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Sample records for higgins tb mirkin

  1. Something to die for: Rebutting the Mirkin & Goldman dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2016-01-01

    This essay investigates the soundness of the oft-repeated result of the Mirkin / Goldman dilemma. It says that approximately fifty per cent of all athletes should be willing to die if Olympic gold was at stake. The essay analyses the premises for this “well-known-fact” and traces the source...

  2. Something to die for: Rebutting the Mirkin & Goldman dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2016-01-01

    This essay investigates the soundness of the oft-repeated result of the Mirkin / Goldman dilemma. It says that approximately fifty per cent of all athletes should be willing to die if Olympic gold was at stake. The essay analyses the premises for this “well-known-fact” and traces the source...... for the proposition. The essay concludes that there probably never was a real methodological sound survey and that scholars, journalists and politicians therefore should stop referencing the result. Athletes are NOT willing to die for a medal....

  3. Clusters, orders, and trees methods and applications in honor of Boris Mirkin's 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Goldengorin, Boris; Pardalos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The volume is dedicated to Boris Mirkin on the occasion of his 70th birthday. In addition to his startling PhD results in abstract automata theory, Mirkin’s ground breaking contributions in various fields of decision making and data analysis have marked the fourth quarter of the 20th century and beyond. Mirkin has done pioneering work in group choice, clustering, data mining and knowledge discovery aimed at finding and describing non-trivial or hidden structures—first of all, clusters, orderings, and hierarchies—in multivariate and/or network data. This volume contains a collection of papers reflecting recent developments rooted in Mirkin's fundamental contribution to the state-of-the-art in group choice, ordering, clustering, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Researchers, students, and software engineers will benefit from new knowledge discovery techniques and application directions.

  4. Emerging Perspectives on Editorial Ethics: An Interview with Chris Higgins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Chris Higgins took on the roles of Editor of "Educational Theory," and Editor-in-Chief of the "Philosophy of Education Yearbook" published by the Philosophy of Education Society, in 2013, after having been an Associate Editor and Book Review Editor for "Educational Theory" for six years. Higgins worked closely with…

  5. TB Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir TB disease – an illness in which TB bacteria are multiplying and attacking ... GIT) and T-Spot ® . TB test. TB disease – an illness in which TB bacteria are multiplying and attacking ...

  6. Chester Higgins, New York City, a Young Moslem Woman in Brooklyn, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zrann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Né en 1946, Chester Higgins est l’un des photographes majeurs de sa génération. Témoin de périodes phares de l'histoire politique et artistique noire américaine, il explore à travers ses images l’identité culturelle des Africains-Américains. Son rapport à la photographie a été fortement influencé par sa rencontre avec P.H. Polk (1898-1985, photographe officiel du Tuskegee Institute,  (le premier établissement d'enseignement afro-américain fondé en 1881 en Alabama. Tandis que Higgins fut en...

  7. Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addressing This Critical Topic? NIAID supports a comprehensive portfolio of research covering basic, translational and clinical studies ... candidate drugs, and evaluate novel TB drugs and optimal drug combinations in preclinical and clinical studies. Read ...

  8. TB & Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis, and over 8 millions people were developing each year. On the other hand tobacco is responsible for 3 millions death in the world. For Indonesia, our country has the third biggest TB cases in the world. Whereas Indonesia is ranked as having the fourth largest number of smokers in the world. A relationship between smoking and TB has been suspected for a long time, even though the epidemiological evidence has not been convincing so far, as well as the pathophysiology and the biomolecullar changes. At present time there are more and more epidemiological data to suggest relationship between TB and tobacco. Further research should be done to get more indepth relationship as well as avoiding the confounder factor. To be able to perform TB control as well as tobacco control successfully there should be emphasize on synergistic public health approaches. Tuberculosis –which Indonesia got 3rd rank in the world- as well as smoking problem –which Indonesia got 4th rank in the world- are two important public health problem for the country. If there are relationship between tobacco and tuberculosis, health problem faced by Indonesian even become bigger. Knowledge about tuberculosis as well as tobacco among Indonesian population is very essential to improve the public health situation. Tuberculosis control programme as well as smoking control programme are essential tools for the well being of Indonesian people. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 48-52 Keywords: tobacco, tuberculosis, epidemiological data

  9. Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected by a person with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) or extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB), preventive ... faqs/ default. htm 3. CDC. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) . http: / / www. cdc. gov/ tb/ publications/ factsheets/ drtb/ ...

  10. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  11. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Treating Tuberculosis Treating Tuberculosis Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Diagnosing Tuberculosis History of TB Clinical Trials Tuberculosis (TB) Causes ...

  12. Twin pregnancy: the impact of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dubois, S

    1991-06-01

    Perinatal outcomes were compared between 354 twins treated with the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program and 686 untreated twins. After differing distributions of key confounding variables were adjusted for, the twins in the intervention group weighed an average of 80 g more (P less than 0.06) than the nonintervention twins; their low-birth-weight rate was 25% lower (P less than 0.05) and their very-low-birth-weight rate was almost 50% lower (P less than 0.05). Although the rate of preterm delivery was 30% lower in the intervention group (P less than 0.05), the rates of intrauterine growth retardation were similar in the two groups. Fetal mortality was slightly higher (14 vs 12 per 1000, NS), but early neonatal mortality was fivefold lower (3 vs 19 per 1000, P less than 0.06) in the intervention group. Maternal morbidity was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the intervention group. There was a trend towards lower infant morbidity in the intervention group. These results suggest that nutritional intervention can significantly improve twin-pregnancy outcome.

  13. Dynamics study of a three-fold pseudo-Jahn-Teller system using the extended Longuet-Higgins formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Sarkar; A J C Varandas

    2012-01-01

    An extended Longuet-Higgins formalism recently utilized to obtain generalized Born-Oppenheimer equations including the geometrical phase effect has been used to study a three-fold pseudo-Jahn-Teller type electronic degeneracy. The results of dynamics calculations carried out with the novel formalism are compared with Born-Oppenheimer (geometrical phase ignored), extended Born-Oppenheimer, and coupled three-state ones for the same system. The theory shows unprecedented simplicity while depicting all features.

  14. John Dalton and the London atomists: William and Bryan Higgins, William Austin, and new Daltonian doubts about the origin of the atomic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Most historians have ruled out the possibility that John Dalton was influenced by the theories of atomists William and Bryan Higgins, as well as William Austin, in developing his first table of atomic weights on 6 September 1803. I review and evaluate the case to be made for the influence of each scientist on Dalton. Contrary to prevailing views, I raise new Daltonian doubts, especially for Bryan Higgins.

  15. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  16. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  17. Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    In this podcast, Dr. Sundari Mase, Medical Team Lead in the Field Services and Evaluation Branch in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day and the 2014 theme.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  18. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...

  19. Mycobacteria and TB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufmann, S. H. E. (Stephan H. E.); Hahn, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    .... Scientists investigating the epidemiology, immunology and molecular biology of TB or engaged in vaccine and drug development as well as physicians and social workers treating TB patients will benefit...

  20. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  1. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  2. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ, Se describe una comunidad bentónica constituida por un ensamble de cuatro especies de corales de profundidad recolectados mediante un lance de arrastre efectuado sobre el margen de la meseta del monte submarino O'Higgins I, Chile central. Sobre la meseta se detectó la presencia de agua oxigenadas frías correspondientes al Agua Intermedia Antártica (>400 m de profundidad y sobre ésta, el Agua Ecuatorial Subsuperficial asociada a la zona de mínimo de oxígeno (OMZ, <1 mL O2 L-1. La fauna muestra un origen biogeográfico de tipo subantártico sumado a la presencia de fauna típica del margen continental de la zona central de Chile. Este ensamble está representado por dos especies de Antipataria (Leiopathes sp. y Chrysopathes sp., una especie no identificada de la familia Paragorgiidae y una especie perteneciente a la familia Isididae (Acanella chilensis. Este estudio muestra que este ensamble de corales de profundidad provee un hábitat crítico para el camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi, crustáceo de importancia pesquera. La presencia de este crustáceo más algunos peces como el alfonsino (Beryx splendens y orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus podrían atraer la atención de la industria sobre estas frágiles, singulares y escasamente conocidas comunidades bentónicas chilenas y por lo tanto se requiere con urgencia acciones para su conservación.

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GIT) and T-Spot ® . TB test. TB disease – an illness in which TB bacteria are multiplying and attacking a part of the body, usually the lungs. The symptoms of TB disease include weakness, weight loss, fever, no appetite, chills, ...

  5. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  6. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug-resistant TB such as multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB). COLLABORATIVE ... design and costing of expanded TB/HIV and MDR-TB components within the Stop TB Partnership' s Global Plan ...

  7. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  8. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  9. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  10. Multidrug-Resistant TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Coomans, Fons

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research. By making scientific findings available and accessible, people can be enabled to claim the use of science for social benefits. Inasmuch as the market fails to address neglected diseases such as MDR-TB, the REBSP provides a potential counterbalance to frame a positive obligation on states to both marshal their own resources and to coordinate the actions of multiple other actors towards this goal, including non-state actors. While the latter do not hold the same level of accountability as states, the REBSP can still enable the recognition of obligations at a level of “soft law” responsibilities.

  11. New location of Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae in the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ramírez Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 is an amphibian species endemic to Chile, described and known just from its type locality: the mountain streams in La Parva zone, Metropolitan region, central Chile. In this manuscript I report a new location for this species (the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile, thus extending its current geographical range in about 100 kilometers southward. This finding suggests that we need to invest more efforts to clearly establish its conservation status in Chile.

  12. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo; Morong Reyes, Germán; Arellano Araya, Ana Olga; Merino Vidangossy, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiante...

  13. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo; Morong Reyes, Germán; Arellano Araya, Ana Olga; Merino Vidangossy, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características,  motivaciones y expectativas  que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiante...

  14. CARACTERÍSTICAS, MOTIVACIONES Y EXPECTATIVAS DE ESTUDIANTES DE GÉNERO MASCULINO DE CARRERAS PEDAGÓGICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD BERNARDO O`HIGGINS

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Merino Pantoja; Germán Morong Reyes; Ana Olga Arellano Araya; Edgar Merino Vidangossy

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes....

  15. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  16. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  17. TB control: challenges and opportunities for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Daftary, Amrita; Satyanarayana, Srinath

    2016-03-01

    India's TB control programme has treated over 19 million patients, but the incidence of TB continues to be high. TB is a major killer and drug-resistant TB is a growing threat. There are several likely reasons, including social conditions and co-morbidities that fuel the TB epidemic: under-investment by the government, weak programme implementation and management, suboptimal quality of care in the private sector, and insufficient advocacy around TB. Fortunately, India possesses the technical know-how, competence and resources to address these challenges. The End TB Strategy by WHO offers India an excellent blueprint to advance the agenda of TB control.

  18. Murine model of TB meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh Datta; Abbas, Ali; Kashyap, Raj Pal Singh; Gupta, Pushpa

    2016-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are the most severe forms of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) due to high levels of mortality and neurological morbidity. Limited studies are available on CNS-TB animal-model development, despite the steady rise in cerebral-TB cases in India over the past decade. This study describes the development of a murine model of CNS-TB using a clinical strain (C3) isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CNS-TB patients. Groups of mice were infected intravenously with an MTB C3 strain isolated from the CSF of CNS-TB patients in order to mimic the dynamics of actual infection. Brain and lung tissue were evaluated for bacterial burden, as well as histopathology and surrogate markers of TB infection at 30- and 50-days post-infection. Mice infected intravenously with MTB C3 strains showed progressive development of CNS disease, with high bacillary burden in the lungs during the initial stage (30days), which eventually disseminated to the brain at a later stage (50days). All C3-infected mice showed elevated levels of mycobacterial antigens and antibodies, as well as increased T cell adenosine deaminase activity in brain homogenates, which explicitly correlated with mycobacterial load in the brain and chronic brain pathology. High mortality rates (60%) were associated with mice infected with the C3 strain as compared to those of controls. Our findings demonstrated the design of a novel murine model of CNS-TB using a C3 strain and that replicated events of EPTB dissemination. This model will promote efforts to understand the pathogenesis CNS-TB infection for development of improved therapeutic interventions in the future. Copyright © 2016.

  19. Detectemos la TB. Tratemos la TB. Trabajemos juntos para eliminar la TB. (Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    Este podcast trata sobre el Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis y el tema de los CDC para el año 2014.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  20. Promising therapy of XDR-TB/MDR-TB with thioridazine an inhibitor of bacterial efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral, L; Martins, M; Viveiros, M

    2008-01-01

    Global rates of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) continue to increase. Moreover, resistance of the causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the two most effective anti-TB medications continue to rise. Now, multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) has progressed to extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB......) - a M. tuberculosis organism that is resistant to the most effective second line drugs available for the treatment of TB. This review provides detailed, significant evidence that supports the use of an old neuroleptic compound, thioridazine (TZ), for the management of MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections...

  1. TB vaccines in clinical development

    OpenAIRE

    McShane, H; Ginsberg, AM; Ruhwald, M.; Mearns, H

    2016-01-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 – 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on TB Vaccines in Clinical Development, and Clinical Research: Data and Findings. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosi...

  2. Latent TB infection and pulmonary TB disease among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesoemadinata, R.C.; McAllister, S.M.; Soetedjo, N.N.M.; Ratnaningsih, D.F.; Ruslami, R.; Kerry, S.; Verrall, A.J.; Apriani, L.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Hill, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease could reduce diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated TB. We aimed to describe the prevalence of LTBI and pulmonary TB among patients with DM in a TB-endemic setting. Methods: Patients with DM attending a hospital and

  3. Investigación, Planificación y Estudio del Potencial Turístico del Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins, Patagonia Chilena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaynee Vela-Ruiz Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins (PNBO, ubicado en el extremo austral de Chile, protege 3,5 millones de hectáreas caracterizadas por una geomorfología de fiordos, archipiélagos, islas y glaciares del Campo de Hielo Sur. Este Parque Nacional resalta además por ser el territorio ancestral de los últimos habitantes que mantienen la lengua y el acervo cultural del pueblo indígena Kawésqar. El presente artículo muestra el proceso de investigación ecológica y cultural realizado en el PNBO, así como el proceso de planificación participativa y la elaboración de una propuesta de potencial turístico de dicho territorio. Proyecto que ha sido innovador en la planificación de áreas protegidas en Chile, ya que ha incorporado directamente a una comunidad kawésqar como equipo técnico del proyecto, así como ha permitido levantar información de base de una zona de relevancia mundial escasamente conocida hasta antes de este estudio.

  4. TB deaths reach historic levels. International (global).

    Science.gov (United States)

    More tuberculosis (TB)-related deaths occurred in 1995 than in any other year in history (almost 3 million, vs. 2.1 million for the TB epidemic around 1990). In the next 50 years, as many as 500 million people may develop TB if current rates continue. More and more of these people will develop multidrug resistant TB. TB affects all social groups. It is the leading fatal infection in youth and adults. HIV positive people are more likely to die from TB than any other condition. More women die from TB than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Almost 50% of the world's refugees may have TB. All people are at risk of TB since TB bacteria, which enter the air via coughing or sneezing, can be suspended in the air for hours. Increased air travel and migration have brought TB back to industrialized countries. Multi-drug resistant TB has emerged in New York City, London, Milan, Paris, Atlanta, Chicago, and cities in developing countries. Governments of industrialized and developing countries have been slow to understand the effects of multi-drug resistant TB for public health. During the 1970s and 1980s, TB was greatly neglected resulting in the current multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. Policy makers have not applied the tools discovered by scientists to help eliminate TB. The World Health Organization recommends directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) to fight TB. DOTS can increase the number of cured TB patients two-fold. It can cure almost 95% of TB patients with medicines costing less than $11 in some areas of the world. Yet DOTS is being used to cure only 10% of all TB patients in the world. If it were used in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Zaire, about 75% of all TB cases would be cured. In DOTS, health workers, not the TB patient, are responsible for curing the TB patient. Poor patient compliance is responsible for the current TB epidemic because TB patients remain

  5. WHO's End TB Strategy: From stopping to ending the global TB epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uplekar, Mukund; Raviglione, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The 67th World Health Assembly of 2014 adopted the "End TB Strategy" with a vision of making the world free of tuberculosis (TB) and with the goal of ending the global TB epidemic by the year 2035. World Health Organization's "End TB Strategy" captures this holistic response in its four principles and three pillars. The three high-level indicators of the "End TB Strategy" - reductions in TB deaths, reductions in the TB incidence rate and the percentage of TB patients and their households experiencing catastrophic costs - are relevant to all countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  7. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  8. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  9. CARACTERÍSTICAS, MOTIVACIONES Y EXPECTATIVAS DE ESTUDIANTES DE GÉNERO MASCULINO DE CARRERAS PEDAGÓGICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD BERNARDO O`HIGGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Merino Pantoja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83, fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes. Los resultados obtenidos de su procesamiento permiten señalar que en su mayoría los estudiantes, han egresado recientemente del colegio, presentando un rendimiento académico en la media nacional y proviniendo, un tercio de ellos, de familia de profesores. En relación a la visión que tienen del sistema educativo, se aprecia que dan una baja valoración a la educación subvencionada por el Estado, cuestionan la labor docente de sus profesores de colegio, tienen serios reparos respecto a la preparación de la enseñanza y a la pertinencia de los contenidos de la educación secundaria y consideraran que la sociedad otorga una baja valoración al trabajo de los profesores. Prevalece en ellos la motivación intrínseca por sobre la extrínseca, lo que permite establecer que los estudiantes que ingresaron, orientaron su decisión en función de intereses propios del campo educativo, prevaleciendo en ellos la vocación de ser maestros, a pesar del momento controversial que vive la carrera magisterial en Chile.

  10. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83, fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes. Los resultados obtenidos de su procesamiento permiten señalar que en su mayoría los estudiantes, han egresado recientemente del colegio, presentando un rendimiento académico en la media nacional y proviniendo, un tercio de ellos, de familia de profesores. En relación a la visión que tienen del sistema educativo, se aprecia que dan una baja valoración a la educación subvencionada por el Estado, cuestionan la labor docente de sus profesores de colegio, tienen serios reparos respecto a la preparación de la enseñanza y a la pertinencia de los contenidos de la educación secundaria y consideraran que la sociedad otorga una baja valoración al trabajo de los profesores. Prevalece en ellos la motivación intrínseca por sobre la extrínseca, lo que permite establecer que los estudiantes que ingresaron, orientaron su decisión en función de intereses propios del campo educativo, prevaleciendo en ellos la vocación de ser maestros, a pesar del momento controversial que vive la carrera magisterial en Chile.

  11. TB Anywhere Is TB Everywhere: The Intersection of U.S. Immigration Enforcement Policy and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (HOMELAND SECURITY AND DEFENSE) from the NAVAL...30 2. Tuberculosis in Mexico ................................................................32 3. Tuberculosis in El Salvador...enforcement priorities. The incidence of TB along the U.S. border with Mexico is higher than the general rate for either country, and incarcerated

  12. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, B.K. [Theoretical Division (T-12, MS-B268), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mead, C.A. [92 Bartram Road, Savannah, Georgia 31411 (United States); Truhlar, D.G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne von Delft

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB, despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for.

