online spectrometer to a charge breeder, permitting a mass measurement of another superallowed {beta}-emitter, {sup 74}Rb, in the 8+ charge state. An overview of the TITAN facility and recent highlights are presented alongside the new Q{sub EC} -value determination of {sup 10}C. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Rising from the ashes: Changes in salmonid fish assemblages after 30 months of the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Mailén; Macchi, Patricio J; Vigliano, Pablo; Juarez, Santiago; Rechencq, Magalí; Baker, Matthew; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Crowl, Todd

    2016-01-15

    Events such as volcanic eruptions may act as disturbance agents modifying the landscape spatial diversity and increasing environmental instability. On June 4, 2011 the Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcanic complex located on Chile (2236 m.a.s.l., 40° 02' 24" S- 70° 14' 26" W) experience a rift zone eruption ejecting during the first day 950 million metric tons into the atmosphere. Due to the westerly winds predominance, ash fell differentially upon 24 million ha of Patagonia Argentinean, been thicker deposits accumulated towards the West. In order to analyze changes on stream fish assemblages we studied seven streams 8, 19 and 30 months after the eruption along the ash deposition gradient, and compare those data to pre eruption ones. Habitat features and structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate food base of fish was studied. After the eruption, substantial environmental changes were observed in association with the large amount of ash fallout. In western sites, habitat loss due to ash accumulation, changes in the riparian zone and morphology of the main channels were observed. Turbidity was the water quality variable which reflected the most changes throughout time, with NTU values decreasing sharply from West to East sites. In west sites, increased Chironomid densities were recorded 8 months after the initial eruption as well as low EPT index values. These relationships were reversed in the less affected streams farther away from the volcano. Fish assemblages were greatly influenced both by habitat and macroinvertebrate changes. The eruption brought about an initial sharp decline in fish densities and the almost total loss of young of the year in the most western streams affecting recruitment. This effect diminished rapidly with distance from the emission center. Thirty months after the eruption, environmental changes are still occurring as a consequence of basin wide ash remobilization and transport.

  18. Simultaneous presentation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma: multidisciplinary diagnosis, treatment and 30-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulli, Giovanni; Ciancia, Eugenio M; Azzarà, Antonio; Ottaviano, Virginia; Grassi, Susanna; Ciabatti, Elena; Ferreri, Maria I; Rocco, Melania; Marini, Alessandra; Petrini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma are mature B-cell neoplasms deriving from post-germinal cells at different stages of differentiation. The simultaneous presentation of Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma in the same patient is a very rare phenomenon and, so far, only two cases have been described. We report the case of a 75-year Caucasian female patient, with a silent clinical history, who presented with anemia and two different monoclonal proteins (IgMκ and IgGκ). The trephine biopsy showed the presence of a dual population, represented by small lymphoplasmacytoid cells and by plasma cells, which infiltrated the bone marrow with a clearly different pattern. Both immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry demonstrated the biclonal origin such neoplastic cells, since lymphoplasmacytoid cells resulted IgMκ while plasma cells were IgGκ. This biclonal pattern was further confirmed by the demonstration of a different IgH gene rearrangement of the two neoplasms. The patient was treated with bortezomib, dexamethasone and rituximab, achieving partial remission of both Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma. After a 30-month follow-up, she is in stable disease. Multiple myeloma has been described in association with other indolent B-cell neoplasms, mostly chronic lymphocytic leukemia, while Waldenström macroglobulinemia can be followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in some instances, after chemotherapy. The association of Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma seems to be very rare. Our study shows that an integrated diagnostic work-up is very useful in such cases, with an interesting role for flow cytometry. [J Clin Exp Hematop 53(1): 29-36, 2013].

  19. Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in the Soleus Muscle of 30-Month-Old Rats After Calorie Restriction With or Without Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and calorie restriction (CR) can each improve insulin sensitivity in older individuals, but benefits of combining these treatments on skeletal muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake are poorly understood, especially in predominantly slow-twitch muscles (eg, soleus). Accordingly, our purpose was to determine independent and combined effects of prior acute exercise and CR (beginning at 14 weeks old) on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in insulin-stimulated soleus muscles of 30-month-old rats. CR alone (but not exercise alone) versus ad libitum sedentary controls induced greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. There was a main effect of diet (CR > ad libitum) for insulin-stimulated Akt(Ser473) and Akt(Thr308) phosphorylation. CR alone versus ad libitum sedentary increased Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) Ser(588) phosphorylation and TBC1D1 Thr(596), but not AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation or abundance of GLUT4, GLUT1, or hexokinase II proteins. Combined CR and exercise versus CR alone did not further increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake although phosphorylation of Akt(Ser473), Akt(Thr308), TBC1D1(Thr596), and AMPK(Thr172) for the combined group exceeded values for CR and/or exercise alone. These results revealed that although the soleus was highly responsive to a CR-induced enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the exercise protocol did not elevate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, either alone or when combined with CR.

  20. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  1. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli EC958: a high quality reference sequence for the globally disseminated multidrug resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Forde

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli ST131 is now recognised as a leading contributor to urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. Here we present the complete, annotated genome of E. coli EC958, which was isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with a urinary tract infection in the Northwest region of England and represents the most well characterised ST131 strain. Sequencing was carried out using the Pacific Biosciences platform, which provided sufficient depth and read-length to produce a complete genome without the need for other technologies. The discovery of spurious contigs within the assembly that correspond to site-specific inversions in the tail fibre regions of prophages demonstrates the potential for this technology to reveal dynamic evolutionary mechanisms. E. coli EC958 belongs to the major subgroup of ST131 strains that produce the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase, are fluoroquinolone resistant and encode the fimH30 type 1 fimbrial adhesin. This subgroup includes the Indian strain NA114 and the North American strain JJ1886. A comparison of the genomes of EC958, JJ1886 and NA114 revealed that differences in the arrangement of genomic islands, prophages and other repetitive elements in the NA114 genome are not biologically relevant and are due to misassembly. The availability of a high quality uropathogenic E. coli ST131 genome provides a reference for understanding this multidrug resistant pathogen and will facilitate novel functional, comparative and clinical studies of the E. coli ST131 clonal lineage.

  2. Effectiveness of counseling for anxiety and depression in mothers of children ages 0-30 months by community workers in Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Iqbal S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of anxiety/depression is quite high during the perinatal period but unfortunately its detection and treatment have been less than satisfactory. Moreover, many women are reluctant to take pharmacotherapy for fear of excretion of drugs into their breast milk. This study assesses the effectiveness of counseling from minimally trained community health workers in reducing anxiety/depression, the rate of recurrence and the interval preceding recurrence in women during first two and a half years after childbirth. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, community women from two under-privileged communities were trained in data gathering, teaching healthy child-rearing practices, basic counseling skills, and screening for anxiety/depression by using an indigenously developed questionnaire, the Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. The diagnosis was further confirmed by a clinical psychologist using DSM IV criteria. After obtaining consent, 420 women were screened and 102 were identified as having anxiety/depression. Screening was carried out after 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of a live birth. Only 62 out of 102 agreed to be counseled and received eight weekly sessions. AKUADS was re-administered at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the beginning of counseling; this was followed by the clinical psychologist's interview for confirmation of response. After recovery, screening was continued every 3 months for detection of recurrence throughout the study period. Out of the women who had declined counseling 12 agreed to retake AKUADS after 4 and 8 weeks of diagnosis. Independent samples t-test, chi-square test, Repeated Measures ANOVA and Kaplan Meier technique were used for the analysis. Results A significant decline in level of anxiety/depression was found in both the counseled and the non-counseled groups at 4 and 8 weeks (p-value Conclusions As our results cannot be generalized; further studies need to be

  3. Changes in antipsychotics and other psychotropic drugs during a 30-month lifestyle intervention among outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Elliott, Anja Friis; Madsen, Nikolaj Juul

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have high risk of early death from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, partly because of poor lifestyle and partly because of long-lasting exposure to antipsychotic treatment. AIMS: To investigate the influence of a lifestyle intervention program on chang...... of antipsychotic medication during the study period. Many patients were subject to antipsychotic polypharmacy. The extent of participation in the lifestyle intervention program did not correlate with the changes in dosing of antipsychotic medication....

  4. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  5. Root coverage stability of the subepithelial connective tissue graft and guided tissue regeneration: A 30-month follow-up clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rosetti, Elizabeth P. [UNESP; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio [UNESP; Zuza, Elizangela P. [UNESP; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the long-term clinical effects produced by subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) and guided tissue regeneration combined with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (GTR-DFDBA) in the treatment of gingival recessions in a 30-month follow-up clinical trial. Methods: Twenty-four defects were treated in 12 patients who presented canine or pre-molar Miller class I and/or II bilateral gingival recessions. GTR-DFDBA and SCTG treatments were...

  6. Social functioning trajectories of young first-episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis misuse: a 30-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Blanch, César; Gleeson, John F; Koval, Peter; Cotton, Sue M; McGorry, Patrick D; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use). In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.

  7. Social functioning trajectories of young first-episode psychosis patients with and without cannabis misuse: a 30-month follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González-Blanch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate trajectories of social functioning in young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP with and without cannabis misuse using a secondary analysis of data from the Episode-II trial. Forty-two young people with FEP and comorbid cannabis use disorder were compared with 39 young people with FEP but without a cannabis use disorder. Social functioning was assessed every 6 months during a 30-month follow-up. Multilevel linear growth curve modeling was used to compare the social functioning trajectories over time for those with and without cannabis misuse. Cannabis misuse was not associated with social functioning at baseline assessment. Over a 30-month follow-up, FEP patients without cannabis disorder showed significant improvements in their social functioning, whereas patients with cannabis misuse at baseline displayed no such improvement. Patients with and without cannabis misuse differed significantly in their levels of social functioning after 24 months. Similar results were obtained after adjusting for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, negative symptoms, premorbid functioning, DSM-IV diagnoses, baseline social functioning and other substance use. In the context of a specialized early intervention service, patients with cannabis misuse at baseline did not attain the improvements in social outcomes observed in their counterparts without cannabis misuse. There is a need to develop effective interventions to reduce cannabis misuse to ultimately improve social outcomes in young people with psychosis.

  8. Wine: the increasing risk of a highly vulnerable industry globally to natural disasters and climate change (NH Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James E.; Daniell, Trevor M.; Daniell, Katherine A.; Wenzel, Friedemann; Schäfer, Andreas M.; Kunz, Michael; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Girard, Trevor; Burford, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Globally, well over 10 trillion in economic losses and over 10 million deaths can be attributed directly to natural disaster events from floods, earthquakes, storms, volcanoes and climatic effects historically (CATDAT - Daniell et al., 2016). When looking at the most vulnerable industries to natural disasters for each dollar invested the wine industry rates very highly, thus showing the risky and vulnerable nature of the wine business. Some effects of climate change will be shifting climates so that new grape growing areas are discovered and some traditional locations will require a change of grape variety to be planted, or will unsatisfactory for quality grape production. As new grape types are developed, some other grape types will become less viable leading to a global shift relative to the current state of the industry. The wine industry has been shown to have major losses via sudden shocks such as earthquakes in Chile (2010), Christchurch (2011) and Napa (2014) and hail through Burgundy (2012-2014). Wineries are often prone to other major disasters such as flood, storms, frost, fire or disease causing structural failure of assets, and significant production losses. Natural and man-made disasters play a key role in wine industry losses, and the variability of seasonal shifts and sudden natural shocks can often play a major role in the lifecycle and indeed the lifetime of wineries. Lessons learnt from winery disasters and climate impacts in Australia, Chile, New Zealand and USA are used as well as a comparison with those in Europe and other vulnerable centralised industries, such as cheese in Italy (2012 earthquake). For various natural disasters the structural engineering issues associated with wineries are examined with respect to infrastructure such as elevated steel tanks, as well as the importance of planning for earthquakes. The potential risk mitigation solutions are often simple to implement and are cost-effective in reducing significantly the risk

  9. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta-alanine on physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-alanine and an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise.

  10. Manual Thrombus Aspiration and the Improved Survival of Patients With Unstable Angina Pectoris Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (30 Months Follow-Up).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Bilgin, Murat; Zungur, Mustafa; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Kilic, Ismail D; Buber, Ipek; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-02-01

    The clinical effect of intracoronary thrombus aspiration during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with unstable angina pectoris is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess how thrombus aspiration during percutaneous coronary intervention affects in-hospital and 30-month mortality and complications in patients with unstable angina pectoris.We undertook an observational cohort study of 645 consecutive unstable angina pectoris patients who had performed percutaneous coronary intervention from February 2011 to March 2013. Before intervention, 159 patients who had culprit lesion with thrombus were randomly assigned to group 1 (thrombus aspiration group) and group 2 (stand-alone percutaneous coronary intervention group). All patients were followed-up 30 months until August 2015.Thrombus aspiration was performed in 64 patients (46%) whose cardiac markers (ie, creatinine kinase [CK-MB] mass and troponin T) were significantly lower after percutaneous coronary intervention than in those of group 2 (CK-MB mass: 3.80 ± 1.11 vs 4.23 ± 0.89, P = 0.012; troponin T: 0.012 ± 0.014 vs 0.018 ± 0.008, P = 0.002). Left ventricular ejection fraction at 6, 12, and 24 months postintervention was significantly higher in the group 1. During a mean follow-up period of 28.87 ± 6.28 months, mortality rates were 6.3% in the group 1 versus 12.9% in the group 2. Thrombus aspiration was also associated with significantly less long-term mortality in unstable angina pectoris patients (adjusted HR: 4.61, 95% CI: 1.16-18.21, P = 0.029).Thrombus aspiration in the context of unstable angina pectoris is associated with a limited elevation in cardiac enzymes during intervention that minimises microembolization and significantly improves both of epicardial flow and myocardial perfusion, as shown by angiographic TIMI flow grade and frame count. Thrombus aspiration during percutaneous coronary intervention in unstable angina pectoris patients has better

  11. Ramathibodi Language Development Questionnaire: A Newly Developed Screening Tool for Detection of Delayed Language Development in Children Aged 18-30 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Wantanakorn, Pornchanok; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2015-08-01

    To develop a parental questionnaire for screening children with delayed language development in primary care settings. Ramathibodi Language Development (RLD) questionnaire was developed and completed by groups of 40 typically developing children age 18 to 30 months old and 30 children with delayed language development. The mean score was significantly lower in the delay language group (6.7 ± 1.9), comparing with the typically developing group (9.6 ± 0.7). The optimal ROC curve cut-off score was 8 with corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 72%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.99). The RLD questionnaire was the promising language developmental screening instrument that easily utilized in well-child examination settings.

  12. Everyone talk about EC technology - What's about this technology? AC versus AC technology; Alle reden von EC-Technologie - was bringt sie wirklich? AC- versus EC-Motorentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-12-15

    Meanwhile, the EC motor technology is the state of the art in fans. In the consciousness of a possible energy conservation, the EC motor technology is demanded to a large extent with the new installations of the customers. But how high are the possible savings actually? A comparative measurement at a condenser of Guentner AG (Fuerstenfeldbruck, Federal Republic of Germany) supports information.

  13. Multiresidue screening method for detection of benzimidazoles and their metabolites in liver and muscle by high-performance liquid chromatography: method development and validation according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Gili

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of veterinary drugs may cause the presence of residues in food of animal origin if appropriate withdrawal periods are not respected. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of 11 benzimidazole residues, including metabolites – albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, albendazole sulphone, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide (oxfendazole, fenbendazole sulphone, flubendazole, mebendazole, oxibendazole, thiabendazole, 5-hydroxythiabendazole – in bovine, ovine, equine, swine, rabbit and poultry liver and in bovine, swine and fish muscle. After extraction with a dicloromethane/acetonitrile solution (35/65 v/v containing 5% ammonium hydroxide, the solvent was evaporated to dryness, the residue was dissolved in HCl 0.1 M, defatted with hexane, purified on a strong cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge and analysed in HPLC with diode array and fluorescence detectors. The method was validated as screening qualitative method evaluating, according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, specificity, CCb and b error at cut off level of 25 mg/kg and ruggedness.

  14. Multiresidue determination of fluoroquinolones in poultry muscle and kidney according to the regulation 2002/657/EC. A systematic comparison of two different approaches: Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diego G; Santos, Flavio A; da Silva, Júlio César C; Augusti, Rodinei; Faria, Adriana F

    2015-01-30

    This work involved the optimization and validation of two methods according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC directives for determining fluoroquinolones residues in samples of poultry muscle and kidney: ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, marbofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid and sarafloxacin. The extraction procedure was based on a QuEChERS approach, whose optimization employed a Box-Behnken 3(3) factorial design. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed for determining the twelve analytes using the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Accuracy, evaluated by recovery studies, varied from 88.8 to 112.2% for the selected levels with RSD values lower than 12.3%. The second validated method employed high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) performed in the single ion monitoring mode (SIM), determining nine among twelve analytes. The validation parameters were evaluated as satisfactory, with recoveries from 82.5 to 114.4% and RSD lower than 8.7%. Decision limits and detection capabilities for both methods were reported. The two methods were statistically compared using the Student's t test, at 95% confidence level, resulting in no significant difference.

  15. [Factors related to the blood lead level in children 6 to 30 months old in the Prospective Lead Study in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, S J; Schnaas-Arrieta, L; Pérez-Guerrero, I A; Hernández-Cervantes, R; Martínez-Medina, S; Perroni-Hernández, E

    1993-01-01

    A majority of the sample of children (N = 160-121, ages 6-30 months) from the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study exceeds the lowest limit action level (10 micrograms/dl) of the Centers for Disease Control standards for childhood lead exposure. Over one-third of the sample at 18 months and 24 months exceeds the action level (15 micrograms/dl) for aggressive intervention. Diet plays an important role in regulating early childhood blood lead levels. Fresh milk and breast feeding are associated with lower lead levels, but extended breast feeding is related to elevated lead levels. Low income and poor maternal education are associated with higher lead concentration in children. Child consumption of canned milk and juice, up to this date, is associated with elevated child lead levels. Canned products sealed with lead are disappearing from Mexican markets. Efforts to improve childhood nutrition and poverty may be expected to have the additional benefit of lowering lead levels of Mexican children.

  16. Prevention of Internalising Disorders in 9-10 year old children: Efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMorrison

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9-10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children’s externalising and internalising problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviours from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalising problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalising problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up.

  17. EC-LEDS Mexico: Advancing Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    EC-LEDS works with the government of Mexico to help meet its goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. The program targets specific, highly technical areas where Mexico has indicated the program can add value and make an impact.

  18. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  19. The EC-ASEAN COGEN programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.; Lacrosse, L. [Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Schenkel, Y. [Centre de Recherches Agronomiques (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    The EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme is a co-operation programme between the European Commission (EC) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) co-ordinated by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand. Its aim is to accelerate the implementation of proven technologies generating heat and/or power from wood and agroindustrial residues through partnerships between European and ASEAN companies. (orig.)

  20. Special Issue: Selected papers from ECS'97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia.......This Special Issue of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing presents extended versions of selected papers from the First Electronic Circuits and Systems Conference (ECS'97) which was held on September 4-5, 1997, in Bratislava, Slovakia....

  1. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cheng, Ya-Fang; Nordmann, Stephan; Birmili, Wolfram; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Ma, Nan; Wolke, Ralf; Wehner, Birgit; Sun, Jia; Spindler, Gerald; Mu, Qing; Pöschl, Ulrich; Su, Hang; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry model (WRF-Chem) at a resolution of 2 km focusing on a region in Germany, in conjunction with a high-resolution EC emission inventory. The ground meteorology conditions, vertical structure and wind pattern were well reproduced by the model. The simulations of particle number and/or mass size distributions were evaluated with observations at the central European background site Melpitz. The fine mode particle concentration was reasonably well simulated, but the coarse mode was substantially overestimated by the model mainly due to the plume with high EC concentration in coarse mode emitted by a nearby point source. The comparisons between simulated EC and Multi-angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) measurements at Melpitz, Leipzig-TROPOS and Bösel indicated that the coarse mode EC (ECc) emitted from the nearby point sources might be overestimated by a factor of 2-10. The fraction of ECc was overestimated in the emission inventory by about 10-30 % for Russia and 5-10 % for Eastern Europe (e.g., Poland and Belarus). This incorrect size-dependent EC emission results in a shorter atmospheric life time of EC particles and inhibits the long-range transport of EC. A case study showed that this effect caused an underestimation of 20-40 % in the EC mass concentration in Germany under eastern wind pattern.

  2. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  3. Abstract - Belbas, Nicholas (EC2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbas, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Originally, I was brought into the Design and Analysis Branch in the Crew and Thermal Systems to work on administrative tasks like archiving and scheduling. However, I ended up splitting my time between secretarial tasks and a technical project. My technical project was originally meant to be a wireless sensor package for the 20ft Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Chamber in the B7 High Bay. I would be using a miniature wifi development board and a temperature/humidity sensor along with custom 3D modeling to accomplish this. However, after some discussion with my technical mentor, the plan was changed to a mobile autonomous self-charging sensor platform. A mobile platform will allow the sensors to be moved around without depressurizing the chamber. Also, the self-charging aspect of the package allows for almost unlimited time in the chamber. If the on-board battery runs low, the robot can easily be driven to its charging dock and continue to transmit while charging. The driving base is based around a Raspberry Pi 3 board with a 12C PMW DC Motor controller and a PWM controller driving two small gear motors. The sensor transmitter itself is a RHT03 temperature and humidity sensor and Cozir CO2 sensor connected to an ESP8266 Huzzah board. The power distribution system utilizes a pair of 3.7v 3600mah lipo batteries wired to Powerboost 500 boards. Also, the self-charging mechanism utilizes two 12v-max inductive charging coils wired into the same Powerboost boards as the battery. The Raspberry pi is running Python 3.3 for the driving base and Javascript MJPEG library for transmitting live video from the onboard camera. The sensor package is running Arduino-based C++ and the program capturing the data is running PyqtGraph Python and HTML. The shell of the robot itself is a 3D printed case that will (work in progress) snap together. The photo to the left shows the two halves separated from each other. The black shell contains the power distribution boards and connectors while the

  4. Developmental regulation of ecdysone receptor (EcR and EcR-controlled gene expression during pharate-adult development of honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyana Rachel Palo Mello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Major developmental transitions in multicellular organisms are driven by steroid hormones. In insects, these, together with juvenile hormone (JH, control development, metamorphosis, reproduction and aging, and are also suggested to play an important role in caste differentiation of social insects. Here, we aimed to determine how EcR transcription and ecdysteroid titers are related during honeybee postembryonic development and what may actually be the role of EcR in caste development of this social insect. In addition, we expected that knocking-down EcR gene expression would give us information on the participation of the respective protein in regulating downstream targets of EcR. We found that in Apis mellifera females, EcR-A is the predominantly expressed variant in postembryonic development, while EcR-B transcript levels are higher in embryos, indicating an early developmental switch in EcR function. During larval and pupal stages, EcR-B expression levels are very low, while EcR-A transcripts are more variable and abundant in workers compared to queens. Strikingly, these transcript levels are opposite to the ecdysteroid titer profile. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E application experiments revealed that low 20E levels induce EcR expression during development, whereas high ecdysteroid titers seem to be repressive. By means of RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD of both EcR transcript variants we detected the differential expression of 234 poly-A+ transcripts encoding genes such as CYPs, MRJPs and certain hormone response genes (Kr-h1 and ftz-f1. EcR-KD also promoted the differential expression of 70 miRNAs, including highly conserved ones (e.g. miR-133 and miR-375, as well honeybee-specific ones (e.g. miR-3745 and miR-3761. Our results put in evidence a broad spectrum of EcR-controlled gene expression during postembryonic development of honeybees, revealing new facets of EcR biology in this social insect.

  5. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  6. EC,ASMC and Macrophage Oxidize Human Low Density Lipoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Zhao-ming; Wu Jun-zhu; Li Xiao-ming; Chen Li-da; Hong Jia-ling

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo , LDL was incubated with endothelium cell (EC),artery smooth muscle cell (ASMC) and macrophage, and then the change of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cell and medium and the oxidation of LDL by those three cells were assessed. The result showed that LDL promoted the activity of cellular and secretive myeloperoxidase which was concentration-dependent on LDL; with elevation of MPO activity, oxidation of LDL intensified, which was expressed by the formation of conjugated dienes and the elevation of thiobarbituric acid teactive substance (TBARS). Macrophage's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL at both low and high concentration; EC's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL only at high concentration and ASMC's MPO activity wasn't sensitive to LDL concentration change. The results suggest that Macrophage might be crucial to the oxidation of LDL in vivo, in which MPO might play an important role.

  7. EC,ASMC and Macrophage Oxidize Human Low Density Lipoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai; Zhao-ming; Wu; Jun-zhu; 等

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of LDL oxidation in vivo, LDL was incubated with endothelium cell (EC),artery smooth muscle cell (ASMC) and macrophage, and then the change of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cell and medium and the oxidation of LDL by those three cells were assessed. The result showed that LDL promoted the activity of cellular and secretive myeloperoxidase which was concentration-dependent on LDL; with elevation of MPO activity, oxidation of LDL intensified, which was expressed by the formation of conjugated dienes and the elevation of thiobarbituric acid teactive substance (TBARS). Macrophage's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL at both low and high concentration; EC's MPO activity went up with the increase of LDL only at high concentration and ASMC's MPO activity wasn't sensitive to LDL concentration change. The results LDL in vivo, in which MPO might play an important role.

  8. Integrated one-pot enrichment and immobilization of styrene monooxygenase (StyA) using SEPABEAD EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruinatscha, Reto; Karande, Rohan; Buehler, Katja; Schmid, Andreas

    2011-07-18

    A straightforward one-pot procedure combining enrichment and immobilization of recombinantely expressed FADH₂ dependent styrene monooxygenase (StyA) directly from Escherichia coli cell extracts was investigated. Sepabeads EC-EA and EC-Q1A anion-exchange carriers were employed to non-covalently adsorb StyA from the cell extracts depending on basic parameters such as varying initial protein concentrations and pH. The protein fraction of the cell extract contained around 25% StyA. At low initial protein concentrations (2.5 mg mL⁻¹) and pH 6, the enzyme could be enriched up to 52.4% on Sepabeads EC-EA and up to 46.0% on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, accounting for an almost complete StyA adsorption from the cell extracts. Higher initial protein concentrations were necessary to exploit the high loading capacity of the beads. At 20 mg mL⁻¹, up to 37.6% of the theoretical bead loading capacity could be utilized for StyA binding using Sepabeads EC-EA, and 34.0% using Sepabeads EC-Q1A. For both carriers, protein leakage under reaction conditions could be reduced to less than 2%. During assays, the FADH₂ cofactor necessary for StyA activity was supplied by the NADH-FAD reductase component styrene monooxygenase B (StyB). StyA immobilized on Sepabeads EC-Q1A displayed twice as high styrene epoxidation rates (0.2 U mg(StyA)⁻¹) as compared to Sepabeads EC-EA. This activity could be increased to 0.7 U mg(StyA)⁻¹ by co-immobilizing StyB on Sepabeads EC-Q1A, which corresponds to 33% of the soluble StyA activity.

  9. Nanoscale Bio-Molecular Control Using EC-OWLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J P; Voros, J; Hubbell, J A; Textor, M

    2002-11-20

    A recently developed technique termed ''Electrochemical Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy'' (EC-OWLS) [1] combines evanescent-field optical sensing with electrochemical control of surface adsorption processes. Initial EC-OWLS investigations efficiently monitored molecular surface adsorption and layer thickness changes of an adsorbed polymer layer examined in situ as a function of potential applied to a waveguide1. A layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) served as both a high refractive index waveguide for optical sensing, and a conductive electrode; an electrochemical flow-through fluid cell incorporated working, reference and counter electrodes. Poly(L-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) served as a model, polycation adsorbate. Results indicate that adsorption and desorption of PLL-g-PEG from aqueous buffer are a function of applied potential, and that binding events subsequent to PLL-g-PEG functionalization are dependent on reorganization in the molecular adlayer.

  10. The EC discourse on vocational training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a ‘common vocational training policy' as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational...... training has served as a lever for the gradual expansion of the policy field into both general and higher education and for the establishment of a European discourse on Lifelong Learning. In the article, Ball's concept of "policy as discourse" is used to identify the changing spaces of possibility within...... EC vocational training policy (Ball, What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2), 1993)....

  11. Preliminary conceptual design of DEMO EC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, S., E-mail: garavaglia@ifp.cnr.it; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Rispoli, N. [Institute of Plasma Physics “P.Caldirola”, National Research Council of Italy, Milan (Italy); Grossetti, G.; Strauss, D. [IAM-AWP, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [IHM, KIT, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, Q. M. [CRPP, EPFL, EURATOM Association, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Franke, T. [EUROfusion Consortium, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-10

    In the framework of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive addresses the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron, ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems. This paper reports the activities performed in 2014, focusing on the work done regarding the input for the conceptual design of the EC system, particularly for the gyrotron, the transmission line and the launchers.

  12. Status of Europe’s contribution to the ITER EC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albajar F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron cyclotron (EC system of ITER for the initial configuration is designed to provide 20MW of RF power into the plasma during 3600s and a duty cycle of up to 25% for heating and (co and counter non-inductive current drive, also used to control the MHD plasma instabilities. The EC system is being procured by 5 domestic agencies plus the ITER Organization (IO. F4E has the largest fraction of the EC procurements, which includes 8 high voltage power supplies (HVPS, 6 gyrotrons, the ex-vessel waveguides (includes isolation valves and diamond windows for all launchers, 4 upper launchers and the main control system. F4E is working with IO to improve the overall design of the EC system by integrating consolidated technological advances, simplifying the interfaces, and doing global engineering analysis and assessments of EC heating and current drive physics and technology capabilities. Examples are the optimization of the HVPS and gyrotron requirements and performance relative to power modulation for MHD control, common qualification programs for diamond window procurements, assessment of the EC grounding system, and the optimization of the launcher steering angles for improved EC access. Here we provide an update on the status of Europe’s contribution to the ITER EC system, and a summary of the global activities underway by F4E in collaboration with IO for the optimization of the subsystems.

  13. A confirmatory method for the simultaneous extraction, separation, identification and quantification of Tetracycline, Sulphonamide, Trimethoprim and Dapsone residues in muscle by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Mannion, Celine; Rafter, Paul

    2009-11-13

    A rapid confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone by UPLC-MS/MS is described. The method is able to quantify and confirm the following 19 compounds, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, dapsone, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine. Samples are extracted with 0.1M EDTA and acetonitrile, which is then evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and reconstituted in water. Following centrifugation and filtering, an aliquot is analysed by UPLC-MS/MS using positive electrospray ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring. The method is deemed rapid as all analytes are extracted by a single extraction technique, with no solid-phase extraction clean up required. Validation is according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and was carried out for bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry species. Specificity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, CCalpha and CCbeta data is presented.

  14. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    At the EC-19 workshop there were ten presentations in the topic of diagnosing and heating plasmas with Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW). Innovations continue in designs of ECE systems while tried-and-true instruments still provide adequate data to explore new areas of research. Heterodyne radiometers and Michelson interferometers carry on as the bedrock of ECE electron temperature (Te) measurements while ECE imaging systems continue expanding their capabilities. The design of the ITER-ECE diagnostic system is in its advanced stages; solutions are being found for challenges in the transmission lines and front-end calibration sources.

  15. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  16. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility generally. Concrete ideas on how greater compatibility... and EC invite your views on how to promote greater transatlantic regulatory compatibility...

  17. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, T., E-mail: Thibault.Gassmann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Beaumont, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baruah, U.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonicelli, T. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Denisov, G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Mukherjee, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Rasmussen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6483 (United States); Saibene, G.; Sartori, R. [Fusion For Energy, C/ Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanga, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2010-12-15

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  18. Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support for People With Severe Mental Illness in the Netherlands : A 30-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michon, Harry; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Stant, A. Dennis; van Vugt, Maaike D.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Kroon, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Whereas in the U.S. and Canada the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model has proven to be highly effective in enhancing employment perspectives for persons with severe mental illnesses, the evidence base is less abundant in countries with a different socioeconomic climate. The aim

  19. Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support for People With Severe Mental Illness in the Netherlands : A 30-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michon, Harry; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Stant, A. Dennis; van Vugt, Maaike D.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Kroon, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Whereas in the U.S. and Canada the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model has proven to be highly effective in enhancing employment perspectives for persons with severe mental illnesses, the evidence base is less abundant in countries with a different socioeconomic climate. The aim

  20. Summary of ECE Presentations at EC-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There were nine ECE and one EBE presentation at EC-18. Four of the presentations were on various aspects of ECE on ITER. The ITER ECE diagnostic has entered an important detailed preliminary design phase and faces several design challenges in the next 2-3 years. Most of the other ECE presentations at the workshop were focused on applications of ECE diagnostics to plasma measurements, rather than improvements in technology, although it was apparent that heterodyne receiver technology continues to improve. CECE, ECE imaging and EBE imaging are increasingly providing valuable insights into plasma behavior that is important to understand if future burning plasma devices, such as ITER, FNSF and DEMO, are to be successful.

  1. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Hao, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiong; Wang, Wenhong; Xia, Zhongkui; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Xiaochi; Qin, Man; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective is to phylogenetically characterize the supragingival plaque bacterial microbiome of children prior to eruption of second primary molars by pyrosequencing method for studying etiology of early childhood caries. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 10 caries children and 9 caries-free children. Plaque DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. On average, over 22,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the plaque of children with caries [170 operational taxonomical units (OTU) at 3% divergence] and caries-free children (201 OTU at 3% divergence) with no significant difference. A total of 8 phyla, 15 classes, 21 orders, 30 families, 41 genera and 99 species were represented. In addition, five predominant phyla (Firmicute, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria) and seven genera (Leptotrichia, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Veillonella) constituted a majority of contents of the total microbiota, independent of the presence or absence of caries. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) presented that caries-related genera included Streptococcus and Veillonella; while Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Fusobacterium, Capnocytophaga and Porphyromonas were more related to the caries-free samples. Neisseria and Prevotella presented approximately in between. In both groups, the degree of shared organism lineages (as defined by species-level OTUs) among individual supragingival plaque microbiomes was minimal. Our study represented for the first time using pyrosequencing to elucidate and monitor supragingival plaque bacterial diversity at such young age with second primary molar unerrupted. Distinctions were revealed between caries and caries-free microbiomes in terms of microbial community structure. We observed differences in abundance for

  2. Plaque bacterial microbiome diversity in children younger than 30 months with or without caries prior to eruption of second primary molars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective is to phylogenetically characterize the supragingival plaque bacterial microbiome of children prior to eruption of second primary molars by pyrosequencing method for studying etiology of early childhood caries. METHODS: Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 10 caries children and 9 caries-free children. Plaque DNA was extracted, used to generate DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. RESULTS: On average, over 22,000 sequences per sample were generated. High bacterial diversity was noted in the plaque of children with caries [170 operational taxonomical units (OTU at 3% divergence] and caries-free children (201 OTU at 3% divergence with no significant difference. A total of 8 phyla, 15 classes, 21 orders, 30 families, 41 genera and 99 species were represented. In addition, five predominant phyla (Firmicute, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria and seven genera (Leptotrichia, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Veillonella constituted a majority of contents of the total microbiota, independent of the presence or absence of caries. Principal Component Analysis (PCA presented that caries-related genera included Streptococcus and Veillonella; while Leptotrichia, Selenomonas, Fusobacterium, Capnocytophaga and Porphyromonas were more related to the caries-free samples. Neisseria and Prevotella presented approximately in between. In both groups, the degree of shared organism lineages (as defined by species-level OTUs among individual supragingival plaque microbiomes was minimal. CONCLUSION: Our study represented for the first time using pyrosequencing to elucidate and monitor supragingival plaque bacterial diversity at such young age with second primary molar unerrupted. Distinctions were revealed between caries and caries-free microbiomes in terms of microbial community

  3. Use of EC-blowers contribute to green investment; Gebruik van EC-ventilatoren levert bijdrage aan groene investering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgens, G.; Ridder, A.

    2009-07-01

    Despite their small share in the entire use, applying EC blowers (electronically commutated) in coolers and condensers can provide an interesting contribution to a sound green investment. This additional investment with EC blowers will pay off through more efficient energy use and easy operation with rpm control. [Dutch] Door gebruik te maken van EC-ventilatoren (EC staat voor 'electronically commutated') op koelers en condensors kan, ondanks het kleine aandeel in het totaalverbruik, toch een interessante bijdrage geleverd worden aan een verantwoorde groene investering. Deze meerinvestering met EC-ventilatoren betaalt zich uit in zuinig energieverbruik en eenvoudige aansturing met toerenregeling.

  4. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

  5. Membrane frizzled-related protein gene–related ophthalmological syndrome: 30-month follow-up of a sporadic case and review of genotype-phenotype correlation in the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaci, Rosachiara; Zenteno, Juan C.; Casubolo, Cristina; Delfini, Elisabetta; Macaluso, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report a new sporadic case of membrane frizzled-related protein gene (MFRP)-related syndrome with a 30-month follow-up, and to review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlation in MFRP mutations. Methods A complete ophthalmological evaluation was performed at presentation and 30 months later, including best-corrected visual acuity test, slit lamp examination, fundoscopy, kinetic perimetry, electroretinography, fundus imaging (color, red-free, and autofluorescence), and morphologic-biometric analysis of the eye structures with an optical biometer, anterior-segment optical coherence tomography, retinal optical coherence tomography, and a confocal scanning laser for optic nerve head study. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes and nucleotide sequencing of the complete MFRP gene were performed. The literature on cases of posterior microphthalmos and retinitis pigmentosa associated with MFRP mutations was reviewed. Results A 33-year-old female patient presented with posterior microphthalmos, retinitis pigmentosa with patches of retinal pigmented epithelium atrophy and scarce pigment mobilization, foveoschisis, and optic nerve drusen. After 30 months, progression of rod-cone retinal degeneration was detected. One obligate carrier showed a normal eye phenotype. A homozygote mutation in the MFRP gene (c.492delC), predicting a truncated protein (P166fsX190), was identified with genetic analysis. To our knowledge, 17 cases of MFRP-related syndrome have been reported in the literature, including the patient described herein. The phenotype of the syndrome, expressivity, and age of onset varied among and within the affected families. However, all patients sharing homozygous mutation c.492delC (alternatively named c.498delC) showed a complete phenotype (including foveoschisis and optic nerve head drusen), and similar fundus characteristics. Conclusions A new sporadic case of MFRP-related syndrome is reported

  6. EC power management and NTM control in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Francesca; Fredrickson, E.; Henderson, M.; Bertelli, N.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Nowak, S.; Poli, E.; Sauter, O.

    2016-10-01

    The suppression of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) is an essential requirement for the achievement of the demonstration baseline in ITER. The Electron Cyclotron upper launcher is specifically designed to provide highly localized heating and current drive for NTM stabilization. In order to assess the power management for shared applications, we have performed time-dependent simulations for ITER scenarios covering operation from half to full field. The free-boundary TRANSP simulations evolve the magnetic equilibrium and the pressure profiles in response to the heating and current drive sources and are interfaced with a GRE for the evolution of size and frequency of the magnetic islands. Combined with a feedback control of the EC power and the steering angle, these simulations are used to model the plasma response to NTM control, accounting for the misalignment of the EC deposition with the resonant surfaces, uncertainties in the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction and in the magnetic island detection threshold. Simulations indicate that the threshold for detection of the island should not exceed 2-3cm, that pre-emptive control is a preferable option, and that for safe operation the power needed for NTM control should be reserved, rather than shared with other applications. Work supported by ITER under IO/RFQ/13/9550/JTR and by DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Expression of Finger Millet EcDehydrin7 in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Venkat Raman, K; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-09-01

    One of the critical alarming constraints for agriculture is water scarcity. In the current scenario, global warming due to climate change and unpredictable rainfall, drought is going to be a master player and possess a big threat to stagnating gene pool of staple food crops. So it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that enable the plants to cope with drought stress. In this study, effort was made to prospect the role of EcDehydrin7 protein from normalized cDNA library of drought tolerance finger millet in transgenic tobacco. Biochemical and molecular analyses of T0 transgenic plants were done for stress tolerance. Leaf disc assay, seed germination test, dehydration assay, and chlorophyll estimation showed EcDehydrin7 protein directly link to drought tolerance. Northern and qRT PCR analyses shows relatively high expression of EcDehydrin7 protein compare to wild type. T0 transgenic lines EcDehydrin7(11) and EcDehydrin7(15) shows superior expression among all lines under study. In summary, all results suggest that EcDehydrin7 protein has a remarkable role in drought tolerance and may be used for sustainable crop breeding program in other food crops.

  8. Guidelines for accurate EC50/IC50 estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaugh, J L

    2011-01-01

    This article provides minimum requirements for having confidence in the accuracy of EC50/IC50 estimates. Two definitions of EC50/IC50s are considered: relative and absolute. The relative EC50/IC50 is the parameter c in the 4-parameter logistic model and is the concentration corresponding to a response midway between the estimates of the lower and upper plateaus. The absolute EC50/IC50 is the response corresponding to the 50% control (the mean of the 0% and 100% assay controls). The guidelines first describe how to decide whether to use the relative EC50/IC50 or the absolute EC50/IC50. Assays for which there is no stable 100% control must use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays having a stable 100% control but for which there may be more than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean should use the relative EC50/IC50. Assays that can be demonstrated to produce an accurate and stable 100% control and less than 5% error in the estimate of the 50% control mean may gain efficiency as well as accuracy by using the absolute EC50/IC50. Next, the guidelines provide rules for deciding when the EC50/IC50 estimates are reportable. The relative EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations beyond the lower and upper bend points. The absolute EC50/IC50 should only be used if there are at least two assay concentrations whose predicted response is less than 50% and two whose predicted response is greater than 50%. A wide range of typical assay conditions are considered in the development of the guidelines.

  9. Fine carbonaceous aerosol characteristics at a megacity during the Chinese Spring Festival as given by OC/EC online measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Feng, Yinchang; Dai, Qili; Xiao, Zhimei; Li, Liwei; Wu, Jianhui; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, YuFen

    2016-11-01

    The OC/EC online monitoring campaign was carried out in Tianjin of China from 8th February to 15th March 2015 during the Chinese Spring Festival period (CSFP). The concentrations of OC, EC, BC and other ambient pollutants (e.g. SO2, NO2 and PM2.5, etc.) in high time resolution were measured with related online-monitoring instruments. During the CSFP, according to the peaks of PM2.5 concentrations and number concentrations (NC) of aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameters between 0.3 and 2.5 μm, five pollution-events were generally identified and displayed. These pollution-events were closely associated with large-scale fireworks displaying, combustion activities such as heating for winter, and the stable meteorological conditions, etc. During the CSFP, EC and OC concentrations showed variations up to one order of magnitude. The uncertainty of instrument itself and the difference for measured methods, further caused the differences between thermal OC (measured OC by thermal method) and optical OC (measured OC by optical method) concentrations, as well as between thermal EC (measured EC by thermal method) and optical EC (measured EC by optical method) concentrations. The high-concentration carbonaceous aerosols could enlarge the uncertainty of measuring instrument, reducing the correlations between OC and EC, and enhance the differences among thermal EC, optical BC and optical EC. The OC/EC ratios and the percentages of SOC/OC would be declined, when the pollution-events formed during the CSFP. Due to the different sources for thermal POC and thermal SOC, the correlation of the two was relatively lower (R2 = 0.39). Thermal POC dominated over thermal OC during the CSFP.

  10. EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-04-03

    This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

  11. Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Meier, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Meier, C., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2011). Analyzing 5 years of EC-TEL proceedings. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. Crespo García, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Towards Ubiquitous Learning: 6th European Conference of Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2011 (pp. 531-536). Sept

  12. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S;

    2000-01-01

    (frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test) glucose tolerance test, and body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with rhGH induced persistent favorable changes in body composition, with a 10% increase in lean body mass (P ...The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv...... in glucose tolerance, beta-cell response was still inappropriate. Our conclusion is that long-term rhGH-replacement therapy in GH deficiency adults induced a significant deterioration in glucose tolerance, profound changes in kinetics of C-peptide, and insulin and prehepatic insulin secretion, despite...

  13. Mathematical modeling improves EC50 estimations from classical dose-response curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Elin; Lindgren, Isa; Lövfors, William; Lundengård, Karin; Cervin, Ida; Sjöström, Theresia Arbring; Altimiras, Jordi; Cedersund, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    The β-adrenergic response is impaired in failing hearts. When studying β-adrenergic function in vitro, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) is an important measure of ligand response. We previously measured the in vitro contraction force response of chicken heart tissue to increasing concentrations of adrenaline, and observed a decreasing response at high concentrations. The classical interpretation of such data is to assume a maximal response before the decrease, and to fit a sigmoid curve to the remaining data to determine EC50 . Instead, we have applied a mathematical modeling approach to interpret the full dose-response curve in a new way. The developed model predicts a non-steady-state caused by a short resting time between increased concentrations of agonist, which affect the dose-response characterization. Therefore, an improved estimate of EC50 may be calculated using steady-state simulations of the model. The model-based estimation of EC50 is further refined using additional time-resolved data to decrease the uncertainty of the prediction. The resulting model-based EC50 (180-525 nm) is higher than the classically interpreted EC50 (46-191 nm). Mathematical modeling thus makes it possible to re-interpret previously obtained datasets, and to make accurate estimates of EC50 even when steady-state measurements are not experimentally feasible. The mathematical models described here have been submitted to the JWS Online Cellular Systems Modelling Database, and may be accessed at http://jjj.bio.vu.nl/database/nyman. © 2015 FEBS.

  14. The thyroid status of children and adolescents in Fukushima Prefecture examined during 20-30 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster: a cross-sectional, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Watanobe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible increase in thyroid cancer in the young represents the most critical health problem to be considered after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan (March 2011, which is an important lesson from the Chernobyl disaster (April 1986. Although it was reported that childhood thyroid cancer had started to increase 3-5 yr after the Chernobyl accident, we speculate that the actual period of latency might have been shorter than reported, considering the delay in initiating thyroid surveillance in the then Soviet Union and also the lower quality of ultrasonographic testing in the 1980s. Our primary objectives in the present study were to identify any possible thyroid abnormality in young Fukushima citizens at a relatively early timepoint (20-30 months after the accident, and also to strive to find a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings, thyroid-relevant biochemical markers, and iodine-131 ground deposition in the locations of residence where they stayed during very early days after the accident. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross-sectional study. We targeted the Fukushima residents who were 18 yr old or younger (including fetuses at the time of the accident. Our examinations comprised a questionnaire, thyroid ultrasonography, thyroid-related blood tests, and urinary iodine measurement. We analyzed a possible relationship among thyroid ultrasonographic findings (1,137 subjects, serum hormonal data (731 subjects, urinary iodine concentrations (770 subjects, and iodine-131 ground deposition (1,137 subjects. We did not find any significant relationship among these indicators, and no participant was diagnosed to contract thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: At the timepoint of 20-30 months after the accident, we did not confirm any discernible deleterious effects of the emitted radioactivity on the thyroid of young Fukushima residents. This is the first report in English detailing the thyroid status of young Fukushima

  15. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less hyperactivity and/or coexisting oppositional behaviour”. Upon a request by EFSA for clarification, the applicant indicated that the disease was ADHD, which is classified as such in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, that the risk factor for the disease was an elevated AA/EPA ratio in blood, and that the target population for the claim was children with diagnosis of ADHD. The Panel considers that the evidence provided does not establish that reducing the AA/EPA ratio reduces the risk of ADHD in children, and considers that the target population is a diseased population (i.e. children with ADHD. The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC No 1924/2006.

  16. Merits of online electrochemistry liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EC/LS DESI MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Wen Donq; Brown, Blake; Chamand, Laura; Brajter-Toth, Anna

    2016-03-01

    A new online electrochemistry/liquid sample desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EC/LS DESI MS) system with a simple electrochemical thin-layer flow-through cell was developed and tested using N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPA) as a model probe. Although oxidation of DMPA is observed as a result of ionization of LS in positive ion mode LS DESI, application of voltage to the online electrochemical (EC) cell in EC/LS DESI MS increases yields of oxidation products. An advantage of LS DESI MS is its sensitivity in aqueous electrolyte solutions, which improves efficiency of electrochemical reactions in EC/LS DESI MS. In highly conductive low pH aqueous buffer solutions, oxidation efficiency is close to 100%. EC/ESI MS typically requires mixed aqueous/organic solvents and low electrolyte concentrations for efficient ionization in MS, limiting efficiency of electrochemistry online with MS. Independently, the results verify higher electrochemical oxidation efficiency during positive mode ESI than during LS DESI.

  17. EC-FORC: A New Cyclic Voltammetry Based Method for Examining Phase Transitions and Predicting Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Hamad, Ibrahim Abou; Novotny, Mark A; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new, cyclic-voltammetry based experimental technique that can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions in an adsorbate layer, but also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The Electrochemical first-order reversal curve (EC-FORC) diagram for a discontinuous phase transition (nucleation and growth), such as occurs in underpotential deposition, is characterized by a negative region, while such a region does not exist for a continuous phase transition, such as occurs in the electrosorption of Br on Ag(100). Moreover, for systems with a continuous phase transition, the minima of the individual EC-FORCs trace the equilibrium curve, even at very high scan rates. Since obtaining experimental data for the EC-FORC method would require only a simple reprogramming of the potentiostat used in conventional cyclic-voltammetry experiments, we believe that this method has significant potential for ea...