  14. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  15. Los estudios de economía en la Universidad Simón Bolívar y la perspectiva de la formación desde los aportes de José Consuegra Higgins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Álvarez García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Si queremos rescatar, procesar, recrear elementos didácticos y pedagógicos en el devenir de los enseñabilidad y la aprendibilidad de la economía, con el encuadre académico de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, es muy valedero observar toda la actividad que alrededor de ella desarrolló el maestro José Consuegra Higgins, fundador de esta institución bolivariana, constructor no solo de la Facultad de Economía, sino de otras facultades del mismo nombre en el país, y de un accionar político, humano y social infatigableAbstractIf we want to rescue, to process, to recreate didactic and pedagogical elements in the becoming of teaching and learning of the economy with the academic current of the Simon Bolivar University, it is valid to observe all the activities developed by the teacher Jose Consuegra Higgins. This person is the Simon Bolivar University and its Economics Faculty founder, besides of other faculties in the same field in the country and the owner of a political, human and social charisma

  16. Latent TB infection and pulmonary TB disease among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemadinata, Raspati C; McAllister, Susan M; Soetedjo, Nanny N M; Febni Ratnaningsih, Dwi; Ruslami, Rovina; Kerry, Sarah; Verrall, Ayesha J; Apriani, Lika; van Crevel, Reinout; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hill, Philip C

    2017-02-01

    Screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease could reduce diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated TB. We aimed to describe the prevalence of LTBI and pulmonary TB among patients with DM in a TB-endemic setting. Patients with DM attending a hospital and community centres in Bandung, Indonesia, underwent LTBI screening using interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). TB was investigated by sputum smear, culture and x-ray. TB contacts from a parallel study were age- and sex-matched to patients with DM to compare LTBI and TB disease prevalence. Of 682 patients with DM screened, 651 (95.5%) were eligible. Among 'TB disease-free' patients, LTBI prevalence was 38.9% (206/530; 95% CI 34.7-43.2). Patients with DM were less likely to be IGRA positive than TB contacts (38.6%, 54/140; 95% CI 30.5-46.6 vs 68.6%, 96/140; 95% CI 60.9-72.3: pTB disease. Further studies should explore possible benefits of LTBI screening and preventive therapy in patients with DM in TB-endemic settings.

  17. Stop TB in My Lifetime: A Call for a World Free of TB - World TB Day 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day, the 2013 slogan and theme.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/13/2012.

  18. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  19. TB in Correctional Facilities Is a Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features TB in Correctional Facilities is a Public Health Concern Recommend ... health concern. Figure 1 (larger view). TB Control in Correctional Facilities Diagnosing and treating TB in correctional ...

  20. Diagnosis of active TB using aptamers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khati, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ) and the 6-kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT-6), which are potent T-cell antigens that are recognised by over 70% of TB patients. We then used these aptamers to develop a TB diagnostic tool that can be used at point-of-care for early and rapid detection...

  1. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  2. Magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Arout Chelvane; S Kasiviswanathan; M V Rao; G Markandeyulu

    2004-04-01

    The magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B were studied by magnetization measurements. X-ray diffraction studies on TbFe2B showed that boron occupied interstitial position in the crystal structure, just as hydrogen did. The value of the saturation magnetization of TbFe2B was found to be smaller than that of TbFe2. This is explained on the basis of a charge transfer between the boron atoms and the 3d band of Fe. The anisotropy of TbFe2B was found to be large compared to that of TbFe2. X-ray diffractograms for the ball milled samples showed that after 80 h of milling, a predominantly amorphous phase was obtained. TbFe2B was found to undergo easy amorphization compared to TbFe2. Magnetization of TbFe2 was found to decrease rapidly with initial milling hours and was found to be constant with further hours of milling. TbFe2B exhibited an anomalous behaviour with an increase in moment with milling hours and this may be due to the segregation of -Fe.

  3. 'Z(S)-MDR-TB' versus 'Z(R)-MDR-TB': improving treatment of MDR-TB by identifying pyrazinamide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chiu Chang, Kwok; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Wai Yew, Wing; Gicquel, Brigitte; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla; Chaisson, Richard E; Zhang, Wenhong

    2012-07-01

    Indispensable for shortening treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is also essential in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. While resistance to PZA in MDR-TB is associated with poor treatment outcome, bacillary susceptibility to PZA along with the use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) may predict improved treatment success in MDR-TB. Despite a high prevalence of PZA resistance among MDR-TB patients (10%-85%), PZA susceptibility testing is seldom performed because of technical challenges. To improve treatment of MDR-TB, we propose to: (i) classify MDR-TB into PZA-susceptible MDR-TB (Z(S)-MDR-TB) and PZA-resistant MDR-TB (Z(R)-MDR-TB); (ii) use molecular tests such as DNA sequencing (pncA, gyrA, rrs, etc.) to rapidly identify Z(S)-MDR-TB versus Z(R)-MDR-TB and susceptibility profile for FQ and SLID; (iii) refrain from using PZA in Z(R)-MDR-TB; and (iv) explore the feasibility of shortening the treatment duration of Z(S)-MDR-TB with a regimen comprising PZA plus at least two bactericidal agents especially new agents like TMC207 or PA-824 or delamanid which the bacilli are susceptible to, with one or two other agents. These measures may potentially shorten therapy, save costs, and reduce side effects of MDR-TB treatment.

  4. Understanding social context on TB cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, Y.; Wati, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) nowadays still becomes one of the world’s deadliest communicable disease. More than half were in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, including Indonesia. As developing country, Indonesia remains classic problems in overcoming TB, that is discontinuation on treatment. Most of discontinuation on treatment among TB patients are affected by diagnostic delay that caused by patient delay. These phenomena occur in many areas, rural to suburb, coastal to plantation, and so on, and they are related with social context among community that could be social capital for each community to deal with TB. Jember as one of county in East Java is known as plantation area. It also has a high prevalence of TB. This study focused on understanding about social context among community, especially on plantation area. This cross-sectional study involved in three districts of Jember, those are Tanggul, Pakusari, and Kalisat. The data were obtained directly from the TB patients, local community, and Primary Health Care (PHC) where the patients recorded. Spatial analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were applied to obtain health seeking behavior pattern among the TB patients coincide the community. Most of TB patients had already chosen health professionals to lead the treatment, although some of them remained to choose self-medication. Meanwhile, SNA showed that religious leader was considered as main part of countermeasures of TB. But they didn’t ever become central figures. So it can be concluded that there are other parts among community who can contribute due to combatting on TB.

  5. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2010-10-01

    Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are posing a threat to the control of tuberculosis. The first WHO-IUATLD antituberculosis drug resistance surveillance carried out in 1994 in 35 countries reported the median prevalence of primary and acquired multi drug resistance as 1.4% and 13% respectively. Subsequently, second, third and fourth WHO-IUATLD global drug resistance surveillances were carried out in 1996-99, 1999-2002 and 2002-2007 respectively. Based on drug resistance information from 114 countries, the proportion of MDR-TB among all cases was estimated for countries with no survey information. It was estimated that 4,89,139 cases of MDR-TB emerged in 2006. China and India carry approximately 50% of the global burden. 35 countries and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) reported data on XDR-TB for the first time in 2006. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB 2010 Global report on Surveillance and response estimated that 4,40,000 cases of MDR-TB emerged globally in 2008 and caused an estimated 1,50,000 deaths. 5.4% of MDR-TB cases were found to have XDR-TB. To date, a cumulative total of 58 countries have confirmed at least one case of XDR-TB. M/XDR-TB is a man-made problem and its emergence can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective use of first line drugs in every new patient. The DOTS Plus proposed by WHO highlights the comprehensive management strategy to control MDR-TB. Laboratory services for adequate and timely diagnosis of M/XDR-TB must be strengthened and programmatic management of M/XDR-TB must be scaled up as per target set by global plan. Proper use of second-line drugs must be ensured to cure existing MDR-TB, to reduce its transmission and to prevent XDR-TB. Sound infection control measures to avoid further transmission of M/XDR-TB and research towards development of new diagnostics, drugs and vaccines should be promoted to control M/XDR-TB.

  6. Confronting TB/HIV in the era of increasing anti-TB drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakaya Jeremiah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV associated TB is a major public health problem. In 2006, it was estimated that there were over 700,000 people who suffered from HIV associated TB, of whom about 200, 000 have died. The burden of HIV associated TB is greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa where the TB epidemic is primarily driven by HIV. There has been steady progress made in reducing the burden of HIV in TB patients with an increasing number of TB patients tested for HIV and provided with cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT and anti-retroviral treatment (ART. Less progress is being made to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV. The number of HIV infected persons reported to have been screened for TB was less than 1% while Isoniazid preventive therapy was reported to have been provided to less than 0.1% of eligible persons in 2006. A major push is urgently needed to accelerate the implementation of three important interventions. The three are Intensified TB Screening (ICF among people living with HIV, the provision of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT and TB Infection Control(IC. These interventions are best carried out by HIV control programmes which should therefore be encouraged to take greater responsibility in implementing these interventions.

  7. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  8. Providing an address for delivery of nanoencapsulated TB drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system, for anti-TB drugs, was developed that could enable entry...

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in closed or crowded places such as hospitals, prisons, or homeless shelters. If you work in hospitals ... in the United States because it has limited effectiveness for preventing TB overall. What should I do ...

  10. Staying on Track with TB Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding before you start any TB medicines. Some birth control pills may not work as well when you take ... my medicine, so I don’t confuse my pills or forget to take them. She gives me the encouragement ...

  11. Prevalence of Pre-Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (Pre XDR-TB) and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) among Pulmonary Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Center in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Unnati D. Desai; Joshi, Jyotsna M

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is a high burden country for Tuberculosis (TB). As per the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics, 24000 cases of Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) TB were diagnosed in India in 2014. MDR-TB patients consist of a heterogeneous cohort and management has its challenges. Aims and objectives: We studied the prevalence of PreExtensively Drug Resistant TB (Pre XDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB) among patients of pulmonary MDR-TB not previous...

  12. TB incidence in an adolescent cohort in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahomed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. RESULTS: A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted. During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.72. Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease.

  13. Recent tuberculosis diagnosis toward the end TB strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Seon Ah; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jeonghyo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite global TB eradication efforts, it is still a global public health concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Most of the active TB infections are curable with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, but drug-resistant TB is difficult and expensive to treat in immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals. Thus, rapid, economic, and accurate point-of care tools for TB diagnosis are required urgently. This review describes the history of M. tuberculosis detection methods up to date and the recent advances using nanotechnology for point-of-care testing of TB diagnosis.

  14. The role of antiretroviral therapy in reducing TB incidence and mortality in high HIV-TB burden countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Harries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, all countries have committed to end the tuberculosis (TB epidemic by 2030, defined as dramatic reductions in TB incidence and mortality combined with zero TB-induced catastrophic costs for families. This paper explores how antiretroviral therapy (ART in high HIV-TB burden countries may help in reducing TB incidence and mortality and thus contribute to the ambitious goal of ending TB. ART in people living with HIV has a potent TB preventive effect, with this being most apparent in those with the most advanced immunodeficiency. Early ART also significantly reduces the risk of TB, and with new World Health Organization guidance released in 2015 about initiating ART in all persons living with HIV irrespective of CD4 count, there is the potential for enormous benefit at the population level. Already, several countries with high HIVTB burdens have seen dramatic declines in TB case notification rates since ART scale up started in 2004. In patients already diagnosed with HIV-associated TB, mortality can be significantly decreased by ART, especially if started within 2–8 weeks of anti-TB treatment. The benefits of ART on TB incidence and TB mortality can be further augmented respectively by the addition of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. These interventions must be effectively implemented and scaled up in order to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

  15. ‘ZS-MDR-TB' versus ‘ZR-MDR-TB': improving treatment of MDR-TB by identifying pyrazinamide susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Chiu Chang, Kwok; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Wai Yew, Wing; Gicquel , Brigitte; Fallows, Dorothy; Kaplan, Gilla; Chaisson, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenhong

    2012-01-01

    Indispensable for shortening treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is also essential in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. While resistance to PZA in MDR-TB is associated with poor treatment outcome, bacillary susceptibility to PZA along with the use of fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) may predict improved treatment success in MDR-TB. Despite a high prevalence of PZA resistance among MDR-TB patients (10%–85%), PZA susce...

  16. Prevalence of Pre-Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (Pre XDR-TB and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB among Pulmonary Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB at a Tertiary Care Center in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is a high burden country for Tuberculosis (TB. As per the World Health Organization (WHO statistics, 24000 cases of Multi Drug Resistant (MDR TB were diagnosed in India in 2014. MDR-TB patients consist of a heterogeneous cohort and management has its challenges. Aims and objectives: We studied the prevalence of PreExtensively Drug Resistant TB (Pre XDR-TB and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB among patients of pulmonary MDR-TB not previously exposed to second-line anti-tuberculous drugs and having baseline second-line Drug Susceptibility Testing (DST against Fluoroquinolones (FQ and Aminoglycosides (AM. Results: We included 227 patients. On the basis of the DST, patients were grouped into- 1 MDR-TB, 2 MDR-TB with FQ resistance {Pre XDR-TB (FQ}, 3 MDR-TB with AM resistance {Pre XDR-TB (AM} 4 XDR-TB. Of the 227 patients, 89 (39.2% had MDR-TB, 127 (55.94% had Pre XDR-TB (FQ, none had Pre XDR-TB (AM and 11 (4.86% had XDR-TB. Nine (4% patients were human immunodeficiency (HIV infected and 25(11% had Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of baseline DST to FQ and AM in patients of diagnosed or suspected MDR-TB. We encountered a higher prevalence of Pre XDR-TB (FQ which of concern in management of MDR-TB.

  17. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. L., E-mail: jianli@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X. [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Campbell, S. J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Wu, G. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-07

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a = 14.348 Å (space group F-43 m), 7.618 Å, and 7.158 Å (space group Fd-3 m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C} = 38 K and T{sub C} = 148 K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1} = 20 K and T{sub 2} = 49 K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  18. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  19. Childhood TB Surveillance: Bridging the Knowledge Gap to Inform Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of death globally. Natural history studies show that young children are at particularly high risk of progression to active TB and severe, disseminated disease following infection. Despite this, high-quality regional and global surveillance data on the burden of childhood TB are lacking. We discuss the unique aspects of TB in children that make diagnosis and therefore surveillance challenging; the limitations of available surveillance data; other data which provide insights into the true burden of childhood TB. Improved surveillance is among the key research priorities identified for childhood TB, but progress to date has been slow. Recent advances in TB diagnostics, and standardized clinical diagnostic guidelines and case definitions, all provide opportunities for new strategies to improve surveillance. Better-quality data on the burden and trends of childhood TB will inform and improve both public health policy and clinical practice.

  20. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  1. Tb3+concentration dependent optical properties and energy transfer in

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春燕

    2013-01-01

    By controlling the concentration of Tb3+, a series of GdF3 samples were synthesized by a hydrothermal method without any surfactant. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra as well as luminescent dynamic decay curves. The opti-cal properties of Tb3+, the concentration quenching phenomenon of Tb3+, and the energy transfer from host Gd3+to Tb3+were inves-tigated and discussed based on the concentration of Tb3+in the GdF3 samples. The experimental results suggested that the optical properties of Tb3+and the energy transfer from host Gd3+to Tb3+could be adjusted by the concentration of Tb3+in the samples.

  2. Frustrated quantum-spin system on a triangle coupled with e{sub g} lattice vibrations: correspondence to Longuet-Higgins et al' s Jahn-Teller model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Hisatsugu [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Natsume, Yuhei [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Terai, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakamura, Katsuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the frustrated quantum three-spin model (S{sub 1},S{sub 2},S{sub 3}) of spin = 1/2 on a triangle, in which spins are coupled with lattice-vibrational modes through the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction depending on distances between spin sites. The present model corresponds to the dynamic Jahn-Teller system E{sub g} - e{sub g} proposed by Longuet-Higgins et al (1958 Proc. R. Soc. A 244 1). This correspondence is revealed by using the transformation to Nakamura-Bishop's bases used in Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 861 (1985). Furthermore, we elucidate the relationship between a chiral order parameter {chi}-circumflex = S{sub 1}{center_dot}(S{sub 2}xS{sub 3}) in the spin system and the electronic orbital angular momentum l-circumflex{sub z} in E{sub g} - e{sub g} vibronic model: the regular oscillatory behaviour of the expectation value <{chi}-circumflex> with increasing energy can be found as in the case of for vibronic structures. The increase of the additional anharmonicity(chaoticity) is found to yield a rapidly decaying irregular oscillation of <{chi}-circumflex>. (letter to the editor)

  3. The missing leopard lizard: Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., a new species of the leopardinus clade (Reptilia: Squamata: Liolaemidae) from the Andes of the O'Higgins Region in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Garín, Carlos F; Núnez, Herman

    2014-06-17

    Liolaemus is an extremely species rich genus of iguanid lizards from southern South America. Most of the diversity though is found in the Andes Cordillera, between Argentina and Chile. Here we describe Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., from El Teniente Mine, in the Andean mountains of the O'Higgins Region in Chile. This species presents scalation and pattern traits that belong to the leopardinus clade, a group of viviparous, high altitude lizards that inhabit the mountain ranges surrounding Santiago City. The species of this clade in turn belong to the Andean and Patagonian elongatus-kriegi complex. Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov. has been previously recognized as L. leopardinus and L. elongatus, nevertheless we present diagnostic traits that allow us to describe it as a new species. It mainly differs from the rest of the leopardinus clade (L. leopardinus, L. ramonensis, L. valdesianus and L. frassinettii) by having the following unique combination of traits: ochre background coloration, a wide dark occipital stripe, dark flanks, white dots dispersed on the dorsum, absence of leopard-like spots and enlarged infralabial scales. 

  4. Comparison of PPD test in household contacts of smear-positive and -negative tuberculosis (TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Azarkar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The most important way to prevent TB is omission of the disease transmission sources (TB patients by anti-TB treatment. Extensive studies are needed to ensure that contacts of patients with pulmonary TB are identified and appropriately screened.

  5. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...

  6. Recent controversies about MDR and XDR-TB: Global implementation of the WHO shorter MDR-TB regimen and bedaquiline for all with MDR-TB?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheda, Keertan; Cox, Helen; Esmail, Aliasgar; Wasserman, Sean; Chang, Kwok Chiu; Lange, Christoph

    2017-08-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the biggest infectious disease killer worldwide. Although the estimated incidence of TB has marginally declined over several years, it is out of control in some regions including in Africa. The advent of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) threatens to further destabilize control in several regions of the world. Drug-resistant TB constitutes a significant threat because it underpins almost 25% of global TB mortality, is associated with high morbidity, is a threat to healthcare workers and is unsustainably costly to treat. The advent of highly resistant TB with emerging bacillary resistance to newer drugs has raised further concern. Encouragingly, in addition to preventative strategies, several interventions have recently been introduced to curb the drug-resistant TB epidemic, including newer molecular diagnostic tools, new (bedaquiline and delamanid) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) drugs and shorter and individualized treatment regimens. However, there are several controversies that surround the use of new drugs and regimens, including whether, how and to what extent they should be used, and who specifically should be treated so that outcomes are optimally improved without amplifying the burden of drug resistance, and other potential drawbacks, thus sustaining effectiveness of the new drugs. The equipoise surrounding these controversies is discussed and some recommendations are provided. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis and its contribution to TB burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Guadalupe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (TB treatment have not been included in assessments of TB burden. Therefore, previous global and national TB burden estimates do not reflect the full consequences of surviving TB. We assessed the burden of TB including pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas using Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Methods TB burden was calculated for all culture-confirmed TB patients treated at Tarrant County Public Health between January 2005 and December 2006 using identical methods and life tables as the Global Burden of Disease Study. Years of life-lost were calculated as the difference between life expectancy using standardized life tables and age-at-death from TB. Years lived-with-disability were calculated from age and gender-specific TB disease incidence using published disability weights. Non-fatal health impacts of TB were divided into years lived-with-disability-acute and years lived-with-disability-chronic. Years lived-with-disability-acute was defined as TB burden resulting from illness prior to completion of treatment including the burden from treatment-related side effects. Years lived-with-disability-chronic was defined as TB burden from disability resulting from pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis. Results There were 224 TB cases in the time period, of these 177 were culture confirmed. These 177 subjects lost a total of 1189 DALYs. Of these 1189 DALYs 23% were from years of life-lost, 2% were from years lived-with-disability-acute and 75% were from years lived-with-disability-chronic. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the disease burden from TB is greater than previously estimated. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was responsible for the majority of the burden. These data demonstrate that successful TB control efforts may reduce the health burden more than previously recognized.