  18. Effect of Dursban 480 EC (chlorpyrifos) and Talstar 10 EC (bifenthrin) on the physiological and genetic diversity of microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Juraj; Maková, Jana; Kovácsová, Silvia; Majerčíková, Kamila; Javoreková, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the impact of the insecticides Dursban 480 EC (with organophosphate compound chlorpyrifos as the active ingredient) and Talstar 10 EC (with pyrethroid bifenthrin as the active ingredient) on the respiration activity and microbial diversity in a sandy loam luvisol soil. The insecticides were applied in two doses: the maximum recommended dose for field application (15 mg kg(-1) for Dursban 480 EC and 6 mg kg(-1) for Talstar 10 EC) and a 100-fold higher dose for extrapolation of their effect. Bacterial and fungal genetic diversity was analysed in soil samples using PCR DGGE and the functional diversity (catabolic potential) was studied using BIOLOG EcoPlates at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112 days after insecticide application. Five bacterial groups (α, β, γ proteobacteria, firmibacteria and actinomycetes) and five groups of fungi or fungus-like microorganisms (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Oomycota and Zygomycota) were analysed using specific primer sets. This approach provides high resolution of the analysis covering majority of microorganisms in the soil. Only the high-dose Dursban 480 EC significantly changed the community of microorganisms. We observed its negative effect on α- and γ-proteobacteria, as the number of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) decreased until the end of incubation. In the β-proteobacteria group, initial increase of OTUs was followed by strong decrease. Diversity in the firmibacteria, actinomycetes and Zygomycota groups was minimally disturbed by the insecticide application. Dursban 480 EC, however, both positively and negatively affected certain species. Among negatively affected species Sphingomonas, Flavobacterium or Penicillium were detected, but Achromobacter, Luteibacter or Aspergillus were supported by applied insecticide. The analysis of BIOLOG plates using AWCD values indicated a significant increase in metabolic potential of microorganisms in the soil after the high

  19. Computer Science in High School Graduation Requirements. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer Dounay

    2015-01-01

    Computer science and coding skills are widely recognized as a valuable asset in the current and projected job market. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 37.5 percent growth from 2012 to 2022 in the "computer systems design and related services" industry--from 1,620,300 jobs in 2012 to an estimated 2,229,000 jobs in 2022. Yet some…

  20. Evaluation of EU Risk assessments Existing Chemicals (EC Regulation 793/93)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; Berthault F; Bruijn JHM de; Leeuwen CJ van; Pronk MEJ; Vermeire TG; CSR

    2002-01-01

    An evaluation was performed on the first group (41) of completed risk assessments for chemicals of the EU priority lists (Existing Chemicals; EC Regulation 793/93). The evaluation focussed on the conclusions of the risk assessments. The EU risk assessment process detected a high number of substance

  1. Temperature Control of Evaporative Cooler (EC for Converter Dry Dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fangwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The converter dry dedusting is more complicated with higher requirements in automatic control than the wet dust extraction. The key difficult point is the EC temperature control. This paper puts forth a method to effectively deal with the fluctuated-drastically temperature caused by control lagging at the EC outlet in the traditional converter dry dedusting. The EC outlet temperature can be under control of technological requirement by combining controls of proportion, empirical value, fuzziness and PID. The intelligent system is available with parameter auto tuning, which facilitates the on-site debugging greatly for operators. The result of the on-site application suggests that this method can be used to well handle some technological difficulties in the EC temperature control.    

  2. Electronic Project of Taxation Based on EC Under Single Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; ZENG Xiao-ping

    2002-01-01

    Because of no real location and its virtual interaction, the information flow, the cash flow and the logistic flow of EC(Electronic Commerce) are to be separated individually. So the traditional taxation based on those three flows is challenged. Under this condition, this paper researches how to levy taxes on EC through internet using internet technology. As to simplify the model, it relates under a single nation. But it will also give some measures about the international trades.

  3. Progress in conceptual design of EU DEMO EC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Saul; Bruschi, Alex; Franke, Thomas; Granucci, Gustavo; Grossetti, Giovanni; Jelonnek, John; Moro, Alessandro; Poli, Emanuele; Rispoli, Natale; Strauss, Dirk; Tran, Quang Minh

    2017-07-01

    Since 2014 under the umbrella of EUROfusion Consortium the Work Package Heating and Current Drive (WPHCD) is performing the engineering design and R&D for the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron and neutral beam systems of the future fusion power plant DEMO. This presentation covers the activities performed in the last two years on the EC system conceptual design, as part of the WPHCD, focusing on launchers, transmission lines, system reliability and architecture.

  4. Module design for EC pilot projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donon, J.; Anguet, J.; Desombre, A.; Coureau, P.

    1982-10-01

    The solar cell module designed for use at the Nice Airport and Mont Bouquet, France pilot projects has a 73 W output and is made up of 72 100-mm diameter single-crystal silicon cells. A cost reduction is obtained through the use of a laminated encapsulation structure which incorporates low iron content glass, polyvinyl butyral, and a Tedlar/aluminum sheet backing. These technologies have been selected to yield high reliability in severe environmental conditions and to permit fast on-site installation. It is hoped that this solar cell module can be used in tropical climates.

  5. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member s......, this not least in view of the EC3’s mandate to conclude strategic agreements with a fairly high degree of autonomy....

  6. Application of SUPCON ECS-700 in reel%中控ECS-700在卷纸机中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振华; 黄杰; 黄文君

    2014-01-01

    DCS在造纸工业得到较广泛的应用,进一步开发与应用仍具有十分重要的意义。本文结合当前造纸行业卷纸机自动控制工艺的要求及实例,介绍了SUPCON ECS-700卷纸机自动控制方案,该系统功能强大、界面友好、组态方便、实际效果良好。%DCS is widely used in paper industry, and the further investigation is still highly signiifcant. In this paper was introduced the speciifc applications of SUPCON ECS-700 in automatic reel in paer machines, which has the characterixtics of powerfull function, interface frendship, convenent conifguration and good effectiveness.

  7. Expression of a finger millet transcription factor, EcNAC1, in tobacco confers abiotic stress-tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkategowda Ramegowda

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.

  8. Investigation of the relationship between landform classes and electrical conductivity (EC) of water and soil using a fuzzy model in a GIS environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, Marzieh; Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Soil genesis is highly dependent on landforms as they control the erosional processes and the soil physical and chemical properties. The relationship between landform classification and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil and water in the northern part of Meharloo watershed, Fars province, Iran, was investigated using a combination of a geographical information system (GIS) and a fuzzy model. The results of the fuzzy method for water EC showed 36.6 % of the land to be moderately land suitable for agriculture; high, 31.69 %; and very high, 31.65 %. In comparison, the results of the fuzzy method for soil EC showed 24.31 % of the land to be as not suitable for agriculture (low class); moderate, 11.78 %; high, 25.74 %; and very high, 38.16 %. In total, the land suitable for agriculture with low EC is located in the north and northeast of the study area. The relationship between landform and EC shows that EC of water is high for the valley classes, while the EC of soil is high in the upland drainage class. In addition, the lowest EC levels for soil and water are in the plains class.

  9. Studies on absorption of EC waves in assisted startup experiment on FTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramponi G.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Assistance of EC wave for plasma breakdown and current ramp up is the proposed scenario for the ITER case, characterized by low toroidal electric field. The experimental results on many tokamaks clearly indicate the capabilities of the proposed scheme to have a robust breakdown in ITER. The key aspect of this technique is the EC power required, strongly related to the absorption of the wave in the initial stage of plasma formation. This aspect is generally neglected due to the diagnostics difficulties in the plasma formation phase. As a consequence a multi-pass absorption scheme is usually considered reasonable, leading to a strong absorption after many reflections on the walls. The present study exploits the high temporal and spatial resolution of the fast scanning interferometer of FTU together with the measure of residual power obtained by a sniffer probe. The absorbed EC power is calculated considering also the polarization rotation and the subsequent mode conversion after incidence on the internal wall and compared with that derived from experimental data. The resulting EC power distribution can explain differences observed between perpendicular and oblique injection results, indicating future investigations to define ITER power requirements.

  10. Alpha- and EC-decay measurements of {sup 257}Rf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessberger, F.P. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Antalic, S.; Andel, B.; Kalaninova, Z. [Comenius University in Bratislava, Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Mistry, A.K.; Laatiaoui, M. [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Block, M. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Piot, J.; Vostinar, M. [GANIL, Caen (France)

    2016-07-15

    Alpha- and Electron capture (EC) decay properties of {sup 257}Rf were investigated by measuring α-γ coincidences and correlations between conversion electrons (CE) emitted during the process of EC decay of {sup 257}Rf and α decays of the daughter isotope {sup 257}Lr. So far, previously unobserved α (8296 keV)-γ (557 keV) coincidences were measured and interpreted as decays of {sup 257m}Rf (11/2{sup -}[725]) into the 7/2{sup -}[743] level in {sup 253}No. A search of delayed coincidences between α particles and signals at E ≤ 1000 keV, which are interpreted as being due to CE emission, revealed a clear correlation between CE and α particles from the decay of {sup 257}Lr, which is regarded as a direct proof of the EC decay of {sup 257g}Rf and {sup 257m}Rf. (orig.)

  11. Ecdysteroid receptor from the American lobster Homarus americanus: EcR/RXR isoform cloning and ligand-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Ann M; Behrendt, Lars; Stegeman, John J; Verslycke, Tim

    2011-09-01

    In arthropods, ecdysteroids regulate molting by activating a heterodimer formed by the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR). While this mechanism is similar in insects and crustaceans, variation in receptor splicing, dimerization and ligand affinity adds specificity to molting processes. This study reports the EcR and RXR sequences from American lobster, a commercially and ecologically important crustacean. We cloned two EcR splice variants, both of which specifically bind ponasterone A, and two RXR variants, both of which enhance binding of ponasterone A to the EcR. Lobster EcR has high affinity for ponasterone A and muristerone and moderately high affinity for the insecticide tebufenozide. Bisphenol A, diethyl phthalate, and two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 29 and PCB 30), environmental chemicals shown to interfere with crustacean molting, showed little or no affinity for lobster EcR. These studies establish the molecular basis for investigation of lobster ecdysteroid signaling and signal disruption by environmental chemicals.

  12. ECS: efficient communication scheduling for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lu; Hong, Feng; Guo, Zhongwen; Li, Zhengbao

    2011-01-01

    TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs), because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS) for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  13. The Danish EC/EU referenda from 1972-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Kristian Ersbøll Berg; Sander, Rasmus Christian Wolff

    2016-01-01

    The main research question of this thesis is: “By which dominant discourses are truth value claimed in an electoral campaign prior to a Danish EC/EU referendum and how is this ‘a collective activity of thinking’?” To answer the research question, a Governmentality analysis of the Danish EC/EU referenda from 1972-2015 is conducted based on the theoretical framework of Michel Foucault, Nikolas Rose & Peter Miller and Mitchell Dean. Furthermore, four qualitative interviews with politicians an...

  14. ECS: Efficient Communication Scheduling for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs, because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols.

  15. Inhibition of SP1 by the mithramycin analog EC-8042 efficiently targets tumor initiating cells in sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornin, Juan; Martinez-Cruzado, Lucia; Santos, Laura; Rodriguez, Aida; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Oro, Patricia; Hermosilla, Maria Ana; Allonca, Eva; Fernández-García, Maria Teresa; Astudillo, Aurora; Suarez, Carlos; Morís, Francisco; Rodriguez, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs), responsible for tumor initiation, and cancer stem cells (CSCs), responsible for tumor expansion and propagation, are often resistant to chemotherapeutic agents. To find therapeutic targets against sarcoma initiating and propagating cells we used models of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) developed from human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs), which constitute the most likely cell-of-origin for sarcoma. We found that SP1-mediated transcription was among the most significantly altered signaling. To inhibit SP1 activity, we used EC-8042, a mithramycin (MTM) analog (mithralog) with enhanced anti-tumor activity and highly improved safety. EC-8042 inhibited the growth of TIC cultures, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and upregulated the adipogenic factor CEBPα. SP1 knockdown was able to mimic the anti-proliferative effects induced by EC-8042. Importantly, EC-8042 was not recognized as a substrate by several ABC efflux pumps involved in drug resistance, and, opposite to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, repressed the expression of many genes responsible for the TIC/CSC phenotype, including SOX2, C-MYC, NOTCH1 and NFκB1. Accordingly, EC-8042, but not doxorubicin, efficiently reduced the survival of CSC-enriched tumorsphere sarcoma cultures. In vivo, EC-8042 induced a profound inhibition of tumor growth associated to a strong reduction of the mitotic index and the induction of adipogenic differentiation and senescence. Finally, EC-8042 reduced the ability of tumor cells to reinitiate tumor growth. These data suggest that EC-8042 could constitute an effective treatment against both TIC and CSC subpopulations in sarcoma. PMID:27105533

  16. The ITER EC H&CD upper launcher: Structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaeh, P.; Aiello, G.; de M. Baar,; Chavan, R.; Elzendoorn, B.; Goodman, T.; Henderson, M.; Kleefeldt, K.; Landis, J. D.; Meier, A.; Ronden, D.; Saibene, G.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Serikov, A.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2011-01-01

    Four ITER EC H&CD (Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive) Upper Launchers will be installed in the ITER Tokamak to counteract plasma instabilities by injection of up to 20 MW of millimeter-wave power at 170 GHz. Each Launcher features a structural system which is equipped with eight b

  17. The E-C Translation of Vocabularies in Sports News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many world top level sports events take place in China. The exchange in sports field between China and international society adds more significance to the E-C translation of sports news. This paper analyses the lexical features of sports news and then explains some difficulties in the translation of the words of sports news.

  18. EC-aided Gas Project Wound Up Satisfactorily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Anfang

    1995-01-01

    @@ China and European Community signed an agreement on technical cooperation in March 1989,which offers China an EC aid of 2.6 million Ecu (3.32 million US dollars) for the energy project titled"Development of China's natural gas resources."

  19. EC-LEDS Supports the Low-Carbon Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    EC-LEDS is a flagship U.S. government-led effort that assists countries to create and implement low emission development strategies, or LEDS -- development frameworks that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing greenhouse gas emissions over the medium to long term.

  20. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    welcome

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... sp is not susceptible to Bt cotton containing Cry1Ac toxin so, there is ... encodes an insecticidal protein Cry1EC, (ii) 35S promoter from cauliflower ... the embryogenic calli were treated with the bacterial suspension by shaking ...

  1. EC-CERN Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signature

    CERN Multimedia

    EC audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    Signature of the Memorandum of Understanding EC-CERN at Brussels with Mr. José Manuel Silva Rodriguez, European Commission Director General for Research , Rolf Heuer, CERN’s Director-General and Torsten Akesson, President of the CERN Council

  2. UK air quality modelling for annual reporting 2006 on ambient air quality assessment under Council Directives 96/62/EC, 1999/30/EC and 2000/69/EC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew J. Kent; Susannah Grice; John R. Stedman; Tony J. Bush; Keith J. Vincent; John Abbott (and others)

    2006-11-15

    Directive 96/62/EC on Ambient Air Quality Assessment and Management establishes a framework under which the EU sets limit values or target values for the concentrations of specified air pollutants. Directive 1999/30/EC (the first Daughter Directive) sets the limit values to be achieved for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particles and lead. Directive 2000/69/EC (the second Daughter Directive) set limits to be achieved for benzene and carbon monoxide. 2005 is the sixth year for which an annual air quality assessment for the first Daughter Directive pollutants is required and the fifth year for which an annual air quality assessment has been undertaken for the second Daughter Directive pollutants. 2006 is the second year for which an annual air quality assessment has been undertaken for the third Daughter Directive. A questionnaire has been completed for submission to the EU containing the results of this air quality assessment. The assessment takes the form of comparisons of measured and modelled air pollutant concentrations with the limit values set out in the Directives. Air quality modelling has been carried out to supplement the information available from the UK national air quality monitoring networks. This report provides a summary of key results from the questionnaire for pollutants included in the first and second Daughter Directives and additional technical information on the modelling methods that have been used to assess SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and NOx, PM10, benzene and CO concentrations throughout the UK. The dominant contributions to measured SO{sub 2} concentrations in the UK are typically from major point sources such as power stations and refineries, particularly in terms of high percentile concentrations. 39 refs.

  3. EC6{sup TM} - Enhanced Candu 6{sup TM} reactor safety characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, N.; Snell, V.; Cormier, M.; Hopwood, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The EC6 is a 740 MWe-class natural-uranium-fuelled, heavy-water-cooled and -moderated pressure-tube reactor, which has evolved from the eleven (11) CANDU{sup R} 6 plants operating in five countries (on four continents). CANDU 6 has over 150 reactor-years of safe operation. The most recent CANDU 6 - at Qinshan, in China - is the Reference Design for EC6. The EC6 shares many inherent, passive and engineered safety characteristics with the Reference Design. However EC6 has been designed to meet modern regulatory requirements and safety expectations. The resulting design changes have improved these safety characteristics, and this paper provides a convenient summary. The paper addresses the safety functions of reactivity control, heat removal, and containment of radioactive material. For each safety function, the EC6 characteristics are categorized as inherent, passive, or engineered. The paper focuses mostly on the first two. The Enhanced CANDU 6 uses an appropriate mix of passive, inherent, and engineered safety functions. Reactivity transients are generally slow, mild and inherently limited due to the natural uranium core and use of on-power refuelling. Only the coolant void coefficient can cause a large reactivity insertion, particularly in a large LOCA. This is mitigated by the long prompt neutron lifetime and the large delayed neutron fraction, and terminated by either of the two shutdown systems. For EC6, the large LOCA power transient has been reduced significantly by speeding up the slower of the two shutdown systems. Redundant shutdown and the LOCA power pulse improvements mitigate the limiting large positive reactivity insertion. Decay heat removal shows a very high component of passive safety, from thermo-siphoning in the Reactor Coolant System to passive heat removal in severe accidents via the moderator or reactor vault. The latter two can maintain the fuel in a more predictable and favourable geometry than 'core on the floor'. The containment

  4. Drum rotor blowers in EC technology. Energy conservation, comfortable control, low noise; Trommellaeufer-Ventilatoren in EC-Technik. Energieersparnis, komfortable Regelung und geringe Geraeuschentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigloch, U. [ebm-papst Mulfingen GmbH und Co. KG (Germany). Projektmanagement Vertrieb Europa; Reiff, E.C. [Redaktionsbuero Stutensee (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Compact drum rotor blowers with forward-curved blades are quite common in air conditioning and ventilation because of their high efficiency and compact dimensions. They are found in air conditioner boxes, in air current systems in department stores, or in fan coils in hotel rooms, wherever other types of blowers would be too big. Until recently, EC technology was not available for the blower motors so the users had do accept low efficiency and the poor control options of conventional AC drives. This has changed by now. (orig.)

  5. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...

  6. Seizure threshold to lidocaine is decreased following repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, J; Seidelin, J; Bolwig, T G

    1993-01-01

    Seizure susceptibility to lidocaine was investigated in rats which had received repeated ECS (electroconvulsive shock). In the first experiment three groups of rats received an ECS daily for 18 days, an ECS weekly for 18 weeks, and 18 sham treatments, respectively. Twelve weeks after the last ECS...

  7. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather

  8. Evaluation of the size segregation of elemental carbon (EC) emission in Europe: Influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.F.; Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Ma, N.; Wolke, R.; Wehner, B.; Sun, J.; Spindler, G.; Mu, Q.; Pöschl, U.; Su, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    Elemental Carbon (EC) has a significant impact on human health and climate change. In order to evaluate the size segregation of EC emission in the EUCAARI inventory and investigate its influence on the simulation of EC long-range transportation in Europe, we used the fully coupled online Weather Res

  9. Revisiting the EC/CMB model for extragalactic large scale jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lucchini, Matteo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    One of the most outstanding results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory was the discovery that AGN jets are bright X-ray emitters on very large scales, up to hundreds of kpc. Of these, the powerful and beamed jets of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars are particularly interesting, as the X-ray emission cannot be explained by an extrapolation of the lower frequency synchrotron spectrum. Instead, the most common model invokes inverse Compton scattering of photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background (EC/CMB) as the mechanism responsible for the high energy emission. The EC/CMB model has recently come under criticism, particularly because it should predict a significant steady flux in the MeV-GeV band which has not been detected by the Fermi/LAT telescope for two of the best studied jets (PKS 0637-752 and 3C273). In this work we revisit some aspects of the EC/CMB model and show that electron cooling plays an important part in shaping the spectrum. This can solve the overproduction of gamma-rays by suppressing the high energ...

  10. X-ray spectroscopy in the EC nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung Kook; Cho, Hyun Jae; Nha, Sang Kyun

    1998-10-01

    The probabilities PKK of double K-shell vacancy production per K electron capture decay and per K internal conversion of 109Cd and 207Bi have been determined by means of the double- and triple-coincidence experiments using Kα X-ray and K internal conversion. For 109Cd we find PKK(EC) = (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10 -5 and PKK(IC) = (4.32 ± 0.46) × 10 -5, and for 207Bi, PKK(EC) = (2.54 ± 0.50) × 10 -5. The observed X-ray energy shifts of the hypersatellite Ag ( Kα1H) X-ray and the hypersatellite Pb ( Kα1H) X-ray lines are 545±15 eV and 1238±45 eV, respectively.

  11. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Turcu; Ian Foster; Svetlozar Nestorov

    2011-01-01

    Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.). Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined applicat...

  12. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  13. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... waters, respectively. Furthermore, water authorities will have to make increased use of predictive modeling techniques for the implementation of the "combined appraoch"....

  14. On E-C Translation of Proprietary Business Brand Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-min; ZHAO Wan-li

    2015-01-01

    An excellent translation of proprietary business brand terms is more important in international trade. Diverse cultural backgrounds and purposiveness of products are the most influential factors. The research tries to analyze the elements of cultural background and aims of products that affect E-C translation of proprietary business brand terms by descriptive study method and experience summary method, and then to provide methods to overcome these difficulties.

  15. Emergency EC-IC bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery.

  16. Antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the low-basicity derivative of the pyridoindole stobadine, in cell free chemical models and at cellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerczyk, Aneta; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Drzewinska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pulaski, Łukasz; Stefek, Milan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the structural analogue of the hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant stobadine. The antiradical activity of SMe1EC2 was found to be higher when compared to stobadine, as determined both in cell-free model systems of AAPH-induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate, and in the cellular system of stimulated macrophages RAW264.7. Analysis of proliferation of HUVEC and HUVEC-ST cells revealed absence of cytotoxic effect of SMe1EC2 at concentrations below 100 µM. The antioxidant activity of SMe1EC2, superior to the parent drug stobadine, is accounted for by both the higher intrinsic free radical scavenging action and by the better bioavailability of the low-basicity SMe1EC2 relative to the high-basicity stobadine.

  17. Vibrational studies of flexible solid polymer electrolyte based on PCL-EC incorporated with proton conducting NH4SCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H. J.; Arof, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    A flexible solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a FDA approved non-toxic and biodegradable material in the effort to lower environmental impact was prepared. Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) and ethylene carbonate (EC) were incorporated as the source of charge carriers and plasticizing agent, respectively. When 50 wt.% of ethylene carbonate (EC) was added to PCL-NH4SCN system, the conductivity increased by two orders from of 3.94 × 10- 7 Scm- 1 to 3.82 × 10- 5 Scm- 1. Molecular vibrational analysis via infrared spectroscopy had been carried out to study the interaction between EC, PCL and NH4SCN. The relative percentage of free ions, ion pairs and ion aggregates was calculated quantitatively by deconvoluting the SCN- stretching mode (2030-2090 cm- 1). This study provides fundamental insight on how EC influences the free ion dissociation rate and ion mobility. The findings are also in good agreement to conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results. High dielectric constant value (89.8) of EC had made it an effective ion dissociation agent to dissociate both ion pairs and ion aggregates, thus contributing to higher number density of free ions. The incorporation of EC had made the polymer chains more flexible in expanding amorphous domain. This will facilitate the coupling synergy between ionic motion and polymer segmental motion. Possible new pathway through EC-NH4+ complex sites for ions to migrate with shorter distance has been anticipated. This implies an easier ion migration route from one complex site to another.

  18. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Structural system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano; Gessner, Robby; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Serikov, Arkady [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► ITER EC H and CD Launcher goes towards final design. ► European consortium founded for bringing the EC H and CD launcher towards final design. ► New design updates for dedicated components of the ITER EC H and CD launcher. -- Abstract: After approval of the preliminary design of the ITER EC H and CD Upper Launcher, ECHUL-CA, a consortium of several European research institutes, was founded to pool resources for approaching the final design. At the end of 2011 the consortium has signed a 2 years contract with F4E to go ahead with the work on the launcher. The contract deals with design work on both the port plug, forming the structural system, and the mm-wave-system, which injects the RF-power into the plasma. Within the period of this contract all components being part of the Tritium confinement, of which the closure plate, the support flange, the diamond windows and the waveguide feed-throughs are the most outstanding ones, will get the status of the final design. Important steps to be done for the structural system are the optimization of the mechanical behavior of the launcher, leading to minimum deflections of the port plug during plasma disruptions and optimum seismic resistance. To reduce the effect of halo currents it was decided to recess the first wall of 100 mm compared to the regular blanket tangent. This recess requires substantial changes of the cooling system and the thermo-hydraulic design of the launcher. Also the layout of the shielding arrangement and the integration of the mm-wave system need significant revision. Moreover manufacturing aspects and enhanced remote handling capability are taken into account. For the final design also quality aspects must be considered; thus the design is elaborated with respect to applicable codes and standards, material specifications, risk analyses and the RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) analysis to guarantee maximum performance of the device. This paper

  19. A look at the ocean in the EC-Earth climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterl, Andreas; Bintanja, Richard; Severijns, Camiel [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Brodeau, Laurent [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gleeson, Emily; Semmler, Tido [Met Eireann, Dublin (Ireland); Koenigk, Torben; Wyser, Klaus [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Schmith, Torben; Yang, Shuting [Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    EC-Earth is a newly developed global climate system model. Its core components are the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) as the atmosphere component and the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) developed by Institute Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) as the ocean component. Both components are used with a horizontal resolution of roughly one degree. In this paper we describe the performance of NEMO in the coupled system by comparing model output with ocean observations. We concentrate on the surface ocean and mass transports. It appears that in general the model has a cold and fresh bias, but a much too warm Southern Ocean. While sea ice concentration and extent have realistic values, the ice tends to be too thick along the Siberian coast. Transports through important straits have realistic values, but generally are at the lower end of the range of observational estimates. Exceptions are very narrow straits (Gibraltar, Bering) which are too wide due to the limited resolution. Consequently the modelled transports through them are too high. The strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is also at the lower end of observational estimates. The interannual variability of key variables and correlations between them are realistic in size and pattern. This is especially true for the variability of surface temperature in the tropical Pacific (El Nino). Overall the ocean component of EC-Earth performs well and helps making EC-Earth a reliable climate model. (orig.)

  20. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  1. EFSA ND A Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and “ reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the d evelopment of attention difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject...... population (i.e. children with ADHD). The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...... of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less...

  2. EC6 for Darlington - a managed-enhancements replication project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, M.R. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    CANDU 6 design has a well-deserved reputation for lifetime performance and on-time, on-schedule construction. Candu Energy is finalizing development of an upgraded reactor product, the Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6), which incorporates the CANDU 6's well-proven features, and adds enhancements that make the reactor even more safe and easier to operate. The EC6 is the only mid-sized reactor (700 MWe class) with a proven pedigree that meets modern reactor expectations and regulatory standards. It is sized for smaller grids and also has outstanding fuel-cycle capability. Some of the key features incorporated into the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, addressing obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the operating plants. The EC6 utilizes modern computers and a distributed control system housed in an advanced control room which, along with automated testing and on-line diagnostics, make the plant easier and safer to operate, with minimal operator intervention. An array of health monitoring equipment are also installed to foretell impending equipment problems, which can be acted upon, avoiding complications that could result in forced shutdowns. Improvements to the fire protection system and enhanced security features will further protect the assets. Containment and seismic capability are upgraded to meet modern standards. The first deployment of the EC6 is anticipated in Canada; other markets are also being pursued. The EC6 reactor is designed for a target lifetime capacity factor of 92% including 94% year-to-year and a 1% Forced Loss Rate. Since the number and duration of maintenance outages impact plant capacity factors, periodic short duration maintenance outages of less than a month once every 36 months is a key target of the EC6 reactor. This objective is achieved by automating a number of tasks such as shutdown systems testing. The

  3. Electrochemically Pretreated Carbon Microfiber Electrodes as Sensitive HPLC-EC Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bartosova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the analysis and detection of electroactive compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with electrochemical detection (EC. The fabrication and utilization of electrochemically treated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs as highly sensitive amperometric detectors in HPLC are described. The applied pretreatment procedure is beneficial for analytical characteristics of the sensor as demonstrated by analysis of the model set of phenolic acids. The combination of CFM with separation power of HPLC technique allows for improved detection limits due to unique electrochemical properties of carbon fibers. The CFM proved to be a promising tool for amperometric detection in liquid chromatography.

  4. Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: A new dimension for source characterization and apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Brook, J. R.; Zhang, W.; Li, S. M.; Graham, L.; Ernst, D.; Chivulescu, A.; Lu, G.

    A method to measure 13C/ 12C ratios of individual carbon fractions of airborne particular matter (PM) from filter samples using a stepwise thermal desorption/combustion OC/EC analyzer (via thermal optical transmission, (TOT) coupled with gas chromatography separation, followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) analysis has been developed. In the TOT instrument, carbon fractions are released at different temperature ranges and different redox conditions. Organic carbon fraction (OC) was released at a relatively low temperature ( T=550 °C), whereas, elemental carbon or black carbon fraction (EC or BC) was released at a high temperature ( T>800 °C) via combustion. A temperature step of 870 °C without oxygen was chosen to remove the impact of carbonate carbon (CC) and possible cross-impact from OC and EC. All the fractions were collected cryogenically and subject to carbon isotope measurements via GC-IRMS. To evaluate the precision, accuracy and linearity range of the measurements, the different types of blanks and standards were investigated, including OC (i.e. glucose, sucrose, n-Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), CC (i.e. carbonates) and EC (i.e. carbon black and graphite). The overall precision and the accuracy of the method is ˜0.3‰. The method was applied to Pacific2001 aerosol samples from the Greater Vancouver area in Canada. The results show that good baseline separations in thermographs can be achieved for individual carbon fractions (i.e. OC and EC) using optimized temperature plateau and retention times; relative small difference in carbon isotopic composition between OC and EC ( ΔC=δ13C-δ13C) were found in tunnel samples, whereas, the largest Δ 13C OC-EC were obtained in forest air samples; the Δ 13C OC-EC in ambient PM is likely dependant upon the dominant sources present in the vicinity of the sampling sites; the distribution of 13C/ 12C ratios of OC/EC can provide useful information for source characterization

  5. Fairness and the EC budget: Is Spain tilting at windmills?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Roger; Jones, Philip

    1991-01-01

    The poorer member states of the EC are often disappointed at what they see as a very limited degree of redistribution of resources away from the richer members towards the less well off. In a recent paper to the intergovernmental conference (IGC) on political union, for example, Spain calls for a number of measures, including explicit inter-state budget transfers, in order to increase the rate of convergence of income levels across member states. The purpose of this paper is to review the deg...

  6. OneGeology-Europe and the new EC Directive INSPIRE - A matter of semantic subtlety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, K.

    2009-04-01

    The EC INSPIRE Directive which came into force in May 2007 set out how the Member States of the European Union would describe, discover and provide access to spatial environmental data in a harmonised way. Amongst the data sets specified in INSPIRE is geology. A fundamental question is just what is meant by ‘geology'? The question must be answered, and in some detail, if the intentions of the INSPIRE Directive to provide consistency of access are to be realised The Directive itself provides very little constraint on this definition. In it geology is described as "Geology characterised according to composition and structure. Includes bedrock, aquifers and geomorphology". The challenge for the EC and its Member States - more specifically for the geological survey community - is to convert this single line into a precise and practical specification that will deliver the outcomes intended by INSPIRE. The geological survey community is attempting to develop this specification through two complementary routes. Theme Working Groups - a generic procedure adopted by the EC that will start in May 2009 - and a new EC eContentplus project, OneGeology-Europe. Within OneGeology-Europe is a Work Package whose task is to deliver a semantic specification of "geology" at 1:1 million scale. While the initial reaction of some would be to question whether defining geology at this scale poses any significant challenges the reality is somewhat different. Fundamental questionsare: Should we specify the geology at the surface or restrict it to "bedrock" geology? Do we attempt to define the rocks chronostratigraphically, or by their lithology, perhaps even by the more regional lithostratigraphy or by genetic aspect? To what extent do we include tectonic features? How to cope with th ecomplexity of metamorphic rocks etc? These are only some of the high level questions - the devil, however, comes in the detail. How should we deal with the classification of the Pre-Cambrian rocks? What

  7. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The Southeast region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, is one of the main region for the cultivation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in that country. The implementation of complementary irrigation for potato cultivation meant an increase in yield of up to 60%. Therefore, all potato production in the region is under irrigation. In this way, the area under central pivot irrigation has increased to 150% in the last two decades. The water used for irrigation in that region is underground with a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. A reduction in infiltration means greater partitioning of precipitation into runoff. The degree of slope of the terrain, added to its length, increases the erosive potential of runoff water. The content of dissolved salts, in combination with the water content, affect the apparent Electrical Conductivity of the soil (EC), which is directly related to the concentration of Na + 2 in the soil solution. In August 2016, severe rill erosion was detected in a productive plot of 300 ha. The predecessor crop was a potato under irrigation campaign. However the history of the lot consists of various winter and summer crops, always made in dry land and no till. Cumulative rainfall from harvest to erosion detection (four months) was 250 mm. A georeferenced EC measurement was performed using the Verys 3100® contact sensor. With the data obtained, a geostatistical analysis was performed using Kriging spatial interpolation. The maps obtained were processed, dividing them into 4 EC ranges. The values and amplitude of the CEa ranges for each lot were determined according to the distribution observed in the generated histograms. It was observed a distribution of elevated EC ranges and consequently of a higher concentration of Na+ 2 coincident with the irrigation areas of the pivots. These

  8. Response of the North African summer monsoon to precession and obliquity forcings in the EC-Earth GCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Tuenter, E.; Hilgen, F.J.; Lourens, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, for the first time, the response of the North African summer monsoon to separate precession and obliquity forcings using a high-resolution state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model, EC-Earth. Our aim is to better understand the mechanisms underlying the astronomical forcing

  9. EC power sources: European technological developments towards ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicelli, T. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: tullio.bonicelli@tech.efda.org; Alberti, S. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Milan (Italy); Dormicchi, O. [Ansaldo Superconduttori SpA, C.so Perrone, Genoa (Italy); Fasel, D.; Hogge, J.P. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Illy, S.; Jin, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lievin, C. [Thales Electron Devices (TED), 2 Rue de Latecoere, F-78141 Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Mondino, P.L. [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstr 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Piosczyk, B.; Rzesnicki, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santinelli, M. [ENEA Frascati, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Taddia, G. [OCEM, Via 2 Agosto 1980 11, 40016 San Giorgio di Piano (Italy); Thumm, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM FZK, IHM, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tran, M.Q. [EPFL-CRPP, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    The activities in Europe towards the development of the EC power sources for ITER are centered on the development of a 170 GHz, 2 MW, CW coaxial cavity gyrotron of collector potential depressed (CPD) type. A gyrotron with a higher unit power than the ITER reference (1 MW) would yield a reduction of the installation costs, a more compact launcher design and, if required, an increase of the power delivered through one port. Tests proving the principle were successfully performed on a short-pulse experimental gyrotron delivering up to 2.2 MW in single mode. Following this success, a coordinated and fully consistent programme of development has been launched. The first industrial 2 MW prototype is now at an advanced stage of construction. The associated superconductive magnet producing 6.86 T on the cavity axis is also being procured. Dummy loads suitable for short and CW operation are also part of the development effort. Finally, a new EC test facility, with the features necessary for the testing of the gyrotron up to full power in CW, has been established and includes a fully solid-state power supply system.0.

  10. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geological samples collected as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project are curated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a partner in the ECS Project. To...

  11. Research on Intellectual Property Conflicts Identification in Knowledge Transferring among EC Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shibin

    As the lacks of existing research about intellectual property conflicts management of EC enterprise, the paper analysis the intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by intellectual property types, then, the paper makes research on intellectual property conflicts identification in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises, and gives relative assumption, meanwhile, the paper makes quantities identification of intellectual property conflicts in knowledge transferring among EC enterprises by evidential theory, finally, the paper gives the further research orientations.

  12. Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance.

  13. Optimization of EC Values of Nutrient Solution for Tomato Fruits Quality in Hydroponics System Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Suhardiyanto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Total soluble solids (TSS and fruit fresh weight are two indicators to show the quality of tomato fruits. To gain high values of TSS and fruit fresh weight, it is important to consider the concentration of nutrient solution, which is commonly represented by Electrical Conductivity (EC value. Generally, the increasing of EC value not only increases the number of TSS, but also decreases fruit fresh weight. Therefore, it is important to optimize the EC value for both indicators of quality of tomato fruits. The objective of this research is to optimize the EC value of nutrient solution on each generative stage using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Genetic Algorithms (GA. ANN was used to identify the relationship between different EC value treatments with TSS value and fruit fresh weight. GA was applied to determine the optimal EC value in generative growth, which is divided into three stages. Results showed that the optimal EC values in the flowering stage, the fruiting stage and the harvesting stage were 1.4 mS/cm, 10.2 mS/cm and 9.7 mS/cm, respectively. Using these values, a tomato fruit could be estimated with TSS value of 7.9% and fruit fresh weight of 51.34 g.

  14. File list: Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell dm3 TFs and others EcR All cell types SRX032127,SRX030963,SR...X032126 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.EcR.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC hg19 Histone Prostate PrEC SRX539656,SRX539659,SRX539658,SRX1...54496,SRX539657,SRX154494 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.10.AllAg.PrEC.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC hg19 Histone Prostate PrEC SRX539656,SRX539659,SRX539658,SRX1...54494,SRX154496,SRX539657 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Prs.20.AllAg.PrEC.bed ...

  17. Lithium ethylene dicarbonate identified as the primary product of chemical and electrochemical reduction of EC in 1.2 M LiPF6/EC:EMC electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Guorong V; Xu, Kang; Yang, Hui; Jow, T Richard; Ross, Philip N

    2005-09-22

    Lithium ethylene dicarbonate ((CH2OCO2Li)2) was chemically synthesized and its Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum was obtained and compared with that of surface films formed on Ni after cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.2 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/ethylene carbonate (EC):ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, w/w) electrolyte and on metallic lithium cleaved in-situ in the same electrolyte. By comparison of IR experimental spectra with that of the synthesized compound, we established that the title compound is the predominant surface species in both instances. Detailed analysis of the IR spectrum utilizing quantum chemical (Hartree-Fock) calculations indicates that intermolecular association through O...Li...O interactions is very important in this compound. It is likely that the title compound in the passivation layer has a highly associated structure, but the exact intermolecular conformation could not be established on the basis of analysis of the IR spectrum.

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in Parkinson's disease: ECS and dopamine enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumper, Samantha K; Ahle, Gabriella M; Liebman, Lauren S; Kellner, Charles H

    2014-06-01

    In addition to its effects in major psychiatric illness, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is known to have a beneficial effect on the core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This effect is believed to be mediated via dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the animal analogue of ECT, is the model in which investigators have sought to elucidate the specific dopaminergic mechanisms by which ECT exerts its therapeutic effect in PD. Electroconvulsive shock has been given to intact animals as well as to animals with neurotoxic lesions that create parkinsonism. In this paper, we selectively review the electroconvulsive shock literature on dopamine in the striatum. Electroconvulsive shock, and by extension, ECT, is associated with increased dopamine release and modulation of dopamine receptors. Better understanding of how ECT works to enhance dopaminergic systems in the brain could help to make it a more accepted treatment for PD.

  19. Integrating Amazon EC2 with the CMS Production Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, Andrew Malone

    2011-01-01

    As cloud middleware and cloud providers have become more robust, various experiments with experience in Grid submission have begun to investigate the possibility of taking previously Grid-Enabled applications and making them compatible with Cloud Computing. Successful implementation will allow for dynamic scaling of the available hardware resources, providing access to peak-load handling capabilities and possibly resulting in lower costs to the experiment. Here we discuss current work within the CMS collaboration at the LHC to both perform computation on EC2, both for production and analysis use-cases. We also discuss break-even points between dedicated and cloud resources using real-world costs derived from a CMS site.

  20. A Brief Study on Englinese in E-C Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宏雅; 司园园

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to analyze Englinese, a kind of intermittent language in between English and Chinese in the practice of E-C translation. Due to the differences of the two languages, translators tend to be influenced by the original English and have the“imprint”of that language in their translation work, thus creating a kind of third language, which is termed with the coined word“Englinese”. The manifestations are summarized as redundancy, mechanical application of English syntax and interpretation of words at face value. By pointing out the existence of this phenomenon and analyzing the causes of it, we are trying to alert the translators of this inappropriate practice and help guarantee the purity of both languages.

  1. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3): Tissue-specific expression, genomic characterization, and computer-assisted sequence analysis of the human EC SOD gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folz, R.J.; Crapo, J.D. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized over 10,000 bp of the human EC SOD gene (SOD3 or EC 1.15.1.1) and its 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-flanking regions. Human genomic Southern blot analysis supports the existence of a single gene, without evidence for pseudogenes. The human EC SOD gene spans approximately 5900 bp. The gene can be divided into 3 exons and 2 introns. The 720-bp coding region is uninterrupted and located within exon 3. The 560 bp 5{prime} to the transcription start site were sequenced. No obvious TATA box was identified. A variety of conserved cis elements were identified by database searching. Exon 3 is surrounded by an Alu-J repetitive element in reverse orientation at the 5{prime} and by an Alu-Sx repetitive element in the 3{prime}-flanking DNA. The relative levels of EC SOD tissue-specific expression were determined by RNA gel blot analysis. Adult heart, placenta, pancreas, and lung had the most expression, followed by kidney, skeletal muscle, and liver. Little EC SOD message was found in the brain. A second unique mRNA, approximately 4.2 kb in length, was highly expressed in skeletal muscle. When tissue enzyme activity is compared to relative mRNA levels, there is a marked disparity in the brain, pancreas, and lung, suggesting that these tissues have enhanced affinity for circulating EC SOD or translate the EC SOD message more efficiently than other tissues. These results indicate that the EC SOD gene contains unique transcriptional regulatory elements and that its expression may be regulated at the post-transcriptional or post-translational level. The characterization of the human EC SOD gene should now allow the development of further insights into its biology and provide the basis for studies of its role in human heritable disorders. 68 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The climate policy of the EC - too hot to handle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Has the climate policy of the European Community (EC) become stronger According to our criteria for strength, it has not. First, even with perfect and timely implementation of the climate package, there is no guarantee that the Community will succeed in curbing the anticipated growth of future CO[sub 2] emissions by the year 2000, to at least 12% of 1990 levels. Part of the decrease is expected from quite uncertain ''educative effects'', while 1.5% is left to ''new activities foreseen''. In addition, the expanding transport sector, which formed a central part of earlier proposals, has to a large extent been left out of the Community's climate policy. The stabilization target was adopted in October 1990; in 1991, CO[sub 2] emissions increased by about 4% in the Community. Secondly, the adoption and implementation of the climate package is uncertain. No legal proposals presented in the spring of 1992 have yet been adopted by the Council. Moreover, the proposed energy/carbon tax, which is to account for half of expected reductions, will not be implemented until other OECD countries follow suit. Thirdly, despite the clear political signals of the Community stabilization objective, almost half the member countries have no national goal and only three have a national policy on how to achieve their goals. Thus, from the remarkably smooth process up to goal formulation, the Community's climate policy seems to have been substantially watered down. On the other hand, the climate policy of the EC currently exists as a political commitment, and is thus quite sensitive to general political developments and fluctuations both within the Community and outside. 129 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to high-fibre sourdough rye bread and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Oy Karl Fazer AB, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... responses when compared with glucose. The Panel also notes that, when comparable amounts of available carbohydrates from different carbohydrate-containing foods are tested, almost any carbohydrate-containing food would induce a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses compared with glucose....... In addition, foods containing low amounts of, or no available carbohydrates, will also induce lower post-prandial blood glucose responses when compared with glucose. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of almost any food and a reduction of post...

  4. EC300: a phage-based, bacteriolysin-like protein with enhanced antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Daniela; Leandro, Clara; Garcia, Miguel; Pimentel, Madalena; São-José, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes, either endolysins or virion-associated lysins, have been receiving considerable attention as potential antibacterial agents, particularly for the combat of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. A conclusion that easily emerges from the careful analysis of a great number of reports on the field is that the activity of phage lytic enzymes is rarely studied in conditions that support robust growth of the target bacteria. Here, we report the construction and study of a chimerical lysin, EC300, which was designed to target and kill Enterococcus faecalis in conditions supporting vigorous bacterial growth. EC300 resulted from the fusion of a predicted M23 endopeptidase domain of a virion-associated lysin to the putative cell wall binding domain of a previously characterized amidase endolysin, both produced by the E. faecalis phage F170/08. This bacteriolysin-like protein exhibited a clear enhanced lytic activity over the parental endolysin when both were assayed in a rich bacterial growth medium. We demonstrate the killing efficacy of EC300 against growing cells of a panel of typed E. faecalis clinical strains with high level of antibiotic resistance. The possible reasons for the marked difference between the lytic performance of EC300 and that of the amidase are discussed.

  5. Supersolar Ni/Fe production in the Type IIP SN 2012ec

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, Anders; Sollerman, Jesper; Inserra, Cosimo; Fraser, Morgan; Spyromilio, Jason; Fransson, Claes; Chen, Ting-Wan; Barbarino, Cristina; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Della Valle, Massimo; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Valenti, Stefano; Maguire, Kate; Mazzali, Paolo; Tomasella, Lina

    2014-01-01

    SN 2012ec is a Type IIP supernova (SN) with a progenitor detection and comprehensive photospheric-phase observational coverage. Here, we present Very Large Telescope and PESSTO observations of this SN in the nebular phase. We model the nebular [O I] 6300, 6364 lines and find their strength to suggest a progenitor main-sequence mass of 13-15 Msun. SN 2012ec is unique among hydrogen-rich SNe in showing a distinct and unblended line of stable nickel [Ni II] 7378. This line is produced by 58Ni, a nuclear burning ash whose abundance is a sensitive tracer of explosive burning conditions. Using spectral synthesis modelling, we use the relative strengths of [Ni II] 7378 and [Fe II] 7155 (the progenitor of which is 56Ni) to derive a Ni/Fe production ratio of 0.19pm0.07, which is a factor 3.5pm1.2 times the solar value. High production of stable nickel is confirmed by a strong [Ni II] 1.939 micron line. This is the third reported case of a core-collapse supernova producing a Ni/Fe ratio far above the solar value, which...

  6. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  7. Reshaping Text Data for Efficient Processing on Amazon EC2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Turcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Text analysis tools are nowadays required to process increasingly large corpora which are often organized as small files (abstracts, news articles, etc.. Cloud computing offers a convenient, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing environment for solving such problems. We investigate provisioning on the Amazon EC2 cloud from the user perspective, attempting to provide a scheduling strategy that is both timely and cost effective. We derive an execution plan using an empirically determined application performance model. A first goal of our performance measurements is to determine an optimal file size for our application to consume. Using the subset-sum first fit heuristic we reshape the input data by merging files in order to match as closely as possible the desired file size. This also speeds up the task of retrieving the results of our application, by having the output be less segmented. Using predictions of the performance of our application based on measurements on small data sets, we devise an execution plan that meets a user specified deadline while minimizing cost.

  8. Membrane-disruptive properties of the bioinsecticide Jaburetox-2Ec: implications to the mechanism of the action of insecticidal peptides derived from ureases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro R; Stassen, Hubert; Freitas, Mônica S; Carlini, Célia R; Nascimento, Marco A C; Follmer, Cristian

    2009-12-01

    Jaburetox-2Ec, a recombinant peptide derived from an urease isoform (JBURE-II), displays high insecticidal activity against important pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda and Dysdercus peruvianus. Although the molecular mechanism of action of ureases-derived peptides remains unclear, previous ab initio data suggest the presence of structural motifs in Jaburetox-2Ec with characteristics similar to those found in a class of pore-forming peptides. Here, we investigated the molecular aspects of the interaction between Jaburetox-2Ec and large unilamellar vesicles. Jaburetox-2Ec displays membrane-disruptive ability on acidic lipid bilayers and this effect is greatly influenced by peptide aggregation. Corroborating with this finding, molecular modeling studies revealed that Jaburetox-2Ec might adopt a well-defined beta-hairpin conformation similar to those found in antimicrobial peptides with membrane disruption properties. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the protein is able to anchor at a polar/non-polar interface. In the light of these findings, for the first time it was possible to point out some evidence that the peptide Jaburetox-2Ec interacting with lipid vesicles promotes membrane permeabilization.

  9. EC4IT - A Guide to European Commission Projects for CERN/IT department

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R

    2012-01-01

    European Commission (EC) projects represent an important source of external funding for a number of activities in which IT department is involved. The EC has a set of procedures and formalities for the preparation, negotiation, execution and completion of projects that are different to those normally used at CERN. This document gives an overview of the administrative, financial, reporting and managerial steps involved in participating in an EC project.

  10. An upper bound on the size of m-ary t-sEC/AUED codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng-cheng; FU Fang-wei; CHANG Zu-ling

    2006-01-01

    Finding good upper bound for the size of m-ary t-symmetric error correcting codes (t-sEC/AUED codes) codes is the main problem in the coding theory of m-ary t-sEC/AUED codes. Based on the method of Lagrange multipliers, We shall derive an upper bound on the size of m-ary t-sEC/AUED in this paper. Some examples achieved this upper bound are also given in this paper.

  11. Mitochondria and the insect steroid hormone receptor (EcR): A complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G H

    2016-10-01

    The actions of the insect steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids, on the genome of target cells has been well studied, but little is known of their extranuclear actions. We previously showed in Rhodnius prolixus that much of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) resides in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm with circadian periodicity, possibly using microtubules as tracks for translocation to the nucleus. Here we report that cytoplasmic EcR appears to be also involved in extranuclear actions of ecdysteroids by association with the mitochondria. Western blots of subcellular fractions of brain lysates revealed that EcR is localized in the mitochondrial fraction, indicating an intimate association of EcR with mitochondria. Confocal laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry using anti-EcR revealed abundant co-localization of EcR with mitochondria in brain neurons and their axons, especially intense in the subplasmalemmal region, raising the possibility of EcR involvement in mitochondrial functions in subplasmalemmal microdomains. When mitochondria are dispersed by disruption of microtubules with colchicine, EcR remains associated with mitochondria showing strong receptor association with mitochondria. Treatment in vitro with ecdysteroids of brains of developmentally arrested R. prolixus (containing neither ecdysteroids nor EcR) induces EcR and abundant co-localization with mitochondria in neurons, concurrently with a sharp increase of the mitochondrial protein COX 1, suggesting involvement of EcR in mitochondrial function. These findings align EcR with various vertebrate steroid receptors, where actions of steroid receptors on mitochondria are widely known and suggest that steroid receptors across distant phyla share similar functional attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  13. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.