  8. A world of cities and the end of TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Ross, Alex; Rosenberg, Paul; Dye, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's End TB Strategy aims to reduce TB deaths by 95% and incidence by 90% between 2015 and 2035. As the world rapidly urbanizes, more people could have access to better infrastructure and services to help combat poverty and infectious diseases, including TB. And yet large numbers of people now live in overcrowded slums, with poor access to urban health services, amplifying the burden of TB. An alignment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for health and for urban development provides an opportunity to accelerate the overall decline in infection and disease, and to create cities free of TB.

  9. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  10. Lay beliefs of TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frich Jan C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about lay beliefs of etiology, transmission and treatment of TB, and lay perceptions of the relationship between TB and HIV is important for understanding patients' health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. We conducted a study to explore lay beliefs about TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 15 TB/HIV co-infected patients and 9 health professionals and focus group discussions with 14 co-infected patients in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. We found that a predominant lay belief was that TB was caused by exposure to cold. Excessive sun exposure, exposure to mud, smoking, alcohol, khat and inadequate food intake were also reported as causes for TB. Such beliefs initially led to self-treatment. The majority of patients were aware of an association between TB and HIV. Some reported that TB could transform into HIV, while others said that the body could be weakened by HIV and become more susceptible to illnesses such as TB. Some patients classified TB as either HIV-related or non-HIV-related, and weight loss was a hallmark for HIV-related TB. The majority of patients believed that people in the community knew that there was an association between TB and HIV, and some feared that this would predispose them to HIV-related stigma. Conclusion There is a need for culturally sensitive information and educational efforts to address misperceptions about TB and HIV. Health professionals should provide information about causes and treatment of TB and HIV to co-infected patients.

  11. Exchange coupled composite FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N films with an TbCo interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The exchange coupled composite FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N films have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. The net magnetization of ferromagnetic TbCo changes with the temperature variation, and then the magnetic configuration of FePt/TbCo/[Co/Ni]N changes. When a RE-dominated Tb32Co68 is inserted, FePt/Tb32Co68/[Co/Ni]5 has high coercivity at room temperature because of its synthesis ferrimagnetic sandwich structure, but small coercivity is obtained when the temperature is higher than 200 °C because of its graded ECC structure.

  12. OVERVIEW OF NEW ANTI TB DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yadav et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis makes it necessary for the discovery of new drugs, and also implement other modalities of treatment. Eperezolid and linezolid are oxalidinones which are in phase II clinical trials. Other oxalidinones like AZD5847 and PNU100480 are being evaluated in a phase I trials. Regimens based on a higher dose of rifampin in humans are also being evaluated. Rifapentine (10 mg/kg was approved for the treatment of pulmonary TB in 1998. Fluroquinolones like Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Lomifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and Moxifloxacin are effective against M. tuberculosis and are in various phase of development. Newer molecules like TMC207, nitroimidazoles like PA-824 and OPC-67683 are in phase II. Diamines like SQ109 has shown to have in vitro action between SQ109 and isoniazid and especially rifampin. SQ609, a dipiperidine, which is an inhibitor of translocase, involved in cell wall synthesis, is in preclinical studies. Sudoterb (LL3858 is found to have bactericidal activity against both drug senstitive and MDR-TB. BTZ-043 (NM4TB Consortium, FAS20013, LL3858, CPZEN-45, are also in various stages of development. New potential drug molecules and drug targets are also being evaluated. New techniques like using FRIGATE, and Nanocarriers, chemical investigations on the whole plants Gentiana, methanolic root bark extract of Leucophyllum, Cinnamic derivatives are being evaluated for their role in anti TB activity. Immunomodulation with 1, 25-dihydoxyvitamin D and resection of cavitary or badly damaged lung tissue could be used as a adjuvant therapy in tuberculosis. Enumerous vaccines are in various stages of preclinical development.

  13. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): A daunting challenge to the current End TB Strategy and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-07-01

    Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses. A few new drugs including bedaquiline and delamanid, have the potential to improve the efficiency of XDR-TB treatment, but the drugs have been included in 39 countries only. The costs of XDR-TB treatment are several folds higher than that of the MDR-TB. Despite the financing from the donors, there is an urgent need to fill the current funding gap of US$ 2 billion to ensure effective treatment and robust surveillance. In the review article we have addressed current update on XDR-TB, including surveillance, diagnosis and the interventions needed to treat and limit its spread, emphasis on extensive financial support for implementing of current recommendations to meet the goals of End TB Strategy. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The study on the interaction between Tb(III) and ligand in Tb-acetylsalicylic acid complex and fluorescence mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wenru; Rong Yuzhi; Zhao Bo [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Sun Peipei, E-mail: sunpeipei@njnu.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China); Huang Xiaohua, E-mail: huangxiaohua@njnu.edu.c [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210097 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a luminescent complex of terbium-acetylsalicylic acid (Tb-ASA) was studied for the first time using combination of the quantum chemical calculation, fluorescence spectroscopic method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results from the quantum chemical calculation indicated that it is possible for the energy-transfer from ASA to Tb (III); Fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that there is an intramolecular energy-transfer from ASA to Tb with the efficiency (III) of about 87.9% under an excitation at 308 nm. The XPS indicated that the coordinate covalent bond between Tb and O existed in the complex of Tb-ASA leads to the effective energy transfer from ASA to Tb (III) because the energy transfer rate may be improved with reducing the distance between the ligand and Tb (III). The results will have important values for the studies of this type of complexes.

  15. Multi-quasiparticle Excitations in 145Tb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengYong; ZhouXiaohong; ZhangYuhu; T.Hayakawa; M.Oshima; T.Toh; T.Shizuma; J.Katakura; Y.Hatsukawa; M.Matsuda; H.Kusakari; M.Sugawara; K.Furuno; T.Komatsubara

    2003-01-01

    Study of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of 145Tb has been carried out by using 118Sn (32 S, 1p4n) 145Tb reaction. Excitation functions, X-γ-t and γ-γ-t coincidences and γ-ray anisotropies were measured. Here, t refers to the relative time difference between any two coincident γ-rays detected within ±200 ns. A level scheme of 14tTb, including 81 γ-transitions as shown in Fig.l, has been established up to 7.4 MeV in excitation energy and spinparity assignments for most of the observed levels have been done. The level structure shows characteristics of spherical nucleus. The observed states with excitation energies less than 2 MeV are interpreted by coupling an h11/2 proton to the 2+, 4+ and 3- core excitations in 144Gd. The excitation energies of these states fit wellin to the systematics of the neighboring odd-A N=80 isotones, and are well reproduced by the quasiparticle-cluster interaction calculations[1]. Semi-empirical shell model calculations[2] have been done for the higher-lying levels. The results clearly reveal the characteristic features of multiparticle configurations in a spherical nucleus. Specific configurations are proposed for the yrast and some non-yrast levels.

  16. [Present and future perspectives for the rapid molecular diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Didilescu, Cristian; Marica, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still one of the diseases with a major medical and social impact, and in terms of early diagnosis (which would imply a fair treatment and established at the time), difficulties related to the delay bacilli isolation in culture, decreased susceptibility testing methods to antituberculosis drugs, lack of methods for differentiation of M. Tuberculosis complex germs of non-TB Mycobacteria, may have important clinical implications. Traditional testing of anti-TB drug susceptibility on solid Löwenstein-Jensen medium (gold standard) or liquid media can only be performed using grown samples. Determining the time it takes up to 42 days on solid media and 12 days for liquid media. For MDR/XDR TB cases itis absolutely essential to reduce the detection time. In these cases rapid diagnostic methods prove their usefulness. Automatic testing in liquid medium, molecular hybridization methods are currently recommended by the current WHO guidelines. Rapid diagnosis of MDR-TBis extremely useful for the early establishment of an effective treatment tailored more accurately on the spectrum of sensitivity of the resistant strain (thus reducing the risk of developing additional resistance to other drugs) and control the spread of these strains. Genetic diagnostic methods, approved and recommended by the WHO, can reduce the time of diagnosis of TB case and, importantly, the case of MDR-TB. They do not replace the current standard diagnostic methods and resistance profile, but complete them in selected cases.

  17. A toolbox for tuberculosis (TB diagnosis: an Indian multicentric study (2006-2008. Evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube for TB diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe H Lagrange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicentric prospective study in India was to assess the performance of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold in tube (QFT-GIT, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST and microbiological results as additional tools for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB and latent infection (LTBI according to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status. METHODS: Individuals with and without active TB and HIV infection were enrolled between 2006-2008. QFT-GIT and TST results were analyzed per se and in combination with microbiological data. RESULTS: Among the 276 individuals (96 active pulmonary TB and 180 no active TB tested by QFT-GIT, 18 indeterminate results (6.5% were found, more significantly numerous in the HIV-infected (15/92; 16.3% than the HIV-uninfected (3/184; 1.6%(p<0.0001. QFT-GIT sensitivity for active TB was 82.3% and 92.9% respectively after including or excluding indeterminate results. Clinical sensitivity was significantly lower in the HIV-infected (68.4% than the HIV-uninfected (91.4% patients (p = 0.0059. LTBI was detected in 49.3% of subjects without active TB but varied according to TB exposure. When the TST and QFT-GIT were concomitantly performed, the respective sensitivity for active TB diagnosis was 95.0% and 85.0% in the HIV-uninfected (p = 0.60, and 66.7% and 51.5% in the HIV-infected patients (p = 0.32. QFT-GIT and TST respective specificity for active TB in the HIV-uninfected was 25.0% and 57.1% (p = 0.028, and 64.8% and 83.3% in the HIV-infected (p = 0.047. In those with active TB, QFT-GIT results were not associated with microbiological parameters (smear grade, liquid culture status, time-to-positivity of culture or clinical suspicion of active TB score (provided by the clinicians at enrollment. Combining microbiological tests with both immunological tests significantly increased sensitivity for active TB diagnosis (p = 0.0002, especially in the HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.0016. CONCLUSION: QFT

  18. Prevalence of latent TB infection and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Schmidt, Bey-Marrie; Abdullahi, Leila Hussein; Mulenga, Humphrey; Tameris, Michele; Luabeya, Angelique; Shenje, Justin; Scriba, Thomas; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Wood, Robin; Hatherill, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Almost a third of the world population has latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), ∼10 million of whom develop TB disease annually, despite existence of effective, but lengthy, preventive and curative drug regimens. Although adolescents appear to have a very high force of LTBI, their reported incidence of TB disease is less than that of their corresponding general population. The few available studies on adolescent TB infection and disease prevalence are not sufficient to address the apparent discordance between rates of infection and disease in high TB burden countries in Africa. Therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review to examine the relationship between adolescent LTBI and TB disease, benchmarked against national TB disease burden data. Methods and analysis A comprehensive literature search will be performed for cross-sectional studies and screening data in cohort studies to determine the prevalence of LTBI and TB disease among adolescents in high TB burden countries in Africa in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Africa Wide, CINAHL and the Africa Index Medicus. This will be supplemented by a search of reference lists of selected articles for potentially relevant articles. We will restrict our search to articles published in the English language between 1990 and 2016 among adolescents in order to obtain estimates reflective of the mature HIV epidemic in most high TB burden countries in Africa that occurred over this critical period. Primary end points are: prevalence of LTBI and TB disease. We will use the random-effects or fixed-effects modelling for our meta-analysis based on heterogeneity estimates. Ethics and dissemination No ethics approval is required given that this is a systematic review. Findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Trial registration number CRD42015023495. PMID

  19. Outcomes of TB treatment in HIV co-infected TB patients in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Solomon Ahmed; Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Fantu, Ribka; Awoke, Tadesse

    2016-11-04

    TB and HIV are the most prevalent communicable diseases of major public health importance in the populations of sub-Saharan African countries, and an estimated 30 % of HIV infected persons have dual infection with TB. TB is the leading cause of death in HIV infected individuals, and HIV co-infected TB patients have multiple individual, disease specific and treatment related factors that can adversely affect their treatment outcomes. There is lack of evidence on the individual patient outcomes of HIV co-infected TB patients who receive anti-TB treatment. It is relevant to understand the differential patient outcomes of HIV co-infected TB patients and identify the factors that are associated with these outcomes. A comparative analysis was done on the data from a random sample of 575 TB patients who were enrolled for TB treatment from January 2013 to December 2013 at eight health facilities in Ethiopia. A descriptive analysis was done on the data, and chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare TB treatment outcomes based on HIV status and to identify factors associated with these outcomes. Out of a total of 575 TB patients enrolled into the study, 360 (62.6 %) were non-HIV infected, 169 (29.4 %) were HIV co-infected, and 46 (8 %) had no documented HIV status. The overall treatment success rate was 91.5 % for all the study participants. HIV co-infected TB patients have a treatment success rate of 88.2 % compared with 93.6 % for non-HIV infected study participants (P = 0.03). HIV co-infected TB patients had a significantly higher rate (11.8 % versus 6.4 %, P = 0.03) of unfavourable outcomes. The cure rate was significantly lower (10.1 % versus 24.2 %, P = 0.001) and the death rate higher in HIV co-infected TB patients (8.3 % versus 2.5 %, P = 0.014). Age and TB classification were significantly associated with treatment outcome. No association was found with starting ART, Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment or enrolment in

  20. Tb(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-phase model was developed and Tb(Ⅲ) speciation in human blood plasma was studied. At a concentration below 3.744×10-4mol/L (or at the concentration), Tb(Ⅲ) is mostly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of TbPO4. As the concentration of Tb(Ⅲ) increases,phosphate is exceeded and another kind of precipitate of Tb2(CO3)3 appears. Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb(Ⅲ) mainly distribute in [Tb (Tf)] at low concentration and in [Tb (HSA)], [Tb2(Tf], [Tb (IgG)], [Tb (Lactate)]2+, [Tb (CitArgH)] and free Tb(Ⅲ) at high concentration.

  1. HIV/TB Co-infection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebele F Ugochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The burden of childhood disease is not as well documented as that of adult disease, partly because of the difficulty of confirming the diagnosis. In Africa children have been estimated to account for 20-40% of TB case load. Children infected with M. tuberculosis have a high risk of progression to disease, the younger children being at highest risk. Infected children represent a reservoir of future adult disease. The incidence of childhood TB has increased in developing countries. This resurgence is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, which is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria ranking third highest prevalence. The pattern of childhood HIV and TB infection mirror these epidemics in the adult population. The number of children co-infected with HIV and TB is rising, and so is the incidence of congenital and neonatal TB. In addition the emergence of multi-drug resistance TB and extensively drug-resistant TB has occurred within the context of a high prevalence of HIV and TB. The diagnosis of TB has always been difficult in children and is compounded by HIV co-infection. The clinical symptoms in both diseases are similar, and the radiological changes may be non-specific. Treatment of both conditions in children is a challenge due to drug interactions and problems with adherence. There are few stable syrup formulations of antituberculous and antiretroviral drugs in children, and hence division of tablets gives rise to unpredictable dosing and emergence of resistance. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV, existing childhood TB programs must be strengthened, and antiretroviral drug therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs scaled up. HIV prevalence in the adult population must also be reduced. An increased emphasis on childhood TB, with early diagnosis and treatment, must be a

  2. SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjornrattanawanich, Benjawan; Windt, David L; Seely, John F; Uspenskii, Yurii A

    2006-03-10

    Narrowband SiC/Tb and Si/Tb multilayers are fabricated with as much as a 23% normal-incidence reflectance near a 60 nm wavelength and spectral bandpass (FWHM) values of 9.4 and 6.5 nm, respectively. The structural properties of the films are investigated using extreme ultraviolet and x-ray reflectometry and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal stability is investigated in films annealed to as high as 300 degrees C. Because of their superior thermal stability, relatively high reflectance, and narrower spectral bandpass, Si/Tb multilayers are identified as optimal candidates for solar physics imaging applications, where the peak response can be tuned to important emission lines such as O v near 63.0 nm and Mg x near 61.0 nm. We describe our experimental procedures and results, discuss the implications of our findings, and outline prospects for improved performance.

  3. Incidence of TB and HIV in prospectively followed household contacts of TB index patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari van Schalkwyk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence rates of TB and HIV in household contacts of index patients diagnosed with TB. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study in the Matlosana sub-district of North West Province, South Africa. METHODS: Contacts of index TB patients received TB and HIV testing after counseling at their first household visit and were then followed up a year later, in 2010. TB or HIV diagnoses that occurred during the period were determined. RESULTS: For 2,377 household contacts, the overall observed TB incidence rate was 1.3 per 100 person years (95% CI 0.9-1.9/100py and TB incidence for individuals who were HIV-infected and HIV seronegative at baseline was 5.4/100py (95% CI 2.9-9.0/100py and 0.7/100py (95% CI 0.3-1.4/100py, respectively. The overall HIV incidence rate was 2.2/100py (95% CI 1.3-8.4/100py. CONCLUSIONS: In the year following a household case finding visit when household contacts were tested for TB and HIV, the incidence rate of both active TB and HIV infection was found to be extremely high. Clearly, implementing proven strategies to prevent HIV acquisition and preventing TB transmission and progression to disease remains a priority in settings such as South Africa.

  4. TB and MDR/XDR-TB in European Union and European Economic Area countries: managed or mismanaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G B; Sotgiu, G; D'Ambrosio, L; Centis, R; Lange, C; Bothamley, G; Cirillo, D M; De Lorenzo, S; Guenther, G; Kliiman, K; Muetterlein, R; Spinu, V; Villar, M; Zellweger, J P; Sandgren, A; Huitric, E; Manissero, D

    2012-03-01

    In spite of the growing awareness of emerging drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the extent of inappropriate tuberculosis (TB) case management may be underestimated, even in Europe. We evaluated TB case management in the European Union/European Economic Area countries, with special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB, using a purposely developed, standardised survey tool. National reference centres in five countries representing different geographical, socioeconomic and epidemiological patterns of TB in Europe were surveyed. 40 consecutive, original clinical TB case records (30 MDR/XDR-TB cases) were reviewed in each of the five countries. The findings were recorded and, through the survey tool, compared with previously agreed and identified international standards. Deviations from international standards of TB care were observed in the following areas: surveillance (no information available on patient outcomes); infection control (lack of respiratory isolation rooms/procedures and negative-pressure ventilation rooms); clinical management of TB, MDR-TB and HIV co-infection (inadequate bacteriological diagnosis, regimen selection and treatment duration); laboratory support; and diagnostic/treatment algorithms. Gaps between present international standards of care and the management of MDR/XDR-TB patients were identified. Training, increased awareness, promotion of standards and allocation of appropriate resources are necessary to ensure appropriate care and management as well as to prevent further emergence of drug resistance.

  5. An Imbalanced Learning based MDR-TB Early Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Tang, Bo; He, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    As a man-made disease, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is mainly caused by improper treatment programs and poor patient supervision, most of which could be prevented. According to the daily treatment and inspection records of tuberculosis (TB) cases, this study focuses on establishing a warning system which could early evaluate the risk of TB patients converting to MDR-TB using machine learning methods. Different imbalanced sampling strategies and classification methods were compared due to the disparity between the number of TB cases and MDR-TB cases in historical data. The final results show that the relative optimal predictions results can be obtained by adopting CART-USBagg classification model in the first 90 days of half of a standardized treatment process.

  6. Quality of life among tuberculosis (TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health care patients in three districts in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Julia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction TB and HIV co-morbidity amount to a massive burden on healthcare systems in many countries. This study investigates health related quality of life among tuberculosis (TB, TB retreatment and TB-HIV co-infected public primary health care patients in three districts in South Africa. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among 4900 TB patients who were in the first month of anti-TB treatment in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Quality of life was assessed using the social functioning (SF-12 Health Survey through face to face interviews. Associations of physical health (Physical health Component Summary = PCS and mental health (Mental health Component Summary = MCS were identified using logistic regression analyses. Results The overall physical and mental health scores were 42.5 and 40.7, respectively. Emotional role, general health and bodily pain had the lowest sub-scale scores, while energy and fatigue and mental health had the highest domain scores. Independent Kruskal–Wallis tests found significant positive effects of being TB-HIV co-infected on the domains of mental health functioning, emotional role, energy and fatigue, social function and physical role, while significant negative effects were observed on general health, bodily pain and physical function. In multivariable analysis higher educational, lower psychological distress, having fewer chronic conditions and being HIV negative were significantly positively associated with PCS, and low poverty, low psychological distress and being HIV positive were positively significantly associated with MCS. Conclusion TB and HIV weaken patients’ physical functioning and impair their quality of life. It is imperative that TB control programmes at public health clinics design strategies to improve the quality of health of TB and HIV co-infected patients.

  7. Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaguthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chest radiograph (CXR is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts, a medical officer (M.O, and four clinical officers (C.Os with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighted kappa scores summarized interrater agreement on lymphadenopathy and abnormalities consistent with TB. Sensitivity and specificity of raters were determined using microbiologically confirmed TB as the gold standard (n=8. A total of 691 radiographs were reviewed. Agreement on abnormalities consistent with TB was poor; k=0.14 (95% CI: 0.10–0.18 and on lymphadenopathy moderate k=0.26 (95% CI: 0.18–0.36. M.O [75% (95% CI: 34.9%–96.8%] and C.Os [63% (95% CI: 24.5%–91.5%] had high sensitivity for culture confirmed TB. TB vaccine trials utilizing expert agreement on CXR as a nonmicrobiologically confirmed endpoint will have reduced specificity and will underestimate vaccine efficacy. C.Os detected many of the bacteriologically confirmed cases; however, this must be interpreted cautiously as they were unblinded to clinical features.

  8. Statin Use Is Associated With a Lower Risk of TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Vincent Yi-Fong; Su, Wei-Juin; Yen, Yung-Feng; Pan, Sheng-Wei; Chuang, Pei-Hung; Feng, Jia-Yih; Chou, Kun-Ta; Yang, Kuang-Yao; Lee, Yu-Chin; Chen, Tzeng-Ji

    2017-09-01

    Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk. Further, studies have shown that statins may decrease the risks of infectious diseases and infection-related mortality; however, the association between statin use and active TB disease remains unclear. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide population-based study. Patients taking statins between 2000 and 2013, without antecedent TB disease, were included. Data from 102,424 statin users and 202,718 age-, sex-, and enrollment date-matched subjects were analyzed. The two cohorts were monitored until December 31, 2013, for incident TB disease. The definition of TB disease was validated using the claims database of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. The statin and matched cohorts were observed for 571,568 and 1,027,385 person-years, respectively. Of the total 305,142 subjects, 1,264 (0.41%) developed subsequent TB disease. Validation study confirmed the accuracy of the definition of TB disease (sensitivity, 96.3%), with excellent interobserver agreement (κ = 1.00). Multivariate analysis revealed a reduced risk of TB disease among the statin cohort (hazard ratio [HR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.47-0.61; P TB disease risk (365 cDDDs: HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.22-0.33; P TB disease. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiferromagnetism in a 20% Ho-80% Tb alloy single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente

    1968-01-01

    20% Ho-80% Tb exhibits two magnetic phases, similar to those of Tb. The spiral turn angle varies from 31.1° to 21.4°. A minimum effective spin for the occurrence of stable simple ferromagnetic structure at low temperatures is predicted.......20% Ho-80% Tb exhibits two magnetic phases, similar to those of Tb. The spiral turn angle varies from 31.1° to 21.4°. A minimum effective spin for the occurrence of stable simple ferromagnetic structure at low temperatures is predicted....

  10. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  11. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  12. Structural Peculiarities and Magnetic Properties of Nanoscale Terbium in Tb/Ti and Tb/Si Multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. V. Svalov; V. O. Vas'kovskiy; G. V. Kurlyandskaya; J. M. Barandiaran; I. Orue; N. N. Schegoleva; A. N. Sorokin

    2006-01-01

    The structure and the magnetic properties of rf-sputtered nanoscale Tb in [Tb/Ti]n and [Tb/Si]n multilayers have been studied experimentally. It is found that the structure of Tb layers changes, transforming from a fine-crystalline state of Tb into an amorphous state as the magnetic layer thickness decreases. The observed displacement of a magnetic ordering temperature to the lower temperature range and the shift of magnetic hysteresis obtained in the ZFC-FC terms may be caused by the size effect and the amorphization. Both the first and the second suppress the exchange interaction and decrease the crystalline magnetic anisotropy. The type of material of nonmagnetic spacers between the Tb layers plays a certain role in these changes.

  13. Integration of TB and ART services fails to improve TB treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7,8] These delays could negatively influence TB ... [9-11]. In recent years, the SA National Department of Health (NDoH) .... Treatment was received 7 days per ... building. Included in this definition were both partially integrated services that ...

  14. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  15. Supporting clinical management of the difficult-to-treat TB cases: the ERS-WHO TB Consilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Lia; Tadolini, Marina; Centis, Rosella; Duarte, Raquel; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Aliberti, Stefano; Dara, Masoud; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2015-03-01

    Multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) are considered a serious threat for TB control and elimination. The outcome of these patients is still largely unsatisfactory as of today, with treatment success rates being consistently below 50% at global level. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that management of MDR-TB cases is supported by a specialized team, including complementary medical professionals able to cover several perspectives (clinical, both for adults and children; surgical; radiological; public health; psychological; nursing, among others). Implementation of such a body (known as Consilium in most of the former Soviet Union countries) is often a pre-requisite to apply for international TB control funding and concessionally priced medicines to treat M/XDR-TB cases. The primary objective of the ERS/WHO TB Consilium is to provide clinical consultation for drug-resistant TB and other difficult-to-treat TB cases, including co-infection with HIV and paediatric cases. Through technical guidance to clinicians managing complex TB cases, the main contribution and outcome of the initiative will be a public health response aimed at achieving correct treatment of affected patients and preventing further development of drug resistance. The Consilum's secondary objective is to ensure monitoring and evaluation of clinical practices on the ground (diagnosis, treatment and prevention).

  16. IPT uptake among child contacts of TB patients: Experience from the Indus Hospital TB program, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Jafri

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite a large cohort of TB patients in the Indus TB program-5487 SS+ patients registered during the study period – this IPT program enrollment has been low. A high rate of patient default after the first visit indicates a lack of understanding about the benefit and safety of preventive therapy in young children among families of TB patients, and awareness enhancing efforts by community field teams will help improve outcomes. It is vital that the National TB Program strengthens and expands contact management with a community-based approach and incentives.

  17. Patients direct costs to undergo TB diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel M.Anderson de Cuevas; Lovett Lawson; Najla Al-Sonboli; Nasher Al-Aghbari; Isabel Arbide; Jeevan B.Sherchand; Emenyonu E.Nnamdi

    2016-01-01

    Background:A major impediment to the treatment of TB is a diagnostic process that requires multiple visits.Descriptions of patient costs associated with diagnosis use differentprotocols and are not comparable.Methods:We aimed to describe the direct costs incurred by adults attending TB diagnostic centres in four countries and factors associated with expenditure for diagnosis.Surveys of 2225 adults attending smear-microscopy centres in Nigeria,Nepal,Ethiopia and Yemen.Adults >18 years with cough >2 weeks were enrolled prospectively.Direct costs were quantified using structured questionnaires.Patients with costs >75th quartile were considered to have high expenditure (cases) and compared with patients with costs <75th quartile to identify factors associated with high expenditure.Results:The most significant expenses were due to clinic fees and transport.Most participants attended the centres with companions.High expenditure was associated with attending with company,residing in rural areas/other towns and illiteracy.Conclusions:The costs incurred by patients are substantial and share common patterns across countries.Removing user fees,transparent charging policies and reimbursing clinic expenses would reduce the poverty-inducing effects of direct diagnostic costs.In locations with limited resources,support could be prioritised for those most at risk of high expenditure;those who are illiterate,attend the service with company and rural residents.

  18. HIV-associated TB in An Giang Province, Vietnam, 2001-2004: epidemiology and TB treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Thanh Thuy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality is high in HIV-infected TB patients, but few studies from Southeast Asia have documented the benefits of interventions, such as co-trimoxazole (CTX, in reducing mortality during TB treatment. To help guide policy in Vietnam, we studied the epidemiology of HIV-associated TB in one province and examined factors associated with outcomes, including the impact of CTX use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected persons diagnosed with TB from 2001-2004 in An Giang, a province in southern Vietnam in which TB patients receive HIV counseling and testing. We used standard WHO definitions to classify TB treatment outcomes. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for the composite outcome of death, default, or treatment failure during TB treatment. From 2001-2004, 637 HIV-infected TB patients were diagnosed in An Giang. Of these, 501 (79% were male, 321 (50% were aged 25-34 years, and the most common self-reported HIV risk factor was sex with a commercial sex worker in 221 (35%. TB was classified as smear-positive in 531 (83%. During TB treatment, 167 (26% patients died, 9 (1% defaulted, and 6 (1% failed treatment. Of 454 patients who took CTX, 116 (26% had an unsuccessful outcome compared with 33 (70% of 47 patients who did not take CTX (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.5. Adjusting for male sex, rural residence, TB smear status and disease location, and the occurrence of adverse events during TB treatment in multivariate analysis, the benefit of CTX persisted (adjusted odds ratio for unsuccessful outcome 0.1; CI, 0.1-0.3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In An Giang, Vietnam, HIV-associated TB was associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Outcomes were significantly better in those taking CTX. This finding suggests that Vietnam should consider applying WHO recommendations to prescribe CTX to all HIV-infected TB patients.

  19. Prospect of TbDyFe Magnetostrictive Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1. Global Market: Increasing Demand for TbDyFe Mater There is steady demand for TbDyFe materials international market, especially in USA, Europe and Jap Following table shows global status of such materials si their emergence in 1984. Development course of American Etrema Company reflects the prospect of such materials. At present, besi domestic market, Etrema Company has sales subsidiarie

  20. 46 CFR 32.57-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.57-1 Section 32.57-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart shall apply to all tank vessels contracted for on or...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-71 - Tankerman-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankerman-TB/ALL. 30.10-71 Section 30.10-71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-71 Tankerman—TB/ALL. The following ratings are established in part 13 of this chapter. The terms for the...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-13 - Cofferdam-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cofferdam-TB/ALL. 30.10-13 Section 30.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-13 Cofferdam—TB/ALL. The term cofferdam means a void or empty space separating two or more compartments for the...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-17 - Commandant-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commandant-TB/ALL. 30.10-17 Section 30.10-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-17 Commandant—TB/ALL. The term Commandant means the Commandant of the Coast Guard. ...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-7 - Certificated-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificated-TB/ALL. 30.10-7 Section 30.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-7 Certificated—TB/ALL. The term certificated when applied to tank vessels refers to a vessel covered by a...

  5. 46 CFR 30.10-49 - Permit-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit-TB/ALL. 30.10-49 Section 30.10-49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-49 Permit—TB/ALL. The term permit refers to endorsement on the certificate of inspection, authorizing the presence...

  6. 46 CFR 30.10-5 - Cargo-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo-TB/ALL. 30.10-5 Section 30.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5 Cargo—TB/ALL. The term cargo means combustible liquid, flammable liquid, or liquefied flammable gas unless...

  7. 46 CFR 32.57-5 - Definitions-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-TB/ALL. 32.57-5 Section 32.57-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Definitions—TB/ALL. (a) Standard fire test. A “standard fire test” is one which develops in the test furnace a...

  8. 46 CFR 32.02-10 - Rails-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rails-TB/ALL. 32.02-10 Section 32.02-10 Shipping COAST... Safety Requirements § 32.02-10 Rails—TB/ALL. (a) All tank vessels, except unmanned tank barges... be in at least two courses, including the top, approximately evenly spaced. All rails shall consist...

  9. 46 CFR 32.57-10 - Construction-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction-TB/ALL. 32.57-10 Section 32.57-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL... Construction—TB/ALL. (a) The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 30.10-3 - Approved-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved-TB/ALL. 30.10-3 Section 30.10-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-3 Approved—TB/ALL. The term approved means approved by the Commandant unless otherwise stated. ...

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-27 - Flashpoint-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flashpoint-TB/ALL. 30.10-27 Section 30.10-27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-27 Flashpoint—TB/ALL. The term flashpoint indicates the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-38 - Lightweight-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lightweight-TB/ALL. 30.10-38 Section 30.10-38 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-38 Lightweight—TB/ALL. The term lightweight means the displacement of a vessel in metric tons without cargo, oil...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-35 - Headquarters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Headquarters-TB/ALL. 30.10-35 Section 30.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-35 Headquarters—TB/ALL. The term Headquarters means the Office of the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean...

  15. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels. ...

  16. Antiferromagnetism in a 20% Ho-80% Tb alloy single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente

    1968-01-01

    20% Ho-80% Tb exhibits two magnetic phases, similar to those of Tb. The spiral turn angle varies from 31.1° to 21.4°. A minimum effective spin for the occurrence of stable simple ferromagnetic structure at low temperatures is predicted....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-61 - Rivers-TB/R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rivers-TB/R. 30.10-61 Section 30.10-61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-61 Rivers—TB/R. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels whose navigation is restricted to...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-11 - Coastwise-TB/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastwise-TB/C. 30.10-11 Section 30.10-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-11 Coastwise—TB/C. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any...

  19. Percutaneous breast implant herniation: a rare complication of miliary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Adam P; Dedicoat, Martin J; Saleem, Tausif; Moran, Ed

    2015-01-07

    We describe the case of a 46-year-old female patient treated for disseminated tuberculosis (TB) infection involving the lungs, urinary tract and skin. Following initiation of antituberculous therapy, the patient's right breast implant eroded through the overlying skin and was seen to be herniating through the resulting defect. The breast implant was removed under local anaesthetic and histological analysis of the resected tissue demonstrated granuloma formation consistent with periprosthetic TB. Wound healing following implant removal was poor and future breast augmentation surgery was only considered following completion of 12 months anti-TB treatment. This case constitutes the first report in the literature of percutaneous breast implant herniation resulting from periprosthetic infection with TB. A high index of suspicion is required to ensure early detection and timely management of TB and, in cases where periprosthetic pus aspirate is sterile, mycobacterial infection must be actively excluded. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in TbN compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Alho, B.P.; Ribeiro, P.O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    One of the biggest challenges in materials science is to understand the microscopic mechanisms responsible in storage and release material entropy. TbN compound, which presents non-degeneracy in ground state, was studied and the calculated magnetocaloric effect is in good agreement with the recent experimental data. Also inverse magnetocaloric effect and spin reorientation transition were predicted in TbN. The theoretical investigations were carried out using a Hamiltonian, which includes the crystalline electrical field, Zeeman and exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Theoretical description of the magnetocaloric effect in TbN. • Influence of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy on TbN. • Predictions of inverse and anomalous magnetocaloric effect in TbN.

  1. Cross section measurement of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, N.; Kadenko, I.; Gressier, V.; Koning, A. J.

    2015-04-01

    The cross section of the 159Tb(n, γ)Tb160 reaction was measured in four mono-energetic neutron fields of energy 3.7, 4.3, 5.4, and 6.85 MeV, respectively, with the activation technique applied to metal discs of natural composition. To ensure an acceptable precision of the results all major sources of uncertainties were taken into account. Calculations of detector efficiency, incident neutron spectrum and correction factors were performed with the Monte Carlo code (MCNPX), whereas theoretical excitation functions were calculated with the TALYS-1.2 code and compared to the experimental cross section values. This paper presents both measurements and calculation leading to the cross section values.

  2. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  3. Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-based agents active against tuberculosis (TB), multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Marco; Tipparaju, Suresh K; Lun, Shichun; Song, Yang; Sturm, A Willem; Bishai, William R; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2011-02-07

    The struggle against tuberculosis (TB) is still far from over. TB, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest infections worldwide. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains have further increased the burden for this disease. Herein, we report the discovery of 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-methyl-1-oxo-1H,5H-pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole-4-carbonitrile as an effective antitubercular agent and the structural modifications of this molecule that have led to analogues with improved potency and lower toxicity. A number of these derivatives were also active at sub-micromolar concentrations against resistant TB strains and devoid of apparent toxicity to Vero cells, thereby underscoring their value as novel scaffolds for the development of new anti-TB drugs. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. AtriplaR/anti-TB combination in TB/HIV patients. Drug in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua Hadija H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and several antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. Method Pubmed and Google search following the key words tuberculosis, HIV, emtricitabine, tenofovir efavirenz, interaction were used to find relevant information on each drug of the fixed dose combination AtriplaR Results Information on generic name, trade name, pharmacokinetic parameter, metabolism and the pharmacokinetic interaction with Anti-TB drugs of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and efavirenz was obtained. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (ATRIPLAR which has been approved by Food and Drug Administration shows promising results as far as safety and efficacy is concerned in TB/HIV co-infection patients, hence can be considered effective and safe antiretroviral drug in TB/HIV management for adult and children above 3 years of age.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase and Tb3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Tb3+ in the simulated physiological solution was investigated with some electrochemical and spectroscopic methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchronous fluorescence (SF). It was found that Tb3+ can coordinate with oxygen atoms in carbonyl groups in the peptide chain of HRP, form the complex of Tb3+ and HRP (Tb-HRP), and then lead to the conformation change of HRP. The increase in the random coil content of HRP can disturb the microstructure of the heme active center of HRP, in which the planarity of the porphyrin cycle in the heme group is increased and then the exposure extent of the electrochemical active center is decreased. Thus Tb3+ can inhibit the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2 at the Au/Cys/GC electrode. The changes in the microstructure of HRP obstructed the electron transfer of Fe(III) in the porphyrin cycle of the heme group, thus HRP catalytic activity is inhibited. The inhibition effect of Tb3+ on HRP catalytic activity is increased with the increasing of Tb3+ concentration. This study would provide some references for better understanding the rare earth elements and heavy metals on peroxidase toxicity in living organisms.

  6. Immigrants and health system challenges to TB control in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fochsen Grethe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades, Oman has made significant progress in controlling TB within it's borders. However, the national TB control program elimination target has yet to be reached. This study aims to explore the perceived roles played by the immigrant population and the private health sector in relation to TB control in Oman. Methods We conducted seventeen interviews with different health care providers. The verbatim transcripts were processed using content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged. Firstly the threat of repatriation faced by underprivileged expatriates, secondly the criticized and forgotten private health sector as a key player and thirdly the user and provider barriers faced by Omani patients in the Omani public health system. Conclusions The study has identified some of the challenges and barriers to TB control in Oman. These challenges are mainly related to unintended negative consequences arising from the current repatriation policy of immigrants and to and the lack of involvement of the private sector in TB control. TB control strategies designed to address these challenges are needed, for Oman to reach its TB elimination targets.

  7. AIDS gets the headlines, but TB kills more. International (Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) kills 2-3 million people each year. However, the World Health Organization estimates that only up to 6 million people have died of AIDS since the start of the epidemic in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Tuberculosis therefore kills many more people than AIDS, but AIDS gets more media attention and funding for research and prevention. One key reason why AIDS garners so much attention and funding is that it remains incurable, while TB can be cured. An aggressive anti-TB campaign is nonetheless needed in the Asia-Pacific region. One-third of the world's population is infected with the TB bacilli, with most TB cases reported in recent years being in China, India, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. It is also in these countries where careless or intermittent treatment of TB has allowed the disease to thrive and spread, giving rise to drug-resistant bacilli. TB kills an increasing number of HIV-positive people. The World Health Organization's Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) could save 10 million lives over the next decade.