  14. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Townsend

    2002-03-01

    Well ER-EC-2A was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in January and February of 2000 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program in the Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 412.9 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,516.1 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 228.0 meters, approximately two months after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 81 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 212 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 30 samples. The well was collared in rhyolite lava and penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon and the Timber Mountain Group. The preliminary geologic interpretation of borehole data indicates that this well was drilled within the margins of the buried Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks calderas, and that caldera collapse in this area was deeper than expected, resulting in a section of Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon (caldera-filling deposit) that is much thicker than expected.

  15. Stylistic Diversity in Children's Communication with Mothers at 30 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo, Manuela; Blicharski, Teresa; Strayer, F. Francis

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental researchers endorse a multifaceted view of early communication, where language, non-verbal behaviour and socio-affective exchange contribute concurrently to the social construction of shared meanings, past studies of social development usually focused on component parts of interpersonal communication. This research…

  16. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications ?fat free?, ?low in sugars?, ?high protein?, ?source of calcium? and ?source of vitamin D? for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Federación Nacional de Industrias Lácteas (FeNIL, submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet. The Panel considers that the food that is the subject of the claim, fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims, is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fat-free yogurts and fermented milks with live yogurt cultures complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and maintenance of lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet.

  17. Epigenetic reprogramming governs EcSOD expression during human mammary epithelial cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh-Fitzgerald, M L; Fitzgerald, M P; Zhong, W; Askeland, R W; Domann, F E

    2014-01-16

    Expression of the antioxidant enzyme EcSOD in normal human mammary epithelial cells was not recognized until recently. Although expression of EcSOD was not detectable in non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured in conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture conditions, EcSOD protein expression was observed in normal human breast tissues, suggesting that the 2D-cultured condition induces a repressive status of EcSOD gene expression in HMEC. With the use of laminin-enriched extracellular matrix (lrECM), we were able to detect expression of EcSOD when HMEC formed polarized acinar structures in a 3D-culture condition. Repression of the EcSOD-gene expression was again seen when the HMEC acini were sub-cultured as a monolayer, implying that lrECM-induced acinar morphogenesis is essential in EcSOD-gene activation. We have further shown the involvement of DNA methylation in regulating EcSOD expression in HMEC under these cell culture conditions. EcSOD mRNA expression was strongly induced in the 2D-cultured HMEC after treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. In addition, epigenetic analyses showed a decrease in the degree of CpG methylation in the EcSOD promoter in the 3D versus 2D-cultured HMEC. More importantly, >80% of clinical mammary adenocarcinoma samples showed significantly decreased EcSOD mRNA and protein expression levels compared with normal mammary tissues and there is an inverse correlation between the expression levels of EcSOD and the clinical stages of breast cancer. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis analysis of some of the tumors also revealed an association of DNA methylation with the loss of EcSOD expression in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of EcSOD inhibited breast cancer metastasis in both the experimental lung metastasis model and the syngeneic mouse model. This study suggests that epigenetic silencing of EcSOD may contribute to mammary tumorigenesis and that restoring the extracellular superoxide scavenging

  18. The complete genome sequence of Dickeya zeae EC1 reveals substantial divergence from other Dickeya strains and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianuan; Cheng, Yingying; Lv, Mingfa; Liao, Lisheng; Chen, Yufan; Gu, Yanfang; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zide; Xiong, Yuanyan; Zhang, Lianhui

    2015-08-04

    Dickeya zeae is a bacterial species that infects monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Two antibiotic-like phytotoxins named zeamine and zeamine II were reported to play an important role in rice seed germination, and two genes associated with zeamines production, i.e., zmsA and zmsK, have been thoroughly characterized. However, other virulence factors and its molecular mechanisms of host specificity and pathogenesis are hardly known. The complete genome of D. zeae strain EC1 isolated from diseased rice plants was sequenced, annotated, and compared with the genomes of other Dickeya spp.. The pathogen contains a chromosome of 4,532,364 bp with 4,154 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis indicates that D. zeae EC1 is most co-linear with D. chrysanthemi Ech1591, most conserved with D. zeae Ech586 and least similar to D. paradisiaca Ech703. Substantial genomic rearrangement was revealed by comparing EC1 with Ech586 and Ech703. Most virulence genes were well-conserved in Dickeya strains except Ech703. Significantly, the zms gene cluster involved in biosynthesis of zeamines, which were shown previously as key virulence determinants, is present in D. zeae strains isolated from rice, and some D. solani strains, but absent in other Dickeya species and the D. zeae strains isolated from other plants or sources. In addition, a DNA fragment containing 9 genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis was found inserted in the fli gene cluster encoding flagellar biosynthesis of strain EC1 and other two rice isolates but not in other strains. This gene cluster shares a high protein similarity to the fatty acid genes from Pantoea ananatis. Our findings delineate the genetic background of D. zeae EC1, which infects both dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and suggest that D. zeae strains isolated from rice could be grouped into a distinct pathovar, i.e., D. zeae subsp. oryzae. In addition, the results of this study also unveiled that the zms gene cluster presented in

  19. [Size distributions of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in Shanghai atmospheric particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hua; Wei, Nan-Nan; Liu, Wei; Lin, Jun; Fan, Xue-Bo; Yao, Jian; Geng, Yan-Hong; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Yan

    2010-09-01

    Size distributions of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric particles with size range from 7.20 microm, collected in Jiading District, Shanghai were determined. For estimating size distribution of SOC in these atmospheric particles, a method of determining (OC/EC)(pri) in atmospheric particles with different sizes was discussed and developed, with which SOC was estimated. According to the correlation between OC and EC, main sources of the particles were also estimated roughly. The size distributions of OC and SOC showed a bi-modal with peaks in the particles with size of 3.0 microm, respectively. EC showed both of a bi-modal and tri-modal. Compared with OC, EC was preferably enriched in particles with size of particles (particles. OC and EC were preferably enriched in fine particles (particles with different sizes accounted for 15.7%-79.1% of OC in the particles with corresponding size. Concentrations of SOC in fine aerosols ( 3.00 microm) accounted for 41.4% and 43.5% of corresponding OC. Size distributions of OC, EC and SOC showed time-dependence. The correlation between OC and EC showed that the main contribution to atmospheric particles in Jiading District derived from light petrol vehicles exhaust.

  20. Governors' Top Education Issues: 2015 State of the State Addresses. ECS Education Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie; Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Education Commission of the States (ECS) strives to keep its constituency apprised of education policy trends across the states. To provide a comprehensive overview of educational priorities outlined by governors, ECS summarized the education proposals and accomplishments detailed in every 2015 State of the State address delivered to date. Each…

  1. Simulation-based performance analysis of EC-Earth 3.2.0 using Dimemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes Arbós, Xavier; César Acosta Cobos, Mario; Serradell Maronda, Kim; Sanchez Lorente, Alicia; Doblas Reyes, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) are complex applications executed in supercomputing facilities due to their high demand on computing resources. However, not all these models perform a good resources usage and the energy efficiency can be well below a minimum acceptable. One example is EC-Earth, a global coupled climate model which integrates different component models to simulate the Earth system. The two main components used in this analysis are IFS as atmospheric model and NEMO as ocean model, both coupled via the OASIS3-MCT coupler. Preliminary results proved that EC-Earth does not have a good computational performance. For example, the scalability of this model using the T255L91 grid with 512 MPI processes for IFS and the ORCA1L75 grid with 128 MPI processes for NEMO achieves 40.3 of speedup. This means that the 81.2% of the resources are wasted. Therefore, it is necessary a performance analysis to find the bottlenecks of the model and thus, determine the most appropriate optimization techniques. Using traces of the model collected with profiling tools such as Extrae, Paraver and Dimemas, allow us to simulate the model behaviour on a configurable parallel platform and extrapolate the impact of hardware changes in the performance of EC-Earth. In this document we propose a state-of-art procedure which makes possible to evaluate the different characteristics of climate models in a very efficient way. Accordingly, the performance of EC-Earth in different scenarios, namely assuming an ideal machine, model sensitivity and limiting model due to coupling has been shown. By simulating these scenarios, we realized that each model has different characteristics. With the ideal machine, we have seen that there are some sources of inefficiency: about a 20.59% of the execution time is communication; and there are workload imbalances produced by data dependences both between IFS and NEMO and within each model. In addition, in the model sensitivity simulations, we have described the

  2. Observações sobre aplicações de controle em ecótopo com alta infestação de Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae Observations on control applications in breeding sites with high infestation of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Antunes de Morais

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer aspectos da infestação do mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus no rio Pinheiros, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, e avaliar a eficácia das aplicações de controle efetuadas no local, foram realizadas atividades de monitoramento da população de mosquitos em dez pontos de amostragens, localizados ao longo das duas margens do rio Pinheiros. Os mosquitos foram coletados por meio de técnica de aspiração à bateria, durante o período de um ano e encaminhados ao laboratório para identificação, contagem e tratamento dos dados de freqüência com as datas de aplicações de controle químico e biológico da população de mosquitos. As aplicações de controle apresentam efeitos parciais na freqüência populacional da espécie, o que abre discussão sobre as peculiaridades do ecótopo, como possíveis barreiras na eficiência dos produtos aplicados no meio aquático e na vegetação marginal, ao longo da calha do rio.With the objective of studying aspects of the infestation of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in the Pinheiros river, in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the control applications made in the place, activities of collecting mosquitoes were performed in ten sites located along the two margins of the river. The mosquitoes were collected by aspiration method, during the period of one year. After that, they were sent to the laboratory for identification, scoring and treatment of the frequency data comparing with the applications data of chemical and biological control strategies. The control applications had presented partial effect in the population frequency of the species, what opens for a discussion about the peculiarities of the breeding sites, as possible barriers in the efficiency of the products applied in the aquatic environment and in the border vegetation, along the course of the river.

  3. Hardware and software architecture for the integration of the new EC waves launcher in FTU control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Centioli, C., E-mail: cristina.centioli@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Galperti, C.; Alessi, E.; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Grosso, L.A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Marchetto, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Napolitano, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Nowak, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Panella, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR sulla Fusione – IFP-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi, 53 20125 Milano (Italy); Tilia, B.; Vitale, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione – ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi, 45 00045 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The integration of a new ECRH launcher to FTU legacy control system is reported. ► Fast control has been developed with a three-node RT cluster within MARTe framework. ► Slow control was implemented with a Simatic S7 PLC and an EPICS IOC-CA application. ► The first results have assessed the feasibility of the launcher control architecture. -- Abstract: The role of high power electron cyclotron (EC) waves in controlling magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in tokamaks has been assessed in several experiments, exploiting the physical effects induced by resonant heating and current drive. Recently a new EC launcher, whose main goal is controlling tearing modes and possibly preventing their onset, is being implemented on FTU. So far most of the components of the launcher control strategy have been realized and successfully tested on plasma experiments. Nevertheless the operations of the new launcher must be completely integrated into the existing one, and to FTU control system. This work deals with this final step, proposing a hardware and software architecture implementing up to date technologies, to achieve a modular and effective control strategy well integrated into a legacy system. The slow control system of the new EC launcher is based on a Siemens S7 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), integrated into FTU control system supervisor through an EPICS input output controller (IOC) and an in-house developed Channel Access client application creating an abstraction layer that decouples the IOC and the PLC from the FTU Supervisor software. This architecture could enable a smooth migration to an EPICS-only supervisory control system. The real time component of the control system is based on the open source MARTe framework relying on a Linux real time cluster, devoted to the detection of MHD instabilities and the calculation of the injection angles and the time reference for the radiofrequency power enable commands for the EC launcher.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications ?fat free?, ?low in sugars?, ?high protein?, ?source of calcium? and ?source of vitamin D? for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Federación Nacional de Industrias Lácteas (FeNIL, submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet. The food that is the subject of the claim is fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims. The Panel considers that fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims are sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of fat-free yogurts and fermented milks complying with the specifications “fat free”, “low in sugars”, “high protein”, “source of calcium” and “source of vitamin D” for nutrition claims and reduction of body and visceral fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in the context of an energy-restricted diet.

  5. A global inventory of aircraft NO{sub x} emissions (ANCAT/EC 2). A revised inventory (1996) by the ECAC/ANCAT and EC working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, R.M. [Great Minister House, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transfert London

    1997-12-31

    Results of the ANCAT/EC 2 inventory produced by the European ANCAT/EC emissions inventory group is reported. The base year inventory has been completed and is currently being written up for report publication. The ANCAT/EC 2 inventory in the base year, 1991/92, has accounted for a total fuel burn of 132.5 Tg/yr and a NO{sub x} mass of 1.82 Tg/yr. The civil subsonic fleet average emissions index is EI NO{sub x} 13.9. The inventory has accounted for 80% of the IEA refined jet fuel total for 1992. The forecast 2015 inventory accounts for 289.4 Tg/yr fuel and 3.48 Tg/yr NO{sub x}, increases of 118% and 91% respectively. Both datasets will be reported fully in the next few months. (author) 5 refs.

  6. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-07-28

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  7. Random pharmacokinetic profiles of EC-MPS in children with autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Guido; Sharma, Ajay Parkash; Levy, Deborah M; Yasin, Abeer

    2010-01-04

    : Therapy with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has become a valuable therapeutic option in children with autoimmune disease. MMF prescription in children with autoimmune diseases differs from that in transplant recipients in terms of different dosing regimen, and concomitant administration of other immunosuppressive medications. Recently, another formulation of the same active compound, mycophenolic acid (MPA), has become available as enteric-coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS). Dosing and pharmacokinetics of EC-MPS in pediatric autoimmune disease have never been studied. S: We therefore performed a pilot study on 6 patients, who were treated with EC-MPS. All patients underwent 1-2 full 10-point pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles over a 12-hour dosing interval. We compared the results with that of 22 similar patients on MMF therapy. : Median EC-MPS dose was 724 mg/m2 (range 179-933 mg/m2). The MPA Area-Under-The-(Time-Concentration)-Curves (AUCs) on MMF and EC-MPS were comparable (54.4 mg x h/L on MMF and 44.0 mg x h/L on EC-MPS, n.s., Mann Whitney). After correcting for bioequivalence, the dose-normalized AUCs were also similar on both the formulations. However, PK profiles on EC-MPS were quite random, and time to maximum concentration varied from 30 minutes to 720 minutes. The concentration at six-hour correlated best with the AUC. This was different from a homogenous PK-profile on MPA. : EC-MPS has a different PK profile from MMF. The data suggest that patients on EC-MPS must undergo a complete PK profile to assess adequate exposure. The 6-hour concentration provides an estimate of the exposure and should be targeted between 3-4 mg/L.

  8. Concurrent validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition, Thai-version (ASQ-3 Thai) with the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) in developmental screening of 18, 24, and 30 months old children at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinithiwat, Benjaporn; Ularntinon, Sirirat

    2014-06-01

    To determine the concurrent validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition, Thai-version (ASQ-3 Thai) with the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and agreement between them in developmental status screening in toddlers. Children at the ages of 18, 24, and 30 months were enrolled. Each age group included 15 normal and 15 suspected cases. Participants were developmentally assessed by the DDST-II performed by a developmental pediatrician (BS). Parents of the enrolled children simultaneously completed their toddler's age-specific version of the ASQ-3 Thai questionnaire. Concurrent validity of the ASQ-3 Thai with DDST-II was determined by descriptive statistics using the cross tabulation technique. Kappa analysis was used to calculate agreement between the ASQ-3 Thai and DDST-II. A fair to moderate agreement (Kappa agreement = 0.338-0.606) was found between the ASQ-3 Thai and the DDST-II. Sensitivity of the ASQ-3 Thai with DDST-II at the age of 18, 24, and 30 months were 66.7%, 88.2%, and 54.5%, respectively. Specificity of the tool when compared to the DDST-II were 78.6%, 71.4% and 90.9%, respectively. This was a preliminary study of the ASQ-3 Thai version for developmental screening in clinical setting. Due to a fair to moderate agreement but low sensitivity between the ASQ-3 Thai and DDST-II, other validated tools should accompany the clinical usage of the tool. Further investigations are needed to support its usage, particularly the validation of the tool with other standardized developmental diagnostic tools.

  9. Two-component system YvqEC-dependent bacterial resistance against vancomycin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Hu, Yimin; Fan, Qingyun; Wang, Xun; He, Jin

    2015-08-01

    YvqEC is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that may respond to cell envelope stress and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvqE and a response regulator YvqC. In this study, we separately constructed a single gene mutant ΔyvqE and a double gene mutant ΔyvqEC in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 through a homing endonucleases I-SceI mediated markerless gene deletion method. We found that the deletion of either yvqE or yvqEC weakened the resistance of B. thuringiensis against vancomycin. We also identified nine operons that may be involved in the cellular metabolism regulated by YvqC. This study not only enriches our understanding of bacterial resistance mechanisms against vancomycin, but also helps investigate the functions of YvqEC.

  10. State Approaches to Funding Dual Enrollment. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that students who dually enroll are more likely to finish high school and succeed in postsecondary education than their peers with a similar grade point average (GPA), test scores, demographics, etc. Yet in many states, students and parents are largely--if not entirely--responsible for covering dual enrollment course costs, placing…

  11. Effect of serum concentration on adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells onto cultured EC monolayer and EC-SMC Co-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jie FAN; Take-shi KARINO

    2008-01-01

    Background:The adhesion of monocytes to the endothelium following accumulation oflow-density lipoprotein(LDL) in subendothelial spaces is an important step in the development of intimal hyperplasia in arterially implanted vein grafts and atherosclerosis in both animals and humans.However.it iS not well known how serum factors affect the adhesion of monocytes.Methods:We have studied the efrect of fetal calf serum(FCS).which we considered a source of LDL.on the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells(Ecs)by using human monocytic THP-1 cells and both a monolayer of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells(EC monoculture)and a co-culture with bovine aortic smooth muscle cells(EC-SMC co-culture).Results:It was found that the addition of FCS to the medium greatly affected the adhesion of THP-1 cells,and the higher the concentration of FCS in the medium,the greater the adhesion of THP-1 cells to endothelial cells.Adhesion of THP-1 cells to an EC-SMC co-culture Was approximately twofold greater than that to an EC monoculture,and after adhering to endothelial cells,many THP-1 cells transmigrated into the layer of smooth muscle cells.Conclusion:The results suggest that the elevation of the LDL(cholesterol)level in blood provides a favorable condition for the development of intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis by promoting the adhesion of monocytcs to the endothelium and their subsequent migration into subendothelial spaces.

  12. Lunar Module ECS (Environmental Control System) - Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Design considerations and failure modes for the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS) are described. An overview of the the oxygen supply and cabin pressurization, atmosphere revitalization, water management and heat transport systems are provided. Design considerations including reliability, flight instrumentation, modularization and the change to the use of batteries instead of fuel cells are discussed. A summary is provided for the LM ECS general testing regime.

  13. Search for $\\beta^+$EC and ECEC processes in $^{112}$Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S; Nachab, A; Konovalov, S I; Umatov, V

    2009-01-01

    Limits on $\\beta^+$EC (here EC denotes electron capture) and ECEC processes in $^{112}$Sn have been obtained using a 380 cm$^3$ HPGe detector and an external source consisting of 53.355 g enriched tin (94.32% of $^{112}$Sn). A limit with 90% C.L. on the $^{112}$Sn half-life of $4.7\\times 10^{20}$ y for the ECEC(0$\

  14. Quality control of {sup 99m}Tc-EC; Determination of radiochemical purity and investigation of the influence of impurities in the biodistribution;Controle de qualidade de EC-{sup 99m}Tc: determinacao de pureza radioquimica e investigacao da influencia de impurezas na biodistribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Alves, Edson V.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals of meta-stable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) are the most frequently used to obtain images in Nuclear Medicine. L, L-ethylene dicysteine (EC) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) is used to assess kidneys function. The aim of this study was to determine the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-EC by paper chromatography (PC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to investigate the influence of impurities on the quality of scintigraphy images and biodistribution in rats. The determination of the RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC ({sup 99m}Tc-EC RCP) by PC was developed in Whatman 1 MM and 3 MM chromatographic paper. The mobile phase used was acetone and 0.5 mol L{sup -1} acetic acid for determination of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}- and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2}, respectively. The analyses by HPLC were carried out in Shimadzu equipment (Prominence LC-20AT). The mobile phase was composed of 12.5 mmol L{sup -1} phosphate buffer and ethanol. 1.0 mL min{sup -1} flow rate and linear gradient were used. The biological tests were performed by injection of 0.370 MBq mL{sup -1} {sup 99m}Tc-EC intravenously in Wistar rats (250 g) provided by the animal facility of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results of analyses by Whatman 1 MM and 3 MM PC showed RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC up to (98.76 +- 0.29)% and (98.70 +- 0.31), respectively. Retention times of {sup 99m}TcO2, {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}Tc-EC were 3.04, 5.08 and 10.06 minutes, respectively, in HPLC analyses and the maximum labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was (98.99 +- 0.04)% at 30 minutes. {sup 99m}9m-EC is rapidly reaches the plasma compartment and the biodistribution studies showed normal distribution of the injected dose in specified organs. Both PC and HPLC methods can be used in the routine quality control for determination of RCP as they showed to be accurate and fast. The biological quality controls showed application for diagnostic examination of the renal function dynamics. (author)

  15. Quality control of {sup 99m}Tc-EC: determination of radiochemical purity and investigation of the influence of impurities in the biodistribution; Controle de qualidade de EC-{sup 99m}Tc: determinacao de pureza radioquimica e investigacao da influencia de impurezas na biodistribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Erika V.; Monteiro, Elisiane G.; Alves, Edson V.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Mengatti, Jair; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Radiofarmacia], e-mail: erikavieira@usp.br

    2010-03-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals of meta-stable technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) are the most frequently used to obtain images in Nuclear Medicine. L, L-etilenodicisteina (EC) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) is used to assess kidneys function. The aim of this study was to determine the radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-EC by paper chromatography (PC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to investigate the influence of impurities on the quality of scintigraphy images and biodistribution in rats. The determination of the RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC ({sup 99m}Tc-EC RCP) by PC was developed in Whatman 1MM and 3MM chromatographic paper. The mobile phase used was acetone and 0.5 mol L-1 acetic acid for determination of {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}TcO2, respectively. The analyses by HPLC were carried out in Shimadzu equipment (Prominence LC-20AT). The mobile phase was composed of 12.5 mmol L-1 phosphate buffer and ethanol. 1.0 mL min-1 flow rate and linear gradient were used. The biological tests were performed by injection of 0.370 MBq mL-1 {sup 99m}Tc-EC intravenously in Wistar rats (250 g) provided by the Animal Facility of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results of analyses by Whatman 1MM and 3MM PC showed RCP of {sup 99m}Tc-EC up to (98.76 +- 0.29)% and (98.70 +- 0.31), respectively. Retention times of {sup 99m}TcO2, {sup 99m}TcO4- and {sup 99m}Tc-EC were 3.04, 5.08 and 10.06 minutes, respectively, in HPLC analyses and the maximum labeling efficiency of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was (98.99 +- 0.04)% at 30 minutes. {sup 99m}Tc-EC is rapidly reaches the plasma compartment and the biodistribution studies showed normal distribution of the injected dose in specified organs. Both PC and HPLC methods can be used in the routine quality control for determination of RCP as they showed to be accurate and fast. The biological quality controls showed application for diagnostic examination of the renal function dynamics. (author)

  16. Heavy metal removal by novel CBD-EC20 sorbents immobilized on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaohui; Bae, Weon; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mehra, Rajesh K; Chen, Wilfred

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals are major contributors to pollution of the biosphere, and their efficient removal from contaminated water is required. Biosorption is an emerging technology that has been shown to be effective in removing very low levels of heavy metal from wastewater. Although peptides such as metallothioneins or phytotchelatins are known to immobilize heavy metals, peptide-based biosorbents have not been extensively investigated. In this paper, we describe the construction and expression of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of synthetic phytochelatin (EC20) linked to a Clostridium-derived cellulose-binding domain (CBD(clos)), enabling purification and immobilization of the fusions onto different cellulose materials in essentially a single step. The immobilized sorbents were shown to be highly effective in removing cadmium at parts per million levels. Repeated removal of cadmium was demonstrated in an immobilized column. The ability to genetically engineer biosorbents with precisely defined properties could provide an attractive strategy for developing high-affinity bioadsorbents suitable for heavy metal removal.

  17. A Study on Partnering Mechanism in B to B EC Server for Global Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Toshiya

    B to B Electronic Commerce (EC) technology is now in progress and regarded as an information infrastructure for global business. As the number and diversity of EC participants grows at the agile environment, the complexity of purchasing from a vast and dynamic array of goods and services needs to be hidden from the end user. Putting the complexity into the EC system instead means providing flexible auction server for enabling commerce within different business units. Market mechanism could solve the product distribution problem in the auction server by allocating the scheduled resources according to market prices. In this paper, we propose a partnering mechanism for B to B EC with market-oriented programming that mediates amongst unspecified various companies in the trade, and demonstrate the applicability of the economic analysis to this framework after constructing a primitive EC server. The proposed mechanism facilitates sophisticated B to B EC, which conducts a Pareto optimal solution for all the participating business units in the coming agile era.

  18. Cooperative fuzzy games approach to setting target levels of ECs in quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Chen, Yizeng; Yin, Yunqiang

    2014-01-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) can provide a means of translating customer requirements (CRs) into engineering characteristics (ECs) for each stage of product development and production. The main objective of QFD-based product planning is to determine the target levels of ECs for a new product or service. QFD is a breakthrough tool which can effectively reduce the gap between CRs and a new product/service. Even though there are conflicts among some ECs, the objective of developing new product is to maximize the overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, there may be room for cooperation among ECs. A cooperative game framework combined with fuzzy set theory is developed to determine the target levels of the ECs in QFD. The key to develop the model is the formulation of the bargaining function. In the proposed methodology, the players are viewed as the membership functions of ECs to formulate the bargaining function. The solution for the proposed model is Pareto-optimal. An illustrated example is cited to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed approach.

  19. Cooperative Fuzzy Games Approach to Setting Target Levels of ECs in Quality Function Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function deployment (QFD can provide a means of translating customer requirements (CRs into engineering characteristics (ECs for each stage of product development and production. The main objective of QFD-based product planning is to determine the target levels of ECs for a new product or service. QFD is a breakthrough tool which can effectively reduce the gap between CRs and a new product/service. Even though there are conflicts among some ECs, the objective of developing new product is to maximize the overall customer satisfaction. Therefore, there may be room for cooperation among ECs. A cooperative game framework combined with fuzzy set theory is developed to determine the target levels of the ECs in QFD. The key to develop the model is the formulation of the bargaining function. In the proposed methodology, the players are viewed as the membership functions of ECs to formulate the bargaining function. The solution for the proposed model is Pareto-optimal. An illustrated example is cited to demonstrate the application and performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Statistical strategies for averaging EC50 from multiple dose-response experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2015-11-01

    In most dose-response studies, repeated experiments are conducted to determine the EC50 value for a chemical, requiring averaging EC50 estimates from a series of experiments. Two statistical strategies, the mixed-effect modeling and the meta-analysis approach, can be applied to estimate average behavior of EC50 values over all experiments by considering the variabilities within and among experiments. We investigated these two strategies in two common cases of multiple dose-response experiments in (a) complete and explicit dose-response relationships are observed in all experiments and in (b) only in a subset of experiments. In case (a), the meta-analysis strategy is a simple and robust method to average EC50 estimates. In case (b), all experimental data sets can be first screened using the dose-response screening plot, which allows visualization and comparison of multiple dose-response experimental results. As long as more than three experiments provide information about complete dose-response relationships, the experiments that cover incomplete relationships can be excluded from the meta-analysis strategy of averaging EC50 estimates. If there are only two experiments containing complete dose-response information, the mixed-effects model approach is suggested. We subsequently provided a web application for non-statisticians to implement the proposed meta-analysis strategy of averaging EC50 estimates from multiple dose-response experiments.

  1. 欧盟荧光灯、高强度气体放电灯及配套镇流器与灯具生态设计要求法规解析%Interpretation & Analysis to EU Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 on Ecodesign Requirements for Fluorescent Lamps without Integrated Ballast, for High Intensity Discharge Lamps,and for Ballasts and Luminaires Able to Operate Such Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊斌

    2009-01-01

    欧盟为贯彻用能产品生态设计指令(EuP指令),已出台两个针对照明电器的法规.本文介绍了编号为(EC)No 245/2009法规的要求,解析了这些要求的用意.最后对两个法规的异同进行了小结和点评.

  2. Pengembangan Model Daya Saing UMKM Batik Melalui ECS

    OpenAIRE

    Retno Dewanti; Ina Melati; Freddy P. Simbolon

    2013-01-01

    SMEC has high durability against any unpleasant economic conditions. Moreover, SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES of batik has had the ability to produce export and derived foreign exchange for the country. It is important to continue to do the construction and development of batik industry competitiveness in order to compete in this era of free trade. The purpose of this research is to find a development Model as an integrated system capability of integrating Indonesian batik business, which is  suppo...

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical...... performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes) from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta-alanine...... on physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of beta-alanine and an increase in physical performance during short-duration, high intensity exercise....

  4. 76 FR 30987 - Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef... the EU's failure to comply with the recommendations and rulings of the DSB in the EC-Beef Hormones...) in the EC-Beef Hormones dispute. The MOU provides for the EU to make phased increases in...

  5. Can postictal suppression of the perforant path - fascia dentata responses account for the ECS-induced anterograde amnesia in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz-Saad, H; Valousková, V; Bures, J

    1984-07-15

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) decreases fascia dentata responses to entorhinal stimulation by 50% in unanesthetized rats. Synaptic potentials and population spikes return to pre-ECS level during 1 h and 3 h, respectively. This recovery rate is compared with the dynamics of ECS-induced anterograde amnesia.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  7. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene in the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)%麦红吸浆虫蜕皮激素受体(EcR)基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马康生; 李伯辽; 陈浩; 仵均祥

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the function of ecdysone receptor in the diapause of Sitodiplosis mosellana,the full-length cDNA sequence of an ecdysone receptor gene was amplified by using reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE),and the expression of the EcR gene was analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).The full-length cDNA sequence was named as SmEcR (GenBank accession number:KC491135).Its open reading frame (ORF) is 1 386 bp in length,encoding a 461-amino-acid protein,with a calculated molecular weight of 52.90 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.24.Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of SmEcR has high identity with EcRs from other insect species,especially with that of Bradysia coprophila (92%).Real-time quantitative PCR showed that SmEcR transcripts were detected in all diapause and developmental stages.The expression of SmEcR was significantly different among different diapause stages,reaching the highest level in November and the lowest level in December.The larvae collected from wheat heads had a lower expression level of SmEcR while the adults had the highest SmEcR transcripts.This study lays the foundation for the further functional study of SmEcR in diapause regulation in S.mosellana.%为了研究蜕皮激素受体(EcR)在麦红吸浆虫Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin)滞育活动中的作用,利用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆得到了麦红吸浆虫蜕皮激素受体基因cDNA全长,并通过Real-time quantitative PCR研究了其表达情况.该cDNA全长序列被命名为SmEcR(GenBank登录号:KC491135),其开放阅读框长1 386 bp,编码461个氨基酸残基.其蛋白预测分子量52.90 kD,理论等电点6.24.该蛋白与其他已报道的昆虫EcR蛋白具有很高的同源性,其中与迟眼蕈蚊Bradysia coprophila中相应蛋白的氨基酸序列一致性高达92%.SmEcR在麦红吸浆虫不同滞育时期和不同虫态中均有表达,且

  8. Organized Interests in the EC and the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kohler-Koch

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a truism that the emergent European polity contributes to the transformation of interest representation in Europe. It is, however, highly contested if a uniform system of interest intermediation is in the making and if so, what will be its shape. Pressures to adapt are quite strong, but national traditions provide strong institutional constraints to European convergence. In addition, the institutional properties of the EU make sure that no single system is likely to emerge. The paper presents theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence to that point. The empirical findings concentrate on the relationship between interest representatives and the European Parliament and are taken from a written survey among MEPs and European Public Affairs Consultants.

  9. Development of an Advanced Grid-Connected PV-ECS System Considering Solar Energy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Yamashiro, Susumu; Nakamura, Koichi

    In this paper, the development and the performance of a viable distributed grid-connected power generation system of Photovoltaic-Energy Capacitor System (PV-ECS) considering solar energy estimation have been described. Instead of conventional battery Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are used as storage device and Photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate power from solar energy. The system can generate power by PV, store energy when the demand of load is low and finally supply the stored energy to load during the period of peak demand. To realize the load leveling function properly the system will also buy power from grid line when load demand is high. Since, the power taken from grid line depends on the PV output power, a procedure has been suggested to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. In order to set the optimum value of the buy power, a simulation program has also been developed. Performance of the system has been studied for different load patterns in different weather conditions by using the estimated PV output power with the help of the simulation program.

  10. Resistance to Phytophthora infestans EC-1 clonal lineage in Solanum tuberosum by introducing the RB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lupe Román

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient options for the control of late blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum is the development of resistant varieties to Phytophthora infestans mediated by the direct transfer of resistance (R genes through genetic engineering. In the present work, we used Solanum bulbocastanum RB gene to confers broad spectrum resistance to P. infestans races. To that end, Agrobacterium - mediated genetic transformation was used to transform a susceptible potato variety, Desiree, with the binary vector pCIP68 harboring the RB gene. As a result, 19 transformed plants containing the RB gene were obtained. kanamycin resistance test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays confirmed the integration of the T-DNA in the potato genome. The 19 transformed plants, also called transgenic events were subjected to infection under biosafety greenhouse conditions. Phytophthora infestans isolate POX067 of the EC-1 clonal lineage, commonly find in Peru, was used for the infection. Three of the 19 plants ([RB]54, [RB]56 and [RB]70 show high resistance levels to isolate POX067 of P. infestans.

  11. Pengembangan Model Daya Saing UMKM Batik Melalui ECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Dewanti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available SMEC has high durability against any unpleasant economic conditions. Moreover, SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES of batik has had the ability to produce export and derived foreign exchange for the country. It is important to continue to do the construction and development of batik industry competitiveness in order to compete in this era of free trade. The purpose of this research is to find a development Model as an integrated system capability of integrating Indonesian batik business, which is  supported by the existing infrastructure so that it is capable of being one of the pre-eminent business typical batik Indonesia which has been recognized as one of the world heritage of Indonesian as a nation. Methods the study was a qualitative Method to find the organization model and hybrid formulation of e community system to support collaboration among organizations. This research has enabled independent business group supported a Hybrid organization building strength together in the era of globalization based on Electronic Community System that is driven by each component in the Hybrid Organization.

  12. EC technology for blower drives. Maximum efficiency across the whole speed range; EC-Technik fuer Ventilator- und Geblaeseantriebe. Hoechste Wirkungsgrade im gesamten Drehzahlbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, T. [ebm-papst Mulfingen GmbH und Co. KG, Mulfingen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Blowers are often powered by rotary-current asynchronous motors with short-circuit rotors, which are robust, simple and reliable. Today, specifications have become more demanding. For example, economic efficiency and low noise - combined with speed control which again should be as simple as possible - are now required. Asynchronous motors are hardly capable of meeting these requirements, so they are being replaced in many applications by electronically commuted permanent magnet motors, so-called EC drives. (orig.)

  13. 脑梗死患者失算症EC301量表(中文修订版)检测研究%The EC301-CR test of acalculia for patients with cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹义臣; 张素平; 王幕真; 邓婉青; 何锐; 梁瑞华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate errors and the mechanism of acalculia in patients with left or right hemisphere cerebral infarction.Methods Fifty-six patients with single hemisphere cerebral infarction and 56 normal adults who were matched in age,sex and years of education were tested with EC301-CR.The patients were divided into a left hemisphere cerebral infarction group(n =34)and a right hemisphere cerebral infarction group(n =22).Results The scores on 30 out of 32 EC301-CR items were significantly lower among the patients than in the normal control group.Scores on 14 EC301-CR items were significantly lower in the left hemisphere group than in the right hemisphere group.In the left hemisphere group the item scores of aphasia patients were significantly lower than those of no-aphasia patients except on digit identity.Conclusion Mathematical processing and calculation were impaired in patients with single hemisphere cerebral infarction.Calculation was significantly worse among left hemisphere patients compared with right hemisphere cerebral infarction.There was a highly significant correlation between acalculia and aphasia.%目的 探讨左、右大脑半球脑梗死患者失算症的特点和机制.方法 选取56例脑梗死患者作为脑梗死组,其中左脑梗死34例(左脑梗死组),右脑梗死22例(右脑梗死组);另选取56例年龄及受教育年限均与脑梗死组相匹配的健康成人作为对照组.对脑梗死组和对照组进行EC301数字加工和计算量表的中文修订版(EC301-CR)检测,对所得数据进行统计分析.结果 脑梗死组EC301量表的各亚项评分均低于对照组,除视觉、听觉数点数2个亚项外,其余30个亚项评分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).左脑梗死组的倒数、非数字序列、数字阅读、听写数字、数字转化(汉字阿拉伯数字相互转换)、心算(听觉、视觉)和笔算(加减乘除)、常识数字估计及常识数字大小判断等14项评分低于右脑梗死组(P<0

  14. A spectroscopic survey of EC4, an extended cluster in Andromeda's halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. L. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Irwin, M.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N. F.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Huxor, A.; Lewis, G. F.; Mackey, A. D.; McConnachie, A. W.; Tanvir, N.

    2009-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic survey of candidate red giant branch stars in the extended star cluster, EC4, discovered in the halo of M31 from our Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam survey, overlapping the tidal streams, Streams`Cp' and `Cr'. These observations used the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph mounted on the Keck II telescope to obtain spectra around the CaII triplet region with ~1.3 Å resolution. Six stars lying on the red giant branch within two core radii of the centre of EC4 are found to have an average vr = -287.9+1.9-2.4kms-1 and σv,corr = 2.7+4.2-2.7kms-1, taking instrumental errors into account. The resulting mass-to-light ratio for EC4 is M/L = 6.7+15-6.7Msolar/Lsolar, a value that is consistent with a globular cluster within the 1σ errors we derive. From the summed spectra of our member stars, we find EC4 to be metal-poor, with [Fe/H] = -1.6 +/- 0.15. We discuss several formation and evolution scenarios which could account for our kinematic and metallicity constraints on EC4, and conclude that EC4 is most comparable with an extended globular cluster. We also compare the kinematics and metallicity of EC4 with Streams `Cp' and`Cr', and find that EC4 bears a striking resemblance to Stream`Cp' in terms of velocity, and that the two structures are identical in terms of both their spectroscopic and photometric metallicities. From this, we conclude that EC4 is likely related to Stream`Cp'. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. E-mail: mlmc2@ast.cam.ac.uk

  15. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  16. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena M; Barbosa, Aneli M; Bofinger, Matheus R; Dekker, Robert F H; Messias, Josana M; Guedes, Carmen L B; Zaminelli, Tiago; de Oliveira, Bruno H; de Lima, Valéria M G; Dall'antonia, Luiz H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K m and V max were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively.

  17. [Equine Cushing syndrome (ECS). Case report, review of its diagnosis and therapy and substantial differences from Cushing syndrome in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, K; Jonigkeit, E; Moritz, A

    1998-02-01

    Equine and canine Cushing's syndrome, both of which are the result of elevated cortisol levels, show some different pathogenetical and clinical features and require different therapeutical approaches. In older horses the equine Cushing's syndrome (ECS) is not uncommon. Nearly all cases result from excessive hormone production in cells of the pars intermedia of the pituitary. Besides elevated levels of adrenocorticotrope hormone (ACTH), high peripheral levels of pro-opiomelanocortin, beta-endorphines and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone can be measured. In middle-aged and geriatric dogs, Cushing's syndrome is the most frequently diagnosed endocrinologic abnormality. 80-85% of cases are pituitary-dependent and 15-20% are caused by cortisol producing tumors of the adrenals. 90% of pituitary lesions can be identified as adenomas, which are localised in most cases in the pars distalis of the gland, but may occur rarely in the pars intermedia, too. Clinical symptoms in both species are characterised by wasting despite good appetite or polyphagia, reduction of muscle mass with altered fat deposition and lethargy. Whereas polydipsia/polyuria is a very common feature in dogs with Cushing's syndrome, in horses it is almost invariably a sign of concurrent secondary diabetes mellitus. A typical symptom in ECS is a continuously growing haircoat (hirsutism), whereas in canine Cushing's syndrome generalised alopecia may bring the owner to consult a veterinarian. The symptoms and diagnostic procedures in a 33-year-old mare are described. Useful diagnostic tests are reviewed with special attention to species differences in reacting to them. The therapeutic approach with dopamine-agonists such as bromocriptine and pergolide as well as cyproheptadine to ECS is reviewed.

  18. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-08-01

    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  19. Real-time multi-EC-actuator MHD control on TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, T. P.; Canal, G.; Duval, B. P.; Graves, J. P.; Kim, D.; Reimerdes, H.; Sauter, O.; Testa, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland and Eindhoven University of Technology - Faculty of Mec (Netherlands); Collaboration: TCV Team

    2014-02-12

    Real-time control of multiple plasma actuators is a requirement in advanced tokamaks; for example for burn control, plasma current profile control and MHD stabilization - EC wave absorption is ideally suited especially for the latter. For example, on ITER 24 EC sources can be switched between 54 inputs at the torus. In the torus, 5 launchers direct the power to various locations across the plasma profile via 11 steerable mirrors. For optimal usage of the available power, the aiming and polarization of the beams must be adapted to the plasma configuration and the needs of the scenario. Since the EC system performs many competing tasks, present day systems should demonstrate the ability of an EC plant to deal with several targets in parallel and/or to switch smoothly between goals to attain overall satisfaction. Recently TCV has taken a first step towards such a demonstration. Several EC launchers are used simultaneously to regulate the sawtooth period and to preempt m/n = 3/2 NTMs, by controlling the power levels. In parallel, a second algorithm stabilizes any NTM that saturates [1]. These and real-time MHD control experiments on ELMs [2] are presented.

  20. Single-Particle Composition Measured in an Alpine Valley: Wood Smoke, EC and BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepmann, C.; Gross, D. S.; Benzaid, S.; Christensen, J.; Turetsky, E.; Musicant, D.; Sandradewi, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2007-12-01

    Particulate pollution is an issue of concern in today's society. Current regulations focus on the mass of particulate matter (PM) per volume of air, and not the source or chemical composition of the PM. Here we will present results from the AEROWOOD campaign in Roveredo, Switzerland where we investigated the PM composition measured using a single-particle mass spectrometer (TSI 3800 ATOFMS) to identify the sources of ambient particles. The goal was to differentiate wood smoke particles from diesel emissions. Roveredo is located in a deep alpine valley with strong wintertime thermal inversions, trapping the emissions. Local homes are predominantly heated by wood fires, and the village is located along a motorway that crosses the Swiss alps, providing two distinct particle sources. The particles sampled with the ATOFMS have been analyzed in a variety of ways with a focus on the temporal trends of the different particle types identified. Of particular interest is the distinction made between elemental carbon (EC) and black carbon (BC). During AEROWOOD, EC was measured chemically using real- time thermo/optical methods. BC was recorded directly by absorption, using an aethalometer. Regression models have been constructed to predict the EC and BC values using the single-particle mass spectra, providing chemical insight into the differences in these quantities. Additionally, comparing the timeline plots of EC, BC and the particle types found from the ATOFMS data should provide an idea as to the sources of EC and BC in this location.

  1. Tailored graphitized soot as reference material for EC/OC measurement validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Popovicheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The lack of standard reference materials for calibrating, troubleshooting and intercomparing techniques that measure the composition of black carbon, commonly referred to as soot, has been a major obstacle that hinders improved understanding of how climate and health is impacted by this ubiquitous component of the atmosphere. A different approach is offered here as a means of constructing precisely controlled material with fractions of organic carbon (OC on the surface of elemental carbon (EC whose structure reflects that of the combustion produced particles found in the atmosphere. The proposed soot reference material (SRM uses EC as a basis substrate for surface coatings of organic compounds that are representative of the main classes of organics identified in the coverage of soot produced by fossil fuel burning. A number of methods are used to demonstrate the quality and stability of the reference EC and SRM. Comparison of the nominal fraction of OC deposited on the EC substrate with the fraction measured with thermal/optical analysis (TOA shows excellent agreement. Application of this type of reference material for evaluating the different methods of carbon analysis may help resolve differences that currently exist between comparable measurement techniques when trying to separate OC and EC from ambient samples.

  2. Low-EC-Content Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Surampudi, Subbarao

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytes comprising LiPF6 dissolved at a concentration of 1.0 M in three different mixtures of alkyl carbonates have been found well suited for use in rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells at low temperatures. These and other electrolytes have been investigated in continuing research directed toward extending the lower limit of practical operating temperatures of Li-ion cells down to -60 C. This research at earlier stages was reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the three most recent being "Ethyl Methyl Carbonate as a Cosolvent for Lithium-Ion Cells" (NPO-20605), Vol. 25, Low-EC-Content Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells No. 6 (June 2001), page 53; "Alkyl Pyrocarbonate Electrolyte Additives for Li-Ion Cells" (NPO-20775), Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 37; and "Fluorinated Alkyl Carbonates as Cosolvents in Li-Ion Cells (NPO-21076), Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 38. The present solvent mixtures, in terms of volume proportions of their ingredients, are 1 ethylene carbonate (EC) + 1 diethyl carbonate (DEC) + 1 dimethyl carbonate (DMC) + 3 ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC); 3EC + 3DMC + 14EMC; and 1EC + 1DEC + 1DMC + 4EMC. Relative to similar mixtures reported previously, the present mixtures, which contain smaller proportions of EC, have been found to afford better performance in experimental Li-ion cells at temperatures < -20 C.

  3. Regulation (EC No 1901/2006 on medicinal products for paediatric use & clinical research in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Birka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before any medicinal product is authorised for use in adults, it must undergo extensive pharmaceutical consistency and stability tests, toxicological tests and clinical trials to ensure that it is of high quality, safe and effective. The same approach may not always be applied to medicinal products used to treat children. Studies showed that over 50% of the medicinal products used in children may not have been tested for use in this age group. The absence of suitable authorised medicinal products to treat conditions in children results from the fact that pharmaceutical companies do not adapt medicinal products to the needs of the paediatric population. This leaves health care professionals with no alternative other than to use medicinal products "off-label" and to use unauthorised products with the associated risks of inefficacy and/or adverse reactions. The Regulation (EC No 1901/2006 sets up a system of requirements, rewards and incentives, together with horizontal measures, to ensure that medicinal products are researched, developed and authorised to meet the therapeutic needs of children. The Regulation is addressed to: 1. The pharmaceutical industry by setting out the legal framework for receiving rewards and incentives by conducting clinical trials in the paediatric population. 2. The Member States to set out to support research into, and the development and availability of, medicinal products for paediatric use. 3. The Community as funds for research into medicinal products for the paediatric population shall be provided for in the Community budget in order to support studies relating to medicinal products or active substances not covered by a patent or a supplementary protection certificate. The legal framework for conducting clinical trials, including children/minors, is set up in Directive 2001/20/EC, the Clinical Trials Directive (CTD, for the European Union (EU. The CTD establishes specific provisions regarding conduct of

  4. Evolution of human IgH3'EC duplicated structures: both enhancers HS1,2 are polymorphic with variation of transcription factor's consensus sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Fruscalzo, Alberto; Giufre', Maria; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Favaro, Marco; Rocchi, Mariano; Frezza, Domenico

    2005-02-14

    The enhancer complex regulatory region at the 3' of the immunoglobulin heavy cluster (IgH3'EC) is duplicated in apes along with four constant genes and the region is highly conserved throughout humans. Both human IgH3'ECs consist of three loci high sensitive (HS) to DNAse I with enhancer activity. It is thus possible that the presence of structural divergences between the two IgH3'ECs and of relative polymorphisms correspond to functional regulatory changes. To analyse the polymorphisms of these almost identical regions, it resulted mandatory to identify the presence of divergent sequences, in order to select distinctive primers for specific PCR genomic amplifications. To this aim, we first compared the two entire IgH3'ECs in silicio, utilising the updated GenBank (GB) contigs, then we analysed the two IgH3'ECs by cloning and sequencing amplicons from independent genomes. In silicio analysis showed that several inversions, deletions and short insertions had occurred after the duplication. We analysed in detail, by sequencing specific regions, the polymorphisms occurring in enhancer HS1,2-A (which lies in IgH3'EC-1, 3' to the Calpha-1 gene) and in enhancer HS1,2-B (which lies in IgH3'EC-2, 3' to Calpha-2). Polymorphisms are due to the repetition (occurring one to four times) of a 38-bp sequence present at the 3' of the core of enhancers HS1,2. The structure of both human HS1,2 enhancers has revealed not yet described polymorphic features due to the presence of variable spacer elements separating the 38-bp repetitions and to variable external elements bordering the repetition cluster. We found that one of the external elements gave rise to a divergent allele 3 in the two clusters. The frequency of the different alleles of the two loci varies in the Italian population and allele 3 of both loci are very rare. The analysis of the Callicebus moloch, Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes HS1,2 enhancers showed the transformation from the ancestral structure with the 31- to

  5. NASA FACTS: E. coli AntiMicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli AntiMicrobial Satellite(EcAMSat) mission will investigate space microgravity affects on the antibiotic resistance of E. coli, a bacterial pathogen responsible for urinary tract infection in humans and animals. EcAMSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. A.C. Matin is the Stanford University Principal Investigator. EcAMSat will investigate spaceflight effects on bacterial antibiotic resistance and its genetic basis. Bacterial antibiotic resistance may pose a danger to astronauts in microgravity, where the immune response is weakened. Scientists believe that the results of this experiment could help design effective countermeasures to protect astronauts health during long duration human space missions.

  6. Belle monte-carlo production on the Amazon EC2 cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevior, Martin; Fifield, Tom; Katayama, Nobuhiko

    2010-04-01

    The Belle II experiment which aims to increase the Luminosity of the KEKB collider by a factor of 50 will search for physics beyond the Standard Model through precision measurements and the investigation of rare processes in Flavour physics. The expected data rate is comparable to a current era LHC experiment with commensurate computing needs. Incorporating commercial cloud computing, such as that provided by the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) into the Belle II computing model may provide a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the Belle II computing solution. To investigate this possibility, we have created a system to conduct the complete Belle Monte Carlo simulation chain on EC2 to benchmark the cost and performance of the service. This paper will describe how this was achieved in addition to the drawbacks and costs of large-scale Monte Carlo production on EC2.