  8. Immune TB Antibody Phage Display Library as a Tool To Study B Cell Immunity in TB Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidon, Nurul Hamizah; Suraiya, Siti; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2017-09-07

    B cells and in particular antibodies has always played second fiddle to cellular immunity in regard to tuberculosis (TB). However, recent studies has helped position humoral immunity especially antibodies back into the foray in relation to TB immunity. Therefore, the ability to correlate the natural antibody responses of infected individuals toward TB antigens would help strengthen this concept. Phage display is an intriguing approach that can be utilized to study antibody-mediated responses against a particular infection via harvesting the B cell repertoire from infected individuals. The development of disease-specific antibody libraries or immune libraries is useful to better understand antibody-mediated immune responses against specific disease antigens. This study describes the generation of an immune single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library derived from TB-infected individuals. The immune library with an estimated diversity of 10(9) independent clones was then applied for the identification of monoclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-crystalline as a model antigen. Biopanning of the library isolated three monoclonal antibodies with unique gene usage. This strengthens the role of antibodies in TB immunity in addition to the role played by cellular immunity. The developed library can be applied against other TB antigens and aid antibody-derived TB immunity studies in the future.

  9. Delay in commencing treatment for MDR TB at a specialised TB treatment centre in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimooloo, R; Ross, A

    2012-05-08

    Background. According to the National Department of Health (NDoH) guidelines, patients diagnosed with MDR TB must be referred to a specialised treatment centre for initiation of effective therapy. MDR TB is difficult to diagnose and the centralised referral model is beset with challenges that contribute to treatment delays, increased patient morbidity and mortality, and MDR TB nosocomial transmission. Culture and DST takes 8 weeks or longer to obtain results while line probe assays (LPAs) can give a result in hours. LPAs and the GeneXpert MTB/Rif (GX) are ground-breaking discoveries for TB diagnosis. However, they are not easily accessible or available to those needing it, so culture and sensitivity testing remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Aim. This study aimed to assess the delay in the initiation of MDR TB treatment and profiled the patients being referred to a specialised drug-resistant treatment centre in KwaZulu-Natal. Results. Of all the patients, 75% referred showed a mean delay of 12.4 weeks from the date of sputum collection for culture and drug sensitivity testing to the start of treatment. Most of the patients were symptomatic for TB and HIV-positive. Discussion. Our findings suggest that current policy on the initiation of effective treatment needs urgent revision. Staff should be appropriately trained in LPA and GX technology to reduce delays in initiating treatment for MDR TB. The NDoH's plans for rapid diagnosis and reducing the treatment burden on centralised MDR TB management facilities are in the early phases of implementation and will take years to achieve favourable and significant outcomes. Conclusion. There is a significant delay in initiating definitive management for MDR TB.

  10. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of screening immigrants schemes for tuberculosis (TB) on arrival from high TB endemic countries to low TB prevalent countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, A F N S; Al-Shareef, A M

    2014-09-01

    Immigrants to developed countries are a major source of TB. Therefore amongst strategies adopted for TB control in developed countries include; 1) Screening immigrants at ports of entry referred to as "Port of Arrival Screening" (PoA) and 2) Passive screening (PS) for TB which means screening immigrants through general practices, hospitals, chest-clinics and emergency departments. Evidence of the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these strategies is not consistent. Evaluate efficiency of active PoA TB screening for immigrants from TB endemic-regions compared with Passive Screening of immigrant-populations from TB endemic-regions. Major electronic-databases and reference lists of relevant studies were searched. Experts of immigrants' TB screening were contacted for additional studies published or unpublished. Systematic search of major databases identified only retrospective cohort-studies. Their qualities were assessed using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodological checklist for comparative cohort-studies. Systematic electronic searches identified 1443 citations. Of these 74 studies were retrieved for evaluation against the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria (see study inclusion/exclusion criteria). Four studies met the inclusion criteria (figure 2) which were low in the evidence hierarchy of primary effectiveness studies and had heterogeneities between them. Thus descriptive data-synthesis was performed. Proportionately PoA screening had the lowest percentage of receipt of tuberculin skin test (TST) and the highest percentage of non-attendance for TST reading (table 2). Active PoA screening reduced infectiousness by 34% compared to 30% by passive screening and new entrants screened at PoA were 80% less likely to be hospitalised Odds ratio (OR) = 0.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 - 0.2). [Table: see text]. One cost effectiveness analysis was found that compared the costs of; active PoA screening, general practice screening and

  11. Magnetic Behaviour of Tb/Si Nanoscale Multilayers with Small Thickness of Rare Earth Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.V.Svalov; V.O.Vas'kovskiy; G.V.Kurlyandskaya; J.M.Barandiaran; N.N.Schegoleva; A.N.Sorokin

    2007-01-01

    We report the magnetic properties of Tb/Si multilayers obtained by rf-sputtering at the Tb layer thickness LTb = 3 nm. Analysis of the magnetization processes indicates more complex behaviour than canonical spin-glass transition. It is more probable that these multilayers contain both Tb superparamagnetic particles and Tb-Si spin-glass alloys.

  12. INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.

  13. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  14. Comparison of Pulmonary TB DOTS clinic medication before and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Pulmonary TB DOTS clinic medication before and after the introduction of ... Methods: The study employed a mixed study design; a quantitative cross ... The qualitative arm explored the perceptions of daily medication defaulters.

  15. Personalized medicine for patients with MDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Ioana D; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The emergence of MDR-TB is a cause of great concern due to difficulties in patient management and poor treatment outcomes. Currently the duration of treatment and the choice of drugs for patients with MDR-TB are standardized in many countries. This might not be the best approach since the optimal therapy may depend on different pathogen- and host-related features. Combining the introduction of technological innovations such as whole bacillary genome sequencing for the identification of drug-resistance-associated mutations, therapeutic drug monitoring and host-directed therapies with an individualized approach to MDR-TB management will likely lead to more tolerable, shorter and more efficient treatment regimens and an increase in the quality of life of those affected by MDR-TB.

  16. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of Pl......GF and summarize data on expression of PlGF in cancer patients. Data from early-phase clinical trials of TB-403 (RO5323441), a monoclonal antibody inhibiting PlGF, are discussed. Future development strategies, therapeutic potentials and limitations of TB-403 are further evaluated. EXPERT OPINION: There are some...... conflicting data on the function of PlGF and the importance of its role in primary tumor growth. Data from some preclinical models of PlGF inhibition and early-phase clinical trials with TB-403 are, however, promising, although the true potential of the drug is yet to be determined. Further clinical...

  17. TB diagnostics in India: creating an ecosystem for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Kenneth, John; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-01-01

    The 'TB diagnostics in India: from importation and imitation to innovation' conference was held in Bangalore, India, on 25-26 August 2011, and was organized by the St. John's Research Institute, Bangalore, with the support of several partners. This unique conference brought together, for the first time, over 220 representatives from industry, government, donors, academia, civil society and the media to discuss what it takes to innovate in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics in India. The goal was to engage these stakeholders to stimulate interest and investments in TB innovations. The conference was successful in engaging stakeholders and understanding the challenge of TB innovations from diverse perspectives. Coordination between stakeholders and innovations in delivery systems, partnerships, funding, regulatory and communication mechanisms are among the key challenges ahead.

  18. Dilemma in TB diagnostic testing; phenotypic or genotypic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman H Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability is another issue. Presently, funding agencies are supporting the high cost of the genotypic tests, but what if these funds dry out? This overall situation has created a dilemma of what should be the right option in choosing a TB diagnostic test. Efforts are being made to improve the sensitivity and specificity of molecular tests. Until then, it appears that phenotypic tests, especially using liquid medium, still remain as the only one offering a comprehensive solution in TB diagnosis and DST. There is still a need for a diagnostic test which is simple, rapid and affordable for the low-income, high-TB prevalence countries, and as comprehensive, sensitive and specific as the liquid culture for TB diagnosis and DST.

  19. TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed.

  20. HUBUNGAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN RUMAH DENGAN PENULARAN TB PARU KONTAK SERUMAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Musadad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Factor Relation of House With Infection of TB Paru through Housing Contact.Tuberculosis of the Lung (Lung TB still become health problem for world, including Indonesia in the third sequence after India And China. If cannot overcome each and everyone with Active Lung TB with mean infection 10-15 people/year. This research aim to know environmental factor relation of house with infection of Lung TB through contact house. The research population consist of entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB with the result of positive bacteria inspection by public health center in 2002, while as sample is entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB and have under 5 years baby. Inclusion criteria is patient of Lung TB paru noted by public health center and reside in region of Tangerang District in 2002. The collection of data was conducted with interview using questionnaire, enviromental perception, and tuberculine test. Uji Tuberculin test done by Mantoux (inoculation intracutane for 5 years baby use PPD RT 23 strength 2 TU with tuberkulin 1 cc needle with number 26. Criteria of Lung TB infection if diameter transversal from period that happened as a result of tuberculine test >10 mm and have clinical history of such as coughing more than 3 weeks, pain and recuring or old fever without clear cause, body weight descend or not go up in 1 month; moon without clear cause, or have specific clinical symptom. Result showed that from 254 households there are 33 (13.0% occurence of infection Lung TB. Environmental factor of house which deal with infection TB as an entry of the indoor direct sunlight with value OR=3,50; CI 95% 1,19-10,34 (p=0,015. The conclusion stated that direct sunlight play important role for infection of Lung TB in the same house.Keywords: Tuberculosis, infection through housing ccontact, tuberculine test, sunlight

  1. Magnetic Interactions in Tb and Tb-10% Ho from Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    . The magnon energies scale approximately with the magnetization. In the spiral phase the magnon energy rises linearly from zero at low q. The Fourier‐transformed exchange parameter J(q) has pronounced peaks in the c direction, which are ascribed to transitions between states close to the Fermi surface......The magnon dispersion relations and lifetimes have been measured in Tb and a Tb‐10% Ho alloy by inelastic neutron scattering, in regions of both ferromagnetic and spiral ordering. In the ferromagnetic phase, the magnon energy is generally finite at zero wavevector and rises quadratically at low q...

  2. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, A M; Shewade, H D; Kyaw, N T T; Oo, M M; Aung, T K; Aung, S T; Oo, H N; Win, T; Harries, A D

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Programme intégré de prise en charge du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), Mandalay, Myanmar.Objectifs : Chez les patients atteints de tuberculose (TB) et VIH enrôlés entre 2011 et 2014, déterminer la date du début du traitement antirétroviral (TAR) en relation avec le traitement antituberculeux (ATT) et son association avec le résultat d'ATT.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte.Résultats : Sur 1708 patients TB-VIH, 1565 (92%) ont débuté l'ATT en premier et 143 (8%) ont commencé le TAR en premier. Le résultat du traitement a été manquant pour 226 patients qui n'ont pas été inclus. Chez les patients ayant débuté l'ATT en premier, le délai médian de mise en route du TAR a été de 8,6 semaines. L'initiation du TAR a été retardée d'un délai médian de 8 semaines chez 830 (53%) patients. Parmi ces patients, 7% ont eu un résultat médiocre, avec une anémie qui a constitué un facteur de risque indépendant. Chez les patients ayant débuté le TAR en premier, le délai médian de mise en route de l'ATT a été de 21,6 semaines. L'ATT a été initié au cours des 3 mois chez 56 (39%) patients. Le traitement a échoué chez 12% des patients et chez 20% de ceux qui ont débuté l'ATT dans les 3 mois. Les patients ayant des CD4 VIH et un suivi étroit de l'anémie et de l'immunosuppression sont recommandés afin d'améliorer encore le résultat du traitement de TB parmi les patients TB-VIH.

  3. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, a biomarker of response to anti-TB treatment in HIV/TB co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhin, Janin; Pean, Polidy; Madec, Yoann; Chevalier, Mathieu F; Didier, Celine; Borand, Laurence; Blanc, François-Xavier; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Laureillard, Didier; Weiss, Laurence

    2017-05-01

    Despite the high frequency of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/TB co-infected patients, no diagnostic test is available. Here, we investigated whether monocyte/macrophage activation markers can predict TB-IRIS occurrence and if they are modulated by anti-TB treatment. Frozen plasma was obtained from 127 HIV/TB co-infected adults naïve for antiretroviral therapy, enrolled in the CAMELIA trial, 36 of whom developed TB-IRIS. Concentrations of IL-1Ra, sCD14, and sCD163 were measured at anti-TB treatment onset (baseline), after 8 weeks of anti-TB treatment and at TB-IRIS time. At baseline, IL-1Ra and sCD14 concentrations were similar in TB-IRIS and non-IRIS patients. sCD163 concentrations, although significantly higher in TB-IRIS patients, did not remain associated with TB-IRIS occurrence in multivariate analysis. At the time of TB-IRIS, patients displayed higher concentrations of IL-1Ra (p = 0.002) and sCD14 (p TB treatment (median reduction: -63% (p TB-IRIS occurrence. However, repeated measurement of IL-1Ra could help for the diagnosis of TB-IRIS. The substantial reduction of IL-1Ra under treatment suggests that IL-1Ra could be a surrogate biomarker of anti-TB treatment response in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwanzia Nguta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time medicinal plant species used by Ghanaian communities to treat TB. These results are a basis for selection of plants for further pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical studies in developing new plant-based antimycobacterial drugs.

  5. Bedaquiline: a new weapon against MDR and XDR-TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a global public health problem. It requires treatment with combination therapy consisting of four to six drugs including combinations of bactericidal and bacteriostatic drugs, usually for a period of 2 years. There is alarming rise in MDR and XDR-TB all over the world and better treatment options are needed to control the global MDR-TB and XDR-TB epidemic. Drugs which can shorten the treatment duration and which are free from serious adverse effects are urgently needed. Bedaquiline (TMC-207 is a newly FDA approved anti-TB drug, having unique mechanism of action i.e. causes inhibition of the proton pump activity of the ATP synthase in M. tuberculosis and targets the energy metabolism. It is found to active within macrophages, and is a promising agent in shortening the duration of anti- TB treatment. It is metabolized by CYP3A4, so interactions with inducers and inhibitors of this enzyme are expected. It has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies and it seems to be a good option for MDR and XDR-TB. Adverse effects reported in various studies were of mild nature except nausea which was the most commonly associated. Few cases of prolongation of QT intervals were reported, so it demands careful monitoring and use of bedaquiline as a reserve drug for patients in whom conventional regimens are not effective. Currently it is approved as part of combination therapy in adults of ≥18 year with pulmonary MDR-TB. Long term studies are needed to explore its full safety profile. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 96-102

  6. 46 CFR 32.40-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application-TB/ALL. 32.40-1 Section 32.40-1 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-1 Application—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this subpart, except § 32.40-60 and § 32.40-65, apply to all tankships of 100 gross tons and over constructed...

  7. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST... § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank vessel is permitted to operate, such as: all waters; oceans; coastwise; Great Lakes; bays, sounds, and lakes...

  8. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  9. PENGARUH PENYULUHAN TERHADAP PENGETAHUAN PENDERITA TB PARU DI KABUPATEN TANGERANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains to be a national problem, because it is the third most deadly disease after cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in any age, and it is the most deadly in terms of infectionillness. Curing TB using directly observed treatment short course (DOTS strategy is still a problem becausethe lack of human resources in controlling the drugs intake from health case facilities. The objective of the study is to find out theunprovement of knowledge of TBaccustwes after being given information about TB.The study coverage is five community health centers in Tangerang using quasi experimental design with 84samples. The interviews are held passively with the following criteria :  BTA  positive with category.Intervention is done to the accusatives by giving information about curing TB intensively and giving guidance book to them. Before doing intervention, we firstly conduct an interview to know about theaccusatives socio economic conditions and their knowledge about curing TB. The result of the study . reveals that the knowledge of the accusatives before being given information and after receivinginformation is very different with RR value=  3.05, meaning that TB accusatives knowledge who havereceived the information is better than those who do not received the information.

  10. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E., E-mail: stephen.russek@nist.gov; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Geiss, Roy H. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  11. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Geiss, Roy H.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  12. Strain control of magnetization in TbFe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusad, Ritika; Johannes, M. D.; Fennie, Craig J.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetostrictive materials change their shape upon application of strain and can be used as actuators and sensors. In this work, we perform a computational analysis of a highly magnetostrictive compound, TbFe2, to understand how the lattice and magnetization couple. We use Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate the magnitude and direction of the metallic moment as a function of pressure. The localized nature of Tb f-electrons classify this compound as ``strongly-correlated'' and necessitate the simultaneous use of spin-orbit coupling to treat magnetostriction and the DFT +U methodology to capture the physics of the f-electrons. Although, the energy scales involved in spin-lattice interactions are extremely small, we were able to correctly reproduce the correct magnetic ground state and the experimentally observed ferrimagnetic coupling between Tb and Fe atoms in TbFe2. The easy axis in TbFe2 points along one of its body diagonals, which makes the shape of the crystal rhombohedral. Switching of magnetization between the easy axes requires the magnetization to pass through one of the [100] directions. In our study we show that by applying isotropic strain on TbFe2 crystal, we can decrease the energy barrier between [111] and [100] magnetization directions of the crystal.

  13. How to manage TB in children? Problems and solutions in four cases

    OpenAIRE

    Buonsenso Danilo; Serranti Daniele; Focarelli Benedetta; Chiaretti Antonio; Calzedda Roberta; Valentini Piero

    2015-01-01

    Children bear a substantial part of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic worldwide, and it is estimated that there were ≅ 500.000 childhood TB cases globally in 2010, although accurate data are problematic to obtain given the many difficulties associated with TB diagnosis in children and the weaknesses of surveillance systems in countries where TB is endemic. The World Health Organization is working hard in order to reduce the TB prevalence rates and deaths by half by 2015. ...

  14. Factors that associated with TB patient admission rate and TB inpatient service cost: a cross-sectional study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Hu; Jiaying Chen; Kaori D.Sato; Yang Zhou; Hui Jiang; Pingbo Wu; Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:China has recently adopted the "TB designated hospital model" to improve the quality of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and patient management.Considering that inpatient service often results in high patient financial burden,and therefore influences patient adherence to treatment,it is critical to better understand the TB patient admission rate and TB inpatient service cost,as well as their influential factors in this new model.Methods:Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in two cities,Hanzhong in Shaanxi Province and Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province,in China.Quantitative data were obtained from a sample survey of 533 TB patients and TB inpatient records from 2010-2012 in six county designated hospitals.Qualitative information was obtained through interviews with key stakeholders (40 key informant interviews,14 focus group discussions) and reviews of health policy documents in study areas.Both univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied for the quantitative analysis,and the thematic framework approach was applied for the qualitative analysis.Results:The TB patient admission rates in Zhenjiang and Hanzhong were 54.8 and 55.9 %,respectively.Qualitative analyses revealed that financial incentives,misunderstanding of infectious disease control and failure of health insurance regulations were the key factors associated with the admission rates and medical costs.Quantitative analyses found differences in hospitalization rate existed among patients with different health insurance and patients from different counties.Average medical costs for TB inpatients in Jurong and Zhenba were 7,215 CNY and 4,644 CNY,which was higher than the 5,500 CNY and 3,800 CNY limits set by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System.No differences in medical cost or length of stay were found between patients with and without comorbidities in county-level hospitals.Conclusions:TB patient admission rates and inpatient service costs were relatively high

  15. TB screening among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Anand; Modi, Surbhi

    2015-04-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), making improved prevention and treatment of HIV-associated TB critical to ensuring long-term survival of PLHIV. TB screening among PLHIV is central to implementation of the World Health Organization's 3 I's interventions for reducing the impact of the TB and HIV syndemics. Effective TB screening will result in the identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB disease (ie, those with a positive symptom screen who require appropriate evaluation, including the use of diagnostic tools such as the Xpert MTB/RIF assay) and those eligible for isoniazid preventive therapy (ie, those who have a negative clinical symptom screen or who have a positive screen but are found not to have TB disease). Identification of PLHIV with presumptive TB also facilitates implementation of basic administrative measures for TB infection control, including fast tracking of coughing patients and separation from noncoughing PLHIV to reduce TB transmission. By contributing to the early diagnosis of TB disease among PLHIV, TB screening is also critical to facilitate early initiation of antiretroviral treatment among PLHIV diagnosed with TB disease who might not otherwise be eligible for antiretroviral treatment based on CD4 count or clinical staging. TB screening thus serves as a gateway for multiple TB/HIV interventions and is an integral part of routine clinical services for PLHIV at each clinic visit.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF MDR - TB/TB ON SOCIAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ECONOMIC WELL BEING OF PATIENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with social stigma attached to it. Various problems which are social and economic in nature are faced by TB patient. Therefore , it is essential to explore the overall effect of MDR - TB/TB on health and patients perception of Well - being. AIMS : To Document the effect of MDR - TB/TB on social , functional and economic well - being of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A Cross - sectional study , Conveniently Recruited 68 MDR - TB Patients and 136 non - MDR - TB Patients (from Rural as well as urban Area of Surat District diagnosed by CBNAAT were interviewed for investigating the effect of Tuberculosis. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A pre - tested standardized semi - structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected about socio - demographic profile of patients and interpreted in table. Data about effect of MDR - TB/TB was collected on Likert Scale and Frequency was calculated and Data wa s plotted on multiple bar charts. RESULTS : As compared to healthy status in the past , 93% MDR - TB and 82% TB patients have decreased ability to do work , about half of MDR - TB Patients and TB Patients have detiorated relations with family members , 67% of stud y participants have developed disharmonious relations with neighbor’s , 55% of Study participants have decreased income , 88% of study participants have decreased performance in day to day activities and 78% of study participants have faced discordial and di srespectful behavior from co - workers. CONCLUSION : Working ability more detiorated in MDR - TB patients while rest of the effect on social , functional and economic well - being is same in both TB and Multi Drug Resistant TB patients. This study emphasizes very clearly that social stigma still persist in community about Tuberculosis which needs to be eliminated in community by behavior change communication by health workers at all levels of health care.