  7. Scientific Opinion on application EFSA-GMO-NL-2007-45 for the placing on the market of herbicide-tolerant, high-oleic acid, genetically modified soybean 305423 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003 from Pioneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean 305423 was developed through particle bombardment and contains gm-fad2-1 and gm-hra expression cassettes, conferring a high oleic acid profile and tolerance to acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Bioinformatic analyses and genetic stability studies did not raise safety issues. Levels of the GM-HRA protein in soybean 305423 have been sufficiently analysed. Soybean 305423 differs from the conventional counterpart in the seed fatty acid profile and for the presence of the GM-HRA protein. It is agronomically equivalent to non-GM reference soybeans. The safety assessment of GM-HRA identified no concerns regarding potential toxicity and allergenicity. There are no indications that the overall allergenicity of soybean 305423 has changed. Nutritional assessment on soybean 305423 oil and derived food products did not identify concerns on human health and nutrition. There are no concerns regarding the use of feeding stuffs derived from soybean 305423. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral GM soybean plants. Environmental risks associated with an unlikely, but theoretically possible, horizontal gene transfer from soybean 305423 to bacteria have not been identified. Potential biotic and abiotic interactions of soybean 305423 were not considered to be an issue owing to the low level of environmental exposure. The post-market environmental monitoring plan is in line with the scope of soybean 305423. The EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for soybean 305423 addresses the scientific comments raised by the Member States and states that the soybean 305423, as described in the application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment in the context of the scope. The GMO Panel recommends a post-market monitoring plan, focusing on the collection of consumption data for the European

  8. Stability of the Gel Electrolyte PAN : EC : PC : LICF3SO3 towards Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the gel electrolyte consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF) towards metallic lithium was investigated using the time evolution of impedance plots. Symmetric cells of the form Li...... / PAN : EC : PC: LiTF / Li were assembled and impedance data were collected at room temperature for one week. A clear indication of growth of a resistive layer could be seen. The electrolyte resistance remained constant. The growth of the passivation layer became constant after first two days...

  9. Stability of the Gel Electrolyte PAN : EC : PC : LICF3SO3 towards Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Skaarup, Steen; West, K.

    2006-01-01

    The stability of the gel electrolyte consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3 – LiTF) towards metallic lithium was investigated using the time evolution of impedance plots. Symmetric cells of the form Li...... / PAN : EC : PC: LiTF / Li were assembled and impedance data were collected at room temperature for one week. A clear indication of growth of a resistive layer could be seen. The electrolyte resistance remained constant. The growth of the passivation layer became constant after first two days....... These observations suggest that this gel electrolyte is suitable for use with metallic lithium....

  10. Decolorization of distillery spent wash effluent by electro oxidation (EC and EF) and Fenton processes: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Charles; Arivazhagan, M; Tuvakara, Fazaludeen

    2015-11-01

    In this study, laboratory scale experiments were performed to degrade highly concentrated organic matter in the form of color in the distillery spent wash through batch oxidative methods such as electrocoagulation (EC), electrofenton (EF) and Fenton process. The effect of corresponding operating parameters, namely initial pH: 2-10; current intensity: 1-5A; electrolysis time: 0.5-4h; agitation speed: 100-500rpm; inter-electrode distance: 0.5-4cm and Fenton's reagent dosage: 5-40mg/L was employed for optimizing the process of spent wash color removal. The performance of all the three processes was compared and assessed in terms of percentage color removal. For EC, 79% color removal was achieved using iron electrodes arranged with 0.5cm of inter-electrode space and at optimum conditions of pH 7, 5A current intensity, 300rpm agitation speed and in 2h of electrolysis time. In EF, 44% spent wash decolorization was observed using carbon (graphite) electrodes with an optimum conditions of 0.5cm inter-electrode distance, pH 3, 4A current intensity, 20mg/L FeSO4 and agitation speed of 400rpm for 3h of electrolysis time. By Fenton process, 66% decolorization was attained by Fenton process at optimized conditions of pH 3, 40mg/L of Fenton's reagent and at 500rpm of agitation speed for 4h of treatment time.

  11. In vessel characterization and first power tests on plasma of the Real-Time controllable EC launcher on FTU Tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardone A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Electron Cyclotron (EC fast launcher for real time control experiments has been installed on FTU and characterized to be fully integrated in a real-time MHD control module under development. The launcher scheme is based on a two module system, symmetric with respect to the equatorial plane of FTU, with a front steering concept and the launched beams are real-time controllable both in poloidal and toroidal directions. Specific design parameters, defined by the FTU MHD dynamics (typically island size and q profile changes, are the beam dimensions with zooming capabilities, the steering range and mirror speed with the most demanding requirement on poloidal speed of the Steering Mirror (SM Δθ = 1° in 10 ms. A set of tests has been done to verify the system performance. High power tests of the launcher have been done on a 500 kA, 0.5·1020m−3 and 5.3 T plasma with 2·300 kW of EC power delivered to the plasma. The steering mechanism was tested under the automatic control system and showed a dynamic response in line with the requirements. Results of these tests will be presented in the paper.

  12. E. coli histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (ecHinT) is a catalytic regulator of D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaweel, Sanaa; Ghosh, Brahma; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Sadowsky, Michael J; Wagner, Carston R

    2011-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins (Hints) are highly conserved members of the histidine triad (HIT) protein superfamily. Hints comprise the most ancient branch of this superfamily and can be found in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. Prokaryotic genomes, including a wide diversity of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, typically have one Hint gene encoded by hinT (ycfF in E. coli). Despite their ubiquity, the foundational reason for the wide-spread conservation of Hints across all kingdoms of life remains a mystery. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic screening and complementation analyses with wild-type and hinT knock-out Escherichia coli strains to show that catalytically active ecHinT is required in E. coli for growth on D-alanine as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the expression of catalytically active ecHinT is essential for the activity of the enzyme D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA) (equivalent to D-amino acid oxidase in eukaryotes), a necessary component of the D-alanine catabolic pathway. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that catalytically active C-terminal mutants of ecHinT are unable to activate DadA activity. In addition, we have designed and synthesized the first cell-permeable inhibitor of ecHinT and demonstrated that the wild-type E. coli treated with the inhibitor exhibited the same phenotype observed for the hinT knock-out strain. These results reveal that the catalytic activity and structure of ecHinT is essential for DadA function and therefore alanine metabolism in E. coli. Moreover, they provide the first biochemical evidence linking the catalytic activity of this ubiquitous protein to the biological function of Hints in Escherichia coli.

  13. E. coli histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (ecHinT is a catalytic regulator of D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA activity in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Bardaweel

    Full Text Available Histidine triad nucleotide binding proteins (Hints are highly conserved members of the histidine triad (HIT protein superfamily. Hints comprise the most ancient branch of this superfamily and can be found in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota. Prokaryotic genomes, including a wide diversity of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, typically have one Hint gene encoded by hinT (ycfF in E. coli. Despite their ubiquity, the foundational reason for the wide-spread conservation of Hints across all kingdoms of life remains a mystery. In this study, we used a combination of phenotypic screening and complementation analyses with wild-type and hinT knock-out Escherichia coli strains to show that catalytically active ecHinT is required in E. coli for growth on D-alanine as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the expression of catalytically active ecHinT is essential for the activity of the enzyme D-alanine dehydrogenase (DadA (equivalent to D-amino acid oxidase in eukaryotes, a necessary component of the D-alanine catabolic pathway. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that catalytically active C-terminal mutants of ecHinT are unable to activate DadA activity. In addition, we have designed and synthesized the first cell-permeable inhibitor of ecHinT and demonstrated that the wild-type E. coli treated with the inhibitor exhibited the same phenotype observed for the hinT knock-out strain. These results reveal that the catalytic activity and structure of ecHinT is essential for DadA function and therefore alanine metabolism in E. coli. Moreover, they provide the first biochemical evidence linking the catalytic activity of this ubiquitous protein to the biological function of Hints in Escherichia coli.

  14. Contribuição ao estudo da cárie dentária em crianças de 0-30 meses Contribution to the study of dental caries in 0-30-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de BARROS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as condições de saúde bucal de 340 crianças de 0-30 meses de idade (21,3 ± 5,6, sendo 54,4% meninos, 45,6% meninas, de 20 creches de Salvador, considerando lesões incipientes e relacionando-as a alguns fatores determinantes da cárie. Os exames foram realizados por um único examinador utilizando-se espelho, sonda e lanterna. Os dentes foram limpos, secos com gaze e as lesões classificadas de acordo com o grau de severidade em cinco níveis (C0-C4; ativa/inativa. Um questionário avaliou o conhecimento sobre a cárie, fatores de risco, instrução, renda familiar e uso de flúor. Foram incluídos 229 questionários (67,35%. A análise dos dados foi realizada no Epi-info 6.02. Observou-se uma prevalência de cárie de 55,3% quando todos os estágios da lesão foram considerados: 25% entre 0-12 meses; 51,18% entre 13-24 meses; 71,03% entre 25-30 meses (chi² = 25,31; p This study evaluated the oral health conditions of 340 children, aged 0-30 months (21.3 ± 5.6 - 54.4% of girls and 45.6% of boys - from 20 public day nurseries of Salvador (Brazil, as to the presence of incipient carious lesions. The exam was carried out by a single examiner, who utilized a mirror, a probe and a penlight. The teeth were wiped with gauzes in order to remove the dental plaque. A questionnaire was answered by the children’s parents or caretakers in order to assess information regarding knowledge on caries, caries risk factors, socioeconomic status of the family and utilization of fluoride. Two hundred and twenty-nine answered questionnaires (67.35% were obtained. The observed lesions were classified in five stages, according to their severity (C0-C4; active/inactive. The data were analyzed using the Epi-info 6.02. The prevalence of caries was 55.3% when all stages were registered: 25% for subjects aged 0-12 months, 51.18% for subjects aged 13-24 months and 71.03% for those aged 25-30 months (chi² = 25.31, p < 0.01. When only active white

  15. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  16. Vibration Maintenance of EC-225 Helicopter Main Rotor Blade%EC-225直升机主桨叶振动维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟恢芳

    2013-01-01

      长期过大的振动将加速直升机部件的疲劳损伤,振动维护的目标就是将振动控制在最小范围内,从而保证部件及机体结构的持续有效性。本文从桨叶锥体的角度出发,结合维护操作手册,研究了EC-225直升机主桨叶振动的维护方法。

  17. A miniature integrated multimodal sensor for measuring pH, EC and temperature for precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Taichi; Murata, Hiroaki; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si(3)N(4) membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  18. Industrial training in the Netherlands : A comparison with some other EC countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A.M. Aalders; F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe substantial differences in industrial training participation rates and costs at industry level are examined. Data on costs and participation rates for the European Community (EC) member states are presented, and attention is drawn to the differences in training systems among the coun

  19. Inventory of revisions in the EC Technical Guidance Documents (TGDs) on risk assessment of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luit RJ; Beems J; Benthem J van; Bodar CWM; Engelen JGM van; Hulzebos EM; Loveren H van; Maslankiewicz L; Pronk MEJ; Piersma AH; Rennen MAJ; Sijm THM; Zweers PGPC; SEC; TOX; SIR

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of an inventory made in 2002 by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) on the revisions of the EC Technical Guidance Documents (TGDs) in support of risk assessment for newly notified substances, existing substances and biocides. The

  20. Achievements & bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: Final results from the EC DELVE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den

    2008-01-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology

  1. A Miniature Integrated Multimodal Sensor for Measuring pH, EC and Temperature for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Murata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si3N4 membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  2. Interdecadal North-Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability in EC-EARTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.; Drijfhout, D.; Hazeleger, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) in a 600 years pre-industrial run of the newly developed EC-EARTH model features marked interdecadal variability with a dominant time-scale of 50–60 years. An oscillation of approximately 2 Sverdrup (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) is identified, which manif

  3. [Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products : Incorporation into national law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, A; Strassburger, J; Schwerdtfeger, W

    2010-01-01

    Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 has created a new legal framework for advanced therapy medicinal products (gene therapy medicinal products, somatic cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products). The Regulation is directly applicable in the Member States of the European Union and, in principle, requires no incorporation into national law. However, the amendment of Directive 2001/83/EC, which results from Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, has created a need for incorporation into and amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act. This is one of the objectives of the 15th amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act. In particular, the definition "advanced therapy medicinal products" and the special provisions for advanced therapy medicinal products prepared on a non-routine basis, which are based on the special provisions contained in Art. 28 No. 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, are to be incorporated into the German Medicinal Products Act. These special provisions will be explained in detail.

  4. Ferro-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS an LC/EC/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiwert, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Within this thesis, the development and application of ferrocene-based derivatizing agents for LC/MS and LC/EC/MS is presented. The advantages of derivatization by ferrocenes are the similtaneous introduction of a mass tag and an electroactive group, which make them ideally suited for LC/MS and esp

  5. Supplementary light and higher fertigation EC in the cultivation of bromelia improve quality and accelerate growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Warmenhoven, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In order to provide Bromelia growers with lacking information about optimal levels of supplementary light and nutrient EC, two consecutive greenhouse experiments were conducted by Wageningen UR Glasshouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk (The Netherlands). In the first experiment a light intensit

  6. Synergistic protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by neutrophils blockade and EC-SOD overexpression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen may damage the lung directly via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS or indirectly via the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD has been shown to protect the lung against hyperoxia in the newborn mouse model. The CXC-chemokine receptor antagonist (Antileukinate successfully inhibits neutrophil influx into the lung following a variety of pulmonary insults. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the combined strategy of overexpression of EC-SOD and inhibiting neutrophil influx would reduce the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the lung after acute hyperoxic exposure more efficiently than either single intervention. Methods Neonate transgenic (Tg (with an extra copy of hEC-SOD and wild type (WT were exposed to acute hyperoxia (95% FiO2 for 7 days and compared to matched room air groups. Inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, albumin, number of inflammatory cells, oxidative markers (8-isoprostane, ratio of reduced/oxidized glutathione, and histopathology were examined in groups exposed to room air or hyperoxia. During the exposure, some mice received a daily intraperitoneal injection of Antileukinate. Results Antileukinate-treated Tg mice had significantly decreased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress compared to Antileukinate-treated WT mice (p p  Conclusion Combined strategy of EC-SOD and neutrophil influx blockade may have a therapeutic benefit in protecting the lung against acute hyperoxic injury.

  7. Proteomics-Based Metabolic Modeling Reveals That Fatty Acid Oxidation (FAO) Controls Endothelial Cell (EC) Permeability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Francesca; Schug, Zachary T.; Persi, Erez; Neilson, Lisa J.; Erami, Zahra; Avanzato, Daniele; Maione, Federica; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R.; Mackay, Gillian; Zheng, Liang; Reid, Steven; Frezza, Christian; Giraudo, Enrico; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Anderson, Kurt; Ruppin, Eytan; Gottlieb, Eyal; Zanivan, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role to maintain the functionality of blood vessels. Altered EC permeability causes severe impairment in vessel stability and is a hallmark of pathologies such as cancer and thrombosis. Integrating label-free quantitative proteomics data into genome-wide metabolic modeling, we built up a model that predicts the metabolic fluxes in ECs when cultured on a tridimensional matrix and organize into a vascular-like network. We discovered how fatty acid oxidation increases when ECs are assembled into a fully formed network that can be disrupted by inhibiting CPT1A, the fatty acid oxidation rate-limiting enzyme. Acute CPT1A inhibition reduces cellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption, which are restored by replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Remarkably, global phosphoproteomic changes measured upon acute CPT1A inhibition pinpointed altered calcium signaling. Indeed, CPT1A inhibition increases intracellular calcium oscillations. Finally, inhibiting CPT1A induces hyperpermeability in vitro and leakage of blood vessel in vivo, which were restored blocking calcium influx or replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid oxidation emerges as central regulator of endothelial functions and blood vessel stability and druggable pathway to control pathological vascular permeability. PMID:25573745

  8. Studies with the EC-Earth seamless Earth system prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Bintanja, R.

    2012-01-01

    EC-Earth is a new Earth System Model (ESM) based on the operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Climate and weather forecasting applications share a common ancestry and are build on the same physical principles. The emerging concept of

  9. Fiscal Forecasting: the Track Record of the IMF, OECD, and EC

    OpenAIRE

    Artis, Michael J; Marcellino, Massimiliano

    1999-01-01

    We analyse the relative performance of the IMF, OECD and EC in forecasting the government deficit, as a ratio to DGP, for the G7 countries. Interesting differences across countries emerge, sometimes supporting the hypothesis of an asymmetric loss function (i.e., of a preference for underprediction or overprediction), and potential benefits from forecast pooling.

  10. Vegetation relevés and soil measurements in the Netherlands: the Ecological Conditions Database (EC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Adrichem, van M.H.C.; Dobben, van H.F.; Frissel, J.Y.; Held, den M.E.; Joosten, V.; Malinowska, A.H.; Slim, P.A.; Wegman, R.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its establishment around 1990, the Ecological Conditions Database (EC; GIVD ID EU-00-006) has been accumulating vegetation relevés from the Netherlands, each accompanied by at least one abiotic soil measurement (e.g. pH or nutrient availability). On 1-1-2010, the database contained 8,229 relev

  11. Proteomics-based metabolic modeling reveals that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) controls endothelial cell (EC) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Francesca; Schug, Zachary T; Persi, Erez; Neilson, Lisa J; Erami, Zahra; Avanzato, Daniele; Maione, Federica; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R; Mackay, Gillian; Zheng, Liang; Reid, Steven; Frezza, Christian; Giraudo, Enrico; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Anderson, Kurt; Ruppin, Eytan; Gottlieb, Eyal; Zanivan, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role to maintain the functionality of blood vessels. Altered EC permeability causes severe impairment in vessel stability and is a hallmark of pathologies such as cancer and thrombosis. Integrating label-free quantitative proteomics data into genome-wide metabolic modeling, we built up a model that predicts the metabolic fluxes in ECs when cultured on a tridimensional matrix and organize into a vascular-like network. We discovered how fatty acid oxidation increases when ECs are assembled into a fully formed network that can be disrupted by inhibiting CPT1A, the fatty acid oxidation rate-limiting enzyme. Acute CPT1A inhibition reduces cellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption, which are restored by replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Remarkably, global phosphoproteomic changes measured upon acute CPT1A inhibition pinpointed altered calcium signaling. Indeed, CPT1A inhibition increases intracellular calcium oscillations. Finally, inhibiting CPT1A induces hyperpermeability in vitro and leakage of blood vessel in vivo, which were restored blocking calcium influx or replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid oxidation emerges as central regulator of endothelial functions and blood vessel stability and druggable pathway to control pathological vascular permeability.

  12. Improvements for the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico ADCIRC Tidal Database (EC2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Szpilka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research details the development and validation of an updated constituent tidal database for the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (WNAT region, referred to as the EC2015 database. Regional databases, such as EC2015, provide much higher resolution than global databases allowing users to more accurately define the tidal forcing on smaller sub-region domains. The database last underwent major updates in 2001 and was developed using the two-dimensional, depth-integrated form of the coastal hydrodynamic model, ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC, which solves the shallow-water equations in the generalized wave continuity equation form. Six main areas of improvement are examined: (1 placement of the open ocean boundary; (2 higher coastal resolution using Vertical Datum (VDatum models; (3 updated bathymetry from global databases; (4 updated boundary forcing compared using two global tidal databases; (5 updated bottom friction formulations; and (6 improved model physics by incorporating the advective terms in ADCIRC. The skill of the improved database is compared to that of its predecessor and is calculated using harmonic data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (NOAA CO-OPS stations and historic International Hydrographic Organization (IHO data. Overall, the EC2015 database significantly reduces errors realized in the EC2001 database and improves the quality of coastal tidal constituents available for smaller sub-regional models in the Western North Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico (WNAT region.

  13. Localization and Spectroscopic Analysis of the Cu(I Binding Site in Wheat Metallothionein Ec-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsiaryna Tarasava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (MT from Triticum aestivum (common wheat, denoted Ec-1, features two structurally well-defined domains, γ and βE, coordinating two and four Zn(II ions, respectively. While the protein is currently assumed to function mainly in zinc homeostasis, a low amount of copper ions was also recently detected in a native Ec-1 sample. To evaluate the observed copper binding in more detail, the recombinant Zn6Ec-1 form was exposed to different amounts of Cu(I ions and the resulting species characterized with spectroscopic methods. Data reveal that the first Cu(I equivalent coordinates exclusively to the N-terminal γ-domain of the protein and replaces one Zn(II ion. To analyze the ability of the γ-domain for coordination of monovalent metal ions in more detail, the γ-Ec-1 peptide fragment was incubated with increasing amounts of Cu(I and the process monitored with UV–VIS, circular dichroism, and luminescence spectroscopy. Closely similar spectra are observed regardless if the apo- or the metal ion-loaded and, hence, pre-folded forms, were used for the titration experiments with Cu(I. The results indicate that low amounts of Cu(I ions displace the two metal ions subsequently and stoichiometrically, despite the different coordination geometry requirements of Cu(I and Zn(II.

  14. Artificial intelligence in process control: Knowledge base for the shuttle ECS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, A. Kent

    1989-01-01

    The general operation of KATE, an artificial intelligence controller, is outlined. A shuttle environmental control system (ECS) demonstration system for KATE is explained. The knowledge base model for this system is derived. An experimental test procedure is given to verify parameters in the model.

  15. ETV VR/VS SUNSET LABORATORY MODEL 4 OC-EC FIELD ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a verification report statement that describes the verification test which was conducted over a period of approximately 30 days (April 5 to May 7, 2013) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate Model 4 OC-EC analyzers at the Battelle Columbus Operations Special ...

  16. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  17. Thermal stability of LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingsong; SUN Jinhua; CHEN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion battery electrolyte could substantially affect the safety of lithium-ion battery. In order to disclose the thermal stability of 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC)+dimethyl carbonate (DMC)+ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) electrolyte, a micro calorimeter C80 micro calorimeter was used in this paper. The electrolyte samples were heated in argon atmosphere, and the heat flow and pressure performances were detected. It is found that LiPF6 influences the thermal behavior remarkably, with more heat generation and lower onset temperature. LiPF6/EC shows an exothermic peak at 212 ℃ with a heat of reaction -355.4J·g-1.DMC based LiPF6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 68.5 and 187 ℃ in argon filled vessel at elevated temperature. EMC based LiPF 6 solution shows two endothermic peak temperatures at 191 and 258 ℃ in argon filled vessel.1.0mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+ EMC electrolyte shows an endothermic and exothermic process one after the other at elevated temperature. By comparing with the thermal behavior of single solvent based LiPF6 solution, it can be speculated that LiPF6 may react with EC, DMC and EMC separately in 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte, but the exothermic peak is lower than that of 1.0 mol·L-1LiPF6/EC solution. Furthermore, The 1.0 mol·L-1 LiPF6 /EC+DMC+EMC electrolyte decomposition reaction order was calculated based on the pressure data, its value is n =1.83, and the pressure rate constants kp=6.49×10-2k Pa·-0.83·min-1 .

  18. Assessment of Mediterranean cyclones in the multi-ensemble EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Victoria; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    The geographical location and characteristics of the Mediterranean basin make this a particularly active region in terms of cyclone forming and re-development (Trigo et al., 2002). The area is affected by moving depressions, most originated over the North Atlantic, which may later be forced by the orography surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and enhanced by the local source of moisture and heat fluxes over the Sea itself. The present work analyses the response of Mediterranean cyclones to climate change by means of 7 ensemble members of EC-EARTH model from CMIP5 (Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project). We restrict the analysis to a relatively small subset (7 members) of the total number of ensemble members available in order to take into account only the members present in the three selected experiments for robust detection of extra-tropical cyclones in the Mediterranean (Trigo, 2006). We have applied the standard procedure by comparing a common 25-year period of the historical (1980-2004), present day simulations, and the future climate simulations (2074-2098) forced by RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The study area corresponds to the window between 10°W-42°E and 27°N-48°N. The analysis is performed with a focus in spatial distribution density and main characteristics of the overall cyclones for winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) seasons. Despite the discrepancies in cyclone numbers when compared with the ERA Interim common period (reducing to only 72% in DJF and 78% in JJA), the ensemble average matches relatively well the main spatial patterns of areas. Results indicate that the ensemble average is characterized by a small decrease in winter (-3%) and a notable increase in summer (+10%) in total number of cyclones and that the individual ensemble members reveal small spread. Such tendency is particularly pronounced under the high RCP8.5 emission scenario being more moderated under the RCP4.5 scenario. Additionally, an assessment of changes in the annual cycle

  19. Plasma rotation and NTM onset driven by central EC deposition in TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.; Lazzaro, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Sauter, O.; Canal, G.; Duval, B.; Federspiel, L.; Karpushov, A. N.; Kim, D.; Reimerders, H.; Rossel, J.; Testa, D.; Wagner, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Raju, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Collaboration: TCV Team

    2014-02-12

    The effects of the central electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) on the spontaneous plasma rotation and on the presence of Tearing Modes (TM), observed in the TCV tokamak[1], were recently investigated as an interplay between the toroidal velocity and NTM onset in absence of sawteeth, ELMs and error fields [2–3]. In a set of reproducible TCV discharges (I{sub p}∼ −150 kA, B{sub t}∼ −1.4 T, ne,{sub av∼} 1.5 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, T{sub e}∼ 3 keV and T{sub i}∼0.25 keV, q{sub 95}∼5.8) with both pure EC heating and current drive the cnt-Ip toroidal velocity was observed to be reduced with subsequent co-Ip appearance of 3/2 and 2/1 modes during the ramp up EC phases. The understanding of the capability of the on-axis EC power to modify the rotation profiles before and after the TM onset and of the sudden disappearance of 3/2 mode when 2/1 starts is the main purpose of this work. The velocity profile modifications are due to a direct effect of the EC absorbed power and also related to some variation of the perpendicular diffusion of the toroidal momentum and to magnetic braking effects of the kind of neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) due to the NTM resonant field perturbations associated to the presence of TM. Numerical investigations are performed using a 1D toroidal momentum balance equation including contributions by external sources, as EC power, and NTV torques. Furthermore, the combined evolution of the 3/2 and 2/1 modes requires considering also coupling effects included in a generalized Rutherford equation for the modelling of the TM time growth.

  20. Variation of OC, EC, WSIC and trace metals of PM10 in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.; Saxena, Mohit; Rashmi; Sharma, A.; Datta, A.; Saud, T.

    2014-06-01

    Variation of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble inorganic ionic components (WSIC) and major and trace elements of particulate matter (PM10) were studied over Delhi, an urban site of the Indo Gangatic Plain (IGP), India in 2010. Strong seasonal variation was noticed in the mass concentration of PM10 and its chemical composition with maxima during winter (PM10: 213.1±14.9 μg m-3; OC: 36.05±11.60 μg m-3; EC: 9.64±2.56 μg m-3) and minima during monsoon (PM10: 134.7±39.9 μg m-3; OC: 14.72±6.95 μg m-3; EC: 3.35±1.45 μg m-3). The average concentration of major and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, CA, Cr, Ti, Fe, Zn and Mn) was accounted for ~17% of the PM10 mass. Average values of K+/EC (0.28) and Cl-/EC (0.59) suggest the influences of biomass burning in PM10, whereas, higher concentration of Ca2+ suggests the soil erosion as possible source from the nearby agricultural field. Fe/Al ratio (0.34) indicates mineral dust as a source at the sampling site, similarly, Ca/Al ratio (2.45) indicates that aerosol over this region is rich in Ca mineral compared to average upper continental crust. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis quantifies the contribution of soil dust (20.7%), vehicle emissions (17.0%), secondary aerosols (21.7%), fossil fuel combustion (17.4%) and biomass burning (14.3%) to PM10 mass concentration at the observational site of Delhi.

  1. Determination of the priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC Directives in the surface waters supplying water treatment plants of Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, Spyros K; Nikolaou, Anastasia D; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Kotrikla, Anna Maria; Vagi, Maria C; Petsas, Andreas S; Lekkas, Demetris F; Lekkas, Themistokles D

    2017-03-21

    An investigation into the occurrence of priority substances regulated by 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and 2008/105/EC Directive was conducted for a period of one year in the surface water sources supplying the water treatment plants (WTPs) of Athens and in the raw water of WTPs. Samples from four reservoirs and four water treatment plants of Athens were taken seasonally. The substances are divided into seven specific groups, including eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), diethylhexylphthalate, four organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), three organophosphorus/organonitrogen pesticides (OPPs/ONPs), four triazines and phenylurea herbicides, pentachlorophenol, and four metals. The aforementioned substances belong to different chemical categories, and different analytical methods were performed for their determination. The results showed that the surface waters that feed the WTPs of Athens are not burdened with significant levels of toxic substances identified as European Union (EU) priority substances. Atrazine, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, trifluralin, anthracene and 4-nonylphenol were occasionally observed at very low concentrations. Their presence in a limited number of cases could be attributed to waste disposal, agricultural activities, and to a limited industrial activity in the area nearby the water bodies.

  2. Ecdysone Receptor (EcR Is Involved in the Transcription of Cell Cycle Genes in the Silkworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Qian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EcR (ecdysone receptor-mediated ecdysone signaling pathway contributes to regulate the transcription of genes involved in various processes during insect development. In this work, we detected the expression of EcR gene in silkworm ovary-derived BmN4 cells and found that EcR RNAi result in an alteration of cell shape, indicating that EcR may orchestrate cell cycle progression. EcR RNAi and EcR overexpression analysis revealed that in the cultured BmN4 cells, EcR respectively promoted and suppressed the transcription of E2F-1 and CycE, two genes controlling cell cycle progression. Further examination demonstrated that ecdysone application in BmN4 cells not only changed the transcription of these two cell cycle genes like that under EcR overexpression, but also induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. In vivo analysis confirmed that E2F-1 expression was elevated in silk gland of silkworm larvae after ecdysone application, which is same as its response to ecdysone in BmN4 cells. However, ecdysone also promotes CycE transcription in silk gland, and this is converse with the observation in BmN4 cells. These results provide new insights into understanding the roles of EcR-mediated ecdysone signaling in the regulation of cell cycle.

  3. The EC in the WTO: The three-level game of decision-making. What multilateralism can learn from regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Leal-Arcas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative institutional analysis of the EC's decision-making process in trade policy by focusing on three variables, i.e., competence (whether national or EC competence in EC trade policy, control (who controls the EC's position in international trade negotiations: the Commission or the EU Member States? and efficiency versus accountability (technocratic versus democratic trade policy at the national and supranational levels. The empirical background is the World Trade Organization, to which the EC and its Member States are members and, more precisely, the Doha Development Agenda, where the position of the EC is analyzed. The EC institutions and their interaction with EU Member States' institutions and trade policy is the core of this paper. The problems that the enlarged EU will face in its internal decision-making process (such as transparency, efficiency, accountability can be paralleled to the WTO's decision-making process, and thus the European experience can be used as a role or guidance in the WTO forum so that we can learn from the EC's benefits and, more importantly, avoid the mistakes of the European experience in the decision-making process of international trade fora . The paper concludes that EC trade policy, as well as WTO rules and policies, need to change to become more efficient and accountable at the same time as they address the issue of lack of transparency and legitimacy of the current system of governance, denounced by the Laeken European Council. Thus, more leadership is needed.

  4. Lithium Ethylene Dicarbonate Identified as the Primary Product ofChemical and Electrochemical Reduction of EC in EC:EMC/1.2M LiPF6Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Guorong V.; Xu, Kang; Yang, Hui; Jow, T. Richard; RossJr., Philip N.

    2005-05-11

    Lithium ethylene dicarbonate (CH2OCO2Li)2 was chemically synthesized and its Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was obtained and compared with that of surface films formed on Ni after cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.2M lithium hexafluorophosphate(LiPF6)/ethylene carbonate (EC): ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, w/w) electrolyte and on metallic lithium cleaved in-situ in the same electrolyte. By comparison of IR experimental spectra with that of the synthesized compound, we established that the title compound is the predominant surface species in both instances. Detailed analysis of the IR spectrum utilizing quantum chemical (Hartree-Fock) calculations indicates that intermolecular association through O...Li...O interactions is very important in this compound. It is likely that the title compound in passivation layer has a highly associated structure, but the exact intermolecular conformation could not be established based on analysis of the IR spectrum.

  5. HbIDI, SlIDI and EcIDI: A comparative study of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase activity and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Estevez, Yannick; Quiliano, Miguel; Baldera-Aguayo, Pedro A; Zimic, Mirko; Pribat, Anne; Bakleh, Marc-Elias; Teyssier, Emeline; Gallusci, Philippe; Gardrat, Christian; Lecomte, Sophie; Peruch, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (IDIs) from two plants, Hevea brasiliensis and Solanum lycopersicum, and compared them to the already well characterized Escherichia coli IDI. Phylogenetic analysis showed high homology between the three enzymes. Their catalytic activity was investigated in vitro with recombinant purified enzymes and in vivo by complementation colorimetric tests. The three enzymes displayed consistent activities both in vitro and in vivo. In term of structure, studied by ATR-FTIR and molecular modeling, it is clear that both plant enzymes are more related to their human homologue than to E. coli IDI. But it is assumed that EcIDI represent the minimalistic part of the catalytic core, as both plant enzymes present a supplementary sequence forming an extra α-helice surrounding the catalytic site that could facilitate the biocatalysis. New potential biotechnological applications may be envisaged.

  6. IOS and ECS line coupling calculation for the CO-He system - Influence on the vibration-rotation band shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoles, J.; Boulet, C.; Robert, D.; Green, S.

    1987-01-01

    Line coupling coefficients resulting from rotational excitation of CO perturbed by He are computed within the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA) and within the energy corrected sudden approximation (ECSA). The influence of this line coupling on the 1-0 CO-He vibration-rotation band shape is then computed for the case of weakly overlapping lines in the 292-78 K temperature range. The IOS and ECS results differ only at 78 K by a weak amount at high frequencies. Comparison with an additive superposition of Lorentzian lines shows strong modifications in the troughs between the lines. These calculated modifications are in excellent quantitative agreement with recent experimental data for all the temperatures considered. The applicability of previous approaches to CO-He system, based on either the strong collision model or exponential energy gap law, is also discussed.

  7. Cellular growth under hydrostatic pressure using bovine aortic EC-SMC co-cultured ePTFE vascular graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lei; NIWA Koichi; LIN Jian-zhong; KARINO Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Blood vessels are constantly subjected to stretch due to blood pressure and changes in stretch usually instigate adaptive vascular remodeling, including abnormal growth and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as extracellular matrix (ECM). In this experiment, we used bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (EC-SMC) co-cultured ePTFE vascular grafts subjected to normal atmospheric pressure (as a control), and 100 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 7 d. The increase of cell layer thickness was observed. When measured, the cell layer thickness increased by 116.2%. The increase of collagen (Type Ⅳ)synthesis was also observed in the immunohistochemistry assay. When stained with toluidine blue, the cells showed metachromatic phenomenon.

  8. Systematic study of EC decays in the {sup 146}Gd region relevant for a monoenergetic neutrino beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Aguado, Maria Esther; Algora, Alejandro; Rubio, Berta; Bernabeu, Jose; Nacher, Enrique; Tain, Jose Luis; Gadea, Andres [IFIC (CSIC-UV), Valencia (Spain); Cano, Daniel [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Burkard, Karlheinz; Doering, Joachim; Gierlik, Michal; Hueller, Wilfried; Kirchner, Reinhard; Mukha, Ivan; Plettner, Cristina; Roeckl, Ernest [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Valiente, Jose Javier [INFN, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Batist, Leonid [PNPI, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The availability of a monochromatic neutrino source with adjustable energy could be an invaluable tool for the study of Charge-Parity (CP) violation in the leptonic sector in the frame of the Electroweak Theory of the Standard Model. It has been proposed to use as a neutrino source nuclei that decay by means of the electron capture (EC) process inside a storage ring. A systematic study of candidate nuclei in the {sup 146}Gd region has been carried out. In this contribution we show the results of the experimental study of the beta decay of two possible candidate nuclei ({sup 152}Yb and {sup 150}Er) using the Total Absortion Gamma Spectroscopy (TAGS) technique. A comparison of these results with earlier high resolution measurements is discussed.

  9. Resultados preliminares de 7 provincias argentinas en el marco de una propuesta de Evaluación Nacional de la Inteligencia Sensoriomotriz a bebes de 6 a 30 meses Preliminary results from 7 provinces of argentina within a proposition of a National Assessment of Sensory Motor Intelligence for argentinean babies of 6 to 30 months old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. Oiberman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo es presentar los resultados preliminares de siete provincias argentinas correspondientes a una investigación que se enmarca en un proyecto UBACyT 2008-2010, cuyo título es "Evaluación Nacional de la Inteligencia Sensoriomotriz a bebés de 6 a 30 meses". El objetivo principal de dicha investigación es conocer las etapas del proceso de construcción de la inteligencia práctica en bebés argentinos en las distintas provincias de la Argentina y la elaboración de baremos a nivel nacional y por cada provincia, administrando la Escala Argentina de Inteligencia Sensoriomotriz (EAIS. La muestra se encuentra compuesta por 109 niños de las provincias de Santa Fe, Santa Cruz, Río Negro, Entre Ríos, Salta, Córdoba y Buenos Aires. En el análisis de los datos, se observó que el 67% de los niños evaluados obtuvieron resultados normales, 16.5% de riesgo y 3.7% de retraso. Es decir, el 20% de los niños evaluados obtuvieron resultados de riesgo y retraso.The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results from seven provinces of Argentina within an investigation belonging to UBACyT 2008-2010, which title is "National assessment of the sensorymotor intelligence in babies of 6 to 30 months old". The main objective of the research is to assess the periods involved in the construction process of the practical intelligence in Argentinean babies from different provinces, as well as the elaboration of national and provincial percentiles, administrating the Argentinean scale of Sensorymotor intelligence (EAIS. The sample is composed by 109 babies from the Argentinean provinces of Santa Fe, Salta Cruz, Río Negro, Entre Ríos, Salta, Córdoba y Buenos Aires. In the analysis of the data, it was observed that 67% of the babies obtained normal results, 16.5% obtained results indicating risk and 3.7% delayed. In other words, 20% of the assessed babies obtained results indicating risk and delayed in the sensorymotor intelligence.

  10. Response of the North African summer monsoon to precession and obliquity forcings in the EC-Earth GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, J. H. C.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Tuenter, E.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, for the first time, the response of the North African summer monsoon to separate precession and obliquity forcings using a high-resolution state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model, EC-Earth. Our aim is to better understand the mechanisms underlying the astronomical forcing of this low-latitude climate system in detail. The North African monsoon is strengthened when northern hemisphere summer insolation is higher, as is the case in the minimum precession and maximum obliquity experiments. In these experiments, the low surface pressure areas over the Sahara are intensified and located farther north, and the meridional pressure gradient is further enhanced by a stronger South Atlantic high pressure area. As a result, the southwesterly monsoon winds are stronger and bring more moisture into the monsoon region from both the northern and southern tropical Atlantic. The monsoon winds, precipitation and convection also extend farther north into North Africa. The precession-induced changes are much larger than those induced by obliquity, but the latter are remarkable because obliquity-induced changes in summer insolation over the tropics are nearly zero. Our results provide a different explanation than previously proposed for mechanisms underlying the precession- and, especially, obliquity-related signals in paleoclimate proxy records of the North African monsoon. The EC-Earth experiments reveal that, instead of higher latitude mechanisms, increased moisture transport from both the northern and southern tropical Atlantic is responsible for the precession and obliquity signals in the North African monsoon. This increased moisture transport results from both increased insolation and an increased tropical insolation gradient.

  11. External cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) spectroscopy for protein analysis in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Alcaráz, Mirta Raquel; Quintás, Guillermo; Mayer, Helmut; Vento, Máximo; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-04-22

    The analytical determination of bovine milk proteins is important in food and non-food industrial applications and yet, rather labour-intensive wet-chemical, low-throughput methods have been employed since decades. This work proposes the use of external cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) spectroscopy for the simultaneous quantification of the most abundant bovine milk proteins and the total protein content based on the chemical information contained in mid-infrared (IR) spectral features of the amide I band. Mid-IR spectra of protein standard mixtures were used for building partial least squares (PLS) regression models. Protein concentrations in commercial bovine milk samples were calculated after chemometric compensation of the matrix contribution employing science-based calibration (SBC) without sample pre-processing. The use of EC-QCL spectroscopy together with advanced multivariate data analysis allowed the determination of casein, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and total protein content within several minutes.

  12. Balancing economic freedom against social policy principles: EC competition law and national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Lear, Julia

    2012-07-01

    EU Health policy exemplifies the philosophical tension between EC economic freedoms and social policy. EC competition law, like other internal market rules, could restrict national health policy options despite the subsidiarity principle. In particular, European health system reforms that incorporate elements of market competition may trigger the application of competition rules if non-economic gains in consumer welfare are not adequately accounted for. This article defines the policy and legal parameters of the debate between competition law and health policy. Using a sample of cases it analyses how the ECJ, national courts, and National Competition Authorities have applied competition laws to the health services sector in different circumstances and in different ways. It concludes by considering the implications of the convergence of recent trends in competition law enforcement and health system market reforms.

  13. User illusion: ideological construction of ‘user-generated content’ in the EC consultation on copyright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy consultations by the UK Intellectual Property Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office and the European Commission (EC have highlighted the importance of user-generated content in debates to reform copyright. User-generated content (UGC – often combining existing copyright material with transformative creativity – remains a contested terrain, with no clear or widely accepted definition. This paper examines how various stakeholders in the 2014 EC consultation on copyright attempted to shape the definition of UGC in order to suit their interests, sometimes aligning or conflicting with other stakeholder groups. Data from 203 written responses by registered stakeholders (authors, platform intermediaries and users were subjected to a discourse analysis methodology. Key arguments and policy preferences from each stakeholder group are identified and discussed.

  14. Effect of Residue Mutation on the Electrostatic Potential in EcCIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xianwu; DONG Shuxiang; WANG Xiaoqing; HUANG Shengyou

    2007-01-01

    The effect of mutation of strongly conserved porelining residues in the chloride channel EcClC on the electrostatic potential and binding free energy of the chloride ion was studied using explicit protein-membrane structures. Electrostatic potential distribution and binding free energy of the chloride ion at different binding sites in the wild-type and mutated EcClC were calculated with APBS. The potential data reveal that the electrostatic potential around the selectivity filter, especially around the site Sext and Scen becomes more negative as the residue R147 was mutated to C147. The electrostatic binding free energy shows that the binding free energy of the chloride ion at all binding sites becomes more positive as R147 was mutated. It follows that mutation of R147 decreases ion stabilization at binding sites and affects channel's gating.

  15. 新世嘉 EC5车辆定速巡航故障分析%New Sega EC5 Vehicle Cruise Control Failure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李游; 李秋生

    2014-01-01

    针对在新世嘉 EC5出现定速巡航功能无法激活的批量性故障,运用 INCA、MDA 等专业工具,对故障进行记录和分析。分析结果显示,由于在初始化后,CAN 网上存在误报制动踏板故障信息,使得发动机控制系统认为踏板有故障而禁止定速巡航功能启用;而 ABS 系统与整车智能控制电脑的兼容性问题,是导致 CAN 网上误报故障的根本原因。最后,通过完善电检过程,将故障率降低到了每天0台,问题得到有效解决。%In order to solve the problem that the new sega EC5 cruise control in cruise control function can-not activate batch fault,INCA,MDA and other professional tools were used to record and analyze the fault.The analysis results show that because of the false information about brake pedal fault on the CAN net after initialization,the engine control system banned cruise control function,considering that there was a pedal fault;The compatibility problems of ABS system with the vehicle intelligent control computer was the root cause of the CAN online false information.Finally,through perfecting the electric inspection process,the failure rate was reduced to one every day at most,so that the problems were solved effective-ly.

  16. MicroRNA-281 regulates the expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) isoform B in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of Bombyx mori miRNAs had been identified in recent years, but their function in vivo remains poorly understood. The silkworm EcR gene (BmEcR) has three transcriptional isoforms, A, B1 and B2. Isoform sequences are different in the 3’UTR region of the gene, which is the case only in insects...

  17. Study on the impact of regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protec-tion of animals during transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, W.H.M.; Gebrensbet, G.; Roest, de K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the findings of an evaluation of Regulation (EC) 1/2005 was to provide a detailed assessment of the implementation of the Regulation (EC) and its impact on the animals being transported and on operators, with special reference to trade flows, navigation systems and the socio‐economi

  18. EC Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements: Implementing a New EU Security Approach in the Neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Trauner, Florian; Kruse, Imke

    2008-01-01

    With the Eastern Enlargement successfully completed, the EU is searching for a proper balance between internal security and external stabilisation that is acceplable to all sides. This paper focuses on an EU foreign policy instrument that is a case in point for this struggle: EC visa facilitation and readmission agreements. By looking at the EU's strategy on visa facilitation and readmission, this paper aims to offer a first systematic analysis of the objectives, substance and political impli...

  19. EC-FORC: A New Cyclic Voltammetry Based Method for Examining Phase Transitions and Predicting Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new, cyclic-voltammetry based experimental technique that can not only differentiate between discontinuous and continuous phase transitions in an adsorbate layer, but also quite accurately recover equilibrium behavior from dynamic analysis of systems with a continuous phase transition. The Electrochemical first-order reversal curve (EC-FORC) diagram for a discontinuous phase transition (nucleation and growth), such as occurs in underpotential deposition, is characterized by a neg...

  20. DoD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in Contracting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-20

    00 co1 Ln DEPUTY UNDER SECRETARY -i OF DEFENSE (ACQUISITION REFORM) DTIC SELECTE 1 FEB 7 19940u DoD ELECTRONIC COMMERCE (EC)I ELECTRONIC DATA...implementing meaningful acquisition reform, according to the PAT report, DOD Electronic Commerce Electronic Data Interchange in Contracting Report. The...cutting substantially the procurement administrative lead-time for small purchases, electronic commerce is an absolute necessity in today’s austere

  1. Immobilization of alginate-PAC on Sepabeads EC-HA support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuža Milena G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin acylase (PAC is an important industrial enzyme for the production of many β-lactam antibiotics. It is capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin G (Pen G to generate phenylacetic acid (PAA and 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA. In this paper, in order to prevent enzyme inactivation, an attempt of coupling enzyme modification and immobilization was presented. Chemical modification was promoted to introduce carbohydrate moiety into the PAC molecule, capable of being covalently linked to an amino support. This seems to provide a possibility to couple the enzyme without risking a reaction at the active site which might cause a loss of activity. PAC molecules were modified by cross-linking with polyaldehyde derivatives of alginate in order to add them new and useful functions. Immobilization of alginate-PAC on Sepabeads EC-HA was used as a model system in order to demonstrate the potential of this strategy. Optimal conditions for covalent immobilization of alginate-PAC from Escherichia coli on support Sepabeads EC-HA, were investigated. The immobilized enzyme was then characterized by evaluating the potential effects of immobilization on its thermal stability, temperature and pH profile in comparison with native non-modified PAC and modified non-immobilized PAC. The maximum amount of the alginate-PAC coupled on the dry support of 99 mg/g was satisfactory. Deactivation rate constants at 50 ºC for free PAC, alginate-PAC and alginate-PAC immobilized on Sepabeads EC-HA were 2,32; 50,65 and 1,68 h-1, respectively. Alginate-PAC and alginate-PAC immobilized on Sepabeads EC-HA had the same pH and temperature optimum as the native non-modified PAC.

  2. Changes of the value added tax in the tax-harmonization process with EC directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Votavová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to bring near the topical process of the assimilation the Czech law of value added tax to the EC-directives. The attention will be paid to the development of the harmonization this law in 1993 – 2003 and I will describe and analyse the choice sections of the value added tax law (with the effective date from 1. 5. 2004. I will explain the changes by tax rates.

  3. TDR-EC: A Rapid Subsurface Characterization of Particle Size & Hydrologic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. A.; Schaap, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is a geophysical tool used in the field and laboratory to determine soil moisture, bulk soil electric conductivity (EC). We employ this tool in many ways to understand temporal and spatial soil dynamics in a small catchment. Several hundred sites within this catchment, located in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, were surveyed using TDR with the intention of characterizing the spatial distribution of soil properties. Data was collected a few weeks after the snowmelt, when we assumed the soil to be at field capacity and therefore, the relationship between soil texture and moisture content is strongest. Laser diffraction particle size analyses of the soils sampled in this survey demonstrated that bulk soil EC correlates very strongly to clay and sand fractions. This relationship provides us with an estimate of soil texture once the difference between estimated clay and sand is calculated. A pedo-transfer function, Rosetta, is used to approximate saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ksat. In order to test the effectiveness of estimating Ksat using this method, ring infiltrometers were used at numerous sample locations. To further investigate the relationship between bulk soil EC and clay, the same type of survey in two catchments of different parent material was completed earlier this year Temporal characterization is achieved with the use of data from soil pits instrumented at several depths with sensors recording, water content, EC, temperature, and matric potential at 10 minute intervals. Preliminary results from HYDRUS 1-D will guide us in determining whether or not a 2 or 3-D model is necessary to characterize subsurface dynamics.

  4. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, James

    2009-01-01

    With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

  5. On E-C Film Subtitling Translation from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜

    2016-01-01

    With the process of globalization and the development of the internet, there are booming markets for the film and film translation.Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory, has been widely adopted by many translators since it was born. This thesis attempts to do some research on E-C film subtitling translation from the perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory. With two films of Inception and Kung Fu Panda as examples, equivalence should be realized at the morphological, the syntactical, and pragmatical level.

  6. NASA`s ECS Data Pool: OGC Compliant Web Services for Every User and Every Pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, C.; Marley, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), supports operations for several satellites including Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. ECS (EOSDIS Core System) is a vast archival and distribution system and includes several Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) located around the United States whose combined holdings now exceed 3.5 petabytes, with a daily distribution of 3.5TB. In response to evolutionary changes in technology, the user access services have been moving a substantial part of its distribution capability away from distribution from near-line tape archives to large on-line disk caches that hold several 10's of terabytes of high-value data that allow users to obtain products via electronic download using a web or ftp clients. Although these basic access services are valuable, the need for more advanced services such as data reformatting and subsetting was seen as key to the interoperability and broader adoption of NASA's data with current Decision Support and Geographical Information Systems. Therefore, in 2003, Raytheon was funded to initiate the development of an in-house demonstration prototype that integrated OGC web services (Mapping and Coverage) with reformatting capability (HDF-EOS to GeoTIFF). The experience obtained from that first prototype, led to the formulation of a generalized interoperable architecture, which incorporated a catalog service. Two operational prototypes are now deployed for NASA. The first, utilizing IONIC Software's OGC services is designed to serve large data volumes (up to 50000 pieces of inventory of 10 MODIS data types), and to offer faster access performance. The second prototype was developed from a combination of open-source web services, freeware, and hosted in commodity platforms (Linux based PCs), and had as a main objective to provide a low entry cost services, for potential new data providers. For example, a small University research team, which could find difficult to afford the elevated cost of COTS licenses or

  7. Guidelines for internal optics optimization of the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, A.; Bruschi, A.; Figini, L.; Farina, D.; Platania, P.; Sozzi, C. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom-ENEA Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Chavan, R.; Goodman, T. P.; Krause, A.; Landis, J. D.; Sanchez Galan, F.; Toussaint, M. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP-EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Henderson, M. A. [ITER Organization, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-12

    The importance of localized injection of Electron Cyclotron waves to control Magneto-HydroDynamic instability is well assessed in tokamak physics and the set of four Electron Cyclotron (EC) Upper Launchers (UL) in ITER is mainly designed for this purpose. Each of the 4 ULs uses quasi-optical mirrors (shaping and planes, fixed and steerable) to redirect and focus 8 beams (in two rows, with power close to 1 MW per beam coming from the EC transmission lines) in the plasma region where the instability appears. Small beam dimensions and maximum beam superposition guarantee the necessary localization of the driven current. To achieve the goal of MHD stabilization with minimum EC power to preserve the energy confinement in the outer half of the plasma cross section, optimization of the quasi-optical design is required and a guideline of a strategy is presented. As a result of this process and following the guidelines indicated, modifications of the design (new mirrors positions, rotation axes and/or focal properties) will be proposed for the next step of an iterative process, including the mandatory compatibility check with the mechanical constraints.

  8. Effects of COREXIT EC9500A on bacterial communities influenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, P. A.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are important to controlling the fate of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the marine environment and will be an important component to the natural attenuation of the Deepwater Horizon spill. The chemical dispersant COREXIT®EC9500A was widely deployed during the Deepwater Horizon response. Although toxicity tests confirm that COREXIT®EC9500A does not pose a significant threat to invertebrate and adult fish populations, there is limited information on its effect on microbial communities. Microbial community composition was determined in freshly deposited oil on a beach in Louisiana, resulting from the spill. Secondary heterotrophic production and viability in cultures obtained from oil samples was determined in the presence and absence of COREXIT®EC9500A . Vibrio isolates were abundant in length heterogeneity-PCR fingerprints of oil samples along with hydrocarbon-degrading isolates affiliated with Acinetobacter and Marinobacter. Significant reductions in Acinetobacter and Marinobacter production and viability in the presence of the dispersant compared to controls were observed. Marinobacter is most sensitive to the dispersant as evidenced by a near 100% reduction in viability and production as a result of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the dispersant. Significantly, at the same dispersant concentration, non-hydrocarbon-degrading Vibrio isolates proliferate. These data suggest that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are inhibited by this dispersants and that it’s use could potentially diminish the capacity of environmental microbial communities to bioremediate the spill.

  9. Comparison between the efficacy of self-prepared chlorhexidine varnishes and of EC 40®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Teanpaisan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that clinical application of chlorhexidine (CHX varnish could reduce dental caries occurrence effectively.However, this form of CHX is not commercially available in Thailand. Our previous study showed that the released CHX from 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes were sufficient to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the 20% and 40% self-prepared CHX varnishes to commercial CHX varnish EC 40®. The study included CHX release, antibacterial activity against S. mutans ATCC 25175, and the cytotoxic effect of CHX on fibroblasts. The results showed that the greatest amount of CHX was released by EC 40® followed by 40% and 20% selfpreparedCHX, which were 4,111.29 g, 2,408.7 g, and 1,136.4 g, respectively. EC 40® gave the strongest antibacterial activity; however, there was no statistical significant difference. The 20% self-prepared CHX gave the highest viability of fibroblasts. This study indicates that the self-prepared CHX should be considered to be used as antimicrobial agents for the prevention of dental caries.

  10. Factors influencing arsenic and nitrate removal from drinking water in a continuous flow electrocoagulation (EC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N. Sanjeev [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Goel, Sudha, E-mail: sudhagoel@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Civil Engineering Department, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental study was conducted under continuous flow conditions to evaluate some of the factors influencing contaminant removal by electrocoagulation (EC). A bench-scale simulation of drinking water treatment was done by adding a filtration column after a rectangular EC reactor. Contaminant removal efficiency was determined for voltages ranging from 10 to 25 V and a comparative study was done with distilled water and tap water for two contaminants: nitrate and arsenic(V). Maximum removal efficiency was 84% for nitrate at 25 V and 75% for arsenic(V) at 20 V. No significant difference in contaminant removal was observed in tap water versus distilled water. Increase in initial As(V) concentration from 1 ppm to 2 ppm resulted in a 10% increase in removal efficiency. Turbidity in the EC reactor effluent was 52 NTU and had to be filtered to achieve acceptable levels of final turbidity (5 NTU) at steady-state. The flow regime in the continuous flow reactor was also evaluated in a tracer study to determine whether it is a plug flow reactor (PFR) or constantly stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the results show that this reactor was close to an ideal CSTR, i.e., it was fairly well-mixed.

  11. Degradation of phosphorylated p53 by viral protein-ECS E3 ligase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Sato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available p53-signaling is modulated by viruses to establish a host cellular environment advantageous for their propagation. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV lytic program induces phosphorylation of p53, which prevents interaction with MDM2. Here, we show that induction of EBV lytic program leads to degradation of p53 via an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway independent of MDM2. The BZLF1 protein directly functions as an adaptor component of the ECS (Elongin B/C-Cul2/5-SOCS-box protein ubiquitin ligase complex targeting p53 for degradation. Intringuingly, C-terminal phosphorylation of p53 resulting from activated DNA damage response by viral lytic replication enhances its binding to BZLF1 protein. Purified BZLF1 protein-associated ECS could be shown to catalyze ubiquitination of phospho-mimetic p53 more efficiently than the wild-type in vitro. The compensation of p53 at middle and late stages of the lytic infection inhibits viral DNA replication and production during lytic infection, suggesting that the degradation of p53 is required for efficient viral propagation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for the BZLF1 protein-associated ECS ligase complex in regulation of p53 phosphorylated by activated DNA damage signaling during viral lytic infection.

  12. On the isolation of elemental carbon (EC for micro-molar 14C accelerator mass spectrometry: development of a hybrid reference material for 14C-EC accuracy assurance, and a critical evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK EC isolation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Currie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the research reported here has been the development of a hybrid reference material (RM to serve as a test of accuracy for elemental carbon (EC isotopic (14C speciation measurements. Such measurements are vital for the quantitative apportionment of fossil and biomass sources of 'soot' (EC, the tracer of fire that has profound effects on health, atmospheric visibility, and climate. Previous studies of 14C-EC measurement quality, carried out with NIST SRM 1649a (Urban Dust, showed a range of results, but since the 'truth' was not known for this natural matrix RM, one had to rely on isotopic-chemical consistency evidence (14C in PAH, EC of measurement validity (Currie et al., 2002. Components of the new Hybrid RM (DiesApple, however, have known 14C and EC composition, and they are nearly orthogonal (isotopically and chemically. NIST SRM 2975 (Forklift Diesel Soot has little or no 14C, and its major compositional component is EC; SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves has the 14C content of biomass-C, and it has little or no EC. Thus, the Hybrid RM can serve as an absolute isotopic test for the absence of EC-mimicking pyrolysis-C (char from SRM 1515 in the EC isolate of the Hybrid RM, as well as a test for conservation of its dominant soot fraction throughout the isolation procedure. The secondary objective was to employ the Hybrid RM for the comparative evaluation of the thermal optical kinetic (TOK and thermal optical transmission (TOT methods for the isolation of EC for micro-molar carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. As part of this process, the relatively new TOK method was subjected to a critical evaluation and significant development. Key findings of our study are: (1 both methods exhibited biomass-C 'leakage'; for TOT, the EC fraction isolated for AMS contained about 8% of the original biomass-C; for TOK, the refractory carbon (RC isolated contained about 3% of the original biomass-C.; (2 the initial isothermal oxidation stage

  13. 冬凌草甲素对 EC9706细胞增殖、凋亡的影响%Influence of oridonin on EC9706 cell proliferation and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊保; 岳静宇; 唐引引

    2014-01-01

    Aim:To study the influence of oridonin on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC 9706 cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro .Methods:MTT assay was used to detect the inhibition effect of oridonin on the growth of EC 9706;flow cytometry was applied to detect the impact of oridonin on cell cycle and apoptosis of EC 9706 , and calculated the apop-tosis rate of cells;change of Ca 2+fluorescence intensity of EC 9706 affected by different concentrations of oridonin was ob-served by laser scanning confocal microscope .Results:MTT assay showed that the inhibition rate in the experiment group increased with the rising of concentration (F=370.600,P<0.001) after oridonin acting on EC9706; results of cell cycle detected by flow cytometry showed that the number of cell in G 0 and G1 stage increased notably after oridonin acting on EC9706 for 48 hour respectively(F=24.200,P<0.001);results of apoptosis showed that oridonin could obviously induce the apoptosis of EC9706(P <0.05), and the effect was the best when the oridonin concentration was 40 μmol/L(F =10.214,37.820,P <0.001).Different concentrations of oridonin could increase Ca 2 +fluorescence intensity of EC9706,and the difference was significant (F =24.400,P <0.001).Conclusion: oridonin can improve the inhibition effects onproliferation and apoptosis of EC9706 cell.%目的:观察冬凌草甲素对食管鳞状细胞癌EC9706细胞增殖、凋亡的影响。方法:用MTT法检测冬凌草甲素对EC9706细胞生长的抑制作用;采用流式细胞仪技术检测冬凌草甲素对EC9706细胞周期和细胞凋亡的影响,并计算凋亡率;激光共聚焦显微镜观察不同浓度冬凌草甲素作用后EC9706细胞中游离Ca2+荧光强度的变化。结果:MTT法显示冬凌草甲素作用EC9706细胞株后,抑制率随浓度增高而增高(F=370.600,P<0.001);流式细胞仪检测结果显示,冬凌草甲素作用EC9706细胞48 h后,G1/G0期细胞均显著增多(F=24.200

  14. Impact of runoff water from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec® 18EC (abamectin) on the survival, growth and gill morphology of zebrafish juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Andréa; Vieira, Bruna Horvath; Braun, Andréa Simone; Mendes, Lucas Bueno; Daam, Michiel Adriaan; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta

    2016-02-01

    Edge-of-field waterbodies in tropical agroecosystems have been reported to be especially prone to pesticide contamination through runoff resulting from intensive irrigation practices and tropical rainfall. In the present study, the effects of runoff from an experimental agricultural field applied with Vertimec(®) 18EC (active ingredient: abamectin) on zebrafish were evaluated. To this end, the experimental field was applied with the Vertimec(®) 18EC dose recommended for strawberry crop in Brazil, whereas another field was treated with water only to serve as control. No effects of runoff water from either plot were recorded on survival. Water from the treated field led to increased growth and gill alterations. In general, these alterations were of the first and second degree, including proliferation of cells between the secondary lamellae, dilation at the lamellar apex, detachment of the respiratory epithelium and aneurism. These results confirm the high toxic potential of Vertimec(®) 18EC and provide evidence that environmental risks are likely to occur in areas subject to runoff containing this pesticide.

  15. 人脐带间充质干细胞对食管癌细胞EC9706增殖、迁移和对裸鼠移植瘤的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on proliferation and migration of esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and the transplanted tumor in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文健; 白玉; 赵宝生; 刘尚国; 齐博

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells(hUCMSCs) on proliferation and migration of esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and the transplanted tumor in nudemice. Methods hUCMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. The phenotype of hUCMSCs was identified.hUCMSCs were indirectly co-cultured with EC9706 and the effect of co-culture on EC9706 proliferation andmigration was evaluated. Animal models of transplanted tumor were established in nude mice. hUCMSCs wereinfused via the tail vein and the effect of hUCMSCs on the tumor growth and metastasis was investigated. ResultsAt 9 to 14 days after cell adherence, the fibroblast-like cells were observed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed thatCD29 and CD44 were highly expressed on the plasma membrane of the passages 3 cells, with negative expression ofCD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. Results of MTT assay and cell scratch test showed that compared with the control group,the proliferation and migration of EC9706 in the experimental group were significantly inhibited, respectively. Theaverage tumor weight in the control group and in the experimental was (1.83 ± 0.33)g and (1.02 ± 0.15)g,respectively. The average number of metastasis nodules was 5.37 ± 1.12 and 1.29 ± 1.05 respectively, withsignificant difference. Conclusion hUCMSCs can inhibit the proliferation and migration of EC9706 cells andinhibit the growth and metastasis of transplanted tumor in nude mice.%目的:探讨人脐带间充质干细胞(hUCMSCs)对食管癌细胞EC9706增殖、迁移的抑制作用和对裸鼠体内移植瘤的抑制作用。方法:体外分离培养hUCMSCs,检测细胞表型;将其和EC9706间接共培养,观察对EC9706增殖、迁移能力的影响。建立动物模型,尾静脉注射hUCMSCs后观察移植瘤生长及转移情况。结果:细胞贴壁9~14 d 后可见成纤维样细胞,流式分析显示第5代细胞均表达 CD29、CD44,不表达 CD34、CD45和HLA-DR。 MTT法及

  16. 机械臂轨迹跟踪控制--基于EC-RBF神经网络的机械臂模型参考自适应控制%Trajectory tracking control of robot manipulator-model reference adaptive control for robot manipulator based on EC-RBF neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑锋; 张翠; 张峰

    2015-01-01

    针对机械臂运动轨迹控制中存在的跟踪精度不高的问题,采用了一种基于EC-RBF神经网络的模型参考自适应控制方案对机械臂进行模型辨识与轨迹跟踪控制。该方案采用了两个RBF神经网络,运用EC-RBF学习算法,采用离线与在线相结合的方法来训练神经网络,一个用来实现对机械臂进行模型辨识,一个用来实现对机械臂轨迹跟踪控制。对二自由度机械臂进行仿真,结果表明,使用该控制方案对机械臂进行轨迹跟踪控制具有较高的控制精度,且因采用EC-RBF学习算法使网络具有更快的训练速度,从而使得控制过程较迅速。%According to the problem that the tracking accuracy is not high enough in trajectory tracking control of robot manipulators, a model reference adaptive control scheme based on EC-RBF neural networks is adopted to achieve robot manipulator model identification and trajectory tracking control. This control scheme contains two RBF neural networks which are trained offline and online, using EC-RBF learning algorithm. The one is used to identify the robot manipulator’s model, and the other one is used to achieve its trajectory tracking control. Simulation result of 2-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator demonstrates that using this method for robot manipulator trajectory tracking control has high control accuracy, and the networks which gain high training speed because of the EC-RBF learning algorithm make the control process faster.

  17. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving “dendrite-free” cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of “dead Li” created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid

  18. Evaluation of a regional model climatology in Europe using dynamical downscaling from a seamless Earth prediction approach (EC-Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montavez, Juan P.; Baldasano, Jose M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate and weather forecasting applications share a common ancestry and build on the same physical principles. Nevertheless, climate research and numerical weather prediction are commonly seen as different disciplines. The emerging concept of "seamless prediction" forges weather forecasting and climate change studies into a single framework (Palmer et al., 2008). In principle, as models develop towards higher resolution and more feedbacks are included, some aspects of model uncertainty should reduce. However, global models can only resolve processes down to 50-100 km at present. Moreover, users of climate information often require much higher detail and downscaling methods are needed to provide regional climate information consistent with global climate trajectories. Therefore, this work presents an evaluation of the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to reproduce the present climatology over Europe using a high resolution (25 km). The RCM used in this study is a climate version of the MM5 model (Fernández et al., 2007). The analysis here focuses on the annual and seasonal biases and variability for temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) and precipitation. The statistical parameters are obtained by interpolating the simulated values on the E-OBS gridded dataset from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) at a resolution of 0.5° for the period 1990-2000. The novel approach of this contribution is that the driving model is EC-Earth version 2 (Hazeleger et al., 2010), which follows the seamless prediction approach to provide climate forcings to the regional model. The atmospheric model of EC-Earth is based on ECMWF's Integrated Forecast System, cycle 31r1, corresponding to the current seasonal forecast system of ECMWF. The standard configuration runs at T159 horizontal spectral resolution with 62 vertical levels. The ocean component is based on version 2 of the NEMO model with a horizontal resolution of nominally 1 degree and 42 vertical levels

  19. 16O+12C resonances within the strong absorption region for Ec.m.>23 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachcinski, C. M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Berkowitz, G. M.; Freifelder, R. H.; Gai, M.; Renner, T. R.; Uhlhorn, C. D.

    1980-07-01

    Excitation functions for 12C(16O, 16O)12C elastic and inelastic scattering have been measured in the energy range 23<=Ec.m.<=32 MeV. Two strong structures at Ec.m.=25.5 and 29.6 MeV are observed in the 12C + 16O(3-,6.13 MeV) exit channel; angular correlation measurements at these energies suggest spin assignments of 15- and 16+, respectively. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 12C(16O, 16O*)12C*; Ec.m.=23-32 MeV, θc.m.(16O)=130°-155° measured σ(E) angular correlations.

  20. Inter-comparison of NIOSH and IMPROVE protocols for OC and EC determination: implications for inter-protocol data conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Ng, Wai Man; Griffith, Stephen M.; Zhen Yu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are operationally defined by analytical methods. As a result, OC and EC measurements are protocol dependent, leading to uncertainties in their quantification. In this study, more than 1300 Hong Kong samples were analyzed using both National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) thermal optical transmittance (TOT) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) thermal optical reflectance (TOR) protocols to explore the cause of EC disagreement between the two protocols. EC discrepancy mainly (83 %) arises from a difference in peak inert mode temperature, which determines the allocation of OC4NSH, while the rest (17 %) is attributed to a difference in the optical method (transmittance vs. reflectance) applied for the charring correction. Evidence shows that the magnitude of the EC discrepancy is positively correlated with the intensity of the biomass burning signal, whereby biomass burning increases the fraction of OC4NSH and widens the disagreement in the inter-protocol EC determination. It is also found that the EC discrepancy is positively correlated with the abundance of metal oxide in the samples. Two approaches (M1 and M2) that translate NIOSH TOT OC and EC data into IMPROVE TOR OC and EC data are proposed. M1 uses direct relationship between ECNSH_TOT and ECIMP_TOR for reconstruction: M1 : ECIMP_TOR = a × ECNSH_TOT + b; while M2 deconstructs ECIMP_TOR into several terms based on analysis principles and applies regression only on the unknown terms: M2 : ECIMP_TOR = AECNSH + OC4NSH - (a × PCNSH_TOR + b), where AECNSH, apparent EC by the NIOSH protocol, is the carbon that evolves in the He-O2 analysis stage, OC4NSH is the carbon that evolves at the fourth temperature step of the pure helium analysis stage of NIOSH, and PCNSH_TOR is the pyrolyzed carbon as determined by the NIOSH protocol. The implementation of M1 to all urban site data (without considering seasonal specificity

  1. SIPSMetGen: It's Not Just For Aircraft Data and ECS Anymore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, M.

    2015-12-01

    The SIPSMetGen utility, developed for the NASA EOSDIS project, under the EED contract, simplified the creation of file level metadata for the ECS System. The utility has been enhanced for ease of use, efficiency, speed and increased flexibility. The SIPSMetGen utility was originally created as a means of generating file level spatial metadata for Operation IceBridge. The first version created only ODL metadata, specific for ingest into ECS. The core strength of the utility was, and continues to be, its ability to take complex shapes and patterns of data collection point clouds from aircraft flights and simplify them to a relatively simple concave hull geo-polygon. It has been found to be a useful and easy to use tool for creating file level metadata for many other missions, both aircraft and satellite. While the original version was useful it had its limitations. In 2014 Raytheon was tasked to make enhancements to SIPSMetGen, this resulted a new version of SIPSMetGen which can create ISO Compliant XML metadata; provides optimization and streamlining of the algorithm for creating the spatial metadata; a quicker runtime with more consistent results; a utility that can be configured to run multi-threaded on systems with multiple processors. The utility comes with a java based graphical user interface to aid in configuration and running of the utility. The enhanced SIPSMetGen allows more diverse data sets to be archived with file level metadata. The advantage of archiving data with file level metadata is that it makes it easier for data users, and scientists to find relevant data. File level metadata unlocks the power of existing archives and metadata repositories such as ECS and CMR and search and discovery utilities like Reverb and Earth Data Search. Current missions now using SIPSMetGen include: Aquarius, Measures, ARISE, and Nimbus.

  2. On the isolation of OC and EC and the optimal strategy of radiocarbon-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon (14C measurements of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC separately (as opposed to only total carbon, TC allow an unambiguous quantification of their non-fossil and fossil sources and represent an improvement in carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment. Isolation of OC and EC for accurate 14C determination requires complete removal of interfering fractions with maximum recovery. To evaluate the extent of positive and negative artefacts during OC and EC separation, we performed sample preparation with a commercial Thermo-Optical OC/EC Analyser (TOA by monitoring the optical properties of the sample during the thermal treatments. Extensive attention has been devoted to the set-up of TOA conditions, in particular, heating program and choice of carrier gas. Based on different types of carbonaceous aerosols samples, an optimised TOA protocol (Swiss_4S with four steps is developed to minimise the charring of OC, the premature combustion of EC and thus artefacts of 14C-based source apportionment of EC. For the isolation of EC for 14C analysis, the water-extraction treatment on the filter prior to any thermal treatment is an essential prerequisite for subsequent radiocarbon; otherwise the non-fossil contribution may be overestimated due to the positive bias from charring. The Swiss_4S protocol involves the following consecutive four steps (S1, S2, S3 and S4: (1 S1 in pure oxygen (O2 at 375 °C for separation of OC for untreated filters, and water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC for water-extracted filters; (2 S2 in O2 at 475 °C, followed by (3 S3 in helium (He at 650 °C, aiming at complete OC removal before EC isolation and leading to better consistency with thermal-optical protocols like EUSAAR_2, compared to pure oxygen methods; and (4 S4 in O2 at 760 °C for recovery of the remaining EC.

    WINSOC was found to have a significantly higher fossil

  3. On the isolation of OC and EC and the optimal strategy of radiocarbon-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Perron, N.; Ciobanu, V. G.; Zotter, P.; Minguillón, M. C.; Wacker, L.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Szidat, S.

    2012-11-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) separately (as opposed to only total carbon, TC) allow an unambiguous quantification of their non-fossil and fossil sources and represent an improvement in carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment. Isolation of OC and EC for accurate 14C determination requires complete removal of interfering fractions with maximum recovery. The optimal strategy for 14C-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols should follow an approach to subdivide TC into different carbonaceous aerosol fractions for individual 14C analyses, as these fractions may differ in their origins. To evaluate the extent of positive and negative artefacts during OC and EC separation, we performed sample preparation with a commercial Thermo-Optical OC/EC Analyser (TOA) by monitoring the optical properties of the sample during the thermal treatments. Extensive attention has been devoted to the set-up of TOA conditions, in particular, heating program and choice of carrier gas. Based on different types of carbonaceous aerosols samples, an optimised TOA protocol (Swiss_4S) with four steps is developed to minimise the charring of OC, the premature combustion of EC and thus artefacts of 14C-based source apportionment of EC. For the isolation of EC for 14C analysis, the water-extraction treatment on the filter prior to any thermal treatment is an essential prerequisite for subsequent radiocarbon measurements; otherwise the non-fossil contribution may be overestimated due to the positive bias from charring. The Swiss_4S protocol involves the following consecutive four steps (S1, S2, S3 and S4): (1) S1 in pure oxygen (O2) at 375 °C for separation of OC for untreated filters and water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC) for water-extracted filters; (2) S2 in O2 at 475 °C followed by (3) S3 in helium (He) at 650 °C, aiming at complete OC removal before EC isolation and leading to better consistency with thermal-optical protocols

  4. On the isolation of OC and EC and the optimal strategy of radiocarbon-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon (14C measurements of elemental carbon (EC and organic carbon (OC separately (as opposed to only total carbon, TC allow an unambiguous quantification of their non-fossil and fossil sources and represent an improvement in carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment. Isolation of OC and EC for accurate 14C determination requires complete removal of interfering fractions with maximum recovery. The optimal strategy for 14C-based source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols should follow an approach to subdivide TC into different carbonaceous aerosol fractions for individual 14C analyses, as these fractions may differ in their origins. To evaluate the extent of positive and negative artefacts during OC and EC separation, we performed sample preparation with a commercial Thermo-Optical OC/EC Analyser (TOA by monitoring the optical properties of the sample during the thermal treatments. Extensive attention has been devoted to the set-up of TOA conditions, in particular, heating program and choice of carrier gas. Based on different types of carbonaceous aerosols samples, an optimised TOA protocol (Swiss_4S with four steps is developed to minimise the charring of OC, the premature combustion of EC and thus artefacts of 14C-based source apportionment of EC. For the isolation of EC for 14C analysis, the water-extraction treatment on the filter prior to any thermal treatment is an essential prerequisite for subsequent radiocarbon measurements; otherwise the non-fossil contribution may be overestimated due to the positive bias from charring. The Swiss_4S protocol involves the following consecutive four steps (S1, S2, S3 and S4: (1 S1 in pure oxygen (O2 at 375 °C for separation of OC for untreated filters and water-insoluble organic carbon (WINSOC for water-extracted filters; (2 S2 in O2 at 475 °C followed by (3 S3 in helium (He at 650 °C, aiming at complete

  5. An ICA and EC based approach for blind equalization and channel parameter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何振亚; 刘琚; 杨绿溪; 蔚承建

    2000-01-01

    A new on-line blind equalization approach is proposed. The approach combines over-sampling technique with independent component analysis (ICA) neural network and can give equalized output on-line employing only the received signal. Based on the fourth-order cumulants and the characteristic of the linear system, the parameters of original channel are also estimated using evolutionary computation (EC). Compared to traditional equalization methods, the proposed algorithm is of simple architecture, does not need learning sequences apart from the observation, and can achieve both blind equalization and system identification. Computer simulations show good performance.

  6. An ICA and EC based approach for blind equalization and channel parameter estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new on-line blind equalization approach is proposed. The approach combines over-sampling technique with independent component analysis (ICA)neural network and can give equalized output on-line employing only the received signal. Based on the fourth-order cumulants and the characteristic of the linear system, the parameters of original channel are also estimated using evolutionary computation(EC).Compared to traditional equalization methods, the proposed algorithm is of simple architecture, does not need learning sequences apart from the observation, and can achieve both blind equalization and system identification. Computer simulations show good performance.

  7. ecCNO Solar Neutrinos: A Challenge for Gigantic Ultra-Pure Liquid Scintillator Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Villante, F L

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on $^{13}{\\rm N}$, $^{15}{\\rm O}$ and $^{17}{\\rm F}$, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at $E_\

  8. Electrochemical Behaviour of a PPy(DBS)/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN):LITF:EC:PC/ Li Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidanapathirana, K.; Skaarup, Steen; West, K.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Li rechargeable cells with Polypyrrole (PPy) as the cathode material was investigated using cyclic voltammetry. The PPy used was doped with the large surfactant anion dodecyl benzenesulphonate (DBS-). The cells were constructed with PAN:LiTF:EC:PC gel electrolyte...... with Li as anode. The results indicate that during the first reduction, cations are inserted into the PPy film forming LiDBS neutral salt. During the next oxidation/reduction cycles, the mechanism then switches to anion movement. Cyclic voltammetry studies also verified that complete electrochemical...

  9. eHealth services and Directive on Electronic Commerce 2000/31/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gyseghem, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    We often restrict the analysis of eHealth services to a concept of privacy. In this article, we'll demonstrate that other legislation can apply to those services as Directive 2000/31/EC on Ecommerce. By creating telematic networks or infrastructure, eHealth services are offering information services. But what are the consequences with such concept? What are the duties and rights for the actors of the network(s)? We'll try to answer to some questions, even if it won't be exhaustive.

  10. Estimation of Chlorpyriphos in its Formulation (Paraban 20% EC by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A method has been developed for estimation of active ingredient in chlorpyriphos formulation (Paraban 20% EC. The formulation was extracted in chloroform, dried and resuspended in acetonitrile. The cleanup was performed using C18 SPE cartridge. The active ingredient was estimated using 5 μm ODS-II column, mobile phase was acetonitrile: water (75:25 v/v and detection at 229nm. The efficiency of clean up method was found to be 95% and minimum limit of detection < 2.5ng. The detector response was linear with in concentration range 2.5ng – 50ng at RSD 1.42%.

  11. Q_EC values of the Superallowed beta Emitters 50Mn and 54Co

    CERN Document Server

    Eronen, T; Hager, U; Hakala, J; Hardy, J C; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I D; Pentillä, H; Rahaman, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Sonoda, T; Weber, C; Äystö, J

    2007-01-01

    Using a new fast cleaning procedure to prepare isomerically pure ion samples, we have measured the beta-decay Q_EC values of the superallowed beta-emitters 50Mn and 54Co to be 7634.48(7) keV and 8244.54(10) keV, respectively, results which differ significantly from the previously accepted values. The corrected Ft values derived from our results strongly support new isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections that lead to a higher value of the up-down quark mixing element, Vud, and improved confirmation of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.

  12. Deposition of HgTe by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkatasamy, V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available and Received 17 November 2005; received in revised 0022-0728/$ - see front matter � 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jelechem.2006.02.006 l atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) n Jayaraju a, Stephen M. Cox b, Mathe a, John L. Stickney a... (1983). [7] N.H. Karam, R.G. Wolfson, I.B. Bhat, H. Ehsani, S.K. Ghandhi, Thin Solid Films 225 (1993) 261. [8] M.A.M. Seyam, A. Elfalaky, Vacuum 57 (2000) 31–41. [9] C. Janowitz, N. Orlowski, R. Manzke, Z. Golacki, J. Alloy. Compd. 328 (2001) 84...

  13. Panstrongylus megistus em ecótopos artificiais de ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ana Lucia Falavigna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em resposta a denúncias de triatomíneos em ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná foram investigados 145 ecótopos artificiais e 4 (2,8% deles encontravam-se infestados: residência, "clube", ex-escola e monte de madeira. Foram analisados 17 de 35 P. megistus coletados; 12 (70,6% apresentavam-se infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi. Ave e roedor constituíram as fontes alimentares mais comuns. Todos os exames sorológicos (56 de humanos, 18 de cães e 10 de gatos foram negativos.

  14. Seismic slope stability of embankments: a comparative study on EC8 provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.; Psarropoulos, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to EC8 provisions, seismic stability assessment of natural slopes is currently performed based on simplified methods i.e. the pseudostatic and the Newmark’s sliding block method. The application of these methods requires the beforehand consideration of major assumptions necessary...... for the selection of either the seismic coefficient or the acceleration time history of the rigid block. Although both ULS and SLS are defined according to acceptable level of deformations at the slope, the assigned level of displacements is not clarified. In the current study the seismic slope stability...

  15. Programa de triagem neonatal para fibrose cística no estado do Paraná: avaliação após 30 meses de sua implantação Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening program in the state of Paraná: evaluation 30 months after implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégor P. Chermikoski Santos

    2005-06-01

    óstico dessa doença fatal.OBJECTIVES: To present and analyze the results of the National Neonatal Cystic Fibrosis Screening Program in Paraná, 30 months after its implementation. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, with an analysis of the data from the screening of around 98% of all neonates in the period from September 2001 to April 2004, undertaken at the Neonatal Screening Program laboratory of the Fundação Ecumênica de Proteção ao Excepcional do Paraná. Blood samples for the Guthrie test were collected on hospital discharge, ideally between the second and sixth days postpartum, and filter papers were sent for immunoreactive trypsin assay by the immunofluorometric method. Children whose immunoreactive trypsin assay results were > 70 ng/ml for two distinct samples during the first 30 days of life, were referred for sweat conductivity testing by the Wescor method. In cases when the result was greater than 50 mMol/l quantitative chlorine and/or sodium in sweat was assayed (iontophoresis with pilocarpine. RESULTS: From a total of 456,982 tests, 4,028 (0.9% children presented a first immunoreactive trypsin assay above the cutoff point set. Four hundred and seventy-eight of these (12.5% also had a second blood sample assayed with immunoreactive trypsin above 70 ng/ml and 56 (11.7% of these were referred to specialized clinics after their sweat conductivity test results were above 50 mMol/l and 48 (0.01% of the total number of children screened had a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis confirmed. The incidence for the state of Paraná was 1:9,520, although some children have not yet been fully investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis in the State of Paraná, in accordance with Health Ministry directives, was a pioneering initiative for Brazil. Many patients were diagnosed early, even asymptomatic ones, which is a challenge to improving prognosis with this fatal disease.

  16. SoilTrEC: a global initiative on critical zone research and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Manoj; Rousseva, Svetla; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; van Gaans, Pauline; Panagos, Panos; de Souza, Danielle Maia; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala; Lair, Georg J; Weng, Liping; Bloem, Jaap; Kram, Pavel; Novak, Martin; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Robinson, David A; Reynolds, Brian; White, Tim; Lundin, Lars; Zhang, Bin; Duffy, Christopher; Bernasconi, Stefano M; de Ruiter, Peter; Blum, Winfried E H; Banwart, Steven A

    2014-02-01

    Soil is a complex natural resource that is considered non-renewable in policy frameworks, and it plays a key role in maintaining a variety of ecosystem services (ES) and life-sustaining material cycles within the Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). However, currently, the ability of soil to deliver these services is being drastically reduced in many locations, and global loss of soil ecosystem services is estimated to increase each year as a result of many different threats, such as erosion and soil carbon loss. The European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection alerts policy makers of the need to protect soil and proposes measures to mitigate soil degradation. In this context, the European Commission-funded research project on Soil Transformations in European Catchments (SoilTrEC) aims to quantify the processes that deliver soil ecosystem services in the Earth's Critical Zone and to quantify the impacts of environmental change on key soil functions. This is achieved by integrating the research results into decision-support tools and applying methods of economic valuation to soil ecosystem services. In this paper, we provide an overview of the SoilTrEC project, its organization, partnerships and implementation.

  17. SN 2012ec: mass of the progenitor from PESSTO follow-up of the photospheric phase

    CERN Document Server

    Barbarino, C; Botticella, M T; Della Valle, M; Zampieri, L; Pumo, M L; Jerkstrand, A; Maund, J R; Benetti, S; Elias-Rosa, N; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Hamuy, M; Inserra, C; Knapic, C; LaCluyze, A P; Molinaro, M; Ochner, P; Pastorello, A; Pignata, G; Reichart, D E; Ries, C; Riffeser, A; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, M; Smareglia, R; Smartt, S J; Smith, K; Sollerman, J; Sullivan, M; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M; Valenti, S; Yaron, O; Young, D

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign of SN 2012ec, which exploded in the spiral galaxy NGC 1084, during the photospheric phase. The photometric light curve exhibits a plateau with luminosity L= 0.9 times 10 to 42 (erg s to -1) and duration ~90 days; which is shorter than standard Type IIP supernovae. We estimate the nickel mass M(56Ni)= 0.040 pm 0.015 Msun from the luminosity at the beginning of the radioactive tail of the light curve. The explosion parameters of SN 2012ec were estimated from the comparison of the bolometric light curve and temperature and velocity evolution of the ejecta with predications from a hydrodynamical model. We derived an envelope mass of 12.6 Msun, an initial progenitor radius of 1.6 times 10 to 13 (cm) and explosion energy of 1.2 foe. These estimates agree with an independent study of the progenitor star identified in pre-explosion images, for which an initial mass of M=14-22 Msun was determined. We have applied the same analysis to two oth...

  18. Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M.

    2017-05-01

    Real-time breath gas analysis is a promising, non-invasive tool in medical diagnostics, and well-suited to investigate the physiology of carbon monoxide (CO), a potential biomarker for oxidative stress and respiratory diseases. A sensor for precise, breath-cycle resolved, simultaneous detection of exhaled CO (eCO) and carbon dioxide (eCO2) was developed based on a continuous wave, external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL), a low-volume multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The system achieves a noise-equivalent (1σ) sensitivity of 8.5 × 10-8 cm-1 Hz-1/2 and (2σ) detection limits of 9 ± 2 ppbv and 650 ± 7 ppmv at 0.14 s spectrum acquisition time for CO and CO2, respectively. Integration over 15 s yields a precision of 0.6 ppbv for CO. The fact that the eCO2 expirograms measured by capnography and laser spectroscopy have essentially identical shape confirms true real-time detection. It is found that the individual eCO exhalation profiles from healthy non-smokers have a slightly different shape than the eCO2 profiles and exhibit a clear dependence on exhalation flow rate and breath-holding time. Detection of indoor air CO and broadband breath profiling across the 93 cm-1 mode-hop-free tuning range of the EC-QCL are also demonstrated.

  19. The two distinctive metal ion binding domains of the wheat metallothionein Ec-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroza, Estevão A; Kaabi, Ali Al; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Wellenreuther, Gerd; Freisinger, Eva

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins are small cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role, among others, in the homeostasis of essential metal ions such as Zn(II) and Cu(I). Recently, we could show that wheat E(c)-1 is coordinating its six Zn(II) ions in form of metal-thiolate clusters analogously to the vertebrate metallothioneins. Specifically, two Zn(II) ions are bound in the N-terminal and four in the C-terminal domain. In the following, we will present evidence for the relative independence of the two domains from each other with respect to their metal ion binding abilities, and uncover three intriguing peculiarities of the protein. Firstly, one Zn(II) ion of the N-terminal domain is relative resistant to complete replacement with Cd(II) indicating the presence of a Zn(II)-binding site with increased stability. Secondly, the C-terminal domain is able to coordinate an additional fifth metal ion, though with reduced affinity, which went undetected so far. Finally, reconstitution of apoE(c)-1 with an excess of Zn(II) shows a certain amount of sub-stoichiometrically metal-loaded species. The possible relevance of these finding for the proposed biological functions of wheat E(c)-1 will be discussed. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on both, the full-length and the truncated protein, provide final evidence for His participation in metal ion binding.

  20. Determination of the role of noradrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor desensitization by desipramine and ECS.

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, D. J.; Prow, M. R.; Buckett, W R

    1991-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to determine the respective roles which noradrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones play in the down-regulation of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors by desipramine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS). The functional status of these receptors was monitored by use of clonidine-induced mydriasis in conscious mice. 2. Mydriasis to clonidine (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) was markedly attenuated by administration of either desipramine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) for 14 days or ECS ...

  1. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  2. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  3. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  4. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  5. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  6. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  7. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs I : Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    CERN Document Server

    Provencal, J L; Kanaan, A; Thompson, S E; Dalessio, J; Shipman, H L; Childers, D; Clemens, J C; Rosen, R; Henrique, P; Bischoff-Kim, A; Strickland, W; Chandler, D; Walter, B; Watson, T K; Castanheira, B; Wang, S; Handler, G; Wood, M; Vennes, S; Nemeth, P; Kepler, S O; Reed, M; Nitta, A; Kleinman, S J; Brown, T; Kim, S -L; Sullivan, D; Chen, Wen-Ping; Yang, M; Shih, Chia-You; Jiang, X J; Sergeev, A V; Maksim, A; Janulis, R; Baliyan, K S; Vats, H O; Zola, S; Baran, A; Winiarski, M; Ogloza, W; Paparo, M; Bognar, Z; Papics, P; Kilkenny, D; Sefako, R; Buckley, D; Loaring, N; Kniazev, A; Silvotti, R; Galleti, S; Nagel, T; Vauclair, G; Dolez, N; Fremy, J R; Perez, J; Almenara, J M; Fraga, L

    2012-01-01

    We report on analysis of 308.3 hrs of high speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 microHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l=1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004--2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1m, McDonald 2.1m, and KPNO 2m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convectiv...

  8. PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN EC2 AND ITS INTERFERENCE IN THE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN A MILK MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri de Jesus Lopes de Abreu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial interference can occur through various mechanisms, including the production of peroxides, acids, ammonia, bacteriolytic enzymes or bacteriocins. The strain Escherichia coli EC2 produces the antimicrobial substance (AMS EC2, able to inhibit different strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from food, as E. coli and Salmonella sp. The activity of AMS EC2 was lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, indicating the presence of an active proteinaceous compound, suggesting that it is a bacteriocin. The substance, renamed bacteriocin EC2, has its better production when the producer strain is grown on Casoy medium, at 37ºC and pH 6.0, without NaCl addition, but it is also able to be produced in milk. When co-cultivated in UHT milk with the producer strain E. coli EC2, the growth of the indicator strain Salmonella Typhi is totally inhibited within the first 4 hours of incubation, suggesting a potential application of bacteriocin EC2 in the control of Salmonella sp. e.g. in foods.

  9. Ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) is associated with microtubules and with mitochondria in the cytoplasm of prothoracic gland cells of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe

    2009-12-01

    We have shown previously that EcR in larval Rhodnius is present in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes daily cycling in abundance in the cytoplasm (Vafopoulou and Steel, 2006. Cell Tissue Res 323:443-455). It is unknown which organelles are associated with EcR. Here, we report that cytoplasmic EcR in prothoracic gland cells is associated with both microtubules and mitochondria, and discuss the implications for both nuclear and non-genomic actions of EcR. EcR was localized immunohistochemically using several antibodies to EcR of Manduca and Drosophila and a confocal laser scanning microscope. Double labels were made to visualize EcR and (1) microtubules (using an antibody to tyrosylated alpha-tubulin) and (2) mitochondria (using a fluorescent MitoTracker probe), both after stabilization of microtubules with taxol. EcR co-localized with both tubulin and mitochondria. All the different EcR antibodies produced similar co-localization patterns. EcR was seen in the perinuclear aggregation of mitochondria, indicating that mitochondria are targets of ecdysone, which could influence mitochondrial gene transcription. EcR was also distributed throughout the microtubule network. Co-localization of EcR with tubulin or mitochondria was maintained after depolymerization of microtubules with colchicine. Treatment with taxol resulted in accumulation of EcR in the cytoplasm and simultaneous depletion of EcR from the nucleus, suggesting that microtubules may be involved in targeted intracellular transport of EcR to the nucleus (genomic action) or may play a role in rapid ecdysone signal transduction in the extranuclear compartment, i.e., in non-genomic actions of ecdysone. These findings align EcR more closely with steroid hormone receptors in vertebrates.

  10. Conference-EC-US Task Force Joint US-EU Workshop on Metabolomics and Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PI: Lily Y. Young

    2009-06-04

    Since 1990, the EC-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research has been coordinating transatlantic efforts to guide and exploit the ongoing revolution in biotechnology and the life sciences. The Task Force was established in June 1990 by the European Commission and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Task Force has acted as an effective forum for discussion, coordination, and development of new ideas for the last 18 years. Task Force members are European Commission and US Government science and technology administrators who meet annually to enhance communication across the Atlantic, and to encourage collaborative research. Through sponsoring workshops, and other activities, the Task Force also brings together scientific leaders and early career researchers from both sides of the Atlantic to forecast research challenges and opportunities and to promote better links between researchers. Over the years, by keeping a focus on the future of science, the Task Force has played a key role in establishing a diverse range of emerging scientific fields, including biodiversity research, neuroinformatics, genomics, nanobiotechnology, neonatal immunology, transkingdom molecular biology, biologically-based fuels, and environmental biotechnology. The EC-US Task Force has sponsored a number of Working Groups on topics of mutual transatlantic interest. The idea to create a Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology research was discussed in the Task Force meeting of October 1993. The EC-US Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology set as its mission 'To train the next generation of leaders in environmental biotechnology in the United States and the European Union to work collaboratively across the Atlantic.' Since 1995, the Working Group supported three kinds of activities, all of which focus one early career scientists: (1) Workshops on the use of molecular methods and genomics in environmental biotechnology; (2) Short courses with theoretical

  11. Core Analysis Combining MT (TIPPER) and Dielectric Sensors (Sans EC) in Earth and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Michael C.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    On terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system cores reveal details about a geological structure's formation, content, and history. The strategy for the search for life is focused first on finding water which serves as a universal solvent, and identifying the rocks which such solvent act upon to release the constituent salts, minerals, ferrites, and organic compounds and chemicals necessary for life. Dielectric spectroscopy measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency. Reflection measurements in the frequency range from 300 kHz to 300 MHz were carried out using RF and microwave network analyzers interrogating SansEC Sensors placed on clean geological core samples. These were conducted to prove the concept feasibility of a new geology instrument useful in the field and laboratory. The results show that unique complex frequency spectra can be acquired for a variety of rock core samples. Using a combination of dielectric spectroscopy and computer simulation techniques the magnitude and phase information of the frequency spectra can be converted to dielectric spectra. These low-frequency dielectric properties of natural rock are unique, easily determined, and useful in characterizing geology. TIPPER is an Electro-Magnetic Passive-Source Geophysical Method for Detecting and Mapping Geothermal Reservoirs and Mineral Resources. This geophysical method uses distant lightning and solar wind activity as its energy source. The most interesting deflections are caused by the funneling of electrons into more electrically conductive areas like mineralized faults, water or geothermal reservoirs. We propose TIPPER to be used with SansEC for determining terrain/ocean chemistry, ocean depth, geomorphology of fracture structures, and other subsurface topography characteristics below the ice crust of Jovian moons. NASA envisions lander concepts for exploration of these extraterrestrial icy surfaces and the oceans beneath. One such concept would use a

  12. PM₂.₅., EC and OC in atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: temporal variability and aerosol organic carbon-to-organic mass conversion factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Bikkina; Sarin, M M

    2014-07-15

    Temporal variability (November'09-March'10) in the mass concentrations of PM2.5, mineral dust, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC and EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic species (WSIS) has been studied in the atmospheric outflow to the Bay of Bengal from a sampling site [Kharagpur: 22.02°N, 87.11°E] in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Based on diagnostic ratios of carbonaceous species [OC/EC ≈ 7.0 ± 2.2, WSOC/OC ≈ 0.52 ± 0.16, and K(+)/EC≈0.48±0.17], we document dominant impact from biomass burning emissions (wood-fuel and post-harvest agricultural-waste burning) in the IGP-outflow. Relatively high concentration of sulphate (SO4(2-) ≈ 6.9-25.3 μg m(-3); SO4(2-)/ΣWSIS=45-77%) and characteristic ratios of nss-SO4(2-)/EC (3.9 ± 2.1) and nss-SO4(2-)/OC (0.61 ± 0.46) provide information on absorption/scattering properties of aerosols. Based on quantitative assessment of individual components of PM2.5, we document aerosol organic carbon-to-organic mass (OC to OM) conversion factor centring at 1.5 ± 0.2 (range: 1.3-2.7) in the atmospheric outflow from IGP. The aerosol composition over the Bay of Bengal shows striking similarity with the diagnostic ratios documented for the IGP-outflow. Relatively high conversion factor for assessing the mass of organic aerosols over the Bay of Bengal (1.1-3.7) provides evidence for their oxidation during long-range atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of SO/sub 2/ gas of boiler flue gas in the epsilon-caprolactam (EC) manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, Y.

    1979-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide in boiler exhaust gas from high-sulfur, heavy oil combustion is used at the Sakai caprolactam plant of Ube Industries Ltd. At this plant, 20,000 tons/yr out of a total 90,000 tons/yr of EC is prepared by the reaction of cyclohexanone with hydroxylamine, which is in turn prepared by the Raschig synthesis, which involves reduction by sulfur dioxide of aqueous ammonium nitrite prepared by absorption of N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ into aqueous ammonium bisulfite. For SO/sub 2/ absorption, the flue gas is cooled to about 60/sup 0/C by isothermal cooling with the absorption solution. The SO/sub 2/ absorption reaction occurs in liquid phase at pH 5-5.8 in the absence of free ammonia, since otherwise, an aerosol would form. After further absorption of SO/sub 2/ from flue gas in a second absorber of the same type (which uses a different concentration of absorption liquid), the SO/sub 2/ in the flue gas is diminished to 40-60 ppm from its original 1300 ppm concentration. The chemistry and performance of the SO/sub 2/ absorption procedure, including the composition of the crude ammonium bisulfite solution during the absorption reactions, and of the Raschig process are discussed.

  14. Inactivation of corticosteroids in intestinal mucosa by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid: NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1. 1. 1. 146)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, A.F.; Anderson, F.H.

    1983-10-01

    Activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid:NADP oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.146) in human intestinal mucosa was determined by incubating scraped mucosa with /sup 3/H-cortisone and /sup 14/C-cortisol; these steroids were then extracted, separated chromatographically, and the radioactivity assayed to determine simultaneously both reductase and dehydrogenase activities. This was the only significant metabolic alteration which the substrate underwent. Only two cases had slight (5 and 13%) reductase activity. In 35 patients, 16 male and 19 female, including seven cases of Crohn's disease, three ulcerative colitis, five diverticulitis, two undergoing surgery for repair of injuries and 18 for carcinoma of colon or rectum, cortisol was converted to cortisone in 15 min with a wide range of values distributed uniformly up to 85% dehydrogenation, with a mean of 42%. When tissue homogenates were fortified with coenzymes, excess NADPH lowered dehydrogenase activity 81%; excess NADP increased dehydrogenase activity 2-fold in three cases. It is possible that a value is characteristic of an individual but perhaps more likely enzyme activity varies with metabolic events involving changes in the coenzyme levels in mucosa, and a random sampling might be expected to yield such a distribution of values. In any event, where activity is high most of the cortisol is inactivated within minutes. It is suggested that synthetic corticoids which escape such metabolic alteration might, except during pregnancy, prove superior in the treatment of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. The human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.87) gene (AANAT): Structure, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, S.L.; Bernard, M.; Roseboom, P.H. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AA-NAT, HGMW-approved symbol AANAT;EC 2.3.1.87) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis and controls the night/day rhythm in melatonin production in the vertebrate pineal gland. We have found that the human AA-NAT gene spans {approx}2.5 kb, contains four exons, and is located at chromosome 17q25. The open reading frame encodes a 23.2-kDa protein that is {approx}80% identical to sheep and rat AA-NAT. The AA-NAT transcript ({approx}1 kb) is highly abundant in the pineal gland and is expressed at lower levels in the retina and in the Y79 retinoblastoma cell line. AA-NAT mRNA is also detectable at low levels in several brain regions and the pituitary gland, but not in several peripheral tissues examined. Brain and pituitary AA-NAT could modulate serotonin-dependent aspects of human behavior and pituitary function. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  16. EUTEMPE-RX, an EC supported FP7 project for the training and education of medical physics experts in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, H; Bliznakova, K; Padovani, R; Christofides, S; Van Peteghem, N; Tsapaki, V; Caruana, C J; Vassileva, J

    2015-07-01

    The core activity of the medical physics expert (MPE) is to ensure optimal use of ionising radiation in healthcare. It is essential that these healthcare professionals are trained to the highest level, defined as European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF) level 8 by the European Commission's Radiation Protection Report 174 'Guidelines on the MPE'. The main objective of the EUTEMPE-RX project is to provide a model training scheme that allows the medical physicist in diagnostic and interventional radiology (D&IR) to reach this high level. A European network of partners was brought together in this FP7 EC project to ensure sufficient expertise in all aspects of the subject and to create a harmonised course programme. Targeted participants are medical physicists in D&IR in hospitals, engineers and scientists in medical device industries and officers working in regulatory authorities. Twelve course modules will be developed at EQF level 8, with radiation safety and diagnostic effectiveness being prevalent subjects. The modules will combine online with face-to-face teaching using a blended learning approach.