  17. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  18. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Sanjay G; Little, Kristen M; Tshabangu, Nkeko; Moore, David P; Msandiwa, Reginah; van der Watt, Martin; Chaisson, Richard E; Martinson, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB), is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa. Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years) with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts. Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3%) self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9%) of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1%) caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0%) caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341), the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART. In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  19. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  20. FAKTOR DETERMINAN BUDAYA KESEHATAN DALAM PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: TB DO TS Strategy policy as the government's efforts in order to decrease TB patients is facilitated through the state budget cost resources, budget, global foreign aid fund, and the WHO. This qualitative study aimed to determinan poeing on cultural efforts in the prevention of pulmonary TB disease. Method of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews in patients with pulmonary TB and families, health care workers in the provinces, and districts. FGD on public figures, cross-sector and NGOs. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The results showed cultural determinants of health factors on the prevalence of pulmonary TB disease is a public perception of ilness Roe Ndao district, that of pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, infectious disease and "Hosse". Norma betel nut as a treat for guests, custom home Sel, Sei traditional beliefs of newborns who smoked for 40 days with ground floor houses almost 50% of the population. Norms, stigma society in urban areas Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because Tamakan, due to use-for others who are not happy, as evidenced by the habits, behavior of people carelessly throw spit spot. In western Sumatra, the city of Pariaman norms, fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of pain as a disease of old Cough, cough 40 days, dry cough, and asthma. Confidence/belief communities in the western province of NTB Lombok district who think if drinking water used Kiai progenitor Ishmael receive healing. Supervisory personnel selection as taking medication/PMO less in accordance with existing social structures in local communities, tribes sasak NTB, Rote tribe. Recommendalion: is required from a variety of participatory other NGOs, in an integrated cross-sector to perform the preventive, promotive control TB disease of the housing ministry, social

  1. Inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-10-01

    The inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in vitro was discussed. The results from MALDI-TOF/MS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Tb(III) mainly interacts with the O-containing groups of the amides in the polypeptide chains of the HRP molecules and forms the complex of Tb(III)-HRP, and, in the complex, the molar ratio Tb(III)/HRP is 2 : 1. The results from CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the coordination effect between Tb(III) and HRP can lead to the conformation change in the HRP molecule, in which the contents of alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformation in the peptide of the HRP molecules is decreased, and the content of the random coil conformation is increased. Meanwhile, the coordination effect also leads to the decrease in the content of inter- and intrapeptide-chain H-bonds in the HRP molecules, resulting in the HRP molecular looseness and/or aggregation. Thus, the conformation change in the HRP molecules can significantly decrease the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2.

  2. EXAFS study of Tb-doped silica xerogels

    CERN Document Server

    Rocca, F; Kuzmin, A; Dalmaso, A; Pasqualini, D

    1999-01-01

    The modification of the local environment of Tb/sup 3+/ ions in optically active silica xerogels as a function of concentration (from 400 ppm to 40000 ppm) and thermal treatment (which induces densification) was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Tb L/sub 3/ edge. Quantitative analysis of the first Tb-O coordination shell was performed using the experimental signal from Tb/sup 3+/ ions in water solution as a reference. The radial distribution functions (RDF) of the non-thermally treated (NT) gels are characterized by a nearly Gaussian shape, as for the reference sample. On the contrary, the RDF of the densified gels (T) are asymmetric having the main peak at a shorter distance, with a reduced coordination number (N=4-5) and a secondary peak, with N=1-2, at a longer distance. The local environment of Tb in the low concentration sample (400 ppm) is different from that at higher concentrations, both in the NT- and in the T-gels. (15 refs).

  3. Interferon gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in HIV-infected individuals in a low TB burden country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheallaigh, Clíona Ní

    2013-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.

  4. More significance of TB-IGRA except for the diagnose of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Chi; Li, Ze-Yi; Chen, Xin-Nian; Shi, Cui-Lin; Wu, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Song, Hua-Feng; Wu, Min-Juan; Xu, Ping

    2017-02-21

    Tuberculosis (TB)-interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) test has the characteristics of short time, high specificity, and high sensitivity, but it lacks the correlation research between TB-IGRA test results and body's immune cells, disease progression and prognosis, which is explored in this study. A retrospective study was carried out on positive TB-IGRA patients who were infected with TB and diagnosed at our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015. The TB-IGRA, routine blood test, T-cell subgroup data were collected for statistical analysis. TB-IGRA results were in positive proportion to the lymphocytes, CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+) CD28(+) T cells, whereas negative to the Treg cells. Patient with unilateral pulmonary lesion had higher TB-IGRA than those with bilateral pulmonary lesions. After the stimulation of TB-specific antigen, the proportion of CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) and CD8(+) IFN-γ(+) T Tcells were both increased and the CD4(+) IFN-γ(+) T had positive correlation with the value of TB-IGRA. IFN-γ was tested with TB-IGRA in patients with TB by the specific TB T cells and correlated with the lymphocytes, while the lymphocytes also closely related to the host's anti-TB immunity and disease outcome. Hence the result of TB-IGRA could reflect the specific anti-TB immunity ability of the host, disease progression and prognosis. This study further expands the application scope of TB-IGRA technology in the diagnosis of TB and lays a foundation for clinical practice to understand the immunity state of the patients with TB and the application of auxiliary clinical immunity regulators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Difference in TB10.4 T-cell epitope recognition following immunization with recombinant TB10.4, BCG or infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Grandal, Michael V; Poulsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    vaccine Ag, TB10.4, in a recombinant form, or when expressed by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), or by the current anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. We showed that BCG and M.tb induced a similar CD4(+) T-cell specific TB10.4 epitope-pattern, which differed completely from...... that induced by recombinant TB10.4. This difference was not due to post-translational modifications of TB10.4 or because TB10.4 is secreted from BCG and M.tb as a complex with Rv0287. In addition, BCG and TB10.4/CAF01 were both taken up by DC and macrophages in vivo, and in vitro uptake experiments revealed...... that both TB10.4 and BCG were transported to Lamp(+)-compartments. BCG and TB10.4 however, were directed to different types of Lamp(+)-compartments in the same APC, which may lead to different epitope recognition patterns. In conclusion, we show that different vectors can induce completely different...

  6. Engaging informal providers in TB control: what is the potential in the implementation of the WHO Stop TB Strategy? A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira; Uplekar, Mukund; Lönnroth, Knut

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Stop TB Strategy calls for involvement of all healthcare providers in tuberculosis (TB) control. There is evidence that many people with TB seek care from informal providers before or after diagnosis, but very little has been done to engage these informal providers. Their involvement is often discussed with regard to DOTS (directly observed treatment - short course), rather than to the implementation of the comprehensive Stop TB Strategy. This paper discusses the potential contribution of informal providers to all components of the WHO Stop TB Strategy, including DOTS, programmatic management of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), TB/HIV collaborative activities, health systems strengthening, engaging people with TB and their communities, and enabling research.The conclusion is that with increased stewardship by the national TB program (NTP), informal providers might contribute to implementation of the Stop TB Strategy. NTPs need practical guidelines to set up and scale up initiatives, including tools to assess the implications of these initiatives on complex dimensions like health systems strengthening.

  7. KEMANDIRIAN MASYARAKAT DALAM PERILAKU PENCEGAHAN PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Prevention of tuberculosis, particularly pulmonary tuberculosis in lndonesia was started in 1969, but the number of pulmonary TB patients is increasing. Methods:Ethnographic qualitative study aims to assess the independence of the community effort in preventing pulmonary TB disease transmission. Methods: of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews with informants pulmonary TB patients and families. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The analysis of four independent indicators of the knowledge society is stilllow considering that most of the informants consider pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, and infectious diseases as the people in the district Hossa Rote Ndao. Illness perceptions of people in the city of Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because "ismeken", due to use-for others who are not happy ln the town of West Lombok fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of illness as a disease of old cough, dry cough of 40 days, and asthma. Confidence/trust society still depends on health workers, yet there are cadres who provide direct counseling on prevention of transmission. Capability community is lacking, people still believe in the health care workers to provide counseling. Selection of the PMO staff (Supervisors taking medication were not appropriate to the social structures that exist in society Lobar districts with 'sasak' social structure, then the host teacher, 'Kyai' can be as social support surrounding communities. 'Kyai' expected to affect the mindset of people, motivate people to air PHBs. Rote Ndao district as a social support from church leaders as well as the city of Pariaman, a descendant of the king, can motivate people. Participatory community by providing prevention counseling in a variety of pulmonary TB disease or group of containers carried on a

  8. Cathodoluminescent properties of Tb3+-doped yttria nanocrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Psuja; D.Hreniak; W.Str(e)k

    2009-01-01

    The Tb3+-doped Y2O3 nanopowders were synthesized using the modified Pechini method.The average size of nanocrystallites was controlled by different sintering temperatures.The structure and morphology of obtained nanopowders were examined using the XRD and SEM analyses.The Cr:Al2O3 was mixed with Tb3+:Y2O3 powders and its normalized emission was used.to measure a relative intensity of Tb3+:Y2O3.The mixtures were electrophorefically deposited on ITO-glass slides.The cathodoluminescence spectra of obtained layers were recorded and analysed.The discussion over an influence of average grains size on phosphor efficiency was presented.

  9. Constraints on generalized non-standard $tbW$ couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Hioki, Zenro; Uejima, Akira

    2016-01-01

    General non-standard $tbW$ couplings are studied as model independently as possible based on the effective Lagrangian consisting of the dimension-6 operators, which is an extension of the standard-model Lagrangian. The $tbW$-interaction Lagrangian in this framework includes four kinds of couplings, which could be complex. Constraints on those non-standard $tbW$ couplings are obtained by comparing the experimental data related to the $t\\to b W$ process with the corresponding theoretical formulas derived from the effective Lagrangian. The constraints on some sets of the non-standard couplings are shown not to be so strong because those couplings balance out each other as we treat all the non-standard couplings as complex numbers at the same time.

  10. Relating Tuberculosis (TB) Contact Characteristics to QuantiFERON-TB-Gold and Tuberculin Skin Test Results in the Toronto Pediatric TB Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Winsley; Read, Stanley E; Bitnun, Ari; Rea, Elizabeth; Stephens, Derek; Pongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Kitai, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Few data relate interferon-γ-release-assay results in children to source case sputum status, the best predictor of infectiousness of tuberculosis (TB) patients. We evaluated the QuantiFERON-Gold-in-tube assay (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in children with different types of TB exposure. The TST and QFT were performed in referred TB-exposed children and adolescents who had not undergone prior TST screening (tested in parallel), and the QFT was performed in referred TST-positive individuals. Source case characteristics were obtained from referring public health units. We excluded children with known immunocompromising conditions and those known to have TB disease at the time of evaluation. For 103 patients tested in parallel, overall test agreement was very good in the Bacillus Calmette-Guerein (BCG) unimmunized contacts (κ = 0.83) and contacts of household smear-positive (HS+) cases (κ = 0.67), but test agreement was poor in those with lower-risk contact (κ = 0.34). Only 3 of 59 HS+ patients were QFT-positive and TST-negative. On multivariate analysis, a positive QFT was strongly associated with HS+ exposure (odds ratio [OR], 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-20]) but not BCG; and a positive TST was associated with BCG alone. For 92 referred TST-positive individuals, the QFT was negative in 21% of HS+ contacts, 65% of lower-risk contacts (OR, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.9-25), and 82% of the patients with unknown contact history (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 5-54). Application of the Canadian 2010 guidelines would exclude from treatment 43 (72%) of the 73 TST+, QFT- patients. For close contacts of HS+ individuals, the QFT added little sensitivity to the TST for detection of TB infection. The QFT correlated much better with exposure than the TST, especially in BCG-immunized children, and it has the greatest potential benefit for evaluation of those at lower risk of latent TB infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric

  11. Reaching out to take on TB in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A J; Granat, Simo M

    2014-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing populations disrupted by complex emergencies, personal security and food security rank much higher than access to healthcare. However, over time health needs assume increasing importance. Many complex crises occur in settings where the background incidence of TB is already high; social and economic conditions in crises are then highly conducive to amplification of the existing TB problem. Innovative approaches to delivery of diagnostic and treatment services, transition planning and integration with other healthcare providers and services are vital. In the extremely challenging environment of Somalia, multiple partners are making headway though collaboration and innovation.

  12. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30].

  13. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Tb-incorporated Apatite Nano-scale Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.J. Sun; P.F. Ni; D.G. Guo; C.Q. Fang; J. Wang; F. Yang; X.F. Huang; Y.Z. Hao; H. Zhu; K.W. Xu

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale Tb-incorporated apatite (nano-Tb-AP) particles with different Tb contents (Tb/(Tb+Ca)) of 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% were synthesized through a simple wet chemical method in this study. The crystal structure, thermal stabilities, chemical groups, crystal morphologies and crystal sizes of the nano--Tb-AP particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. It was found that lattice constants, particle sizes, crystalline and thermal stability varied with the doped Tb contents. With the increasing of Tb content, the lattice constants, particle size, length/diameter ratio, crystalline and thermal stability of nano-Tb-AP gradually decrease. Especially, almost all the 20%Tb-AP nano particles had been decomposed at 1200 ℃ while only a few of the decomposed products (β-TCP) were detected in the Tb-free nano apatite powders: This kind of nano-scale Tb-incorporated apatite exhibits an extremely potential clinic application because it integrates both the excellent biological functions of Tb element and apatite in human body.

  15. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  16. Tuning of magnetic ordering by Y substitution onto Tb site in the nanocrystalline TbMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Keka R., E-mail: kekarc@barc.gov.in, E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in; Mukadam, M. D.; Yusuf, S. M., E-mail: kekarc@barc.gov.in, E-mail: smyusuf@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shukla, Rakesh; Tyagi, A. K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research—Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC Campus, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-10-28

    We report the magnetic properties, of nano-crystalline powders Tb{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4), as perceived by neutron diffraction, and elucidate the effect of Tb site substitution on the magnetic structure of TbMnO{sub 3}. All samples crystallized in the orthorhombic structure conforming to space group Pnma, and exhibited an incommensurate collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of the Mn ions below ∼40 K. Furthermore, at T ≤ 20 K, all these samples showed a change in magnetic structure (of Mn moments) to a spiral ordering down to 2 K, the lowest measured temperature. For the samples with x = 0, 0.1, and 0.2, a short-ranged two dimensional (2D) ordering of Tb moments was also observed at 2 K. However, for the other samples (x = 0.3 and 0.4), no magnetic ordering of Tb moments was found down to 2 K. So with Y substitution, a crossover from 2D ordering to a disordering of Tb moments was observed. The moments at the Mn site were found to be lower than the full Mn{sup 3+} (4μ{sub B}) moment for all the samples below 40 K. The magnetic properties of all the samples studied by us in nano form are more pronounced than those of the reported single crystals of same compositions [V. Yu. Ivanov et al., JETP Lett. 91, 392–397 (2010)].

  17. Prospective evaluation of simply modified MODS assay: an effective tool for TB diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyasirinroje B

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Boonchai Chaiyasirinroje1,*, Myo Nyein Aung2,3,*, Saiyud Moolphate1,4, Yuthichai Kasetjaroen5, Somsak Rienthong5, Dhanida Rienthong5, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan6, Wiravoot Sangchun6, Narin Suriyon7, Satoshi Mitarai4, Norio Yamada41TB/HIV Research Project, RIT, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 4Research Institute of Tuberculosis (RIT, Tokyo, Japan; 5Bureau of Tuberculosis, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Chiang Rai Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground and setting: Thailand is one of the highest tuberculosis (TB-burdened countries. Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand has high tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence and the laboratory workload for TB culture and drug susceptibility testing is increasing.Objectives: To evaluate the simply modified microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay (MODS in the setting of a developing country.Methods: In this cross-sectional diagnostic study, a total of 202 sputum samples of clinically diagnosed TB patients were used to test the performance of MODS assay in reference to gold standard BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 liquid culture system and Ogawa solid culture. Sputum samples were collected from clinically diagnosed TB patients. Culture growth rate and time to culture positivity were compared among three methods. Performance of modified MODS assay was evaluated for detection of mycobacterium drug resistance in reference to MGIT antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST.Result: Median time to culture positivity by MODS, solid, and liquid culture were 12, 30, and 6 days respectively. Compared to the drug susceptibility test (DST result of reference liquid culture, the sensitivity and specificity of MODS for

  18. Reduction of Tb4+ions in luminescent Y2O3:Tb nanorods prepared by microwave hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jarosaw Kaszewski; Bartomiej S Witkowski; ukasz Wachnicki; Hanka Przybyliska; Bolesaw Kozankiewicz; Ewa Mijowska; Marek Godlewski

    2016-01-01

    Terbium doped yttrium oxide was prepared with the microwave hydrothermal method. The Y2O3:Tb nanomaterial crystal-lized as needle-like grains. Bright luminescence in the green region was observed. Significant luminescence intensity increase was obtained after thermal treatment. Reduction of terbium ions was observed after heating in the air atmosphere. Tb4+ions were found to be stabilized by crystal impurities. Hydroxyl species were found to have impact on vacancies elimination. The terbium ions were used as optical and magnetic indicator of the material properties.

  19. Energy transfer between Gd3+ and Tb3+ in phosphate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dongbing; YU Chunlei; CHENG Jimeng; LI Shunguang; HU Lili

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate glass doped with Gd3+,Tb3+ and Gd3+/Tb3+ were prepared by high temperature melting. The photo-luminescence behavior of Gd3+ and Tb3+ in phosphate glass were investigated by absorption, excitation, and emission spectroscopy. Energy transfer between Gd3+ and Tb3+ in phosphate glass was studied, and it was found that there were two energy transfer mechanisms between Gd3+ and Tb3+ in phosphate glass: one was from 4f7 level of Gd3+ to the 4f8 level of Tb3+, and the other was from 5d level of Tb3+ to 4f7 level of Gd3+. The new findings would be beneficial for the study of Tb3+-doped scintillating phosphate glass.

  20. What are the reasons for patients not adhering to their anti-TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... patients started their anti-TB treatment, according to the known ... their anti-TB treatment in a South African district hospital? ..... empty stomach.20 ... tuberculosis: A focus group study of tuberculosis patients in Sialkot, Pakistan.

  1. Investigation and Effective Control of Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy for TbCo Films with Different Underlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghong; Chen, Shaohai; Zhang, Xiangli; Zhang, Zongzhi; Jin, Q. Y.