  17. Chronological study of diazinon in putrefied viscera of rats using GC/MS, GC/EC and TLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsirafy, A A; Ghanem, A A; Eid, A E; Eldakroory, S A

    2000-03-27

    A qualitative and qualitative weekly study of diazinon in experimental rats after a lethal dose is described. GC/MS and TLC were used for qualitative, and GC/EC for quantitative analysis. The replicate content of diazinon in stomach and intestine (S/I) revealed a high rate of decrease during the first month. The liver (L) content fluctuates through a general trend of decrease. Immediate post-mortem content of 34.5 mg in summer and 94 in winter was found in S/L samples, while it was 0.79 and 0.63 respectively for L-samples. The respective remaining amount after 2 months was 1. 16, 4.40 (S/I), 0.61 and 0.66 mg (L). A round figure of 4% remains in S/L samples. The chronological plots indicate the possibility of detection at longer periods. Interpretation of data is outlined regarding relative contents of organs and the factors affecting persistence of diazinon in putrefied viscera.

  18. 己酮可可碱对人食管癌细胞EC9706的5-Fu化疗增敏作用%Pentoxifylline enhances chemotherapy sensitization of 5-Fu in human esophageal carcinoma EC9706 cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧琴; 李道明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨己酮可可碱对人食管癌细胞EC9706的5-Fu化疗增敏作用.方法 采用MTT法测定5-Fu及己酮可可碱联合5-Fu对EC9706细胞的抑制作用.结果 不同浓度的己酮可可碱联合5-Fu作用于EC9706 12、24、48、72 h,同一时间各组抑制率差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01),同一5-Fu浓度,随着己酮可可碱药物浓度的增加,5-Fu对己酮可可碱细胞的抑制作用也增强(P均<0.01).25 μg/mL 5-Fu联合己酮可可碱(0.5 mg/mL、1.0mg/mL)与50μg/mL 5-Fu对EC9706细胞抑制作用,在24、48、72 h无统计学差异(P均>0.05).结论 己酮可可碱可以增加EC9706细胞对5-Fu的敏感性,减少5-Fu的剂量.%Objective To investigate Pentoxifylline effect on chemotherapy sensitization of 5-Fu in human esophageal carcinoma EC9706 cell. Methods MTT method was used to determine the inhibition effects of 5-Fu and PTX uniting S-Fu to EC9706 Cell line. Results The EC9706 cells were treated by different concentration of 5-Fu and S-Fu uniting PTX for 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. There were significant difference in inhibition rates in each group at the same time(P0.05). Conclusion PTX makes the EC9706 cells more sensitive to 5-Fu, and decrease dose of 5-Fu.

  19. Principles for shaping working conditions according to ILO conventions and EC directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for the improvement of occupational safety and health is presented. The role of the state and the workers in shaping working conditions has changed over the years, and this process is traced through ILO and EC documents. There must be a coherent up-to-date national policy in this field. Safety and the protection of the workers' health is perceived by the Community legislation not only in the terms of the worker's individual interest, but also from a social viewpoint, consisted in striving for general improvement of the work environment. The Community regulations aspire to satisfy the public interest, and directives set the maximum level of protection but also serve as minimum standards not infringing the more favourable national regulations. They define requirements that should already be met at the planning and designing stages.

  20. Adaptive Security Architecture based on EC-MQV Algorithm in Personal Network (PN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract — Personal Networks (PNs) have been focused on in order to support the user’s business and private activities without jeopardizing privacy and security of the users and their data. In such a network, it is necessary to produce a proper key agreement method according to the feature...... of the network. One of the features of the network is that the personal devices have deferent capabilities such as computational ability, memory size, transmission power, processing speed and implementation cost. Therefore an adaptive security mechanism should be contrived for such a network of various device...... combinations based on user’s location and device’s capability. The paper proposes new adaptive security architecture with three levels of asymmetric key agreement scheme by using context-aware security manager (CASM) based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (EC-MQV)....

  1. ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, F. L.

    2015-03-01

    Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at Eν ∼ 2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

  2. Solar energy utilization in residential buildings: A comparative investigation for the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and financial efficiency of solar heating devices in the EC countries was discussed. It can be shown that the attractivity of solar energy utilization in residential buildings depends not only from the local climatic conditions but also considerably from economic factors. Such factors, the significance of which differs from country to country, from the cost level for solar heating devices, for energy price policy and the preparedness for subsidies of the governments and the financial basis available for the buyers of solar heating devices. Solar heating devices used for space heating require to be coordinated with measures taken for the improvement of thermal insulation. In order to further propagate solar energy devices all countries shall have to strive for technical improvements as for example the long term storage of heat and to lower the costs of these devices.

  3. Impact of vegetation variability on potential predictability and skill of EC-Earth simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martina; Hurk, Bart van den; Haarsma, Reindert; Hazeleger, Wilco [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Climate models often use a simplified and static representation of vegetation characteristics to determine fluxes of energy, momentum and water vapour between surface and lower atmosphere. In order to analyse the impact of short term variability in vegetation phenology, we use remotely-sensed leaf area index and albedo products to examine the role of vegetation in the coupled land-atmosphere system. Perfect model experiments are carried out to determine the impact of realistic temporal variability of vegetation on potential predictability of evaporation and temperature, as well as model skill of EC-Earth simulations. The length of the simulation period is hereby limited by the availability of satellite products to 2000-2010. While a realistic representation of vegetation positively influences the simulation of evaporation and its potential predictability, a positive impact on 2 m temperature is of smaller magnitude, regionally confined and more pronounced in climatically extreme years. (orig.)

  4. Comparison and Validation of Four Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Products of the EC POLAR ICE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsheimer, C.; Makynen, M.; Rasmussen, T. S.; Rudjord, Ø.; Simila, M.; Solberg, R.; Walker, N. P.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) is an important parameter for monitoring Arctic change, modelling and predicting weather and climate, and for navigation and offshore operations. However, SIT is still not very well monitored operationally. In the European Commission (EC) FP7 project "POLAR ICE", three novel SIT products based on different satellite data as well as SIT from a state-of-the- art ocean and sea ice model are fed into a common data handling and distribution system for end users. Each SIT product has different scopes and limitations as to, e.g., spatial and temporal resolution, ice thickness range and geographical domain. The aim of this study is to compare the four different SIT products with each other and with SIT in-situ measurements in order to better understand the differences and limitations, and possibly give recommendations on how to best profit from the synergy of the different data.

  5. Rumos para a formação de ecólogos no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    O país avançou consideravelmente na formação de novos ecólogos, na produção científica de relevância internacional, na formulação de políticas ambientais e de uma legislação favorável ao desenvolvimento sustentável. Apesar disso, em locais onde há alta diversidade em espécies, tais como as regiões amazônicas, cerrado e semi-árido brasileiros, empreendimentos agropastoris e outras atividades econômicas e industriais de ampla escala têm resultado na redução considerável de ecossistemas e habita...

  6. Specifications and implementation of the RT MHD control system for the EC launcher of FTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform real time plasma control experiments using EC heating waves by using the new fast launcher installed on FTU a dedicated data acquisition and elaboration system has been designed recently. A prototypical version of the acquisition/control system has been recently developed and will be tested on FTU machine in its next experimental campaign. The open-source framework MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor on Linux/RTAI real-time operating system has been chosen as software platform to realize the control system. Standard open-architecture industrial PCs, based either on VME bus and CompactPCI bus equipped with standard input/output cards are the chosen hardware platform.

  7. Fine mapping of an Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huijuan; ZHANG Zaibao; LI Hui; GAO Jufang; YANG Zhongnan

    2006-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile mutant EC2-157 has been isolated using an EMS mutagenesis strategy.Genetic analysis indicated that it was controlled by a single recessive gene called ms157.No pollen grains have been observed in mutant anthers.ms157 Has been mapped to a region of 74 kb located in BAC clone T6K22 on chromosome Ⅳ using a map-based cloning strategy.As no male sterile genes have been reported in this region.ms157 could be a novel gene related to fertility.The further molecular cloning and functional analysis on this gene should facilitate our understanding of A.thaliana anther development.

  8. Oblate-Earth Effects on the Calculation of Ec During Spacecraft Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, John B.; Matney, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The bulge in the Earth at its equator has been shown to lead to a clustering of natural decays biased to occur towards the equator and away from the orbit's extreme latitudes. Such clustering must be considered when predicting the Expectation of Casualty (Ec) during a natural decay, because of the corresponding clustering of the human population in the lower latitudes. This study expands upon prior work, and formalizes in a single empirical equation the correction that must be made to the calculation of the average exposed population density as a result of this effect. The equation is represented as a function of ballistic number and inclination of the entering spacecraft over the credible range of ballistic numbers.

  9. Adaptive Security Architecture based on EC-MQV Algorithm in Personal Network (PN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract — Personal Networks (PNs) have been focused on in order to support the user’s business and private activities without jeopardizing privacy and security of the users and their data. In such a network, it is necessary to produce a proper key agreement method according to the feature...... of the network. One of the features of the network is that the personal devices have deferent capabilities such as computational ability, memory size, transmission power, processing speed and implementation cost. Therefore an adaptive security mechanism should be contrived for such a network of various device...... combinations based on user’s location and device’s capability. The paper proposes new adaptive security architecture with three levels of asymmetric key agreement scheme by using context-aware security manager (CASM) based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (EC-MQV)....

  10. ecCNO solar neutrinos: A challenge for gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Villante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrinos produced in the Sun by electron capture reactions on 13N, 15O and 17F, to which we refer as ecCNO neutrinos, are not usually considered in solar neutrino analysis since the expected fluxes are extremely low. The experimental determination of this sub-dominant component of the solar neutrino flux is very difficult but could be rewarding since it provides a determination of the metallic content of the solar core and, moreover, probes the solar neutrino survival probability in the transition region at Eν∼2.5 MeV. In this Letter, we suggest that this difficult measure could be at reach for future gigantic ultra-pure liquid scintillator detectors, such as LENA.

  11. Energy conservation in space HVAC systems. Selection of the optimum blower and use of EC motors with maximum efficiency; Energieeinsparung bei RLT-Anlagen. Wahl eines optimalen Ventilators und Einsatz von EC-Motoren mit hoechstem Wirkungsgrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albig, J. [Ziehl Abegg AG, Kuenzelsau (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    The contribution discusses the use of radial blowers in a central air conditioning unit, e.g. for supplying cold air to the freezers of a department store. The unit uses backward-curved, free blowers with direct drives and with EC external rotor motors. The motor works with electronic commutation and is connected to the 400 V three-phase current network together with a matched EC controller, with continuous adaptation of the rotational speed. [German] Der folgende Beitrag befasst sich mit der Anwendung von Radialventilatoren in einem Klimazentralgeraet (kurz RLT-Geraet). Dieses RLT-Geraet wird z.B. verwendet, um Geschaefte einer Kaufhaus-Kette fuer Tiefkuehlwaren mit klimatisierter Luft zu versorgen. Bei der ueberarbeiteten Konstruktion des RLT-Geraetes werden direkt angetriebene, freilaufende, rueckwaerts gekruemmte Ventilatoren mit EC-Aussenlaeufermotor verwendet. Der EC-Motor wird elektronisch kommutiert und zusammen mit dem abgestimmten EC-Controller am Drehstromnetz (400 Volt) betrieben. Er bietet die Moeglichkeit zur stufenlosen Drehzahlanpassung. (orig.)

  12. Role of EC-SOD overexpression in preserving pulmonary angiogenesis inhibited by oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Perveen

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Angiogenesis is one of the most important processes for normal lung development. Oxidative stress can impair the pulmonary angiogenesis, leading to chronic lung disease or Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of EC-SOD overexpression on pulmonary angiogenesis on neonates following exposure to acute hyperoxia. DESIGN/METHODS: Transgenic (TG and wild-type (WT neonatal mice (10 mice per group were exposed either to air (control group or 95% O(2 for 7 days starting at birth. After exposure, all animals were sacrificed. ROS concentration was measured in lung homogenates using OxiSelect ROS assay kit. Mean vascular density (MVD was measured using anti CD34 staining. RNA was extracted and the angiogenesis markers, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 and PECAM-1 were analyzed by RT-q PCR. VGEF protein was measured using Western blots. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs was assayed by flow cytometer. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction of ROS in TG hyperoxic neonate group (156±14.2 compared to WT hyperoxic animals (255±35.1. Evaluation of MVD, using anti-CD34, showed marked significant increase of MVD in the TG group following hyperoxic exposure (85±12 in comparison to the WT hyperoxic group (62±8.4, (P0.05. PECAM expression was significantly reduced in both hyperoxic compared to normoxic groups (P0.05. CONCLUSIONS: EC-SOD plays a key role in preserving angiogenesis by scavenging free radicals which has an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis process in neonatal mice lung following exposure to hyperoxia.

  13. Role of EC-SOD Overexpression in Preserving Pulmonary Angiogenesis Inhibited by Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, Shahana; Patel, Hardik; Arif, Arslan; Younis, Sharif; Codipilly, Champa N.; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the most important processes for normal lung development. Oxidative stress can impair the pulmonary angiogenesis, leading to chronic lung disease or Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Objective To investigate the protective effects of EC-SOD overexpression on pulmonary angiogenesis on neonates following exposure to acute hyperoxia. Design/Methods Transgenic (TG) and wild-type (WT) neonatal mice (10 mice per group) were exposed either to air (control group) or 95% O2 for 7 days starting at birth. After exposure, all animals were sacrificed. ROS concentration was measured in lung homogenates using OxiSelect ROS assay kit. Mean vascular density (MVD) was measured using anti CD34 staining. RNA was extracted and the angiogenesis markers, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 and PECAM-1 were analyzed by RT-q PCR. VGEF protein was measured using Western blots. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) was assayed by flow cytometer. Results There was a significant reduction of ROS in TG hyperoxic neonate group (156±14.2) compared to WT hyperoxic animals (255±35.1). Evaluation of MVD, using anti-CD34, showed marked significant increase of MVD in the TG group following hyperoxic exposure (85±12) in comparison to the WT hyperoxic group (62±8.4), (P0.05). PECAM expression was significantly reduced in both hyperoxic compared to normoxic groups (P0.05). Conclusions EC-SOD plays a key role in preserving angiogenesis by scavenging free radicals which has an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis process in neonatal mice lung following exposure to hyperoxia. PMID:23284826

  14. Evaluation of Peel Plate™ EC for Determination of E. coli and Coliform or Total Coliform in Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Bird, Patrick; Fisher, Kiel; Crowley, Erin; Chen, Yi; Clark, Dorn; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Peel Plate™ EC is a low-profile plastic, 47 mm culture dish with an adhesive top that contains a dried medium with Gram-negative selective agents and with enzyme substrate indicators for β-galactosidase (coliform) and β-glucuronidase (Escherichia coli). The method provides a conventional quantitative coliform (red) and E. coli (blue/purple/black) count with simple rehydration and incubation for 24 ± 2 h at 35 ± 1°C, while providing a total coliform result, sum of E. coli, and coliform without color differential in dairy products at 32 ± 1°C for 24 ± 2 h. Dairy matrixes claimed and supported with total coliform data are whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk (2% fat), heavy cream (35% fat), pasteurized whole goat milk, ultra-high-temperature pasteurized milk, powdered milk, lactose-reduced milk, strawberry milk, shredded cheddar cheese, raw cow milk, raw goat milk, raw sheep milk, sour cream, condensed milk, eggnog, vanilla ice cream, condensed whey, yogurt, and cottage cheese. Matrixes claimed for E. coli and total coliform detection are raw ground beef, mixed cellulose 0.45 μm filtered bottled water, environmental sponge of stainless steel, raw ground turkey, dry dog food, liquid whole pasteurized eggs, milk chocolate, leafy green (mixed greens) rinse/flume water, irrigation water, poultry carcass rinse, and large animal carcass sponge. The method has been independently evaluated for total coliform in whole milk, skim milk, chocolate milk, and heavy cream. The method was also independently evaluated for E. coli and coliform in ground beef, filtered bottled water, and sponge rinse from stainless steel surfaces. In inclusivity and exclusivity studies, the method detected 57 of 58 different strains of coliform and E. coli at 32 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C in and excluded 31 of 32 different noncoliform strains consisting of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the matrix study, each matrix was assessed separately at each contamination level in comparison

  15. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  16. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning retrospective predictions at the decadal (5-years), seasonal and sub-seasonal time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and sub-seasonal time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over Sahel, North American Great Plains, Nordeste

  17. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning from centennial (twentieth century) simulations and retrospective predictions to the decadal (5-years), seasonal and weather time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and weather time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2 m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over

  18. Oxidation of the N-terminal domain of the wheat metallothionein Ec -1 leads to the formation of three distinct disulfide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasava, Katsiaryna; Chesnov, Serge; Freisinger, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight proteins, characterized by a high cysteine content and the ability to coordinate large amounts of d(10) metal ions, for example, Zn(II), Cd(II), and Cu(I), in form of metal-thiolate clusters. Depending on intracellular conditions such as redox potential or metal ion concentrations, MTs can occur in various states ranging from the fully metal-loaded holo- to the metal-free apo-form. The Cys thiolate groups in the apo-form can be either reduced or be involved in disulfide bridges. Although oxidation-mediated Zn(II) release might be a possible mechanism for the regulation of Zn(II) availability by MTs, no concise information regarding the associated pathways and the structure of oxidized apo-MT forms is available. Using the well-studied Zn2 γ-Ec -1 domain of the wheat Zn6 Ec -1 MT we attempt here to answer several question regarding the structure and biophysical properties of oxidized MT forms, such as: (1) does disulfide bond formation increase the stability against proteolysis, (2) is the overall peptide backbone fold similar for the holo- and the oxidized apo-MT form, and (3) are disulfide bridges specifically or randomly formed? Our investigations show that oxidation leads to three distinct disulfide bridges independently of the applied oxidation conditions and of the initial species used for oxidation, that is, the apo- or the holo-form. In addition, the oxidized apo-form is as stable against proteolysis as Zn2 γ-Ec -1, rendering the currently assumed degradation of oxidized MTs unlikely and suggesting a role of the oxidation process for the extension of protein lifetime in absence of sufficient amounts of metal ions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 295-308, 2016.

  19. Multi-scale enhancement of climate prediction over land by increasing the model sensitivity to vegetation variability in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Van Den Hurk, Bart; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Miller, Paul A.

    2017-08-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation. In its original formulation, vegetation variability is simply operated by the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate basically by changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling has been found to have only a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. In reality, the effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage will vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales in response to leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence. Therefore it affects biophysical parameters such as the albedo, surface roughness and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation cover on the LAI. By comparing two sets of simulations performed with and without the new variable fractional-coverage parameterization, spanning from centennial (twentieth century) simulations and retrospective predictions to the decadal (5-years), seasonal and weather time-scales, we show for the first time a significant multi-scale enhancement of vegetation impacts in climate simulation and prediction over land. Particularly large effects at multiple time scales are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes over Canada, West US, Eastern Europe, Russia and eastern Siberia due to the implemented time-varying shadowing effect by tree-vegetation on snow surfaces. Over Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions the improved representation of vegetation cover tends to correct the winter warm biases, improves the climate change sensitivity, the decadal potential predictability as well as the skill of forecasts at seasonal and weather time-scales. Significant improvements of the prediction of 2 m temperature and rainfall are also shown over transitional land surface hot spots. Both the potential predictability at decadal time-scale and seasonal-forecasts skill are enhanced over

  20. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  1. An EcR homolog from the filarial parasite, Dirofilaria immitis requires a ligand-activated partner for transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Cathy; Richer, Jennifer; Tzertzinis, George; Maina, Claude V

    2010-06-01

    Filarial parasites are responsible for several serious human diseases with symptoms such as lymphoedema, elephantiasis, and blindness. An understanding of how these parasites pass through developmental checkpoints may suggest potential targets for intervention. A useful model system for the study of the human parasites is the closely related nematode, D. immitis, the causative agent of dog heartworm disease. Ecdysteroids have been identified in filarial nematodes and have been shown to have a biological affect both on molting and microfilarial production. The ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone and its receptor, EcR, have a well-characterized developmental role in insects, where it is involved in the control of molting and metamorphosis. We have identified a D. immitis nuclear receptor, DiEcR that shows strong sequence similarity to the insect EcR and shares many of its biochemical properties, including ligand-dependent activation of transcription. However, unlike most insect EcRs, DiEcR requires a ligand-activated RXR partner to exhibit ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of a reporter gene in tissue culture.

  2. Outcomes of standard dose EC-MPS with low exposure to CsA in DCD renal transplantation recipients with DGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C; Xue, W; Tian, P; Ding, X; Pan, X; Yan, H; Xiang, H; Feng, X; Hou, J; Tian, X; Li, Y; Zheng, J

    2015-05-01

    The lower limit of exposure to cyclosporine A (CsA) has not yet been established in donation after cardiac death (DCD) renal transplantation recipients with delayed graft function (DGF) receiving enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) therapy. Stable and adequate mycophenolic acid (MPA) dosing may facilitate lower CsA exposure after DCD renal transplantation in recipients with DGF without compromising safety. A 12-month, single-centre open-label prospective trial was performed in our centre. According to their DGF risk index using the previous DGF prediction models, we divided up the patients on oral CsA into either a DGF group (n = 26) and no DGF group (n = 48). All of the patients initially received the standard EC-MPS dosing (1440 mg/day). The initial dose of CsA in the low risk of DGF group was 4.5 mg/kg/day and in the high risk of DGF group was 2.5 mg/kg/day. Efficacy parameters, safety and tolerability were assessed over a 12-month study period. The incidence of DGF was 18.5% in the 162 DCD recipients. Between the DGF group and the no DGF group, the 1-year patient survival and graft survival were not significantly different. The incidence of BPAR was higher in the DGF group (26.9% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.032). Most patients in the DGF group had recovery of renal function after 1 month. The adverse events between the two groups were not significantly different. The daily EC-MPS doses of the DGF group were significantly higher than the no DGF group before the 6-month follow-up period. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean AUC levels during the follow-up period. These results show that low expose CsA with standard dosing of EC-MPS and thymoglobulin was efficacious, safe and well-tolerated in DCD renal transplant recipients with DGF in China. Furthermore, stable and adequate MPA exposure helped to reduce the dose of and exposure to CsA. Thus, this may lead to less-induced nephrotoxicity and better renal function recovery.

  3. Q and A. Why the EC's PINC has failed Europe's nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) has called for a more comprehensive strategy to be incorporated in a revised version of the European Commission's (EC) Illustrative Programme for Nuclear Energy (PINC). EESC member Brian Curtis tells NucNet why the PINC has failed to address key issues for nuclear and why he believes the EC has become side-tracked by renewables. The EESC is a consultative body which represents the interests of civil society organisations and stakeholders at the EU. Its opinions are forwarded to the EC, the European Council, and the European Parliament and are considered in the EU's decision-making process. Brian Curtis was rapporteur on the committee's opinion paper.

  4. Notch-1-mediated esophageal carcinoma EC-9706 cell invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through Snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Pian, Linping; Gao, Ping; Hu, Hong; Zheng, Yuling; Zang, Wenqiao; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2014-02-01

    Notch has recently been shown to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by involving in the EMT process that occurs during tumor progression and converts polarized epithelial cells into motile, invasive cells. However, it is still unclear whether the Notch signaling pathway is associated with the regulation of EMT in esophageal carcinoma. The present study explored Notch-1-mediated esophageal carcinoma EC-9706 cell invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial–mesenchymal transition through Snail. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of Notch-1 expression in the esophageal carcinoma cell line EC-9706 could suppress the occurrence of EMT and at the same time could decrease the invasion and metastasis ability of the EC-9706 cells, indicative of its role in EMT. Snail is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin. We found that with the inhibition of Notch-1 expression in the esophageal carcinoma cell line EC-9706, the expression of Snail also decreased. Mechanistic studies showed that the up-expression of Snail in the EC-9706 cells restored the suppression of EMT regulated by Notch-1 inhibition, suggesting the role of Snail in Notch-1-mediated EMT. At the same time, the up-expression of Snail in the EC-9706 cells could also rescue the invasion and metastasis ability inhibited by Notch-1 siRNA. Taken together, our results had revealed that Notch-1 could participate in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal carcinoma through EMT via Snail. This study indicated that Notch-1 might be a useful target for esophageal carcinoma prevention and therapy.

  5. Saharan dust contribution to PM levels: The EC LIFE+ DIAPASON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Wille, H.; Sozzi, R.; Angelini, F.; Barnaba, F.; Costabile, F.; Frey, S.; Bolignano, A.; Di Giosa, A.

    2012-04-01

    The contribution of Saharan-dust advections to both daily and annual PM average values can be significant all over Southern Europe. The most important effects of dust on the number of PM exceedances are mostly observed in polluted areas and large cities. While a wide literature exists documenting episodes of Saharan dust transport towards the Euro-Mediterranean region and Europe in general, a limited number of studies are still available providing statistically significant results on the impact of Saharan dust on the particulate matter loads over the continent. A four-year (2001-2004) study performed in Rome (Italy) found these events to contribute to the average ground PM10 with about 15±10 µg/m3 on about 17% of the days in a year. Since the PM10 yearly average of many traffic stations in Rome is close to 40 μg/m3, these events can cause the PM10 concentration to exceed air quality limit values (50 μg/m3 as daily average) set by the EU Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC. Although the European legislation allows Member States to subtract the contribution of natural sources before counting PM10 exceedances, definition of an optimal methodology to quantitatively assess such contribution is still in progress. On the basis of the current European Guidelines on the assessment of natural contributions to PM, the DIAPASON project ("Desert-dust Impact on Air quality through model-Predictions and Advanced Sensors ObservatioNs", recently funded under the EC LIFE+ program) has been formulated to provide a robust, user-oriented methodology to assess the presence of desert dust and its contribution to PM levels. To this end, in addition to satellite-based data and model forecasts, the DIAPASON methodology will employ innovative and affordable technologies, partly prototyped within the project itself, as an operational Polarization Lidar-Ceilometer (laser radar) capable of detecting and profiling dust clouds from the ground up to 10 km altitude. The DIAPASON Project (2011

  6. GCP inspections in Germany and Europe following the implementation of the Directive 2001/20/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundt, Ferdinand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The implementation of the Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC and the Good Clinical Practice Directive 2005/28/EC fundamentally restructured and harmonized the conduct of clinical trials in Europe. GCP inspections – which affect study sites, laboratories, sponsors and contract research organizations (CRO alike – make up an important part of these regulations. A common understanding of how these regulations apply in daily life is however not always ensured. Methods: A working group of the Clinical Research/Quality Assurance subcommittee of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA was established to outline the regulatory requirements, the experience gathered with inspections by means of a survey and to set up guidance on how to manage an inspection. Results and conclusions: The survey, conducted with the help of 15 pharmaceutical companies within the VFA, included a total of 224 inspections (74 inspections in Germany, 150 from other European countries. Most frequent findings in and outside Germany were related to “documentation” (40.5% vs. 21.3%, “investigational new drugs” (16.2% vs. 14.7%, “drug safety” (13.5% vs. 8% and “application for a clinical trial authorization” (5.4% vs. 12%. From a German perspective, key findings of this working group were the necessity for a clear differentiation of responsibilities between national and federal as well as international authorities, a harmonization of inspection procedures and topics, and a clarification of whether pre-study/on-study and pre-approval/post-approval GCP inspections of the federal higher authority are included in the “Zentralstelle der Länder für Gesundheitsschutz bei Arzneimitteln und Medizinprodukten” (ZLG requirements. The survey illustrated, that inspections usually are conducted at the investigational site, and that most of the findings are well known and thus could be prevented by communicating and discussing

  7. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with (PVDF-HFP)-KI-EC-PC Electrolyte and Different Dye Materials

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Noor; M. H. Buraidah; S. N. F. Yusuf; Careem, M. A.; Majid, S. R.; A. K. Arof

    2011-01-01

    A plasticized polymer electrolyte system composed of PVDF-HFP, potassium iodide (KI), and equal weight of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) has been used in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The electrolyte with the composition 40 wt. % PVDF-HFP-10 wt. % KI-50 wt. % (EC + PC) exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.10 × 10−3 S cm−1. A small amount of iodine crystal of about 10 wt. % of KI was added to the electrolyte in the liquid state to provide th...

  8. AMENDING REGULATION (EC NO.1346/2000 ON INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS - SOLVING DEFICIENCIES OR ATTEMPT TO RESCUE COMPANIES IN DIFFICULTY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA FIERBINŢEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EC Insolvency Regulation claims, after more than 10 years, several changes imposed by some of the issues raised by the practice of its application but also by the need to promote economic recovery for enterprises in difficulty in the current economic crisis. This paper analyzes the major segments of change and aims to determine whether these segments provide a coherent answer for the practical difficulties faced by the EC Regulation and whether extending its scope by revising the definition of insolvency proceedings may offer better chances of recovery for the enterprises in difficulty.

  9. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  10. Dissipation patterns of the fungicide difenoconazole (25% EC) in apples grown in Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mudasir; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Mukhtar, Malik; Sherwani, Asma; Bhat, Arif Hussain; Showkat, Abid

    2015-07-01

    Dissipation patterns were studied following two applications of difenoconazole (score 25% EC) at 300 and 600 g ai ha(-1) as single and double dose respectively on Golden Delicious and Starkrimson cultivars of apple. Samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 30 days (harvest) post treatment. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.004 and 0.008 μg g(-1), respectively. Half-life periods for Golden Delicious were found to be 6.09 and 6.70 days, and for Starkrimson, these values were observed to be 5.34 and 5.80 days, at single and double doses, respectively. Difenoconazole residues dissipated below its LOQ of 0.008 μg g(-1) after 30 day post treatment at a single dose in both the cultivars. Waiting periods of 13.06 and 10.72 days are suggested for Golden Delicious and Starkrimson cultivars at a recommended dose of 300 g ai ha(-1), respectively.

  11. Quantitative Electrochemical Measurements using in situ ec-S/TEM Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Gardiner, Daniel [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Walden II, Franklin S [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Damiano, John [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC; Nackashi, David P. [Protochips Inc., Raleigh, NC

    2014-01-01

    Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ ec-S/TEM, which utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry, choronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple using a [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and was found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10-5 cm2 s-1. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.

  12. Computer-Aided Construction at Designing Reinforced Concrete Columns as Per Ec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the authors’ computer program for designing and dimensioning columns in reinforced concrete structures taking into account phenomena affecting their behaviour and information referring to design as per EC. The computer program was developed with the use of C++ programming language. The program guides the user through particular dimensioning stages: from introducing basic data such as dimensions, concrete class, reinforcing steel class and forces affecting the column, through calculating the creep coefficient taking into account the impact of imperfection depending on the support scheme and also the number of mating members at load shit, buckling length, to generating the interaction curve graph. The final result of calculations provides two dependence points calculated as per methods of nominal stiffness and nominal curvature. The location of those points relative to the limit curve determines whether the column load capacity is assured or has been exceeded. The content of the study describes in detail the operation of the computer program and the methodology and phenomena which are indispensable at designing axially and eccentrically the compressed members of reinforced concrete structures as per the European standards.

  13. Impact of EC Regulation on Animal Protection during Transport in Romania – some Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Andronie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish how the application of EC Regulation 1/2005 and national legislation, have contributed or not to increase the animal protection and welfare during transport in our country. Short or long distance of animal transport done often in poor conditions can produce suffering of the animal involved. EU and national legislation in the field, wanted that suffering being minimized or even missing. A Commission report on animal transport Regulation showed that current legislation applicable from 2007 made some improvements in this area but it is still far from satisfactory especially in terms of time journey in relation with travel conditions (means of transport construction, microclimate, and methods of loading/unloading, supplies of food and water, stop for watering, feeding and rest. The study was based on answers given by drivers and attendants of animals involved in transport to some questions in the field. Results showed that livestock transporters lined to current legislation requirements thus ensuring the protection and animal welfare. This was due both proper equipping vehicles, especially long-term transport, and training of the drivers and attendants of animals in order to obtain the certificate of competence.

  14. EC multicentre study on small area variations in air quality and health (SAVIAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands); Elliott, P. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom); Briggs, D. [Huddersfield Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Environmental and Policy Analysis; Gorynski, P. [National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland); Kriz, B. [National Inst. of Public Health, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-12-31

    SAVIAH is an EC-funded methodological study coordinated by Dr. Paul Elliott at the LSHTM (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine). The project aims to apply, test and evaluate new and emerging methodologies in the fields of epidemiology, geography, air pollution modelling and small area health statistics, and to bring the data together in a consistent geographic framework. The study was carried out in the U.K., The Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic, using the example of childhood wheeze and outdoor air pollution. Specific aims of the study were, in each centre, (1) to carry out a questionnaire survey among parents of guardians of around 4000 to 5000 children aged between 7 and 11, (2) to carry out a series of air pollution surveys for NO{sub 2} as a proxy for the complex of traffic-related pollutants, and SO{sub 2} (PL), using a dense network of passive samplers, (3) to build up a detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) for each of the study areas; (4) to construct an air pollution `map` based on the NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} measurements and a health `map` based on `map smoothing` techniques and (5) to explore methods to examine relationships between health, pollution, socio-economic and other data. (author)

  15. Immobilization of penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli on commercial sepabeads EC-EP carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuža Milena G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the covalent immobilization of penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli on sepabeads EC-EP, an epoxy-activated polymethacrylic carrier and kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme. The selected enzyme belongs to a class of biocatalysts whose industrial interest is due to their versatility to mediate hydrolysis of penicillins and semi-synthetic β-lactam antibiotics synthesis reactions. About 2.7 mg of the pure enzyme was immobilized onto each gram of sepabeads with an enzyme coupling yield of 96.9%. However, it seems that the activity coupling yield is not correlated with the amount of enzyme bound and the maximum yield of 89.4% can be achieved working at low enzyme loading (0.14 mg g-1. Immobilization of the penicillin acylase resulted in slightly different pH activity profile and temperature optima, indicating that the immobilization by this method imparted structural and conformational stability of this enzyme. It appears that both free and immobilized penicillin acylase followed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, implying the same reaction mechanism in both systems.

  16. Boundary layer stability and Arctic climate change: a feedback study using EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintanja, R.; van der Linden, E. C.; Hazeleger, W.

    2012-12-01

    Amplified Arctic warming is one of the key features of climate change. It is evident in observations as well as in climate model simulations. Usually referred to as Arctic amplification, it is generally recognized that the surface albedo feedback governs the response. However, a number of feedback mechanisms play a role in AA, of which those related to the prevalent near-surface inversion have received relatively little attention. Here we investigate the role of the near-surface thermal inversion, which is caused by radiative surface cooling in autumn and winter, on Arctic warming. We employ idealized climate change experiments using the climate model EC-Earth together with ERA-Interim reanalysis data to show that boundary-layer mixing governs the efficiency by which the surface warming signal is `diluted' to higher levels. Reduced vertical mixing, as in the stably stratified inversion layer in Arctic winter, thus amplifies surface warming. Modelling results suggest that both shortwave—through the (seasonal) interaction with the sea ice feedback—and longwave feedbacks are affected by boundary-layer mixing, both in the Arctic and globally, with the effect on the shortwave feedback dominating. The amplifying effect will decrease, however, with climate warming because the surface inversion becomes progressively weaker. We estimate that the reduced Arctic inversion has slowed down global warming by about 5% over the past 2 decades, and we anticipate that it will continue to do so with ongoing Arctic warming.

  17. EC as PIE: five criteria for executing a successful DNP final project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Julee; Caruso, Diane; Fuchs, Mary Ann; Hypes, Kathe

    2014-01-01

    The goal of doctor of nursing practice (DNP) programs should be to produce nurses that are uniquely prepared to bridge the gap between the discovery of new knowledge and the scholarship of translation, application, and integration of this new knowledge in practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN], 2006). However, there is concern over the variability in DNP programs and expected outcomes. The aim of this article is to describe a 5-point system of evaluation to determine whether a DNP final project meets the outcomes of the AACN Essentials of Doctoral Education in Advanced Nursing Practice (2006) in a comprehensive and rigorous way. In brief, the five criteria that must be met are represented by the acronym EC as PIE (E = Enhances; C = Culmination; P = Partnerships; I = Implements; E = Evaluates). Each criterion must be present and come together to form one complete "pie" representing evidence-based practice that is robust and innovative, culminating in a rigorous doctoral level DNP final project. In addition, we provide detailed examples of how these standards are currently being successfully implemented and discuss additional possibilities.

  18. La Directiva Antidiscriminatoria (2000/78/EC: implicaciones en selección de personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. ARAMBURU-ZABALA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Directiva (2000/78/EC es una referencia básica en el debate de los psicólogos europeos sobre el "sesgo" y el "efecto adverso" de las pruebas de selección. Puesto que la Directiva es de aplicación obligada en los Países Miembros de la Unión Europea antes de a partir de diciembre de 2003, el concepto de discriminación indirecta cobrará gran importancia en Europa, como sucedió en los Estados Unidos tras la aprobación de las "Uniform Guidelines". En el plano teórico, el nuevo marco legal puede suponer un cambio en la manera de entender los conceptos de "equidad" y "sesgo" del predictor, y en el plano profesional la Directiva afecta a los métodos y procedimientos de selección que usan las empresas. En este artículo se destacan las implicaciones de la Directiva, con referencia a la jurisprudencia del Tribunal de Luxemburgo, que orientará la aplicación práctica de la nueva norma. El propósito de este artículo es destacar las consecuencias del nuevo marco jurídico para la selección de personal, y discutir los condicionantes legales de la actividad de los psicólogos del Trabajo y las Organizaciones.

  19. Melt quality induced failure of electrical conductor (EC grade aluminum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of electrical conductor grade (EC aluminum during wire drawing process was investigated. The fractured aluminum wires were subjected to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses for an initial examination. Thermodynamic analyses of molten aluminum interaction with refractories was also carried out using FactSage at 710°C to predict the stable phases. The SEM/EDX analyses has revealed the inclusions in aluminum matrix. The typical inclusions observed were Al2O3, Al3C4 (Al-Carbide and oxides of refractories elements (Al, Mg, Si and O that have particle size ranging up to 5 μm. The transition metal boride particles were not identified during SEM/EDX analyses these might be too fine to be detected with this microscope. The overall investigation suggested that the possible cause of this failure is second phase particles presence as inclusions in the aluminum matrix, and this was associated with the poor quality of melt. During wire drawing process, these inclusions were pulled out of the aluminum matrix by the wiredrawing forces to produce micro-voids which led to ductile tearing and final fracture of wires. It was recommended to use ceramic foam filters to segregate inclusions from molten aluminum.

  20. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: EM disruption analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, A., E-mail: Alessandro.Vaccaro@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany, Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (Germany); Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Scherer, T.A.; Schreck, S.; Späh, P.; Strauß, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany, Institut für Angewandte Materialien - Angewandte Werkstoffphysik (Germany); Saibene, G.; Cavinato, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    In the frame of the new grant started in November 2011 between Fusion for Energy (F4E) and the ECHUL-CA consortium, the development process of the Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) upper launcher (UL) in ITER has moved a step toward the final design phase. Based on the 2009 preliminary design review version, the new configuration of the UL now features a thicker single-wall mainframe (up to 90 mm), a recessed first wall panel (100 mm, to reduce the impact of halo currents) and a new arrangement of the internal shield blocks. The main design drivers for the structural components are still the electromagnetic (EM) loads, which need to be reassessed for the new configuration of the UL. In this paper the results of a new EM 20° sector model of ITER, specialized for the UL, are shown. Six different disruption scenarios are considered in this work: upward linear (36 ms) and exponential (36 ms) vertical displacement events (VDE), upward linear (36 ms) and exponential (16 ms) major disruptions (MD), category II upward slow and slow–fast VDEs. Comparing the analyses’ results allowed to define a set of structural loads to be used as a reference for the forthcoming structural calculations.

  1. Quantitative electrochemical measurements using in situ ec-S/TEM devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sacci, Robert L; Brown, Gilbert M; Veith, Gabriel M; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L; Walden, Franklin S; Gardiner, Daniel S; Damiano, John; Nackashi, David P

    2014-04-01

    Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3-/4--based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10-5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.

  2. Future Projections of Fire Occurrence in Brazil Using EC-Earth Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Fire has a fundamental role in the Earth system as it influences global and local ecosystem patterns and processes, such as vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle and climate. Since, in the global context, Brazil is one of the regions with higher fire activity, an assessment is here performed of the sensitivity of the wildfire regime in Brazilian savanna and shrubland areas to changes in regional climate during the 21st Century, for an intermediate scenario (RCP4.5 of climate change. The assessment is based on a spatial and temporal analysis of a meteorological fire danger index specifically developed for Brazilian biomes, which was evaluated based on regional climate simulations of temperature, relative humidity and precipitation using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA4 forced by the EC-Earth earth system model. Results show a systematic increase in the extreme levels of fire danger throughout the 21st Century that mainly results from the increase in maximum daily temperature, which rises by about 2 °C between 2005 and 2100. This study provides new insights about projected fire activity in Brazilian woody savannas associated to climate change and is expected to benefit the user community, from governmental policies to land management and climate researches.

  3. U.S. -- EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  4. Pressure effects reveal that changes in the redox states of the heme iron complexes in the sensor domains of two heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, EcDOS and YddV, have profound effects on their flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenbacher, Pavel; Marchal, Stéphane; Palacký, Jan; Anzenbacherová, Eva; Domaschke, Thomas; Lange, Reinhard; Shimizu, Toru; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Stranava, Martin; Stiborová, Marie; Martinkova, Marketa

    2014-12-01

    The catalytic activity of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (EcDOS) towards cyclic diGMP is regulated by the redox state of the heme iron complex in the enzyme's sensing domain and the association of external ligands with the iron center. Specifically, the Fe(II) complex is more active towards cyclic diGMP than the Fe(III) complex, and its activity is further enhanced by O2 or CO binding. In order to determine how the redox state and coordination of the heme iron atom regulate the catalytic activity of EcDOS, we investigated the flexibility of its isolated N-terminal heme-binding domain (EcDOS-heme) by monitoring its spectral properties at various hydrostatic pressures. The most active form of the heme-containing domain, i.e. the Fe(II)-CO complex, was found to be the least flexible. Conversely, the oxidized Fe(III) forms of EcDOS-heme and its mutants had relatively high flexibilities, which appeared to be linked to the low catalytic activity of the corresponding intact enzymes. These findings corroborate the suggestion, made on the basis of crystallographic data, that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of the heme-containing domain of EcDOS and its catalytic activity. The Fe(II)-CO form of the heme domain of a second heme-based oxygen sensor, diguanylate cyclase (YddV), was also found to be quite rigid. Interestingly, the incorporation of a water molecule into the heme complex of YddV caused by mutation of the Leu65 residue reduced the flexibility of this heme domain. Conversely, mutation of the Tyr43 residue increased its flexibility.

  5. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  6. The Dynamo package for tomography and subtomogram averaging: components for MATLAB, GPU computing and EC2 Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Díez, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Dynamo is a package for the processing of tomographic data. As a tool for subtomogram averaging, it includes different alignment and classification strategies. Furthermore, its data-management module allows experiments to be organized in groups of tomograms, while offering specialized three-dimensional tomographic browsers that facilitate visualization, location of regions of interest, modelling and particle extraction in complex geometries. Here, a technical description of the package is presented, focusing on its diverse strategies for optimizing computing performance. Dynamo is built upon mbtools (middle layer toolbox), a general-purpose MATLAB library for object-oriented scientific programming specifically developed to underpin Dynamo but usable as an independent tool. Its structure intertwines a flexible MATLAB codebase with precompiled C++ functions that carry the burden of numerically intensive operations. The package can be delivered as a precompiled standalone ready for execution without a MATLAB license. Multicore parallelization on a single node is directly inherited from the high-level parallelization engine provided for MATLAB, automatically imparting a balanced workload among the threads in computationally intense tasks such as alignment and classification, but also in logistic-oriented tasks such as tomogram binning and particle extraction. Dynamo supports the use of graphical processing units (GPUs), yielding considerable speedup factors both for native Dynamo procedures (such as the numerically intensive subtomogram alignment) and procedures defined by the user through its MATLAB-based GPU library for three-dimensional operations. Cloud-based virtual computing environments supplied with a pre-installed version of Dynamo can be publicly accessed through the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), enabling users to rent GPU computing time on a pay-as-you-go basis, thus avoiding upfront investments in hardware and longterm software maintenance.

  7. THE RESULT OF THE TRANSPOSITION OF EU DIRECTIVES INTO NATIONAL LEGISLATION. THE FIRST CASE AGAINST ROMANIA REGARDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RACIAL EQUALITY DIRECTIVE (2000/43/EC AND OF THE EQUAL TREATMENT DIRECTIVE (2000/78/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN JURA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose if this research paper is to analyze how the two directives, The Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC and of The Equal Treatment Directive (2000/78/EC, were transposed into national legislation. One objective of the paper is to present and analyze some outcomes of the transposition: the national legislation on combating discrimination and the national institutions in this field. The second objective is to present and analyze the first case against Romania regarding the transposition of The Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC and of The Equal Treatment Directive (2000/78/EC into national legislation: preliminary ruling C-310/10 (Agafi ei and Others, Romania and the possible impact of this case. Council Directive 2000/43 is implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin. Directive 2000/78/EC is establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. The case stems from a salary dispute Agafitei and others, staff of the national anti-corruption board and management research to fight organized crime and terrorism. There is a reward past circumstances arise system with two tracks: one that is followed by the 'attorneys' and by other staff. For the first track counts along the length of service for the second. Since there is no (additional qualification requirements for the group of prosecutors, according to defendants pay equal. In a national procedure Agafitei others (defendants in the national procedure in the right, and their employers to pay the lost wages. The respective employers, however, did not agree and make cassation.

  8. Measurements of diurnal variations and Eddy Covariance (EC fluxes of glyoxal in the tropical marine boundary layer: description of the Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coburn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present first Eddy Covariance (EC measurements of fluxes of glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl product of hydrocarbon oxidation, and a precursor for secondary organic aerosol (SOA. The unique physical and chemical properties of glyoxal, i.e., high solubility in water (Henry's Law constant, KH = 4.2 × 105 M atm−1 and short atmospheric lifetime (~2 h at solar noon make it a unique indicator species for organic carbon oxidation in the marine atmosphere. Previous reports of elevated glyoxal over oceans remain unexplained by atmospheric models. Here we describe a Fast Light Emitting Diode Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure diurnal variations and EC fluxes of glyoxal, and inform about its unknown sources. The fast in situ sensor is described, and first results are presented from a cruise deployment over the Eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (20° N to 10° S; 133° W to 85° W as part of the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogens and OVOC (TORERO field experiment (January to March 2012. The Fast LED-CE-DOAS is a multispectral sensor that selectively and simultaneously measures glyoxal (CHOCHO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, oxygen dimers (O4 and water vapor (H2O with ~2 Hz time resolution, and a precision of ~40 pptv Hz−0.5 for glyoxal. The instrument is demonstrated to be a "white-noise" sensor suitable for EC flux measurements; further, highly sensitive and inherently calibrated glyoxal measurements are obtained from temporal averaging of data (~2 pptv detection limit over 1 h. The campaign averaged mixing ratio in the Southern Hemisphere (SH is found to be 43 ± 9 pptv glyoxal, and is higher than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH: 32 ± 6 pptv; error reflects variability over multiple days. The diurnal variation of glyoxal in the MBL is measured for the first time, and mixing ratios vary by ~8 ppt (NH and ~12 pptv (SH over the course of 24 h. Consistently, maxima

  9. 77 FR 48058 - Special Conditions: Eurocopter France, EC130T2; Use of 30-Minute Power Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... (VEMD) avionics, and an active vibration control system. Eurocopter France proposes that the EC130T2... drive system and control mechanism tests), Sec. 27.1305 (Powerplant instruments), and Sec. 27.1521... addition to the requirements of Section 27.923, Rotor Drive System and Control Mechanism Tests, the...

  10. After Effects of the 57Co(EC)57Fe-Reaction in some Cobalt and Iron Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siekierska, K. F.; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard; Olsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Mössbauer emission spectra of iron and cobalt complexes, doped or labelled with 57Co, demonstrate that the 57Co(EC)57Fe reaction can have significant chemical effects, although the probability of displacement of the nascent57Fe is very low. Measurements on specifically 57Co-labelled [Co(bipy)3][Co...

  11. "Me? Teach Science?" Exploring EC-4 Pre-Service Teachers' Self Efficacy in an Inquiry-Based Constructivist Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ratna; Lamp, David

    2010-01-01

    In this qualitative and interpretive study, we investigated factors that influenced elementary preservice teachers' self-efficacy in a constructivist, inquiry-based physics class. Bandura's (1977) theory of social learning was used as a basis to examine preservice teacher's self-efficacy. Participants included 70 female EC-4 preservice teachers…

  12. A computer-controlled whole-body inhalation exposure system for the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William Travis; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Law, Brandon; Bledsoe, Toni; Siegel, Paul; Cumpston, Jared; Frazer, David

    2011-01-01

    An automated whole-body inhalation exposure system capable of exposing 12 individually housed rats was designed to examine the potential adverse health effects of the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A, used extensively during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A computer-controlled syringe pump injected the COREXIT EC9500A into an atomizer where droplets and vapor were formed and mixed with diluent air. The aerosolized COREXIT EC9500A was passed into a customized exposure chamber where a calibrated light-scattering instrument estimated the real-time particle mass concentration of the aerosol in the chamber. Software feedback loops controlled the chamber aerosol concentration and pressure throughout each exposure. The particle size distribution of the dispersant aerosol was measured and shown to have a count median aerodynamic diameter of 285 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. The total chamber concentration (particulate + vapor) was determined using a modification of the acidified methylene blue spectrophotometric assay for anionic surfactants. Tests were conducted to show the effectiveness of closed loop control of chamber concentration and to verify chamber concentration homogeneity. Five automated 5-h animal exposures were performed that produced controlled and consistent COREXIT EC9500A concentrations (27.1 ± 2.9 mg/m(3), mean ± SD).