    2016-10-01

    We performed a detailed study on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of TbCo film by using two kinds of nonmagnetic underlayers, Ta and Ta/Cu with different thicknesses. We found that for both the Tb-rich and Co-rich TbCo alloy films, the PMA strength decreases considerably with the increase of Ta underlayer thickness, while their net saturation magnetization Ms exhibit opposite varying trends. The Ms value continues to increase for the Co-rich TbCo samples while decrease for the Tb-rich films. Interestingly, an additional Cu layer inserted between the Ta and TbCo layers can efficiently recover the PMA and Ms. We attribute such observed variation behaviors of magnetic properties to the increased disordering of Tb magnetic moments at the Ta/TbCo interface, which has been verified by both experimental measurements and micromagnetic simulations.

  2. HIV/TB Co-infection Among HIV Positive Children Attending Clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/TB Co-infection Among HIV Positive Children Attending Clinics In Imo State ... of tuberculosis in children is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human ... The factors found to affect TB development significantly were stage of HIV ...

  3. "I can also serve as an inspiration": a qualitative study of the TB&Me blogging experience and its role in MDR-TB treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Horter

    Full Text Available In 2011, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF established a blogging project, "TB&Me," to enable patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB to share their experiences. By September 2012, 13 MDR-TB patients had blogged, either directly or with assistance, from the UK, Australia, Philippines, Swaziland, Central African Republic, Uganda, South Africa, India, and Armenia. Due to the lack of research on the potential for social media to support MDR-TB treatment and the innovative nature of the blog, we decided to conduct a qualitative study to examine patient and staff experiences. Our aim was to identify potential risks and benefits associated with blogging to enable us to determine whether social media had a role to play in supporting patients with MDR-TB.Participants were identified and selected purposively. TB&Me bloggers, project staff, MSF headquarters staff involved with TB and WHO European Region TB policy advisors were invited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Twenty interviews were conducted (five with bloggers. Data analysis drew upon principles of grounded theory, with constant comparison of data, cases and categories, and attention to deviant cases. We found that the TB&Me blog was associated with identified health benefits, with no reported instances of harm. There were three main findings: blogging was reported as useful for adherence to DR-TB treatment and supportive of the treatment-taking process by all bloggers and project staff; blogging provided support to patients (peer support, shared experience and reduction in isolation; and the blog was perceived as giving patients strength and voice.The TB&Me blog was seen to be associated with positive identified health and emotional benefits. Component 5 of the Stop TB Global Plan highlights the importance of empowering TB patients and communities. Blogging could be a useful tool to help achieve that ambition.

  4. BUTIMBA: Intensifying the Hunt for Child TB in Swaziland through Household Contact Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Ngo, Katherine; Alonso Ustero, Pilar; Golin, Rachel; Anabwani, Florence; Mzileni, Bulisile; Sikhondze, Welile; Stevens, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists to inform contact tracing guidelines in children and HIV-affected populations. We evaluated the yield and additionality of household contact and source case investigations in Swaziland, a TB/HIV high-burden setting, while prioritizing identification of childhood TB. In partnership with 7 local TB clinics, we implemented standardized contact tracing of index cases (IC) receiving TB treatment. Prioritizing child contacts and HIV-affected households, screening officers screened contacts for TB symptoms and to identify risk factors associated with TB. We ascertained factors moderating the yield of contact tracing and measured the impact of our program by additional notifications. From March 2013 to November 2015, 3,258 ICs (54% bacteriologically confirmed; 70% HIV-infected; 85% adults) were enrolled leading to evaluation of 12,175 contacts (median age 18 years, IQR 24-42; 45% children; 9% HIV-infected). Among contacts, 196 TB cases (56% bacteriologically confirmed) were diagnosed resulting in a program yield of 1.6% for all forms of TB. The number needed to screen (NNS) to identify a bacteriologically confirmed TB case or all forms TB case traced from a child IC TB. Contacts were more likely to have TB if TB symptoms (OR = 7.7), and sharing a bed (OR = 1.7) or home (OR = 1.4) with the IC. There was a 1.4 fold increased chance of detecting a TB case in households known to be HIV-affected. Contact tracing prioritizing children is not only feasible in a TB/HIV high-burden setting but contributes to overall case detection. Our findings support WHO guidelines prioritizing contact tracing among children and HIV-infected populations while highlighting potential to integrate TB and HIV case finding.

  5. Clinical evaluation of QuantiFERON TB-2G test for immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Y; Mouri, K; Obase, Y; Fukuda, M; Miyashita, N; Oka, M

    2007-11-01

    The usefulness of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and the QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT-TB) test were compared in immunocompromised patients. The subjects consisted of 252 immunocompromised patients who were clinically suspected of tuberculosis (TB) infection between April 2005 and December 2006. Regarding the underlying diseases, 74 subjects had malignant diseases, 72 were undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, 52 had diabetes mellitus, 50 had chronic renal failure and four had HIV infection. While the positive rate of the QFT-TB test for the diagnosis of TB infection (TB disease or latent TB infection) was 78.1%, that of TST for TB infection was 50.0%. The QFT-TB test was significantly better than TST. However, 32 (13%) patients had an indeterminate QFT-TB result. Indeterminate findings were significantly more frequent in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment (28%), especially with lymphocytopaenia in the peripheral blood, than in those who had other underlying diseases. While TST-positive and QFT-TB test-negative results were recognised in immunocompromised patients with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination or nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, TST-negative and QFT-TB test-positive results were recognised in immunocompromised patients with a past history of TB infection. It was concluded that the QuantiFERON TB-2G test is a more useful diagnostic method for tuberculosis infection than tuberculin skin test for immunocompromised patients suspected of tuberculosis disease. However, because the results of the QuantiFERON TB-2G test show an indeterminate response for patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment, especially for those with lymphocytopaenia due to severe underlying diseases, care must be taken in the interpretation of the QuantiFERON TB-2G test for these patients.

  6. Magnetoelastic vibration damping properties of TbDy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Jennifer A.; Good, Nathan R.; White, Christopher V.; Leland, Robert S.

    2003-03-01

    Damping of axial and bending mode vibrations in giant magnetoelastic polycrystalline TbDy alloys was studied at cryogenic temperatures. All specimens of TbDy were arc-melted in the proper composition ratio and dropped into a chilled copper mold. Additional treatments consisted of cold plane-rolling to induce crystallographic texture and then heat-treating to relieve internal stress. Mechanical hysteretic losses were measured at various strains, frequencies, and loading configurations down to 77 K. Both as-cast and textured polycrystalline TbDy samples were tested along with an aluminum specimen for comparison. Loss factors at multiple natural vibration frequencies of the samples were measured for axial modes. Larger damping rates were measured for axial mode vibrations than for bending mode vibrations, possibly reflecting the larger specimen volume contributing to magnetoelastic damping. At LN2 temperatures TbDy materials demonstrated η > 0.05 at 0.01 Hz and η > 0.1 at higher frequencies from 0.6-1.5 kHz.

  7. H+ searches in ATLAS (II): H+ to tb

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Lluisa-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for charged Higgs bosons heavier than the top quark and decaying via to tb is presented. The analysis uses 13.2 ifb of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The production of a charged Higgs boson in association with a top quark and a bottom quark, pp to tbH+-, is explored in the mass range 300 to 1000 GeV using multi-jet final states with one electron or muon from the top-quark decay. Events are categorised according to the multiplicity of jets and b-tagged jets. Multivariate techniques are used to discriminate between signal and background events. No significant excess above the background-only hypothesis is observed and upper limits are set on the tbH+- production cross section times the branching fraction BR(H+- to tb), together with their interpretation in benchmark scenarios of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  8. Predicting Efficient Antenna Ligands for Tb(III) Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P.S.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-06

    A series of highly luminescent Tb(III) complexes of para-substituted 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (5LI-IAM-X) has been prepared (X = H, CH{sub 3}, (C=O)NHCH{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}, OCH{sub 3}, F, Cl, Br) to probe the effect of substituting the isophthalamide ring on ligand and Tb(III) emission in order to establish a method for predicting the effects of chromophore modification on Tb(III) luminescence. The energies of the ligand singlet and triplet excited states are found to increase linearly with the {pi}-withdrawing ability of the substituent. The experimental results are supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations performed on model systems, which predict ligand singlet and triplet energies within {approx}5% of the experimental values. The quantum yield ({Phi}) values of the Tb(III) complex increases with the triplet energy of the ligand, which is in part due to the decreased non-radiative deactivation caused by thermal repopulation of the triplet. Together, the experimental and theoretical results serve as a predictive tool that can be used to guide the synthesis of ligands used to sensitize lanthanide luminescence.

  9. Quadrupole moment of superdeformed bands in Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Stezowski, O; Beck, FA; Appelbe, DE; Byrski, T; Courtin, S; Cullen, DM; Curien, D; de France, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Gall, BJP; Garg, U; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Kintz, N; Nourreddine, A; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; Twin, PJ; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1998-01-01

    The quadrupole moments of the first two superdeformed (SD) bands in the nucleus Tb-151 have been measured with the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) using the EUROGAM gamma-ray spectrometer, The first excited band (B2) is identical to the yrast SD band of Dy-152 in terms of dynamical moments o

  10. Anti-TB activity of Evodia elleryana bark extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Louis R.; Powan, Emma; Pond, Christopher D.; Matainaho, Teatulohi

    2009-01-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of bark from Evodia elleryana produced significant growth inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentrations only minimally inhibitory to human T cells. The crude extract yielded 95% inhibition of TB at 50 μg/ml. The crude extract yielded 29 % growth inhibition of human T-cells in culture at that concentration. PMID:17350179

  11. Spin dynamics in Tb studied by critical neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1971-01-01

    The inelasticity of the critical neutron scattering in Tb was measured at and above the Neel temperature. In the hydrodynamic region the line width Gamma (q=0, kappa 1)=C kappa z1, with z=1.4+or-0.1 and c=4.3+or-0.3 meVAAz. This result deviates from the conventional theory, which predicts...

  12. The K-Forbidden Beta Decay of Tb160

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Johnson, N. R.; Nielsen, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    The β decay of the odd nucleus Tb160(Iπ = 3−) is shown to populate the 2+ and 4+ states of the ground-state band of Dy160 in intensities of 0.34% and 0.12%, respectively. The ratio of the reduced transition probabilities and the absolute transition strength are both compared with theoretical...

  13. Anomalous Hall effect studies on Tb-Fe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, P.; Deepak Kumar, K.; Markandeyulu, G.

    2016-08-01

    Tbx Fe100-x (with x=11, 25, 31 and 44) thin films were prepared with the substrates kept at a temperature of 300 °C and the Hall resistivities and electrical resistivities were investigated in the temperature range 25-300 K. The sign of Hall resistivity is found to change from positive for x=31 to negative for x=44 film at temperatures 25 K and 300 K, reflecting the compensation of Tb and Fe magnetic moments between these two compositions. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed in the films of x=25 and 31 at 25 K as well as at 300 K. The Hall resistivity is seen to increase for the films of x=11 and 31 with increasing temperature, while it decreases for the films of x=25 and 44 with increasing temperature. The temperature coefficients of electrical resistivities of these films are seen to be positive. The presence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (refers to magnetic anisotropy, in this paper) in the temperature range 25-300 K in Tb25Fe75 and Tb31Fe69 and their metallic nature are indicators that the Tb-Fe films deposited at higher temperatures are more suitable for magneto optic data storage applications than their amorphous counterparts, due to the stability of the former.

  14. 8__Aisha_Detection ofMDR-TB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study aimed at detecting MDR status of rifampicin-resistant TB patients in north ... descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, ... Health Organization (2013a) revealed that 3.7% of ..... in an amino acid change and concluded that this is .... Greatly Reduces Time to Detection of Multidrug.

  15. Quadrupole moment of superdeformed bands in Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Stezowski, O; Beck, FA; Appelbe, DE; Byrski, T; Courtin, S; Cullen, DM; Curien, D; de France, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Gall, BJP; Garg, U; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Kintz, N; Nourreddine, A; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Savajols, H; Twin, PJ; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    The quadrupole moments of the first two superdeformed (SD) bands in the nucleus Tb-151 have been measured with the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) using the EUROGAM gamma-ray spectrometer, The first excited band (B2) is identical to the yrast SD band of Dy-152 in terms of dynamical moments

  16. Photon Upconversion Through Tb(3+) -Mediated Interfacial Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Weifeng; Han, Sanyang; Sun, Qiang; Liu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-28

    A strategy of interfacial energy transfer upconversion is demonstrated through the use of a terbium (Tb(3+) ) dopant as energy donor or energy migrator in core-shell-structured nanocrystals. This mechanistic investigation presents a new pathway for photon upconversion, and, more importantly, contributes to the better control of energy transfer at the nanometer length scale.

  17. Perspectives on the History of Bovine TB and the Role of Tuberculin in Bovine TB Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Good

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a significant disease of animals and humans worldwide. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacteria with an extremely wide host range and serious, although currently probably underdiagnosed, zoonotic potential. Where bovine tuberculosis controls are effective, human zoonotic TB, due to Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, is uncommon and clinical cases are infrequent in cattle. Therefore, the control and ultimate eradication of bovine tuberculosis is desirable. Tuberculin tests are the primary screening tool used in bovine eradication. The choice of tuberculin test is dependent on the environment in which it is to be used. Tuberculin potency is critical to test performance, and the accurate determination of potency is therefore particularly important. The design of a control or eradication programme should take into consideration the fundamental scientific knowledge, the epidemiological profile of disease, the experience of other eradication programmes, and the presence, in the same ecosystem, of maintenance hosts, in which infection is self-sustaining and which are capable of transmitting infection. A control or eradication programme will necessarily require modification as it progresses and must be under constant review to identify the optimal desirable goals, the efficacy of policy, and constraints to progress.

  18. A study of TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome using the consensus case-definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K; Dhooria, Sahajal; Barwad, Parag; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu; Ranjan, Sanjay; Miglani, Sunita; Gupta, Deepak

    2010-06-01

    A considerable proportion of patients with HIV associated tuberculosis (TB) started on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which is difficult to diagnose in a resource-limited setting. In view of the recently proposed consensus case-definitions for TB-IRIS for use in resource-limited settings we undertook this study to describe the incidence and risk factors of TB associated IRIS in a tertiary care hospital and research centre in north India. Retrospective analysis of antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve adults started on highly active ART (HAART) from June 2006 to September 2008 was done. Of the 627 patients studied, 237 (38%) had TB at the initiation of HAART. In total, 18 (7.5%) of 237 patients with TB at baseline had paradoxical TB-associated IRIS, and 12 (3%) of 390 patients without TB at baseline developed ART-associated TB. Most IRIS events occurred during the initial 30 days of HAART. Two patients developed TB-associated IRIS after 90 days of HAART. Using univariate analysis, low CD4+ cell count at baseline [64 (28-89) vs. 95 (52-150); P=0.009] and early initiation of HAART [33 (24-41) vs. 48 (35-61) days; PART-associated TB. A considerable proportion of patients on HAART develop TB-associated IRIS. The consensus case-definition is a useful tool in resource-limited settings for the diagnosis of TB- associated IRIS.

  19. Addressing tb & poverty under the changing health care systems in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingyue

    2003-01-01

    @@ China has the second highest TB prevalence in the world. The TB prevalence in economically underdeveloped provinces is 1.8 times that of more developed provinces. About 80 % of TB patients are living below the average income level. The case detection rate in China is about 30 %, and it is believed the rate amongst the poor may be even lower.

  20. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.A.; Vu, H.D.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in par

  1. Addressing diabetes mellitus as part of the strategy for ending TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D.; Kumar, Ajay M.V.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Lin, Yan; Zachariah, Rony; Lönnroth, Knut; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the new era of Sustainable Development Goals, the international community has committed to ending the TB epidemic by 2030 through implementation of an ambitious strategy to reduce TB-incidence and TB-related mortality and avoiding catastrophic costs for TB-affected families. Diabetes mellitus (DM) triples the risk of TB and increases the probability of adverse TB treatment outcomes such as failure, death and recurrent TB. The rapidly escalating global epidemic of DM means that DM needs to be addressed if TB-related milestones and targets are to be achieved. WHO and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease's Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis and Diabetes, launched in 2011, provides a template to guide policy makers and implementers to combat the epidemics of both diseases. However, more evidence is required to answer important questions about bi-directional screening, optimal ways of delivering treatment, integration of DM and TB services, and infection control. This should in turn contribute to better and earlier TB case detection, and improved TB treatment outcomes and prevention. DM and TB collaborative care can also help guide the development of a more effective and integrated public health approach for managing non-communicable diseases. PMID:26884497

  2. Targeting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by therapeutic vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabowo, Satria A.; Groeschel, Matthias I.; Schmidt, Ed D. L.; Skrahina, Alena; Mihaescu, Traian; Hasturk, Serap; Mitrofanov, Rotislav; Pimkina, Edita; Visontai, Ildik; de Jong, Bouke; Stanford, John L.; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; van der Werf, Tjipke

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has scourged humankind for millennia, and latent infection affects nearly one-third of today's world population. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB is a major global threat and reflects treatment failure of drug-sensitive disease. MDR-TB management is a burden for patien

  3. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.A.; Vu, H.D.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Postma, M.J.

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in

  4. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  5. Spectroscopy and energy transfer in lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy3+-Tb3+ and Tb3+-Eu3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Joanna; Kos, Agnieszka; Pisarski, Wojciech A.

    2014-08-01

    Lead borate glasses doubly doped with Dy3+-Tb3+ and Tb3+-Eu3+ were investigated using optical spectroscopy. Luminescence spectra of rare earths were detected under various excitation wavelengths. The main green emission band due to 5D4 → 7F5 transition of Tb3+ is observed under excitation of Dy3+, whereas the main red emission band related to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ is successfully observed under direct excitation of Tb3+. In both cases, the energy transfer processes from Dy3+ to Tb3+ and from Tb3+ to Eu3+ in lead borate glasses occur through a nonradiative processes with efficiencies up to 16% and 18%, respectively. The presence of energy transfer process was also confirmed by excitation spectra measurements.

  6. The Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-Tb{sub 5}Si{sub 3} section of the Ti-Tb-Si system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanova, M.V.; Tedenac, J.C.; Noeel, H.; Meleshevich, K.A.; Haidoux, A.; Samelyuk, A.V.; Pudovkina, M.V

    2004-07-28

    By using differential thermal analysis, metallography, microprobe analysis and X-ray powder diffraction, the Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-Tb{sub 5}Si{sub 3} section of the Ti-Tb-Si system was constructed. The section was shown to be quasibinary of eutectic type. The eutectic coordinates were determined to be 1655 deg. C and {approx}43 at.% Tb.

  7. Progress in achieving universal access to care for multidrug- resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Fraser; Falzon, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Each year there are about nine million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) in the world and over one million people die of the disease. The emergence of resistance to the drugs that are used to treat TB threaten to undo much of the progress achieved in controlling it in recent decades. In some countries, up to one third or more of TB cases have multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB; combined resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), requiring a much longer and toxic treatment than that suffices for other TB patients. Countries have committed to achieve universal access to care for MDR-TB for their populations by 2015. In this article, we use national data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assess global progress in detection (against WHO estimates) and treatment of MDR-TB. Over one half of all the world's MDR-TB patients are concentrated in three countries: India, China, and the Russian Federation. In 2012, about 78,753 TB cases were reported to have been started on MDR-TB treatment, about 25% of the estimated MDR-TB case load in the world. Only 48% of over 35,000 MDR-TB patients started on treatment in 2010 were reported to have completed their treatment successfully. The global MDR-TB targets for 2015 will not be achieved unless barriers to the expansion of reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of MDR-TB are not urgently overcome in many countries. New diagnostics and medicines will be required to speed up this drive within the new WHO global strategy which now looks well beyond 2015.