  13. An Intelligent System for Recognition of the Work Wave of an EC Engine Based on a Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle for recognition of engine work wave signalwith neural network. A diagnosis method for recognizing engine trouble by its work wave isproposed. The designing process is illustrated by diagnosing the voltage trouble of the fuelinjector of an electronic control (EC) engine.

  14. Expression of heparanase mRNA in anti-sense oligonucleotide-transfected human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui-Sheng Chen; Lan Zhang; Lin Tang; Yun-Han Zhang; Dong-Ling Gao; Liang Yan; Lei Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of anti-sense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) on mRNA expression of heparanase in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells.METHODS: One non-sense oligonucleotide (N-ODN) and five ASODNs against different heparanase mRNA sites were transfected into EC9706 cells, then the expression of heparanase mRNA in EC9706 cells was studied byin situ hybridization.RESULTS: The expression of heparanase mRNA could be inhibited by ASODNs.There was no significant difference among five ASODNs (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference between ASODNs and N-ODN or non-transfected group (ASODN1: 2.25±0.25, ASODN2: 2.21±0.23, ASODN3:2.23±0.23, ASODN4:2.25±0.24 vs N-ODN: 3.47±2.80 or non- transfected group: 3.51±2.93 respectively, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The expression of heparanase mRNA in EC9706 cells can be inhibited by ASODNs in vivo, and heparanase ASODNs can inhibit metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or other tumors by inhibiting the expression of heparanase.

  15. The competitive advantage of nations: the importance of the national environment for strategic management in the EC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); T. Elfring (Tom); P. de Wolf (Peter)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractSummary: In this paper we investigate the usefulness for strategic management of Porter's framework of analysis of the competitive advantage of nations in particular regarding the importance of the changing national environment within the EC. It appears that Porter's framework - suppleme

  16. SEM, XRD and electrical conductivity studies of PVDF-HFP-LiBF4 -EC plasticized gel polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-07-01

    Micro porous gel type polymer electrolytes composed of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP polymer - 20 Wt% LiBF4 salt in different concentrations of EC plasticizer (10Wt% - 70 Wt %) plasticizer have been synthesized by Solution cast technique. The effect of plasticizer in polymer-salt matrix, structural, morphological and ionic conductivity is studied. Structural and morphological studies showed increase in amorphous nature and recrystallization after a certain limit of EC plasticizer. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.510 × 10-3 Cm-1 is found for 40 Wt% of EC plasticizer at 303K. Addition of plasticizer increase free volume enables segmental motion of polymer and free mobility of ions. Also it provides more number of charge carriers in turn enhances the ionic conductivity up to certain limit of 40 Wt% of EC plasticizer. Further increase of plasticizer content creates ion-pair aggregation and recrystallization which reduces the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity obeys the VTF relationship for Gel type polymer electrolyte system.

  17. EC-Earth V2.2: description and validation of a new seamless earth system prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wang, X.; Severijns, C.; Linden, van der E.C.

    2012-01-01

    EC-Earth, a new Earth system model based on the operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is presented. The performance of version 2.2 (V2.2) of the model is compared to observations, reanalysis data and other coupled atmosphere–ocean-sea

  18. EC-Earth V2.2: description and validation of a new seamless earth system prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, W.; Wang, X.; Severijns, C.; Linden, van der E.C.

    2012-01-01

    EC-Earth, a new Earth system model based on the operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is presented. The performance of version 2.2 (V2.2) of the model is compared to observations, reanalysis data and other coupled atmosphere–ocean-sea

  19. Q_EC values of the Superallowed beta-Emitters 10-C, 34-Ar, 38-Ca and 46-V

    CERN Document Server

    Eronen, T; Hakala, J; Hardy, J C; Jokinen, A; Kankainen, A; Moore, I D; Penttila, H; Reponen, M; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Aysto, J

    2011-01-01

    The Q_EC values of the superallowed beta+ emitters 10-C, 34-Ar, 38-Ca and 46-V have been measured with a Penning-trap mass spectrometer to be 3648.12(8), 6061.83(8), 6612.12(7) and 7052.44(10) keV, respectively. All four values are substantially improved in precision over previous results.

  20. Measuring phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) activity using two phosphomolybdate-based colorimetric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4), which is also known as PAP, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate (PtdOH) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotes, PAP driven reaction is the committed step in the synthesis of triacyl...

  1. 76 FR 20490 - Special Conditions: Eurocopter France Model AS350B Series, AS350D, and EC130 Helicopters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., AS350D, and EC130 Helicopters, Installation of a Hoh Aeronautics, Inc. Autopilot/Stabilization...) complex autopilot/stabilization augmentation system (AP/SAS) that has potential failure conditions with... autopilot/stabilization augmentation system (AP/ SAS) on the Eurocopter model AS350B, AS350BA,...

  2. What do we learn from EC (black carbon), OC and their Isotope Measurements in Fine Airborne PM over Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Zhang, W.; Sharma, S.; Brook, J.; Chan, T.; Leaitch, R.

    2009-04-01

    Elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC & OC) components in fine airborne carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) are major air pollutants existing in urban, rural and remote environments as well as key players in climate change (via radiative forcing). It is known that both EC (also called as black carbon or soot) and OC are released from various emission sources (e.g., fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning) and OC is also produced in the atmosphere through photochemical oxidations from gas phase organics. Tracking their spatial (e.g., from urban to rural to background air or latitudinal) and temporal (e.g. seasonal and inter-annual) distributions will provide valuable information to constraining emission sources and atmospheric transport/transformation mechanisms as well as to assessing effectiveness of mitigation for these pollutants. Sources/processes detecting and attributing are key aspects in both air quality and climate change research. Isotope measurements, as independent tools, can provide valuable insight to constrain those aspects. Duo to its inert nature, it is expected that the ^13C of EC won't be changed after emitting to the atmosphere, reflecting the signature of source, whereas the ^13Cof OC will have a various degree of changes through photochemical processes, depending on the history of the air mass. Therefore, an isotopic profile of ^13C in carbon components released at different temperature ranges can provide useful insight to the emission sources and formation processes in ambient PM. Quartz filter samples were collected at the five sites over Canada, from Toronto (a typical urban site), Egbert (a rural site, ~ 80 km northwest of Toronto), to Fraserdale, and Berm-TT (both are continental boreal forest sites), to Alert (an Arctic baseline site). EC and OC concentrations for those samples collected during the period (2006 - 2007) were determined using a thermal method (Totoal_900_EnCan) developed in Toronto lab at Environment Canada, which is

  3. Towards a review of the EC Recommendation for a definition of the term "nanomaterial"; Part 1: Compilation of information concerning the experience with the definition

    OpenAIRE

    RAUSCHER Hubert; Roebben, Gert; AMENTA VALERIA; BOIX SANFELIU Ana; CALZOLAI LUIGI; Emons, Hendrik; GAILLARD CLAIRE; GIBSON Peter; Linsinger, Thomas; MECH AGNIESZKA; QUIROS PESUDO LAIA; Rasmussen, Kirsten; RIEGO SINTES Juan; SOKULL-KLUETTGEN Birgit; Stamm, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    In October 2011 the European Commission (EC) published a Recommendation on the definition of nanomaterial (2011/696/EU). The purpose of this definition is to enable determination when a material should be considered a nanomaterial for regulatory purposes in the European Union. In view of the upcoming review of the current EC Definition of the term 'nanomaterial' and noting the need expressed by the EC Environment Directorate General and other Commission services for a set of scientifically so...

  4. Analysis of waste hierarchy in the European waste directive 2008/98/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharfalkar, Mangesh; Court, Richard; Campbell, Callum; Ali, Zulfiqur; Hillier, Graham

    2015-05-01

    Loss of recoverable resources in linear resource flow systems is likely to contribute to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation. The 'waste hierarchy' in the European Commission's latest Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC (WFD2008) makes recommendations on how to address this issue. The WFD2008 is analysed in this work for its adequacy in ensuring return of 'recoverable waste' as a 'resource' into the productive system. Despite the release of guidance documents by the DG Environment, DEFRA and WRAP UK on the interpretation of key provisions of the WFD2008, lack of clarity still exists around the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy'. There is also an overlap between measures such as 'prevention' and 'reduction', 'preparing for reuse' and 'reuse' and lack of clarity on why the measure of 'reuse' is included in the WFD2008 definition of 'prevention'. Finally, absence of the measures of 'recovery' and 'reuse' from the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy' reduces its effectiveness as a resource efficiency tool. Without clarity on the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy', it is challenging for decision makers to take direct action to address inefficiencies existing within their operations or supply chains. This paper proposes the development of an alternative 'hierarchy of resource use' and alternative 'definitions' that attempt to fill identified gaps in the WFD2008 and bring clarity to the key measures of waste prevention, reduction and recovery. This would help the key stakeholders in driving resource effectiveness, which in turn would assist in conservation of natural resources and prevention of environmental degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Notch1通路活化抑制EC109细胞的增殖及机制探讨%Activated Notch1 signaling inhibits growth of EC109 cell line and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永利; 张可杰; 闵祥辉; 鹿全意; 刘文励

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has been reported that activation of Notch1 could strongly inhibit proliferation of HPV (human papilloma virus)-positive HeLa cells by down-regulation of the E6 and E7 genes. The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of the Notch signaling pathway in growth arrest of EC109 cells in vitro and the molecular mechanism. Methods: EC109 cell lines, a well differentiated human ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) cell line with HPV18-positive, was used in the study. Exogenous intracellular domain of Notch1(ICN) was transfected into cultured EC109 cells by lipofectamine transfection, the proliferation of the transfected cells was measured by an MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Human papilloma virus type 18 (HPV18) E6/E7 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, and p53 protein expression was detected by Western blot.Results: Activation of Notchl signaling resulted in inhibition of EC109 cell proliferation with the induction of G_2/ M arrest. There was a significant difference in terms of the percentage of G_2/M phase cells among the ICN-transfected group (42.57±1.57)% and the non-transfected group (1.88±0.66)% or the empty plasmid transfected group (1.99±1.02)% (P<0.01). Down modulation of HPV18 E6/E7 gene expression and upregulation of p53 expression was (2.15±0.23) in ICN-transfected group higher than non- transfected group (0.45±0.07) and empty plasmid transfected group (0.46±0.02) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Repression of HPV18 E6/E7 expression by Notch1 signaling results in growth suppression of HPV18-positive EC109 cells with concomitant activation of p53-mediated pathways.%背景与目的:Notch1的活化可以通过下调人类乳头状瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)早期蛋白E6和E7基因的表达抑制HPV阳性HeLa细胞系的增殖.人食管鳞状细胞癌细胞系EC109细胞为HPV18阳性细胞.本研究将Notch1胞内段(intracellular domain of Notch,ICN)转入EC109细胞,导致EC109

  6. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry EC Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    uncontaminated level). In the single-laboratory evaluation (cooked chicken, prewashed bagged shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen cod filets, and instant nonfat dry milk powder), colony counts were logarithmically transformed, and then the data were analyzed at each level for sr, RSDr, and mean difference between methods with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A CI outside a range of -0.5 to 0.5 on the log10 mean difference between methods was used as the criterion to establish a significant statistical difference. In the multilaboratory study on pasteurized milk, after logarithmic transformation, the data were analyzed for sR and RSDR in addition to sr, RSDr, and mean difference with 95% CIs. Regression analysis was performed on all matrixes and reported as r(2). In the single-laboratory evaluation, statistical differences were indicated between the Compact Dry EC and ISO 16649-2 methods for the enumeration of E. coli in two of five contamination levels tested for lettuce, and in the low contamination level for cooked chicken. For the cooked chicken and lettuce at the low level, only a few colonies were recovered for each method, and thus not a true indication of the methods' performance. For the high contamination level of lettuce, counts varied within the sets of five replicates more than 10-fold for each method, which may have contributed to the significant difference. Statistical differences were also indicated between the Compact Dry EC and ISO 4832 methods for the enumeration of coliforms in two of five contamination levels tested for lettuce, two of five contamination levels of milk powder, and in the low contamination level for frozen fish. For the lowest levels of frozen fish and milk powder, only a few colonies were recovered for each method. For the lettuce and the other level of milk powder, counts varied within the sets of five replicates more than 10-fold for each method, which may have contributed to the significant differences indicated in the those contamination

  7. EC Liability in the Absence of Unlawfulness - The FIAMM Case –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Arend

    2009-02-01

    /Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" fcs; mso-endnote-separator:url("file:///C:/DOKUME~1/mlippold/LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" es; mso-endnote-continuation-separator:url("file:///C:/DOKUME~1/mlippold/LOKALE~1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_header.htm" ecs;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:70.85pt 70.85pt 2.0cm 70.85pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} -->

    While the European Community has been repeatedly held liable for its non-contractual unlawful acts on the basis of Art. 288.2 EC,[1] the European courts have long been reluctant to find explicit wording that would establish or reject a liability regime for unlawful EC action.[2] Finally in FIAMM, the Court of First Instance (CFI took the decisive step of accepting such liability in principle and developed the criteria for its application.

  8. Effect of N-cadherin knock-down on tumor formation of EC9706 cells in nude mice%RNAi沉默N-cadherin表达对EC9706细胞裸鼠移植瘤生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克; 刘莺; 刘文静; 侯新芳; 何素英; 王居峰

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of N - cadherin knock - down on the biological behavior of EC9706 cells in vivo.METHODS: The control vector pEGFP - MSCVneo and recombinant retroviral vector pMSCVneo/N - cadherin plasmids were transfected into esophageal squamous cell carcinoma( ESCC ) cell line EC9706 according to the manufacturers instructions.Stable EC9706 cell clones were selected using selection medium containing G418.Untreated EC9706 cells, control vector - transfected EC9706 cells and N - cadherin RNAi - transfected EC9706 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c mice ( 5 for each group ), respectively.When tumors became palpable, the diameters of the tumors were measured with a caliper each week after subcutaneous implantation, and the volume ( mm3 ) and weight ( g ) of the tumors were also calculated.Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were employed to examine the expression levels of E - cadherin, N - cadherin and MMP - 9 in the tumor tissues.The cell apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL method.RESULTS: Compared with untreated group and control vector group, there was an obvious decrease in the volumes and weights of the tumors in N - cadherin RNAi group ( P < 0.05 ).No difference of E - cadherin expression in the 3 groups was observed.However, the expression of N - cadherin and MMP - 9 in N - cadherin RNAi group was apparently reduced, and the positive number of cell apoptosis was obviously increased in N - cadherin RNAi group ( 106.81 ± 6.47 ) as compared with that in untreated group ( 51.55 ±4.68 ) and control vector group ( 54.17 ± 5.26 ).CONCLUSION: N - cadherin knock - down inhibits the tumor formation of EC9706 cells in nude mice by decreasing MMP - 9 expression , resulting in less degradation of ECM and less aggression of the cancer cells.N - cadherin is an important factor in the progression and metastasis of ESCC,and may serve as a potential molecular target for biotherapy of ESCC.%目的:探讨RNAi沉默N-cadherin表达对人食管鳞状细胞癌EC

  9. LiPF{sub 6}. Synthesis and stability in EC/DMC and PC/DMC mixtures; LiPF{sub 6}. Synthese et stabilite dans les melanges EC/DMC et PC/DMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naejus, R.; Coudert, R.; Lemordant, D. [Laboratoire P.I.M.I.R. EA, Sciences et Techniques, 37 - Tours (France); Willmann, P. [CNES, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    Lithium hexa-fluoro-phosphate LiPF{sub 6} is recommended for the replacement of the toxic LiAsF{sub 6} and the explosive perchlorates (like LiClO{sub 4}) in rechargeable lithium electrochemical generators. The aim of this work is to develop a new method of synthesis of this salt and to check its stability with respect to carbonated solvents: ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl-carbonate (DMC) in already optimized EC/DMC and PC/DMC binary mixtures. Two methods using HPF{sub 6} are proposed: the first one uses the direct neutralization of this commercial acid by LiOH in aqueous, alcoholic or acetonitrile environment, while in the second one LiPF{sub 6} is obtained from pyridinium hexa-fluoro-phosphate synthesized from HPF{sub 6} using a new and simple protocol. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  10. Parameterization of single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) with EC / OC for aerosol emissions from biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.

    2016-08-01

    Single-scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) are two critical parameters in determining the impact of absorbing aerosol on the Earth's radiative balance. Aerosol emitted by biomass burning represent a significant fraction of absorbing aerosol globally, but it remains difficult to accurately predict SSA and AAE for biomass burning aerosol. Black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and non-absorbing coatings all make substantial contributions to the absorption coefficient of biomass burning aerosol. SSA and AAE cannot be directly predicted based on fuel type because they depend strongly on burn conditions. It has been suggested that SSA can be effectively parameterized via the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of a biomass burning event and that this would be useful because emission factors for CO and CO2, from which MCE can be calculated, are available for a large number of fuels. Here we demonstrate, with data from the FLAME-4 experiment, that for a wide variety of globally relevant biomass fuels, over a range of combustion conditions, parameterizations of SSA and AAE based on the elemental carbon (EC) to organic carbon (OC) mass ratio are quantitatively superior to parameterizations based on MCE. We show that the EC / OC ratio and the ratio of EC / (EC + OC) both have significantly better correlations with SSA than MCE. Furthermore, the relationship of EC / (EC + OC) with SSA is linear. These improved parameterizations are significant because, similar to MCE, emission factors for EC (or black carbon) and OC are available for a wide range of biomass fuels. Fitting SSA with MCE yields correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) of ˜ 0.65 at the visible wavelengths of 405, 532, and 660 nm while fitting SSA with EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) yields a Pearson's r of 0.94-0.97 at these same wavelengths. The strong correlation coefficient at 405 nm (r = 0.97) suggests that parameterizations based on EC / OC or EC / (EC + OC) have good predictive

  11. Effect of curcumin on apoptosis of hu-man esophageal epithelia Ec-9706 cells and its mechanism%姜黄素对人食管癌Ec-9706细胞凋亡的影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠玲; 李慧; 左连富

    2008-01-01

    目的:观察姜黄素(euwumin)对人食管癌Ee-9706细胞凋亡作用及凋亡抑制蛋白livin,促凋亡蛋白Smae和caspase-3蛋白表达的影响,探索其分子机制.方法:应用40~160 pmol/L姜黄素处理Ec-9706细胞12~48 h后,采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝法(MTT)检测细胞增殖抑制率;流式细胞术(FCM)检测Ec-9706细胞凋亡率:免疫蛋白印迹技术(WesternBlot)检测livin,Srnac及caspase-3蛋白的表达.结果:姜黄素作用后Ec-9706细胞生长明显减慢,抑制率9.3%~73.2%(P<0.01),凋亡率为6.0%~45.2%(P<0.01),并呈良好的时间-剂量效应关系.药物作用后,Smac,caspase-3蛋白表达升高,livin蛋白表达下调(P<0.01).结论:姜黄素能明显抑制Ec-9706细胞的增殖,诱导其凋亡.其机制可能与抑制livin蛋白表达,同时促进Smac,easpase-3表达有关.

  12. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J. [European Commission, DG Energy and Transport B. EUROFORUM, 4455, L-2920 (Luxembourg); Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L. [Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) Batiment Expansion 10000, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92263 Fontenay-aux- Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    States national regulations. In addition, a Seminar was held in Luxembourg on 29 and 30 November 2005, gathering representatives from EC departments, national regulatory bodies, operators, outside undertakings and from trade unions. The participants discussed measures aimed at coping with these above-mentioned challenges for the radiological protection of outside workers. The paper will provide information on the results of the survey and will present the summaries and conclusions of the discussions of the Luxembourg workshop. (authors)

  13. Dilution Renaturation of Recombinant Human EC-SOD Inclusion Body and Purification of Refolded Protein%重组人EC-SOD包涵体的稀释复性及重折叠后蛋白的纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱希强; 袁勤生

    2005-01-01

    目的确定重组人EC-SOD包涵体体外稀释复性和复性后蛋白纯化的适宜方法.方法通过对pH、温度、包涵体蛋白浓度、尿素和精氨酸浓度及氧化还原对比率的定性定量分析,研究重组人EC-SOD包涵体体外稀释复性的基本条件.采用金属离子亲和柱(IMAC)和肝素亲和柱(Heparin-sepharose)对复性蛋白进行纯化,比较纯化效率的差异.结果最佳复性条件为pH8.5,尿素浓度为1.5 mol/L,精氨酸浓度大于0.3 mol/L,GSH:GSSG=4:1;复性温度及包涵体蛋白终浓度越高,复性效率越低.IMAC和Heparin-sepharose亲和柱均可用来纯化复性蛋白溶液,但Heparin-sepharose纯化效率较高.结论确定了重组人EC-SOD包涵体体外稀释复性的最佳条件及复性后蛋白纯化的方法.

  14. EFSA guidance on the submission of applications for authorisation of genetically modified plants under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This document provides guidance to applicants for submitting an application for authorisation of genetically modified (GM plants for food and feed uses, import and processing, and/or cultivation in the European Union under Regulation (EC No 1829/2003. The EFSA submission guidance describes the community procedures in the European Union for handling GM plant applications, and provides instructions to applicants on how to prepare and present data in an application. It is supplemented with seven appendices providing templates of data presentation to be followed by applicants, including a completeness checklist. The earlier versions are now updated to account for requirements outlined in Implementing Regulation (EU No 503/2013. Instructions for submission described in this EFSA guidance are applicable to all GM plant applications submitted under Articles 5, 11, 17 and 23 of Regulation (EC No 1829/2003.

  15. An investigation of PVdF/PVC-based blend electrolytes with EC/PC as plasticizers in lithium battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, S.; Sivakumar, P.

    2008-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF)-poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) complexed with lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4) as salt and ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizers were prepared using solvent-casting technique, with different weight ratios of EC and PC. The amorphicity and complexation behavior of the polymer electrolytes were confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR studies. TG/DTA and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies explained the thermal stability and surface morphology of electrolytes, respectively. The prepared thin films were subjected to AC impedance measurements as a function of temperature ranging from 302 to 373 K. The temperature-dependence conductivity of polymer films seems to obey VTF relation.

  16. Search for EC-decayed neutron-deficient actinide isotopes using gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    To study the nuclear properties of unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes which decay mainly via orbital electron capture (EC), we have developed a composite system consisting of a gas-jet transport apparatus and a thermal ion-source at the JAERI-ISOL. With this system, search for {sup 236}Am produced in the {sup 235}U({sup 6}Li, 5n) reaction has been performed. Pu KX-rays associated with the EC decay of {sup 236}Am are observed at the mass-236 fraction. The half-life of {sup 236}Am is evaluated to be 4.4min. The outline of the gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL system and typical performance are given. (author)

  17. High power ECRH and ECCD in moderately collisional ASDEX Upgrade Hmodes and status of EC system upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stober J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with H-modes with significant heat exchange between electrons and ions, but which can still show large differences between electron and ion-temperatures especially inside half minor radius. These conditions are referred to as moderately collisional. A systematic study shows that an increasing fraction of electron heating increases the transport in the ion channel mainly due to the dependence of the ITG dominated ion transport on the ratio Te/Ti in agreement with modeling. The rotational shear in the plasmas under study was so small that it hardly influences ITG stability, such that variations of the rotation profile due to a change of the heating method were of minor importance. These findings connect to studies of advanced tokamak scenarios using ECCD as a tool to modify the q-profile. The electron heating connected to the ECCD tends to increase the transport in the ion channel quite in contrast to the goal to operate at reduced current but with increased confinement. The confinement only increases as the fraction of ion heating is increased by adding more NBI. An ITER case was modeled as well. Due to the larger value of νei ・ τE the ratio Te/Ti is only moderately reduced even with strong electron heating and the confinement reduction is small even for the hypothetic case of using only ECRH as additional heating. Finally the paper discusses the ongoing upgrade of the AUG ECRH-system.

  18. Air quality and health impact of PM10 and EC in the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 1985-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.; Zandveld, P.Y.J.; Elshout, S. van den; Janssen, N.A.H.; Hoek, G.

    2011-01-01

    A health impact assessment (HIA) of PM10 and elemental carbon (EC) was performed for the period 1985-2008 in the city of Rotterdam. The spatial distribution of the concentrations was modeled by the URBIS model. The modeling results for 2008 were validated by PM10 and EC measurements at various locat

  19. Probing the interaction between cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of E-cadherin using NMR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaofi, Ahmed; Farokhi, Elinaz; Prasasty, Vivitri D; Anbanandam, Asokan; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to probe the interaction between cyclic cHAVc3 peptide and the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin protein. Cyclic cHAVc3 peptide (cyclo(1,6)Ac-CSHAVC-NH2) binds to the EC1 domain as shown by chemical shift perturbations in the 2D (1)H,-(15)N-HSQC NMR spectrum. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the EC1 domain showed folding of the C-terminal tail region into the main head region of the EC1 domain. For cHAVc3 peptide, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations generated five structural clusters of cHAVc3 peptide. Representative structures of cHAVc3 and the EC1 structure from MD simulations were used in molecular docking experiments with NMR constraints to determine the binding site of the peptide on EC1. The results suggest that cHAVc3 binds to EC1 around residues Y36, S37, I38, I53, F77, S78, H79, and I94. The dissociation constants (Kd values) of cHAVc3 peptide to EC1 were estimated using the NMR chemical shifts data and the estimated Kds are in the range of .5 × 10(-5)-7.0 × 10(-5) M.

  20. Summarizing EC50 estimates from multiple dose-response experiments: a comparison of a meta-analysis strategy to a mixed-effects model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Dose-response studies are performed to investigate the potency of a compound. EC50 is the concentration of the compound that gives half-maximal response. Dose-response data are typically evaluated by using a log-logistic model that includes EC50 as one of the model parameters. Often, more than one experiment is carried out to determine the EC50 value for a compound, requiring summarization of EC50 estimates from a series of experiments. In this context, mixed-effects models are designed to estimate the average behavior of EC50 values over all experiments by considering the variabilities within and among experiments simultaneously. However, fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models is more complicated than in a linear situation, and convergence problems are often encountered. An alternative strategy is the application of a meta-analysis approach, which combines EC50 estimates obtained from separate log-logistic model fitting. These two proposed strategies to summarize EC50 estimates from multiple experiments are compared in a simulation study and real data example. We conclude that the meta-analysis strategy is a simple and robust method to summarize EC50 estimates from multiple experiments, especially suited in the case of a small number of experiments.

  1. Cloning and Expression Analysis of One Gamma-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Gene (Hbγ-ECS1 in Latex Production in Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree is a major commercial source of natural rubber. Latex coagulation is delayed by thiols, which belong to the important type of antioxidants in laticifer submembrane, and is composed of glutathione (GSH, cysteine, and methionine. The rate-limiting enzyme, γ-ECS, plays an important role in regulating the biosynthesis of glutathione under any environment conditions. To understand the relation between γ-ECS and thiols and to correlate latex flow with one-time tapping and continuous tapping, we cloned and derived the full length of one γ-ECS from rubber tree latex (Hbγ-ECS1. According to qPCR analysis, the expression levels of Hbγ-ECS1 were induced by tapping and Ethrel stimulation, and the expression was related to thiols content in the latex. Continuous tapping induced injury, and the expression of HbγECS1 increased with routine tapping and Ethrel-stimulation tapping (more intensive tapping. According to expression in long-term flowing latex, the gene was related to the duration of latex flow. HbγECS1 was expressed in E. coli Rosetta using pET-sumo as an expression vector and the recombinant enzyme was purified; then we achieved 0.827 U/mg specific activity and about 66 kDa molecular weight. The present study can help us understand the complex role of Hbγ-ECS in thiols biosynthesis, which is influenced by tapping.

  2. 77 FR 41399 - EC&R O&M, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EC&R O&M, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of EC&R O&M, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  3. Comparison of DMSA Scan 99 m and EC Scan 99 m in Diagnosis of Cortical Defect and Differential Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi-Fallah, M.; Alizadeh, M.; Lavin, T. Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis of renal cortical lesions by radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is one of the most common techniques and procedures can be performed by different radiotracer. However, all these materials are accurate in determining kidney function, but there are differences between them in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EC scans compared with DMSA scan in the detection of cortical lesions and DRF. Methods: 65 cases, which have been referred fo...

  4. FORECASTING CHINA'S FOREIGN TRADE VOLUME WITH A KERNEL-BASED HYBRID EC-ONOMETRIC-AI ENSEMBLE LEARNING APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lean YU; Shouyang WANG; Kin Keung LAI

    2008-01-01

    Due to the complexity of economic system and the interactive effects between all kinds of economic variables and foreign trade, it is not easy to predict foreign trade volume. However, the difficulty in predicting foreign trade volume is usually attributed to the limitation of many conventional forecasting models. To improve the prediction performance, the study proposes a novel kernel-based ensemble learning approach hybridizing econometric models and artificial intelligence (AI) models to predict China's foreign trade volume. In the proposed approach, an important econometric model, the co-integration-based error correction vector auto-regression (EC-VAR) model is first used to capture the impacts of all kinds of economic variables on Chinese foreign trade from a multivariate linear anal-ysis perspective. Then an artificial neural network (ANN) based EC-VAR model is used to capture the nonlinear effects of economic variables on foreign trade from the nonlinear viewpoint. Subsequently, for incorporating the effects of irregular events on foreign trade, the text mining and expert's judgmental adjustments are also integrated into the nonlinear ANN-based EC-VAR model. Finally, all kinds of economic variables, the outputs of linear and nonlinear EC-VAR models and judgmental adjustment model are used as input variables of a typical kernel-based support vector regression (SVR) for en-semble prediction purpose. For illustration, the proposed kernel-based ensemble learning methodology hybridizing econometric techniques and AI methods is applied to China's foreign trade volume predic-tion problem. Experimental results reveal that the hybrid econometric-AI ensemble learning approach can significantly improve the prediction performance over other linear and nonlinear models listed in this study.

  5. Validation of Medi·Ca EC Method for AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mai; Saito, Fumihiko; Takenaka, Kentaro; Kimura, Narumi; Suzuki, Takeo; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for Escherichia coli and coliform count, the Medi·Ca EC method, was compared with the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Lactose Bile broth and E. coli broth (AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official MethodSM 966.24) for seven food matrixes: raw beef, raw pork, raw frozen pork, raw lamb, raw salmon, frankfurter sausage, and cooked ham. The mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for each matrix was <0.5 log10, and the 95% confidence intervals for the mean differences fell within the range of -0.5 to 0.5, with the exception of a few cases in the independent laboratory study. sr and RSDr values of the Medi·Ca EC method were generally lower than those of the MPN method, and r2 ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. Product consistency and stability studies showed little variability between production lots and the shelf-life of 20 months. An incubation time within the range of 22-26 h did not adversely affect the results; however, variations in sample volume did affect final counts. These results showed that the Medi·Ca EC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for the selected food matrixes and makes it possible to simultaneously detect and enumerate E. coli and coliform in only 24 h.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new G-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysG) in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Wei, Jingguang; Li, Pengfei; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. In this study, a new G-type lysozyme gene with a typical G-type lysozyme domain (designated as Ec-lysG) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysG cDNA contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the N-terminus. BLAST analysis reveals Ec-lysG shares 64% identity with Siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reported G-type lysozyme from orange-spotted grouper (OSG-lysG). The genomic DNA of Ec-lysG contains four exons and three introns, with a total length of 2062 bp. An amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysG shares the fundamental structural features of G-type lysozyme, including the catalytic residues, substrate binding sites, and soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Quantitative PCR showed that Ec-lysG transcript is most abundant in the head kidney, and less abundant in the heart. The expression of Ec-lysG was differentially upregulated in the head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). A subcellular localization analysis showed that Ec-lysG is distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-lysG (rEc-lysG) has optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35°C. rEc-lysG showed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and the Gram-negative bacterium V. alginolyticus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rEc-lysG acts on M. lysodeikticus cell walls. The overexpression of Ec-lysG in grouper cells did not significantly delay the occurrence of the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV, and did not inhibit viral gene transcription. In conclusion, Ec-lysG might be a potent antibacterial protein, with a role in innate immunity.

  7. Measurements of diurnal variations and eddy covariance (EC) fluxes of glyoxal in the tropical marine boundary layer: description of the Fast LED-CE-DOAS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S.; Ortega, I.; Thalman, R.; Blomquist, B.; Fairall, C. W.; Volkamer, R.

    2014-10-01

    Here we present first eddy covariance (EC) measurements of fluxes of glyoxal, the smallest α-dicarbonyl product of hydrocarbon oxidation, and a precursor for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The unique physical and chemical properties of glyoxal - i.e., high solubility in water (effective Henry's law constant, KH = 4.2 × 105 M atm-1) and short atmospheric lifetime (~2 h at solar noon) - make it a unique indicator species for organic carbon oxidation in the marine atmosphere. Previous reports of elevated glyoxal over oceans remain unexplained by atmospheric models. Here we describe a Fast Light-Emitting Diode Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (Fast LED-CE-DOAS) instrument to measure diurnal variations and EC fluxes of glyoxal and inform about its unknown sources. The fast in situ sensor is described, and first results are presented from a cruise deployment over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (20° N to 10° S; 133 to 85° W) as part of the Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated VOCs (TORERO) field experiment (January to March 2012). The Fast LED-CE-DOAS is a multispectral sensor that selectively and simultaneously measures glyoxal (CHOCHO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxygen dimers (O4), and water vapor (H2O) with ~2 Hz time resolution (Nyquist frequency ~1 Hz) and a precision of ~40 pptv Hz-0.5 for glyoxal. The instrument is demonstrated to be a "white-noise" sensor suitable for EC flux measurements. Fluxes of glyoxal are calculated, along with fluxes of NO2, H2O, and O4, which are used to aid the interpretation of the glyoxal fluxes. Further, highly sensitive and inherently calibrated glyoxal measurements are obtained from temporal averaging of data (e.g., detection limit smaller than 2.5 pptv in an hour). The campaign average mixing ratio in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) is found to be 43 ± 9 pptv glyoxal, which is higher than the Northern Hemisphere (NH) average of 32 ± 6 pptv (error reflects

  8. Clinical and Radiographic Success of Pulpotomy with MTA in Primary Molars: 30 Months Follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Haghgoo, Roza; Abbasi, Farid

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulpotomy of carious primary teeth with an exposed pulp is a common treatment option. Pulpotomy has been conducted with various medicaments over the years. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and radiographic success of primary vital pulpotomy with ProRoot and Root MTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this randomized clinical trial, children aged between 3-7 years who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 70 teeth were deemed suitable under the inclusion criter...

  9. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 following a request in accordance with Article 19 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium NV, submitted pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to “cocoa flavanols help maintain the elasticity of blood vessels, which contributes to normal blood flow”, pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006. The modification concerns an extension of the authorised conditions of use of the claim to a high-flavanols (HF cocoa extract to be consumed in capsules, tablets or added to “other foods, including beverages”. Cocoa flavanols, which are the subject of the health claim, have been sufficiently characterised. Maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of cocoa flavanols in the HF cocoa extract (i.e. in capsules or tablets and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In order to obtain the claimed effect, 200 mg of cocoa flavanols should be consumed daily. This amount could be provided by less than one gram of HF cocoa extract in capsules or tablets, and can be consumed in the context of a balanced diet. The target population is the general population.

  10. EC MoDeRn Project: In-situ Demonstration of Innovative Monitoring Technologies for Geological Disposal - 12053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.J. [NDA, Herdus House, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria, CA24 3HU (United Kingdom); Garcia-Sineriz, J.L. [AITEMIN, c/Margarita Salas 14-Parque Leganes Tecnologico-Leganes, ES-28918, Madrid (Spain); Maurer, H. [ETH Zurich, ETH Honggerberg, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Mayer, S. [ANDRA, 1-7 rue Jean-Monnet, F-92298 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Schroeder, T.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Verstricht, J. [EURIDICE EIG, c/o SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    Monitoring to provide information on the evolution of geological disposal presents several challenges. The 4-year, euros M 5, EC MoDeRn Project (http://www.modern-fp7.eu/), which commenced in 2009, addresses monitoring processes, state-of-the-art technology and innovative research and development of monitoring techniques. This paper discusses some of the key drivers for the development of innovative monitoring techniques and provides outlines of the demonstration programmes being conducted within MoDeRn. The aim is to develop these innovative monitoring techniques and to demonstrate them under realistic conditions present in underground laboratories. These demonstration projects, applying a range of different monitoring techniques, are being carried out at underground research facilities in different geological environments at HADES URL in Belgium (plastic clay), Bure in France (indurated clay) and at Grimsel Test Site (granite) in Switzerland. These are either built upon existing infrastructure (EC ESDRED Low pH shotcrete and TEM experiments at Grimsel; and PRACLAY experiment and underground galleries in HADES) or will be attached to infrastructure that is being developed and financed by resources outside of this project (mock-up disposal cell in Bure). At Grimsel Test Site, cross-hole and hole-to-tunnel seismic methods are being employed as a means to monitor induced changes in an artificially saturated bentonite wall confined behind a shotcrete plug. Recognising the limitations for travel-time tomography for monitoring a disposal cell, full waveform inversion techniques are being employed to enhance the capacity to monitor remote from the excavation. At the same Grimsel location, an investigation will be conducted of the potential for using a high frequency wireless (HFW) sensor network embedded within the barrier system; this will include the possibility of providing energy remotely to isolated sensors. At the HADES URL, the monitoring programme will utilise

  11. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino

    2012-09-01

    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  12. Field measurement of emission factors of PM, EC, OC, parent, nitro-, and oxy- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for residential briquette, coal cake, and wood in rural Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhang, Yanyan; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Wang, Haochen; Wang, Yafei; Pei, Lijun; Liao, Yilan; Duan, Yonghong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2013-03-19

    Air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion are attracting growing public concern. Field measured emission factors (EFs) of various air pollutants for solid fuels are close to the reality and urgently needed for better emission estimations. In this study, emission factors of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from residential combustions of coal briquette, coal cake, and wood were measured in rural Heshun County, China. The measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC were 8.1-8.5, 2.2-3.6, 0.91-1.6 g/kg for the wood burnt in a simple metal stove, 0.54-0.64, 0.13-0.14, 0.040-0.0041 g/kg for the briquette burned in an improved stove with a chimney, and 3.2-8.5, 0.38-0.58, 0.022-0.052 g/kg for the homemade coal cake combusted in a brick stove with a flue, respectively. EFs of 28 parent PAHs, 4 oxygenated PAHs, and 9 nitro-PAHs were 182-297, 7.8-10, 0.14-0.55 mg/kg for the wood, 14-16, 1.7-2.6, 0.64-0.83 mg/kg for the briquette, and 168-223, 4.7-9.5, 0.16-2.4 mg/kg for the coal cake, respectively. Emissions from the wood and coal cake combustions were much higher than those for the coal briquette, especially true for high molecular weight PAHs. Most EFs measured in the field were higher than those measured in stove combustions under laboratory conditions.

  13. Insulin enhances apoptosis induced by cisplatin in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells related to inhibition of autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Wen Fengbiao; Dang Lifeng; Fan Yuxia; Liu Donglei; Wu Kai; Zhao Song

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemoresistance is common among patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).We investigated the effect and mechanism of insulin on enhancing anticancer functions of cisplatin in human esophageal cancer cell line EC9706.Methods The viability of EC9706 cells exposed to cisplatin was assessed using MTT assay.The times T1,when the number of living cells reached a plateau and T2,when the number of living cells reached a new plateau after the addition of insulin were found.T1 and T2 plateau cells were stained by Annexin V-FITC/PI and monodansylcadaverin (MDC).Fluorescent microscopy was used to observe the expression of apoptosis and autophagy intuitively.Apoptotic ratio and fluorescent intensity were analysed by flow cytometry (FCM) quantitatively.Western blotting analysis was used to estimate the protein expression levels of AKT,mTOR,PI3K,PTEN,autophage related indicator LC3-Ⅱ and autophage related protein Beclin1 changes that occurred in the course of treatment.Results A larger number of typical autophagosomes were detected in EC9706 cells exposed to cisplatin.Insulin can increase the apoptosis induced by cisplatin.Apoptotic ratio of T1 plateau cells ((32.6±4.3)%) is significantly less than T2 plateau ((47.5±5.6)%).MDC fluorescent intensity at T1 plateau (104.9±13.2) was significantly higher than intensity at T2 plateau (82.6±10.3).After cotreatment with insulin,the expression level of LC3-Ⅱ,Beclin1 and PTEN in T2 plateau cells were significantly downregulated,but AKT,mTOR and PI3K expressions significantly upregulated compared with T1 plateau.Conclusions Insulin could enhance cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cells related to inhibition of autophagy.The activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway induced by insulin resulted in the suppression of autophagy in EC9706 cells,which may be attributed to the anticancer effects of cisplatin.

  14. Up-regulation of stathmin induces growth arrest of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma EC9706 cell%上调stathmin基因表达对食管鳞癌EC9706细胞的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 王留兴; 何炜; 李克; 王瑞林; 赵培荣; 樊青霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建stathmin基因真核表达载体,研究上调stathmin基因表达对食管癌细胞EC9706的作用.方法 采用RT-PCR扩增stathmin cDNA,克隆至pcDNA3.1(+)真核表达载体.重组载体经脂质体转染EC9706细胞,G418筛选获得稳定转染细胞株.显微镜观察转染细胞形态学变化,Western印迹法检测转染细胞stathmin蛋白的表达.选取稳定转染的细胞株,采用细胞计数法绘制细胞生长曲线,四甲基偶氮唑盐法检测细胞增殖活性,平板克隆形成实验观察细胞克隆形成,流式细胞仪分析细胞周期,裸鼠移植瘤实验研究转染细胞的成瘤性.结果 RT-PCR扩增获得450 bp的cDNA编码序列;克隆至pcDNA3.1(+)载体,获得pcDNA3.1-stathmin重组表达载体.Western印迹法证实重组载体上调EC9706细胞stathmin蛋白表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).与对照组细胞比较,pcDNA3.1-stathmin转染细胞形态变大、多核、有丝分裂障碍;pcDNA3.1-stathmin转染细胞倍增时间延长(25~28 h)、增殖活性降低、细胞克隆形成率下降(34.5%±6.9%),细胞分裂阻滞于G2/M期(21.7%±3.4%),裸鼠体内致瘤性降低,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 重组质粒pcDNA3.1-stathmin上调stathmin基因表达能够抑制食管鳞癌EC9706细胞的增殖和致瘤性,stathmin可能成为食管鳞癌患者治疗的理想靶点.%Objective To construct a eukaryotic expression vector of stathmin gene and investigate its effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ( ESCC) EC9706 cell line. Methods Stathmin cDNA coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3. 1( + ). EC9706 cells were transfected with this recombinant plasmid pcDNA3. 1-stathmin by lipofectamine. And the stable transfectants were selected with G418 medium. Stathmin protein expression was detected with Western blot in transfected EC9706 cell lines. Morphologic change of stable transfectants was observed under microscope. The

  15. Using Assessments to Inform 12th-Grade Interventions and Accelerations. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Jennifer; Millard, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014-15 school year, 47 states are administering high school assessments to gauge students' mastery of college and career readiness standards in English language arts (ELA) and math. These new assessments represent a departure from prior high school exams that measured acquisition of high school (or lower) content but provided no actionable…

  16. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Overholser

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC. Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, potency and safety. Specifically, we postulate that novel combination treatments targeting members of the EGFR family and IGF-1R will yield significant anti-tumor effects in in vitro models of EC and TNBC possibly overcoming mechanisms of resistance. We show that the combination of HER-1 and HER-2 or HER-1 and IGF-1R peptide mimics/vaccine antibodies exhibited enhanced antitumor properties with significant inhibition of tumorigenesis in OE19 EC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell lines. Our work elucidates the mechanisms of HER-1/IGF-1R and HER-1/HER-2 signaling in these cancer cell lines, and the promising results support the rationale for dual targeting with HER-1 and HER-2 or IGF-1R as an improved treatment regimen for advanced therapy tailored to difference types of cancer.

  17. EC-MPS permits lower gastrointestinal symptom burden despite higher MPA exposure in patients with severe MMF-related gastrointestinal side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Capone, Domenico; Gallo, Riccardo; Pisani, Antonio; Polichetti, Giuliano; Tarantino, Giovanni; Gentile, Antonio; Rotaia, Eliana; Federico, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events in renal transplant patients are a common cause of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose reductions, which result in an increased risk of graft rejection because of a low immunosuppression. This study investigated whether conversion from MMF to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) in renal transplant patients with serious GI side-effects, alleviated these symptoms and allowed administration of higher doses of EC-MPS. Nineteen renal transplant patients with severe MMF-related GI side-effects underwent a progressive reduction in MMF dose until symptoms disappeared. At this point, 12-h AUC(MMF) was evaluated and patients were shifted to an equimolar dose of EC-MPS. The EC-MPS dose was then progressively increased until the highest recommended dose was reached or GI symptoms re-appeared. Four weeks post-conversion, AUC(EC-MPS) was determined. Conversion led to a mean increase in EC-MPS dose of 68% (P MPS dose could not be increased because of the prompt insurgence of GI symptoms. Renal function and biochemical parameters remained stable post-conversion and no rejection episodes occurred. These findings suggest that, in selected patients, EC-MPS may be better tolerated than MMF when GI symptoms are particularly important and permits higher mycophenolic acid exposure, when required.

  18. Functional characterization of a novel lytic phage EcSw isolated from Sus scrofa domesticus and its potential for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easwaran, Maheswaran; Paudel, Sarita; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-06-01

    In this study, multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli Sw1 (E. coli Sw1) and active lytic phage EcSw was isolated from feces samples of Sus scrofa domesticus (piglet) suffering from diarrhea. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that isolated EcSw belongs to the Myoviridae family with an icosahedral head (80 ± 4) and a long tail (180 ± 5 nm). The EcSw phage genome size was estimated to be approximately 75 Kb of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Phage dynamic studies show that the latent period and burst size of EcSw were approximately 20 min and 28 PFU per cell, respectively. Interestingly, the EcSw phage can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH and ions (Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)). Furthermore, genome sequence analysis revealed that the lytic genes of the EcSw phage are notably similar to those of enterobacteria phages. In addition, phage-antibiotic synergy has notable effects compared with the effects of phages or antibiotics alone. Inhibition of E. coli Sw1 and 0157:H7 strains showed that the limitations of host specificity and infectivity of EcSw. Even though, it has considerable potential for phage therapy for handling the problem of the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens.

  19. Multi-factor evaluation and modeling correction of EC-5 and 5TE soil moisture content sensors%EC-5和5TE土壤水分传感器的多因素性能测试与校正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶智杰; 洪添胜; Joseph Mwape Chileshe; 文韬; 冯瑞珏

    2012-01-01

    Soil property information is vital to plant growth and is a fundamental eco-system resource for terrestrial vegetation,especially soil moisture content (SMC),soil electrical conductivity (EC) and near-surface soil temperature.Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology enables monitoring soil water content changes with a high spatial and temporal resolution; however,WSN specifically requests sensors with features of low-cost,energy efficiency,dependability,and ease-of-use.In this paper,after evaluating different sensors under the demand of WSN application,a pair of ECH2O sensors were chosen and tested under experiments based on a standardized sensor characterization methodology using liquid medium.The results show that the electronics of the EC-5 and the 5TE are sensitive to temperature,electric conductivity and pH variations.In terms of the 5TE,conductivity correction is more necessary than temperature and pH,and the R2 of the conductivity correction equation reaches 0.918.However,though encountering the same temperature stability as the 5TE,EC-5 exhibits an opposite characteristic when it comes to conductivity and pH correction where pH compensation plays a more essential part with a calibrated R2 of 0.978.Moreover,the inherent temperature measuring ability of 5TE is dissatisfying and the calibration with a R2 of 0.993 is well generated,but the conductivity measuring function is well acceptable.Generally,it is concluded that both the 5TE sensor and the EC-5 sensor are suitable for WSN applications.Besides,this paper also suggested that temperature,electric conductivity and pH effects have to be compensated using appropriate correction functions respectively and various compensation models were provided accordingly.%含水率、电导率及表层温度等土壤墒情信息是进行农牧业精确灌溉作业的基础.无线传感器网络是目前广泛采用的监测土壤墒情的有效方法,其对传感器有着低成本、低功耗和可靠性的要求.针对

  20. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  1. EC assisted start-up experiments reproduction in FTU and AUG for simulations of the ITER case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granucci, G.; Ricci, D.; Farina, D.; Figini, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cavinato, M. [F4E C/Josep Pla2, Torres Diagonal Litoral - Building 83 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mattei, M. [CREATE via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Stober, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tudisco, O. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The breakdown and plasma start-up in ITER are well known issues studied in the last few years in many tokamaks with the aid of calculation based on simplified modeling. The thickness of ITER metallic wall and the voltage limits of the Central Solenoid Power Supply strongly limit the maximum toroidal electric field achievable (0.3 V/m), well below the level used in the present generation of tokamaks. In order to have a safe and robust breakdown, the use of Electron Cyclotron Power to assist plasma formation and current rump up has been foreseen. This has raised attention on plasma formation phase in presence of EC wave, especially in order to predict the required power for a robust breakdown in ITER. Few detailed theory studies have been performed up to nowadays, due to the complexity of the problems. A simplified approach, extended from that proposed in ref[1] has been developed including a impurity multispecies distribution and an EC wave propagation and absorption based on GRAY code. This integrated model (BK0D) has been benchmarked on ohmic and EC assisted experiments on FTU and AUG, finding the key aspects for a good reproduction of data. On the basis of this, the simulation has been devoted to understand the best configuration for ITER case. The dependency of impurity distribution content and neutral gas pressure limits has been considered. As results of the analysis a reasonable amount of power (1 - 2 MW) seems to be enough to extend in a significant way the breakdown and current start up capability of ITER. The work reports the FTU data reproduction and the ITER case simulations.

  2. 5-Azacytidine suppresses EC9706 cell proliferation and metastasis by upregulating the expression of SOX17 and CDH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenli; Wu, Dan; Niu, Ziyu; Jiang, Dalei; Ma, Huan; He, Heming; Zuo, Xiuli; Xie, Xiangjun; He, Yuanlong

    2016-10-01

    5-Azacytidine is a well-known anticancer drug that is clinically used in the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and colon cancer. It has been reported that 5-azacytidine suppresses the biological behavior of esophageal cancer cells. However, corresponding mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using Transwell invasion and cell proliferation assays, we demonstrated that 5-azacytidine significantly inhibited the metastasis and proliferation of EC9706 cells, and upregulated the expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) and SRY-box containing gene 17 (SOX17). Moreover, the inhibition of the metastasis of the 5-azacytidine-treated EC9706 cells was impaired following transfection with siRNA targeting CDH1 (CDH1 siRNA), and the inhibition of cell proliferation was attenuated following the downregulation of SOX17 by siRNA targeting SOX17 (SOX17 siRNA). Furthermore, 5-azacytidine remarkably reduced the CDH1 and SOX17 promoter methylation levels, suggesting that 5-azacytidine upregulates the expression of SOX17 and CDH1 by inhibiting the methylation of the SOX17 and CDH1 promoter. The findings of our study confirm that 5-azacytidine suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of EC9706 esophageal cancer cells by upregulating the expression of CDH1 and SOX17. The expression levels of CDH1 and SOX17 negatively correlate with the promoter methylation levels. CDH1 and SOX17 are potential indicators of the clinical application of 5-azacytidine.

  3. Assessing global climate-terrestrial vegetation feedbacks on carbon and nitrogen cycling in the earth system model EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wårlind, David; Miller, Paul; Nieradzik, Lars; Söderberg, Fredrik; Anthoni, Peter; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Ben

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in developing an improved European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) in preparation for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) and the next Assessment Report of the IPCC. The new model version has been complemented with ocean biogeochemistry, atmospheric composition (aerosols and chemistry) and dynamic land vegetation components, and has been configured to use the recommended CMIP6 forcing data sets. These new components will give us fresh insights into climate change. This study focuses on the terrestrial biosphere component Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) that simulates vegetation dynamics and compound exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere in EC-Earth. LPJ-GUESS allows for vegetation to dynamically evolve, depending on climate input, and in return provides the climate system and land surface scheme with vegetation-dependent fields such as vegetation types and leaf area index. We present the results of a study to examine the feedbacks between the dynamic terrestrial vegetation and the climate and their impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles. Our results are based on a set of global, atmosphere-only historical simulations (1870 to 2014) with and without feedback between climate and vegetation and including or ignoring the effect of nitrogen limitation on plant productivity. These simulations show to what extent the addition degree of freedom in EC-Earth, introduced with the coupling of interactive dynamic vegetation to the atmosphere, has on terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycling, and represent contributions to CMIP6 (C4MIP and LUMIP) and the EU Horizon 2020 project CRESCENDO.

  4. The effect of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Fungicides are considered to be effective crop protection chemicals in modern agriculture. However, they can also exert toxic effects on non-target organisms, including soil-dwelling microbes. Therefore, the environmental fate of fungicides has to be closely monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on microbial diversity, enzyme activity and resistance, and plant growth. Samples of sandy loam with pHKCl 7.0 were collected for laboratory analyses on experimental days 30, 60 and 90. Falcon 460 EC was applied to soil in the following doses: control (soil without the fungicide), dose recommended by the manufacturer, 30-fold higher than the recommended dose, 150-fold higher than the recommended dose and 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. The observed differences in the values of the colony development index and the eco-physiological index indicate that the mixture of spiroxamine, tebuconazole and triadimenol modified the biological diversity of the analyzed groups of soil microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and fungi of the genera Penicillium and Rhizopus were isolated from fungicide-contaminated soil. The tested fungicide inhibited the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The greatest changes were induced by the highest fungicide dose 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. Dehydrogenases were most resistant to soil contamination. The Phytotoxkit test revealed that the analyzed fungicide inhibits seed germination capacity and root elongation. The results of this study indicate that excessive doses of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide 30-fold higher than the recommended dose to 300-fold higher than the recommended dose) can induce changes in the biological activity of soil. The analyzed microbiological and biochemical parameters are reliable indicators of the fungicide's toxic effects on soil quality.

  5. Measurement of sigma(e+e- -->psi(3770)-->hadrons) at Ec.m.=3773 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Zweber, P; Ernst, J; Arms, K; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Mehrabyan, S; Mueller, J A; Savinov, V; Li, Z; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Huang, G S; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Phillips, E A; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Stoeck, H; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W

    2006-03-10

    We measure the cross section for e+e- -->psi(3770) -->hadrons at Ec.m.=3773 MeV to be (6.38+/-0.08(+0.41)(-0.30) nb using the CLEO detector at the CESR e+e- collider. The difference between this and the e+e- -->psi(3770) -->DD cross section at the same energy is found to be (-0.01+/-0.08(+0.41)(-0.30) nb. With the observed total cross section, we extract Gamma(ee)(psi(3770))=(0.204+/-0.003(+0.041)(-0.027) keV. Uncertainties shown are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  6. EC-STM study of the initial stages of the electrochemical Au(1 1 1)-Cd alloy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian Georg; Horch, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the formation of an Au(1 1 1)-Cd alloy in a H2SO4 electrolyte by means of electrochemical STM (EC-STM). To this end, we first characterized the underpotential deposited (upd) Cd overlayers on Au(1 1 1) electrodes. We confirmed the existence of two upd phases on the reconstructed Au......, we had to avoid further Cd deposition at these potentials. This was achieved by exchanging the electrolyte after Cd deposition for a Cd-free solution under potential control. We found that the Au-Cd alloy exhibits an atomic structure with a close to square unit cell and locally interferes...

  7. EC Project 'GUIDELINES ON MPE': proposed qualification and curriculum frameworks and the MPE in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruana, C J, E-mail: carmel.j.caruana@um.edu.mt [EFOMP Representative on the EC ' Guidelines on MPE' Project and Biomedical Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta (Malta)

    2011-09-23

    The objectives of EC project 'Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert' are to provide for improved implementation of the provisions relating to the Medical Physics Expert within Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM and the proposed recast Basic Safety Standards directive. This includes harmonisation of the mission statement for Medical Physics Services as well as the education and training of the MPE. It also includes detailed knowledge-skills-competence inventories for the Medical Physics Expert in each of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy. This paper presents the proposed Qualification and Curriculum Frameworks and their application to the Medical Physics Expert in Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Application of‘Division’in E-C Translation of Long and Complex At-tributive Clauses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cen

    2016-01-01

    The attributive clause plays a significant role in E-C translation. Due to the stylistic difference in Chinese and English (Chinese is paratactic while English is hypotactic), complex English attributive clauses cannot be translated literally as awkward-ness may occur. One possible approach to coping with the problem is the adoption of‘Division’in translating long English at-tributive clauses. This essay provides three steps in translating complex English attributive clauses into Chinese (clarifying mean-ing units, restructuring and polishing) and the accompanied techniques such as amplification and omission to make the transla-tion more readable and natural to Chinese readers.

  9. Comparative investigation of power control of axial blowers for liquefiers and recirculation coolers: Phase controller, frequency converter, transformers, EC technology; Vergleich der Leistungsregelung von Axialventilatoren fuer Verfluessiger und Rueckkuehler: Phasenanschnittregler, Frequenzumformer, Transformatoren, EC Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, G. [Hans Guentner GmbH, Fuerstenfeldbruck (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Phase controllers are well suited for liquefaction pressure control, and energy savings are higher than with blower shut-off. They emit noise in the 300 Hz range and need an additional acoustic filter if noise reduction in part-load operation is required. Frequency controllers with all-terminal sinusoid filters have a higher saving potential at 40-80 percent of the volume flow as compared to phase controllers. Noise is significantly lower than in phase controllers, even with acoustic filters. The best performance was obtained with EC technology, which had the highest energy savings and noise levels similar to transformer control, which was hitherto considered to be the best option. (orig.) [German] Phasenanschnittregler sind zur Verfluessigungsdruckregelung gut geeignet und bieten ein groesseres Energieeinsparpotential als die Methode der Ventilatorabschaltung. Wenn die Schallreduzierung im Teillastbereich wichtig ist, sind sie wegen der stoerend wirkenden 300 Hz Tonanteilen nicht geeignet. Hier kann ein zusaetzlicher Geraeuschfilter groesstenteils Abhilfe schaffen. Frequenzregler mit allpoligem Sinusfilter haben deutliche Einsparpotentiale im Bereich von 40% bis 80% des Volumenstroms gegenueber den Phasenanschnittreglern. Die Schallreduzierung wirkt bis in die unteren Drehzahlbereiche und liegt deutlich unter den Werten der Phasenanschnittsteuerung mit Geraeuschfilter. Den hoechsten Gesamtwirkungsgrad ueber den ganzen Luftfoerderbereich liefert die getestete EC-Technik. In allen Betriebspunkten ist somit die hoechste Energieersparnis gegeben. Die Schallreduzierung ist gleichwertig mit den Ergebnissen der Transformatorregelung, die bisher als geraeuschlos bestes Verfahren eingesetzt wurde. (orig.)

  10. Judicial Protection in the Field of Public Procurement: The Transposition into Dutch Law of Directive 2007/66/EC Amending the Remedies Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter-Jan Berends

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement procedures in the EU are coordinated by Directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC. The acquis communautaire provides minimum requirements for review procedures against public procurement decisions in order to ensure access to effective remedies for economic operators. These minimum requirements are established in Directives 89/665/ EEC and 92/13/EEC and recently amended by Directive 2007/66/EC. The Helby report identified several substantive concerns over the Dutch proposal on the implementation the of the Remedies Directive; Wet implementatie rechtsbeschermingsrichtlijnen. Although the transposition target date has not been met, the Dutch legislature has succeeded to transpose Directive 2007/66/EC into Dutch law while addressing the concerns of the Helby report.

  11. Analysis of P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-LiClO4-EC triblock copolymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Inbavalli; S Selvasekarapandian; C Sanjeeviraja; R Baskaran; S Nithya; Junichi Kawamura; Yoshitake Masuda

    2015-02-01

    The lithium ion conducting copolymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrileco- methyl methacrylate) P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA): LiClO4) and poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile-co-methyl methacrylate)P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA)-lithium per chlorate (LiClO4)-ethylene carbonate (EC) (P(VdCl-co-AN-co-MMA):LiClO4:EC) of different compositions were prepared by solution-casting technique. Structural and surface morphological characterizations were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy measurements, respectively. Thermal and conductivity behaviour of copolymer–salt and copolymer–salt–plasticizer complexes were studied by employing differential scanning calorimetry and AC impedance measurements, respectively. The highest bulk conductivity was found to be 1.94 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 303 K for the plasticized sample. The dielectric behaviour and relaxation parameters of the samples have been presented and discussed.

  12. A New Ethical Challenge for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)/Ethics Committees (ECs) in the Assessment of Pediatric Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klaus; Kummer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA)'s Pediatric Committee (PDCO) may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs)/ethics committees (ECs) and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA's PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients.

  13. Biological decolorization of the reactive dyes Reactive Black 5 by a novel isolated bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. EC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Su, Jian-Qiang; Tian, Yun; Xiong, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Tian-Ling

    2009-11-15

    Studies were carried out on the decolorization of the reactive dye Reactive Black 5 by a newly isolated bacterium, EC3. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparisons indicate that this strain belonged to the genus Enterobacter. The optimal conditions for the decolorizing activity of Enterobacter sp. EC3 were anaerobic conditions with glucose supplementation, at pH 7.0, and 37 degrees C. The maximum decolorization efficiency against Reactive Black 5 achieved in this study was 92.56%. Ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) analyses before and after decolorization and the colorless bacterial biomass after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation, rather than inactive surface adsorption. The bacterial strain also showed a strong ability to decolorize various reactive textile dyes, including both azo and anthraquinone dyes. To our knowledge, it is the first time that a bacterial strain of Enterobacter sp. has been reported with decolorizing ability against both azo and anthraquinone dyes.

  14. EC-Earth V2.2: description and validation of a new seamless earth system prediction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeleger, W. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wang, X.; Severijns, C.; Bintanja, R.; Sterl, A.; Hurk, B. van den; Noije, T. van; Linden, E. van der [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands); Stefanescu, S. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading (United Kingdom); Wyser, K. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Semmler, T. [Irish Meteorological Institute (MetEireann), Dublin (Ireland); Yang, S. [Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark); Wiel, K. van der [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    EC-Earth, a new Earth system model based on the operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is presented. The performance of version 2.2 (V2.2) of the model is compared to observations, reanalysis data and other coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice models. The large-scale physical characteristics of the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice are well simulated. When compared to other coupled models with similar complexity, the model performs well in simulating tropospheric fields and dynamic variables, and performs less in simulating surface temperature and fluxes. The surface temperatures are too cold, with the exception of the Southern Ocean region and parts of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. The main patterns of interannual climate variability are well represented. Experiments with enhanced CO{sub 2} concentrations show well-known responses of Arctic amplification, land-sea contrasts, tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling. The global climate sensitivity of the current version of EC-Earth is slightly less than 1 K/(W m{sup -2}). An intensification of the hydrological cycle is found and strong regional changes in precipitation, affecting monsoon characteristics. The results show that a coupled model based on an operational seasonal prediction system can be used for climate studies, supporting emerging seamless prediction strategies. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of a chromosomally encoded, non-PTS metabolic pathway for sucrose utilization in Escherichia coli EC3132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmann, J; Heuel, H; Lengeler, J W

    1992-10-01

    A wild-type isolate, EC3132, of Escherichia coli, that is able to grow on sucrose was isolated and its csc genes (mnemonic for chromosomally coded sucrose genes) transferred to strains of E. coli K12. EC3132 and all sucrose-positive exconjugants and transductants invariably showed a D-serine deaminase (Dsd)-negative phenotype. The csc locus maps adjacent to dsdA, the structural gene for the D-serine deaminase, and contains an inducible regulon, controlled by a sucrose-specific repressor CscR, together with structural genes for a sucrose hydrolase (invertase) CscA, for a D-fructokinase CscK, and for a transport system CscB. Based on DNA sequencing studies, this last codes for a hydrophobic protein of 415 amino acids. CscB is closely related to the beta-galactoside transport system LacY (31.2% identical residues) and a raffinose transport system RafB (32.3% identical residues) of the enteric bacteria, both of the proton symport type. A two-dimensional model common to the three transport proteins, which is based on the integrated consensus sequence, will be discussed.

  16. Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with (PVDF-HFP-KI-EC-PC Electrolyte and Different Dye Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Noor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasticized polymer electrolyte system composed of PVDF-HFP, potassium iodide (KI, and equal weight of ethylene carbonate (EC and propylene carbonate (PC has been used in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. The electrolyte with the composition 40 wt. % PVDF-HFP-10 wt. % KI-50 wt. % (EC + PC exhibits the highest room temperature ionic conductivity of 1.10 × 10−3 S cm−1. A small amount of iodine crystal of about 10 wt. % of KI was added to the electrolyte in the liquid state to provide the redox couple for DSSC operation. The polymer electrolyte films were prepared by the solvent casting method. The DSSCs were fabricated with the electrolyte film sandwiched between a TiO2/dye photoelectrode and a Pt-counter electrode and characterized under 100 mW cm−2 white light. The DSSC performance with different dyes such as Ruthenizer 535 (N3, anthocyanin, chlorophyll, and a mixture of anthocyanin and chlorophyll (v/v=1 has been compared. The DSSC with Ruthenizer 535 (N3 dye exhibits the best performance with a short-circuit current density of 8.16 mA cm−2, open-circuit voltage of 0.76 V, fill factor of 0.35, and photoconversion efficiency of 2.2%.

  17. FTIR Spectroscopic and DC Ionic conductivity Studies of PVDF-HFP: LiBF4: EC Plasticized Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10‑3 SCm ‑1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  18. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Subchronic Exposure of Rats to Formulated Fenvalerate (20% EC) by Nose Only Inhalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. MANI; A. K. PRASAD; V. SURESHKUMAR; P. KUMAR; KEWAL LAL; B. K. MAJI; K. K. DUTTA

    2004-01-01

    Fenvalerate (20% EC) is a synthetic pyrethroid, which is commonly used in India by farmers for the protection of many food and vegetable crops against a wide variety of insects. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation exposure was carried out to investigate the hepatotoxic effects. Method Adult male rats were exposed to fen for 4 h/day, 5 days a week for 90 days by using Flow Past Nose Only Inhalation Chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results The results indicated hepatomegaly, increased activities of serum clinical enzymes (indicative of liver damage/dysfunction) along with pronounced histopathological damage of liver. Conclusion The hepatotoxic potential of formulated Fen (20% EC) in rats exposed by nose only inhalation is being reported for the first time and warrant adequate safety measures for human beings exposed to this insecticide, particularly by inhalation route.

  19. An approach to the implementation of European Directive 2007/60/EC on flood risk management in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dráb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (the Flood Risk Directive signifies that flood risk analysis methods are gaining ground in EC Member States and, therefore, also in the Czech Republic (CR. Procedures of flood risk analysis have been developed in the Czech Republic since the catastrophic floods of 1997 in line with European and worldwide trends and have been tested and applied in hundreds of case studies to date. Currently, the Flood Risk Directive Guideline based on past experience with flood risk analysis applications is being processed.

    The aim of the paper is to present flood risk analysis procedures and specially developed techniques for the assembly of flood hazard, danger and flood risk maps. Methods related to flood risk management plans are briefly mentioned as well. The following particular problems are discussed in more detail: an application and extension of the "danger matrix" approach, the definition of residual danger, the formulation of efficiency criteria and preliminary multi-criteria flood risk assessment. These issues were tested in practical applications at pilot locations in the Czech Republic. Present experience provides evidence that the flood risk analysis methods used in the Czech Republic are in harmony with the requirements of the Flood Risk Directive. The proposed and applied methods are based primarily on existing available data such as flood extent maps, cadastral maps, the Register of Census Districts and Structures and others.

  20. A New Ethical Challenge for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs/Ethics Committees (ECs in the Assessment of Pediatric Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA’s Pediatric Committee (PDCO may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs/ethics committees (ECs and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA’s PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients.

  1. Cotton NDVI response to applied N at different soil EC levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fields in the southeastern Coastal Plain are highly variable in soil physical properties and are irregular in shape. These two conditions may make it difficult to determine the ‘best’ area in the field to place nitrogen (N) -rich strips for normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) -based s...

  2. "Vergara" and the Complexities of Teacher Employment Policies. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Teaching quality is a crucial factor in student success, contributing to students' short- and long-term learning opportunities. High-quality teaching not only contributes to the improvement of student test scores and graduation rates but also gives students a "strong foundation from which to advance and achieve" in the future. Long term,…

  3. EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol), attenuates the asthmatic response in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin-induced model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Sohn, Ki-Young; Lee, Tae-Suk; Kim, Jae-Wha; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    EC-18 is a synthetic monoacetyldiaglyceride that is a major constituent in antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temmenick). In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of EC-18 on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, and other factors in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On days 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the mice received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. EC-18 was administered to mice by oral gavage at doses of 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg once daily from day 18 to 23. Methacholine responsiveness was measured 24h after the final OVA challenge, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48h after the final OVA challenge. EC-18 significantly reduced methacholine responsiveness, T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, eotaxin-1, immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG, and the number of inflammatory cells. In addition, EC-18-treated mice exhibited the reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue. In the histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain, EC-18 attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airway and reduced the level of mucus production. Our results showed that EC-18 effectively suppressed the asthmatic response induced by OVA challenge. These effects were considered to be associated with iNOS suppression. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 may be a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma.

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and

  5. The therapeutic effect of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong Hoon; Kim, Myoung Ok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Shin, Mi Jung; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Hei Jung; Lee, Sang Ryeul; Lee, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Wan Uk; Hyun, Byung Hwa; Park, Young Sik; Kim, Tae Yoon; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within an inflamed joint has been suggested as playing a significant pathogenic role. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a major scavenger enzyme of ROS, which has received growing attention for its therapeutic potential. To investigate the therapeutic effect of EC-SOD in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), we used mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) of transgenic mice that overexpresses EC-SOD on the skin by using hK14 promoter. DBA/1 mice that had been treated with bovine type II collagen were administrated subcutaneous injections of EC-SOD transgenic MEF (each at 1.4 x 10(60 cells) on days 28, 35, and 42 after primary immunization. To test EC-SOD activity, blood samples were collected in each group on day 49. The EC-SOD activity was nearly 1.5-fold higher in the transgenic MEF-treated group than in the nontransgenic MEF-treated group (p CIA mice and this approach may be a safer and more effective form of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Mitigation of the tracer impurity accumulation by EC heating in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.; Suzuki, C.; Funaba, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ida, K.; The LHD Experiment Group

    2016-11-01

    The mitigation of a tracer impurity accumulation in the core region of high-temperature helical plasma was clearly observed by applying electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in the large helical device (LHD). In the LHD, the accumulation of impurities toward the centre of the plasma has been observed in a high-density regime. In this study, for observing clearly the behaviour of impurity ions in the plasma core, the extrinsic ‘tracer’ impurity was injected into that region by means of a tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL). The high-density LHD plasma without ECH definitely shows the strong impurity accumulation, and then it causes the reduction in electron and ion temperatures in the core region. When ECH was applied just after the TESPEL injection, the accumulation of the tracer impurity ions was mitigated. Even after ECH was switched-off, the intensities of the line emissions from the highly-ionized tracer impurity were increased very slightly. The micro-turbulence measurement with a 2-dimensional phase contrast imaging diagnostic during ECH does not support the view that the change in the micro-turbulence would enhance the outward flow (an increase in a diffusive flux, a decrease in an inward convective flux and/or a change the direction of the convective flux from inward to outward) of the impurity ions. Moreover, at this moment, there is no conclusive data regarding a radial electric field measured with a charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic to support the view that the change in the radial electric field would be attributed to the increment in the outward flow of the impurity ions from the core region of the LHD plasma.

  7. Interpretation and Application of ECS Logging Data in Shale Formations%页岩地层 ECS 测井资料解释新方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖东良

    2015-01-01

    常规测井方法难以准确评价黏土、碎屑岩和碳酸盐等矿物,而ECS测井仪的晶体探测器可测量由中子源和地层矿物碰撞产生的伽马射线,因此依据地层矿物和伽马射线的对应关系,建立了ECS元素测井响应方程,利用优化反演方法确定矿物类型、计算矿物含量、骨架密度及脆性指数。利用该方法对页岩气A区块X井的ECS测井资料进行了解释,选择Si ,Al ,Fe ,Ca ,Su和K元素,反演出石英、长石、灰岩、白云岩、伊利石、绿泥石、蒙脱石、黄铁矿、云母和硬石膏等10种矿物中的6~8种及其含量,反演结果与岩心矿物分析结果具有较好的一致性,并根据矿物的含量计算出该井页岩地层的骨架密度为2.65~2.75 g/m3,脆性指数为40~60。这说明利用ECS测井资料可以评价页岩地层的矿物及含量,能据此计算页岩地层的骨架密度和脆性指数,可提供准确的评价结果,从而指导页岩地层的压裂设计与施工。%It is difficult to accurately evaluate clay minerals ,including those that contain clasolite and carbonates by using conventional logging methods .The crystal detector of the ECS logger measures gamma rays produced by collision of neutron sources and the strata minerals ,so the ECS element log response e-quation was established according to the corresponding relationship between minerals and gamma rays . The optimized inversion method was used to determine mineral types ,and calculate mineral content ,grain density and brittleness index .By using this method ,the ECS logging data of Well X in shale gas block A was interpreted ,the elements including Si ,Al ,Fe ,Ca ,Su and K were selected to determine six to eight kinds of minerals and their contents ,related to 10 minerals such as quartz ,feldspar ,limestone ,dolomite , illite ,chlorite ,montmorillonite ,pyrite ,mica and anhydrite .Eventually ,the inversion results coincided well with the

  8. Determination of vegetable tannins in tannery wastewater using RP-HPLC-technique with UV- and EC-detection; Bestimmung vegetabiler Gerbstoffe in Gerbereiabwasser unter Einsatz der RP-HPLC-Technik mit UV- und EC-Detektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zywicki, B.; Reemtsma, T.; Jekel, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Wasserreinhaltung

    2001-07-01

    Numerous types of inorganic and organic environmental pollutants are encountered in leather tannery effluents. For reduction of the environmental impact of leather tanneries the substitution of chromium tanning agents by natural organic tanning agents (vegetable tannins) is discussed. The use of vegetable tannins leads to an elevated dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) in tannery effluent, even after biological treatment. Vegetable tannins may also be used as retanning agents, but they may, then interfere with precipitation of chromium. Therefore, an analytical method had to be established to estimate the total amount of vegetable tanning agents in the complex matrix of tannery wastewater. The analytical strategy for the determination of vegetable tannins in tannery effluents is to degrade the polyphenolic compounds by acid hydrolysis and to detect the resulting specific monomeric subunit gallic acid by RP-HPLC-technique with UV- and electrochemical detection (EC-detection). (orig.)

  9. The EC4 European syllabus for post-graduate training in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring......, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills...... and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations...

  10. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro antitumor efficacy of berberine: solid lipid nanoparticles against human HepG2, Huh7 and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huai-ling; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ber-SLN) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-SLN relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-SLN were 154.3 ± 4.1 nm and -11.7 ± 1.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-SLN effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 10.6 μg/ml, 5.1 μg/ml, and 7.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-SLN is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  12. Malate dehydrogenase isozymes (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) in long-term callus culture of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae) exposed to sugar and temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, I C; Mangolin, C A; Machado, M F

    1997-06-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37) isozymes in long-term callus tissue culture of Cereus peruvianus were studied in starch gel electrophoresis to investigate the control of differential Mdh gene expression under sugar and temperature stress. While two cytosol MDH isozymes showed an unchanged phenotype when the callus tissues were transferred to medium maintained at 22 or 37 degrees C and containing different concentrations of sucrose, glucose, and fructose, the different combinations of five mitochondrial MDH (mtMDH) and two micro-body MDH (mbMDH) showed different MDH isozyme patterns in the callus populations. Differential expression of mtMDH isozymes seems to be modulated at the posttranslational level in callus tissues exposed to different concentrations and types of sugar and to high-temperature and low-temperature stress. An inductor effect on the expression of mbMDH isozymes was observed under stress conditions and in long-term callus tissue, and they may also present different responses.

  13. 基于EC2.0的科技查新Web服务系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世清

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of current status and problems of the sci-tech novelty search online service system,an enhanced system was established.The philosophy of E-commerce 2.0,the idea of software engineering and the technology of.NET and Ajax were introduced in the new system.The new system is e-commerce-based,and can provide high quality service of intelligent commissioning,electronic contract,online payment and online communication for increasing novelty search customers.%引入EC 2.0的技术与理念,采用.NET技术及Ajax技术,设计出一套新的科技查新Web服务系统。新的科技查新Web服务系统可为查新委托用户提供在线智能委托、在线签订电子合同、在线支付、在线交流功能的一体化Web服务,满足日益增长的科技查新需求。

  14. Meeting report of the EC/US workshop on genetic risk assessment: "human genetic risks from exposure to chemicals, focusing on the feasibility of a parallelogram approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, M D; Nolan, C

    1994-05-01

    This workshop was the concept of Professor Frits Sobels who passed away on the 6th of July 1993. The underlying idea of the Sobels' parallelogram approach is that an estimate (corrected by DNA-adduct dosimetry) of the genetic damage in human germ cells can be obtained by measuring a common endpoint in human and mouse somatic cells (such as gene mutation in lymphocytes) and in germ cells of mice, the desired target tissue inaccessible in humans. The main objective of the workshop was to identify the methodology, data requirements and mechanistic research to understand the human health impact of germ-cell mutagens. 4 chemicals were selected for review at the meeting: ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, acrylamide and cyclophosphamide. The first 3 are important industrial chemicals with substantial use worldwide and, therefore, considerable potential human exposure. The 4th, cyclophosphamide, is a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic agent. This first EC/US workshop on risk assessment was highly focused on the feasibility of the parallelogram concept to estimate potential germ-cell effects in humans. It represented an evaluation of current knowledge and the identification of future research needs for a more precise assessment of human genetic risks from exposure to mutagenic chemicals.

  15. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against human HepG2, Huh7, and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Fan, Hua; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 +/- 3.7 nm and -19.3 +/- 1.4 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 9.1 μg/ml, 4.4 μg/ml, and 6.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  16. Multiresidue confirmatory method for determination of quinolones in milk by HPLC: method development and validation according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ostorero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary drugs have become an integral part of the livestock production and play an important role in maintaining animal welfare. The use of veterinary medicines may be cause of the presence of drug residues in animal food products if appropriate withdrawal periods are not respected or if contaminated feeds are used. This work presents the development of an high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD method for the quantitative detection of eight quinolones – norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid, and flumequine – in bovine milk. After deproteination and extraction with a metaphosphoric acid 1% w/v/methanol/acetonitrile (60/20/20 v/v/v solution, the sample is partially evaporated and cleaned up on a reversed phase solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge. The extract is analyzed using an HPLC-FLD. Mean recovery ranged between 65-88%. The method is validated as a confirmatory method according to Decision 2002/657/EC. All the verified parameters (linearity, selectivity/specificity, trueness, precision, CC, ruggedness and stability were satisfactory and the method is able to quantify all the analytes in milk in the concentration range 15-60 μg/Kg for danofloxacin and 25-150 μg/Kg for the other quinolones.

  17. S12 EC74交换机TUP改为ISUP的流程及命令

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚丽

    2003-01-01

    目前,我国绝大部分地区的电话网使用No.7信令传输方式,但信令点的用户部分大多为TUP(电话用户部分),TUP主要是针对语音电话业务度身定做的,相对于非话音业务和补充业务有很大的局限性。本文阐述了S12 EC74交换机TUP改为ISUP的必要性及流程,并列举了ISUP改造中的注意事项和一些问题的解决方法。

  18. Education and training in medical imaging for conventional and particle radiation therapy through the EC funded envision and entervision

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilli, M

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in particle therapy today is quality assurance during treatment, which needs advanced medical imaging techniques. This issue is tackled by the EC funded project ENVISION, an R\\&D consortium of sixteen leading European research centres and one industrial partner, co-ordinated by CERN. ENVISION covers developments in Time Of Flight in-beam PET, in-beam single particle tomography, organ motion monitoring techniques, simulation, and treatment planning. Additionally, ENVISION serves as a training platform for the ENTERVISION project, a Marie-Curie Initial Training Network aimed at educating young researchers in online 3D digital imaging for hadron therapy. ENTERVISION brings together ten academic institutes and research centres of excellence and a leading European company in particle therapy, and is coordinated by CERN. Its multi-disciplinary training programme of ENTERVISION includes a diversified portfolio of scientific courses, complemented by specific courses aimed at developing soft skills...

  19. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-15 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-15 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October and November 2010, as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters of volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  20. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-13 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-05-31

    Well ER-EC-13 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in October 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. A main objective was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite unit hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. This well may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  1. Candidate of the member of three-phonon multiplet observed in the + +EC decay of 76Br

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shuifa Shen; Yongbo Chen

    2013-01-01

    The decay scheme of 76Br is established by the 76Br(1/2 = 16.2 h) $\\bate^{+}$/EC study. The 1791.31 keV level, which was identified initially by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$ with 76Se(, ′) reaction more than three decades ago, is reconfirmed. However, the spin and parity have not been assigned by Müller $\\mathit{et al}$. Now we consider it reasonable to assign the 1791.31 keV level as a new candidate of the three-phonon multiplet in 76Se. In addition, in order to study the deformation of 76Se which lies in transitional region between strongly deformed and spherical nuclei, we calculate the total Routhian surfaces (TRS) of positive-parity states by cranking shell model formalism.

  2. Safety of UV-treated milk as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on UV-treated milk as a novel food submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific...... of infants (up to 1 year of age). The Panel considers that it is unlikely that tolerable upper intake levels established by EFSA for children aged 1–10 years, adolescents and adults will be exceeded. The Panel considers that the novel food is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The data provided do not give...... rise to concerns with regard to the microbiological quality. The Panel considers that the risk of allergic reactions to the novel food is not dissimilar to that associated with conventional milk. The Panel concludes that the novel food, UV-treated milk, is safe under the intended conditions of use...

  3. Fenologia reprodutiva de macrófitas aquáticas no ecótono cerrado-pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Crisley Helena

    2016-01-01

    Apesar da importância ecológica das macrófitas aquáticas não há estudo sistematizado abordando a fenologia deste grupo na América do Sul. Com isso este trabalho teve como objetivo: descrever os padrões de floração e frutificação de uma assembleia de área de transição (ecótono), verificando se os padrões reprodutivos variam entre as formas de vida e se a floração e frutificação da assembleia estão correlacionadas com variáveis meteorológicas e parâmetros físico-químicos da água. O estudo foi c...

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-12 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-EC-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in June and July 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section in the area between Pahute Mesa and the Timber Mountain caldera complex that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic model. In particular, the well was intended to help define the structural position and hydraulic parameters for volcanic aquifers potentially down-gradient from historic underground nuclear tests on Pahute Mesa. It may also be used as a long-term monitoring well.

  5. Increased resveratrol production in wines using engineered wine strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and relaxed antibiotic or auxotrophic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liang, Jing-Long; Kang, Lin-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Jia-Jun; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Li-Qiong; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse beneficial effects on human health. Red wine is the major dietary source of resveratrol but the amount that people can obtain from wines is limited. To increase the resveratrol production in wines, two expression vectors carrying 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase gene (RS) from Vitis vinifera were transformed into industrial wine strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. When cultured with 1 mM p-coumaric acid, the engineered strains grown with and without the addition of antibiotics produced 8.249 and 3.317 mg/L of trans-resveratrol in the culture broth, respectively. Resveratrol content of the wine fermented with engineered strains was twice higher than that of the control, indicating that our engineered strains could increase the production of resveratrol during wine fermentation.

  6. β+/EC decay rates of deformed neutron-deficient nuclei in the deformed QRPA with realistic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Ni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The weak-decay (β+ and EC rates of neutron-deficient Kr, Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes are investigated within the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon–nucleon interactions. The particle–particle and particle–hole channels of residual interactions are handled in large single-particle model spaces, based on the Brückner G-matrix with charge-dependent Bonn nucleon–nucleon forces. Contributions from allowed Gamow–Teller and Fermi transitions as well as first-forbidden transitions are calculated. The calculated half-lives show good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of magnitude, from 10−2 to 107 s. Moreover, predictions of β-decay half-lives are made for some extremely proton-rich isotopes, which could be useful for future experiments.

  7. Considerations on psychophysical welfare of fish employed in scientific procedures and on Recommendation 2007/526/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Manciocco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of fish for experimental purposes has seen a significant increase over the past years, consequently scientific findings on factors influencing welfare of these vertebrates are now available, as well as debates on their capacity of experiencing suffering are increasingly found in animal welfare discussions. Nowadays, in Europe, the use of these animals as experimental models is regulated by the Recommendation 2007/526/EC, where in the Section on the species-specific guidelines for fish, aspects such as the environmental characteristics of housing, the monitoring of animal health, the general care of subjects (i.e. feeding, handling, transport, and the killing procedures, are considered. In this manuscript, some aspects regarding the use of fish for human benefits will be discussed, and the suggestions provided by the European legislation are pointed out in order to identify limits and advantages.

  8. 电化学发光免疫测定(ECLI)技术及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 郭涛; 贾思公

    2003-01-01

    @@ 电化学发光免疫测定(Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay,ECLI)是继放射免疫、酶免疫、荧光免疫、化学发光免疫测定以后的新一代标记免疫测定技术,是电化学发光(ECL)和免疫测定相结合的产物.它是一种在电极表面由电化学引发的特异性化学发光反应,实际上包括了电化学和化学发光二个过程.ECL不仅可以应用于所有的免疫测定,而且还可用于DNA/RNA探针检测.

  9. Anxiolytic activity of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2: behavioral analysis using rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedláčková, Natália; Ponechalová, Veronika; Ujházy, Eduard; Dubovický, Michal; Mach, Mojmír

    2011-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have become very significant affections in the last decades. According to WHO at least one mental disease occurred per year in 27% of EU inhabitants (more than 82 mil. people). It is estimated that by 2020, depression will be the main cause of morbidity in the developed countries. These circumstances call for research for new prospective drugs with anxiolytic and antidepressive properties exhibiting no toxicity and withdrawal effect and possessing beneficial properties, like antioxidant and/or neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to obtain information about psychopharmacological properties of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2, using non-invasive behavioral methods in rats.The battery of ethological tests (open field, elevated plus-maze, light/dark box exploration, forced swim test) was used to obtain information about anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of the pyridoindole derivatives. The substances were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the tests at doses of 1, 10 and 25 mg/kg.In the behavioral tests, SMe1EC2 was found to exert anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze with no affection of locomotor activity. The highest dose of SMe1M2 increased the time spent in the lit part of the Light/Dark box, however this result was influenced by inhibition of motor activity of the rats. Similar findings were observed also in elevated plus-maze, although these results were not statistically significant.In conclusion, from the results of our study it is evident that both pyridoindoles acted on the CNS. In the highest dose, SMe1M2 was found to possess rather sedative than anxiolytic or antidepressant activity.

  10. Learning from catchments to understand hydrological drought (HS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a global challenge. To be able to manage drought effectively on global or national scales without losing smaller scale variability and local context, we need to understand what the important hydrological drought processes are at different scales. Global scale models and satellite data are providing a global overview and catchment scale studies provide detailed site-specific information. I am interested in bridging these two scale levels by learning from catchments from around the world. Much information from local case studies is currently underused on larger scales because there is too much complexity. However, some of this complexity might be crucial on the level where people are facing the consequences of drought. In this talk, I will take you on a journey around the world to unlock catchment scale information and see if the comparison of many catchments gives us additional understanding of hydrological drought processes on the global scale. I will focus on the role of storage in different compartments of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, and how we as humans interact with that storage. I will discuss aspects of spatial and temporal variability in storage that are crucial for hydrological drought development and persistence, drawing from examples of catchments with storage in groundwater, lakes and wetlands, and snow and ice. The added complexity of human activities shifts the focus from natural to catchments with anthropogenic increases in storage (reservoirs), decreases in storage (groundwater abstraction), and changes in hydrological processes (urbanisation). We learn how local information is providing valuable insights, in some cases challenging theoretical understanding or model outcomes. Despite the challenges of working across countries, with a high number of collaborators, in a multitude of languages, under data-scarce conditions, the scientific advantages of bridging scales are substantial. The comparison of catchments around the world can

  11. AWS-Glacier As A Storage Foundation For AWS-EC2 Hosted Scientific Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J. H. R.; Potter, N.

    2016-12-01

    Using AWS Glacier as a base level data store for a scientific data service presents new challenges for the web accessible data services, along with their software clients and human operators. All meaningful Glacier transactions take at least 4 hours to complete. This is in contrast to the various web APIs for data such as WMS, WFS, WCS, DAP2, and Netcdf tools which were all written based on the premise that the response will be (nearly) immediate. Only DAP4 and WPS contain an explicit asynchronous component to their respective protocols which allows for "return later" behaviors. We were able to put Hyrax (a DAP4 server) in front of Glacier-held resources, but there were significant issues. Any kind of probing of the datasets happens at the cost of the Glacier retrieval period, 4 hours. A couple of crucial things fall out of this: The first is that the service must cache metadata, including coordinate map arrays, so that a client can have enough information available in the "immediate" time frame to make a decisions about what to ask for from the dataset. This type of request planning is important because a data access request will take 4 hours to complete unless the data resource has been cached. The second thing is that the clients need to change their behavior when accessing datasets in an asynchronous system, even if the metadata is cached. Commonly, client applications will request a number of data components from a DAP2 service in the course of "discovering" the dataset. This may not be a well-supported model of interaction with Glacier or any other high latency data store.

  12. Association between Electronic Cigarette Use and Asthma among High School Students in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Cho

    Full Text Available Little is known about health outcomes related to electronic cigarette (EC use, despite its growing popularity. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between EC use and asthma.The study design is a cross-sectional study. A total of 35,904 high school students were included as the final study population. The presence of asthma was based on a student's self-reported doctor diagnosis of asthma in the past 12 months.Prevalence rates of asthmatics in 'current EC users' (n = 2,513, 'former EC users' (n = 2,078, and 'never EC users' (n = 31,313, were 3.9% (n = 98, 2.2% (n = 46 and 1.7% (n = 530, respectively. Comparing 'current EC' users with 'never EC' users, the unadjusted OR for asthma was 2.36 (95% CI: 1.89-2.94. In order to control for the effect of conventional cigarette (CC smoking, after stratifying the subjects by the three CC smoking categories (never CC, former CC, and current CC, within the 'never CC' category, the unadjusted OR for asthma for 'current EC' users was 3.41 (95% CI: 1.79-6.49, and the adjusted OR was 2.74 (95% CI: 1.30-5.78. Severe asthma was reflected by the number of days absent from school due to asthma symptoms; current EC users had the highest adjusted OR for severe asthma compared to 'never EC' users.When compared to a reference population of high school students in South Korea, EC users have an increased association with asthma and are more likely to have had days absent from school due to severe asthma symptoms. In conclusion, the results indicate that EC use may be a risk factor for asthma. The results may be useful in developing a scientific basis for the evaluation of a potential health hazard by EC.

  13. Long-term EC measurements over a pre-alpine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Katharina; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Recent research indicates that inland waters are significant contributors to the global carbon cycle. However, up to now long-term measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes above freshwater ecosystems are sparse and the knowledge on the magnitude of the fluxes and the involved processes needs to be improved. Most of the research has focused on tropical and boreal regions. Furthermore, many findings were based on short-term measurements or relied on non-continuous floating chamber measurements. This study is part of a cooperation project with the overarching aim to study possible effects of past, present and future hydrological extremes on carbon fluxes at catchment scale. The first step is to establish the complete carbon balance of a lake and therefore also to measure CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the surface of a temperate lake for the first time continuously all year round. The eddy covariance method is a technique widely used for long-term, continuous measurements of energy and trace gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we employ this method for year-round monitoring of CO2-, sensible and latent heat fluxes above Lake Lunz, a small pre-alpine lake in lower Austria. In addition, the water temperature profile was measured with high temporal resolution in order to capture the heat storage change of the lake during the ice free period. This together with measurements of the net radiation allows us to also evaluate the energy balance closure. The measurements started in December 2014 and here we present flux data as well as data on the energy balance closure of the first year. A preliminary analysis of the data indicated that the lake acts as a net source of CO2 with stronger emissions during night. The monthly mean amplitudes of the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux were highest during the summer month (July, August), with a clear peak of H in the early morning hours. The water temperature profile

  14. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; van der Sloot, Hans A; Rebischung, Flore; Weltens, Reinhilde; Geerts, Lieve; Hjelmar, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Hazard classification of waste is a necessity, but the hazard properties (named "H" and soon "HP") are still not all defined in a practical and operational manner at EU level. Following discussion of subsequent draft proposals from the Commission there is still no final decision. Methods to implement the proposals have recently been proposed: tests methods for physical risks, test batteries for aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity, an analytical package for exhaustive determination of organic substances and mineral elements, surrogate methods for the speciation of mineral elements in mineral substances in waste, and calculation methods for human toxicity and ecotoxicity with M factors. In this paper the different proposed methods have been applied to a large assortment of solid and liquid wastes (>100). Data for 45 wastes - documented with extensive chemical analysis and flammability test - were assessed in terms of the different HP criteria and results were compared to LoW for lack of an independent classification. For most waste streams the classification matches with the designation provided in the LoW. This indicates that the criteria used by LoW are similar to the HP limit values. This data set showed HP 14 'Ecotoxic chronic' is the most discriminating HP. All wastes classified as acute ecotoxic are also chronic ecotoxic and the assessment of acute ecotoxicity separately is therefore not needed. The high number of HP 14 classified wastes is due to the very low limit values when stringent M factors are applied to total concentrations (worst case method). With M factor set to 1 the classification method is not sufficiently discriminating between hazardous and non-hazardous materials. The second most frequent hazard is HP 7 'Carcinogenic'. The third most frequent hazard is HP 10 'Toxic for reproduction' and the fourth most frequent hazard is HP 4 "Irritant - skin irritation and eye damage". In a stepwise approach, it seems relevant to assess HP 14 first, then, if

  15. Investigating the Conformational Structure and Potential Site Interactions of SOD Inhibitors on Ec-SOD in Marine Mud Crab Scylla serrata: A Molecular Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Sablok, Gaurav; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Chainy, G B N

    2016-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) act as a first line of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system to control cellular superoxide anion toxicity. Previously, several inhibitors have been widely identified and catalogued for inhibition of SOD activity; however, still the information about the mechanism of interaction and points toward the inhibitor interactions in structures of SODs in general and in extracellular (Ec)-SOD in particular is still in naive. In the present research, we present an insight to elucidate the molecular basis of interactions of SOD inhibitors with Ec-SOD in mud crab Scylla serrata using molecular modeling and docking approaches. Different inhibitors of SOD such as hydrogen peroxide [Formula: see text], potassium cyanide, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), [Formula: see text]-mercaptoethanol and dithiocarbamate were screened to understand the potential sites that may act as sites for cleavage or blocking in the protein. SOD-SDS and [Formula: see text] complex interactions indicate residues Pro72 and Asp102 of the predicted crab Ec-SOD as common targets. The GOLD result indicates that Pro72, Asp102 and Thr103 are commonly acting as the site of interaction in Ec-SOD of S. serrata with SOD inhibitors. For the first time, the results of this study provide an insight into the structural properties of Ec-SOD of S. serrata and define the possible involvements between the amino acids present in its active sites, i.e., in the regions from 70 to 84 and from 101 to 103 and different inhibitors.

  16. Effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase II and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II genes in rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Sulikowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases play an important role in the regulation of mesangial cell proliferation and may be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Preservation solutions are thought to diminish the ischemic injury and appropriate choice of the solution should guarantee a better graft function and good prognosis for graft survival. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of preservation solutions UW and EC on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase II and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase II genes in rat kidney.The study was carried out on Wistar rat kidneys divided into 3 groups: kidneys perfused with 0.9�0NaCl (control group, with UW, and with EC preservation solution.The results show an enhancement of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression after 12 min of cold ischemia. This increase was more expressed in kidneys preserved with UW solution in comparison with kidneys perfused with EC solution and 0.9�0NaCl. After 24 h of cold ischemia the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 genes in kidney perfused with UW solution decreased, while in kidneys perfused with EC it was increased. After warm ischemia the MMP-2 and TIMP-2 gene expression increased, whereas it was significantly lower in kidneys perfused with EC solution.

  17. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  18. Effects of Fastac 50 EC on bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. respiration: DGE disappearance does not lead to increasing water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muljar, Riin; Karise, Reet; Viik, Eneli; Kuusik, Aare; Williams, Ingrid; Metspalu, Luule; Hiiesaar, Külli; Must, Anne; Luik, Anne; Mänd, Marika

    2012-11-01

    Sublethal effects of pesticides in insects can be observed through physiological changes, which are commonly estimated by metabolic rate and respiratory patterns, more precisely by the patterns of discontinuous gas-exchange (DGE) cycles. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of some low concentrations of Fastac 50 EC on the cycles of CO(2) release and respiratory water loss rates (WLR) in bumble bee Bombus terrestris L. foragers. Bumble bees were dipped into 0.004% and 0.002% Fastac 50 EC solution. Flow-through respirometry was used to record the respiration and WLR 3h before and after the treatment. The respirometry was combined with infrared actography to enable simultaneous recording of abdominal movements. Our results show that Fastac 50 EC has an after-effect on bumble bee respiratory rhythms and muscle activity but does not affect WLR. Treatment with 0.004% Fastac 50 EC solution resulted in disappearance of the respiration cycles; also the lifespan of treated bumble bees was significantly shorter. Treatment with 0.002% Fastac 50 EC solution had no significant effect on respiration patterns or longevity. We found no evidence for the DGE cycles functioning as a water saving mechanism.

  19. An omni-directional optical antenna and its beam control method based on the EC-KPA algorithm for mobile FSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Yang, Yintang; Li, Weixu; Wang, Xin; Jia, Jijun

    2013-01-28

    In order to ensure the communication link stability in mobile FSO system, a new omni-directional optical antenna is designed. Being aimed at discontinuous tracking, a novel beam control method based on the error correction Kalman prediction algorithm (EC-KPA) is proposed. The comparison of EC-KPA and the conventional Kalman prediction algorithm (KPA) is given. Numerical simulations about beam control method are carried out. The results show that the prediction accuracy of EC-KPA is improved about 77% than that of KPA in Gaussian noise situation, and that the increase is up to 12.92 times in strong noise situation. Therefore, the beam control method is feasible, and this optical antenna can meet the demands of fast mobile FSO.

  20. East Asia Winter Monsoon changes inferred from environmentally sensitive grain-size component records during the last 2300 years in mud area southwest off Cheju Island, ECS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Rong; YANG Zuosheng; Yoshiki Saito; GUO Zhigang; FAN Dejiang; LI Yunhai; XIAO Shangbin; SHI Xuefa; CHEN Muhong

    2006-01-01

    Environmentally sensitive grain-size component (ESGSC) extracted from grain-size data of a sediment core B2, which were retrieved from mud area southwest off Cheju Island (MACI), East China Sea (ECS), can be used to indicate the variations of East Asia Winter Monsoon (EAWM), with high (low) content/mean-size of ESGCS denote to strong (weak) EAWM. Combined with AMS14C datings core B2 provides a continuous high-resolution record of EAWM changes over the past 2300years, with an average resolution of 13 years. The results show that the variations of EAWM are consistent with temperature changes inferred from historical documents in eastern China over the past 2300 years, from which four climate stages may be identified. In stages before 1900 aBP (50 AD) and 1450-780 aBP (50- 1170 AD) the EAWM were comparatively weak, corresponding to warm climate periods in eastern China, respectively. And in stages of 1900-1450 aBP (50-500 AD) and 780-219aBP (1170-1731 AD) the EAWM were strongly developed, which correspond well to climate changes of two cold periods in eastern China. It is also shown from this study that the stage at 780-219 aBP (1170-1731 AD) was the coldest climate period during the last 2300 years and could be, therefore,related to the Little Ice Age (LIA). Climatic fluctuations appeared obviously in all the four stages, and two climate events of abrupt changes from warm to cold occurred at around 1900 aBP (50 AD) and 780 aBP (1170 AD), of which the latter is probably related to globe-scale changes of atmospheric circulation at that time.