  8. Why being an expert - despite xpert -remains crucial for children in high TB burden settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Jason M; Ngo, Katherine; Clowes, Petra; Draper, Heather R; Ntinginya, Elias N; DiNardo, Andrew; Mangu, Chacha; Sabi, Issa; Mtafya, Bariki; Mandalakas, Anna M

    2017-02-06

    As access to Xpert expands in high TB-burden settings, its performance against clinically diagnosed TB as a reference standard provides important insight as the majority of childhood TB is bacteriologically unconfirmed. We aim to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children with presumptive TB and TB disease, and assess performance of Xpert under programmatic conditions against a clinical diagnosis of TB as a reference standard. Retrospective review of children evaluated for presumptive TB in Mbeya, Tanzania. Baseline characteristics were compared by TB disease status and, for patients diagnosed with TB, by TB confirmation status using Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and the Chi-square test for categorical variables. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to assess the performance of Xpert, smear, and culture against clinical TB. Kappa statistics were calculated to assess agreement between Xpert and smear to culture. Among children (N = 455) evaluated for presumptive TB, 70.3% (320/455) had Xpert and 62.8% (286/455) had culture performed on sputa. 34.5% (157/455) were diagnosed with TB: 80.3% (126/157) pulmonary TB, 13.4% (21/157) bacteriologically confirmed, 53.5% (84/157) HIV positive, and 48.4% (76/157) inpatients. Compared to the reference standard of clinical diagnosis, sensitivity of Xpert was 8% (95% CI 4-15), smear 6% (95% CI 3-12) and culture 16% (95% CI 9-24), and did not differ based on patient disposition, nutrition or HIV status. Despite access to Xpert, the majority of children with presumptive TB were treated based on clinical diagnosis. Reflecting the reality of clinical practice in resource limited settings, new diagnostics such as Xpert serve as important adjunctive tests but will not obviate the need for astute clinicians and comprehensive diagnostic algorithms.

  9. Comparing Drivers and Dynamics of Tuberculosis (TB) in California, Florida, New York and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sourya; Hill, Andrew N; Marks, Suzanne M; Dowdy, David W

    2017-05-05

    There is substantial state-to-state heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (US); better understanding this heterogeneity can inform effective response to TB at the state level, the level at which most TB control efforts are coordinated. To characterize drivers of state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four US states that bear half the country's TB burden: California, Florida, New York and Texas. We constructed an individual-based model of TB in the four US states, and calibrated the model to state-specific demographic, and age- and nativity- stratified TB incidence data. We used the model to infer differences in natural history of TB and in future projections of TB. We found that differences in both demographic makeup (particularly the size and composition of the foreign-born population) and TB transmission dynamics contribute to state-level differences in TB epidemiology. The projected median annual rate of decline in TB incidence in the next decade was substantially higher in Texas (3.3%; 95% range: [-5.6-10.9]) than in California (1.7%; [-3.8-7.1]), Florida (1.5%; [-7.4-14]), and New York (1.9%; [-6.4-9.8]). All scenarios projected a flattening of the decline in TB incidence by 2025 without additional resources or interventions. There is substantial state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four states, which reflect both demographic factors and potential differences in the natural history of TB. These differences may inform resource allocation decisions in these states.

  10. When students become patients: TB disease among medical undergraduates in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Westhuizen, Helene-Mari; Dramowski, Angela

    2017-05-24

    Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate. Quantitative and qualitative data collected from the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were analysed with descriptive statistics and a framework approach to identify emerging themes. Twelve individuals (10 female) reported a diagnosis of TB: pulmonary TB (n=6), pleural TB (n=3), TB lymphadenitis (n=2) and TB spine (n=1); 2/12 (17%) had drug-resistant disease (DR-TB). Mean diagnostic delay post consultation was 8.1 weeks, with only 42% of initial diagnoses being correct. Most consulted private healthcare providers (general practitioners (n=7); pulmonologists (n=4)), and nine underwent invasive procedures (bronchoscopy, pleural fluid aspiration and tissue biopsy). Substantial healthcare costs were incurred (mean ZAR25 000 for drug-sensitive TB, up to  ZAR104 000 for DR-TB). Students struggled to obtain treatment, incurred high transport costs and missed academic time. Students with DR-TB interrupted their studies and experienced severe side-effects (hepatotoxicity, depression and permanent ototoxicity). Most participants cited poor TB infection-control practices at their training hospitals as a major risk factor for occupational TB. Undergraduate medical students in Cape Town are at high risk of occupationally acquired TB, with an unmet need for comprehensive occupational health services and support.

  11. Caretakers' perspectives of paediatric TB and implications for care-seeking behaviours in Southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindu, Carolina; López-Varela, Elisa; Alonso-Menendez, Yara; Mausse, Yolanda; Augusto, Orvalho Joaquim; Gondo, Kizito; Múñoz, Jose; Sacarlal, Jahit; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alonso, Pedro L; Munguambe, Khátia

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health concern, especially in poorly resourced settings. TB diagnosis is challenging, particularly for children, who are the most vulnerable to its' impacts. Lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease compromises prompt diagnosis and treatment compliance. To gain insights regarding caretakers' knowledge of the aetiology and prevention of paediatric TB in southern Mozambique, to describe their care-seeking behaviours and to assess the acceptability of diagnostic procedures. A total of 35 caretakers were interviewed, all of which had children with TB compatible symptoms. Eleven were caretakers of children diagnosed with TB at the health facility, 11 of children for whom TB was excluded as a diagnosis at the health facility and 13 of children with TB compatible symptoms identified in the community. The first two groups took part in a TB incidence study, while the third group did not. All underwent the same semi-structured interviews, the results of which were analysed and compared using content analysis. Even when confronted with signs suggestive of TB, most caretakers never suspected it or misinterpreted the signs, even among caretakers with TB and TB contacts. There was limited knowledge of TB, except among those undergoing treatment. The transgression of social norms was often presented as an explanation for TB in parallel to medically sound causes. The use of traditional care for prevention is widespread, but it varied for treatment purposes. TB diagnostic procedures were considered painful but were unanimously tolerated. Misconceptions of paediatric TB, associated complex care-seeking itineraries and negative feelings of the diagnostic procedures may result in delays, low adherence and lost to follow-up, which needs to be addressed by adequately framed health promotion approaches.

  12. First evaluation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus performance in contact screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Lucia; Borroni, Emanuele; Brown, James; Brunetti, Enrico; Campisi, Daniela; Castellotti, Paola F; Codecasa, Luigi R; Cugnata, Federica; Di Serio, Clelia; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Goletti, Delia; Lipman, Marc; Rancoita, Paola M V; Russo, Giulia; Tadolini, Marina; Vanino, Elisa; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2016-11-01

    Identifying latently infected individuals is crucial for the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated for the first time the performance of a new type of interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB Plus (QFT-Plus), which includes an additional antigen tube (TB2), stimulating both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in contacts of TB patients.Contacts were screened for latent TB infection by tuberculin skin test, QFT-Plus and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT).In 119 TB contacts, the overall agreement between QFT-Plus and QFT-GIT was high, with a Cohen's κ of 0.8. Discordant results were found in 12 subjects with negative QFT-GIT and positive QFT-Plus results. In analyses of markers of TB exposure and test results, the average time spent with the index case was the strongest risk factor for positivity in each of these tests. The difference in interferon-γ production between the two antigen tubes (TB2-TB1) was used as an estimate of CD8(+) stimulation provided by the TB2. TB2-TB1 values >0.6 IU·mL(-1) were significantly associated with proximity to the index case and European origin.QFT-Plus has a stronger association with surrogate measures of TB exposure than QFT-GIT in adults screened for latent TB infection. Interferon-γ response in the new antigen tube used an indirect estimate of specific CD8(+) response correlates with increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, suggesting a possible role in identifying individuals with recent infection. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  13. TB or not TB? Difficulties in the diagnosis op tuberculosis in HIV-negative immigrants to Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants to Germany and their children are at particular risk for tuberculosis (TB. Methods 35 Patients (10 male/25 female aged 2 - 59 years (median 33 years originating mostly from high incidence countries in Asia (19 [54.3%] in Africa (14 [40.0%] and East Europe (2 [5.7%], attended at the Tropical Medicine unit were analysed. Results Primary clinical presentation was most frequently lymphadenitis (13 [37.1%]. other organs involved included bones (7 [20.0%], central nervous system (5 [14.3%], urogenital organs (3 [8.6%], lung (3 [8.6%], mediastinum, (2 [5.7%] and abdomen (2 [5.7%]. ESR was abnormal in 21/28 (75.0%, CRP in 20/35 (57.1%, and protein electrophoresis in 22/26 (84.6% cases. The tuberculin skin test was strongly positive in all 15 cases where the test had been performed. Tuberculosis interferon gamma release assay (TB-IGRA was positive in all 35 cases (100%. PCR for nucleic acids of Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis complex was positive in only 7/20 (35.0% cases. M. tuberculosis was identified in 32/35 (91.4%, M. bovis in 2 (5.7% cases. 1 case was diagnosed clinically. All patients were negative for HIV. Typical histopathology was seen in the 29 cases, where biopsies had been taken. Chest-X-ray did not reveal specific pulmonary lesions in the majority of cases (22/35 [62.9%]. Diagnosis of TB was mostly delayed (4 to 299 weeks, [median 8]. The most frequent primary suspicion was a malignancy (17/35 [48.6%] while TB was initially suspected in 5 cases only. Diagnosis of TB is impeded by its multifaceted presentation especially in immigrants.

  14. Are we doing enough to stem the tide of acquired MDR-TB in countries with high TB burden? Results of a mixed method study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ehiri, John; Oren, Eyal; Hu, Daiyu; Luo, Xingneng; Liu, Ying; Li, Daikun; Wang, Qingya

    2014-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) represents a threat to health and development in countries with high TB burden. China's MDR-TB prevalence rate of 6.8% is the highest in the world. Interventions to remove barriers against effective TB control, and prevention of MDR-TB are urgently needed in the country. This paper reports a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 513 pulmonary TB (PTB) patients, and qualitative interviews of 10 healthcare workers (HCWs), and 15 PTB patients. The objective was to assess barriers against effective control of PTB and prevention of MDR-TB by elucidating the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Results showed that more than half of the patients experienced patient delay of over 12.5 days. A similar proportion also experienced detection delay of over 30 days, and delay in initiating treatment of over 31 days. Consulting a non-TB health facility ≥3 times before seeking care at TB dispensary was a risk factor for both detection delay [AOR (95% CI): 1.89(1.07, 3.34) and delay in initiating treatment[AOR (95% CI): 1.88 (1.06, 3.36). Results revealed poor implementation of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT), whereby treatment of 34.3% patients was never monitored by HCWs. Only 31.8% patients had ever accessed TB health education before their TB diagnosis. Qualitative data consistently disclosed long patient delay, and indicated that patient's poor TB knowledge and socioeconomic barriers were primary reasons for patient delay. Seeking care and being treated at a non-TB hospital was an important reason for detection delay. Patient's long work hours and low income increased risk for treatment non-adherence. Evidence-based measures to improve TB health seeking behavior, reduce patient and detection delays, improve the quality of DOT, address financial and system barriers, and increase access to TB health promotion are urgently needed to address the burgeoning prevalence of MDR-TB in China.

  15. Effectiveness of TB sensitization initiatives in improving the involvement of self help group members in rural TB control in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena; Priscilla Rebecca, B; Dhanalakshmi, A; Rani, S; Deepa Lakshmi, A; Watson, Basilea; Vijayalakshmi, R; Muniyandi, M; Karikalan, N

    2016-12-01

    The 'End TB strategy' has highlighted the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration and community mobilization for achieving zero TB deaths by 2020. The aim of the study was to develop and test a model TB sensitization programme involving self help groups (SHGs). This experimental study was conducted in two blocks (intervention and control), in Tiruvallur district. The intervention content included short-lecture, musical story telling activity, role play, short film on TB. The impact was compared at baseline, third and sixth months in terms of SHGs' awareness, promotion of awareness, identification and referral of presumptive TB cases and provision of TB treatment. A total of 764 vs 796 SHGs were enrolled in control and intervention groups, respectively. The knowledge attitude, and practice score (lower score indicated a better attitude and practice), from baseline to 6 months was significantly reduced (29 to 24) in the intervention group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in identification and referral of chest symptomatics in the intervention group at 3 and 6 months. During the 3 month follow-up a significantly higher proportion of SHG members were involved in TB awareness activities in the intervention (623/748 [83.3%]) vs control group (471/728 [64.7%]; pTB sensitization program for strengthening TB prevention and control activities.

  16. Are we doing enough to stem the tide of acquired MDR-TB in countries with high TB burden? Results of a mixed method study in Chongqing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents a threat to health and development in countries with high TB burden. China's MDR-TB prevalence rate of 6.8% is the highest in the world. Interventions to remove barriers against effective TB control, and prevention of MDR-TB are urgently needed in the country. This paper reports a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 513 pulmonary TB (PTB patients, and qualitative interviews of 10 healthcare workers (HCWs, and 15 PTB patients. The objective was to assess barriers against effective control of PTB and prevention of MDR-TB by elucidating the perspectives of patients and healthcare providers. Results showed that more than half of the patients experienced patient delay of over 12.5 days. A similar proportion also experienced detection delay of over 30 days, and delay in initiating treatment of over 31 days. Consulting a non-TB health facility ≥3 times before seeking care at TB dispensary was a risk factor for both detection delay [AOR (95% CI: 1.89(1.07, 3.34 and delay in initiating treatment[AOR (95% CI: 1.88 (1.06, 3.36. Results revealed poor implementation of Directly Observed Therapy (DOT, whereby treatment of 34.3% patients was never monitored by HCWs. Only 31.8% patients had ever accessed TB health education before their TB diagnosis. Qualitative data consistently disclosed long patient delay, and indicated that patient's poor TB knowledge and socioeconomic barriers were primary reasons for patient delay. Seeking care and being treated at a non-TB hospital was an important reason for detection delay. Patient's long work hours and low income increased risk for treatment non-adherence. Evidence-based measures to improve TB health seeking behavior, reduce patient and detection delays, improve the quality of DOT, address financial and system barriers, and increase access to TB health promotion are urgently needed to address the burgeoning prevalence of MDR-TB in China.

  17. Relation between stabilization energy, crystal field coefficient and themagnetic exchange interaction for Tb3+ ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiangmu; MA Wenjuan; CUI Shuwen; WANG Lihua

    2006-01-01

    Based on a single ion model, Hamiltonian of the simplest form about magnetocrystalline anisotropy for Tb3+ ion was solved by using the numerical method. The relation between the stabilization energy, crystal field coefficient B20 and the magnetic exchange interaction was studied as temperature approaches to 0K. The results show that the stabilization energy contributed by Tb3+ is linear with crystal field coefficient B20 approximately, but it is insensitive to the change of magnetic exchange interaction for the strong magnetic substancessuch as TbCo5, Tb2Co17 and Tb2Fe14B compounds.

  18. Microbe-Assisted Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Monodispersed Tb3+-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanguo Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tb3+-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were synthesized by spray precipitation with sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB culture at room temperature. The morphology of the SRB and ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The PL mechanism of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was further analyzed, and the effects of Tb3+ ion concentration on the luminescence properties of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were studied. ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed a sphalerite phase, and the prepared ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals had high luminescence intensity under excitation at 369 nm. The main peak position of the absorption spectra positively blueshifted with increasing concentrations of Tb3+ dopant. Based on the strength of the peak of the excitation and emission spectra, we inferred that the optimum concentration of the Tb3+ dopant is 5 mol%. Four main emission peaks were obtained under excitation at 369 nm:489 nm (5D4→7F6, 545 nm (5D4→7F5, 594 nm (5D4→7F4, and 625 nm (5D4→7F3. Our findings suggest that nanocrystals have potential applications in photoelectronic devices and biomarkers.

  19. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in TbFeGa ternary alloys grown by cosputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranchal, R., E-mail: rociran@fis.ucm.es; Gutiérrez-Díez, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we have studied the magnetic anisotropy of as-grown TbFeGa ternary alloys with a Ga doping between 10 and 16% and a Tb content between 9 and 12%. The samples were deposited by cosputtering at room temperature in the oblique incidence from two targets with a TbFe{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Ga nominal composition. Samples with different compositions were achieved keeping constant the DC growth power at 100 W in the TbFe{sub 2} and modifying the pulsed power between 60 and 120 W in the Fe{sub 3}Ga target, respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the presence of crystalline TbFe{sub 2}-based phases. It has been obtained perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in all the samples except when the pulsed power increases up to 120 W that corresponds to a 16% of Ga. The existence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy seems to be related to the presence of TbFe{sub 2}-based phases with a composition close to the TbFe{sub 2}. - Highlights: ► TbFeGa ternary alloys were cosputtered from TbFe{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Ga targets. ► The studied alloys exhibit a structure close to the cubic TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase. ► Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy seems to be related to TbFe{sub 2}-based phases.

  20. Aerosol immunisation for TB: matching route of vaccination to route of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; McShane, Helen

    2015-03-01

    TB remains a very significant global health burden. There is an urgent need for better tools for TB control, which include an effective vaccine. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the currently licensed vaccine, confers highly variable protection against pulmonary TB, the main source of TB transmission. Replacing BCG completely or boosting BCG with another vaccine are the two current strategies for TB vaccine development. Delivering a vaccine by aerosol represents a way to match the route of vaccination to the route of infection. This route of immunisation offers not only the scientific advantage of delivering the vaccine directly to the respiratory mucosa, but also practical and logistical advantages. This review summarises the state of current TB vaccine candidates in the pipeline, reviews current progress in aerosol administration of vaccines in general and evaluates the potential for TB vaccine candidates to be administered by the aerosol route.

  1. [Management of tuberculosis (TB) cases from view points of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ken; Motomiya, Masakichi

    2011-08-01

    Tuberculosis control law was enacted in 1951 and has been the basis for the management of TB cases over the long post-war period. This law has legalized the use of public founds for the treatment of TB patients for the first time and has provided the authentic basis for mandatory hospitalization, routine health examination, vaccination, notification and registration of TB cases. However, this law was abrogated in 2001 and was joined to the comprehensive infectious diseases control law, in order to facilitate a prophylactic measure against TB infection and to protect human rights of TB patients. Concurrently the medical care system and the formalities connected to hospitalization treatment of TB patients were reviewed. The purpose of the present overview is to explain how TB cases are managed under the newly-enacted law.

  2. A rapid and low-cost microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for detecting TB and MDR-TB among individuals infected by HIV in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The converging epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis (TB pose one of the greatest public health challenges of our time. Rapid diagnosis of TB is essential in view of its infectious nature, high burden of cases, and emergence of drug resistance. Objective: The purpose of this present study was to evaluate the feasibility of implementing the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS assay, a novel assay for the diagnosis of TB and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB directly from sputum specimens, in the Indian setting. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cross-sectional, blinded assessment of the MODS assay on 1036 suspected cases of pulmonary TB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients against the radiometric method, BD-BACTEC TB 460 system. Results: Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the MODS assay in detecting MTB among TB suspected patients were 89.1%, 99.1%, 94.2%, 95.8%, respectively. In addition, in the diagnosis of drug-resistant TB, the MODS assay was 84.2% sensitive for those specimens reporting MDR, 87% sensitivity for those specimens reporting INH mono-resistance, and 100% sensitive for specimens reporting RIF mono-resistance. The median time to detection of TB in the MODS assay versus BACTEC was 9 versus 21 days (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Costing 5 to 10 times lesser than the automated culture methods, the MODS assay has the potential clinical utility as a simple and rapid method. It could be effectively used as an alternative method for diagnosing TB and detection of MDR-TB in a timely and affordable way in resource-limited settings.

  3. Isothermal Aging Precipitate of TB17 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, X-Ray Diffraction(XRD and Optical Microscope(OMwere employed to investigate the aging precipitation behavior of a new type of ultra-high strength TB17 titanium alloy. The results show that during heat solution treated in the β phase field followed by aging the secondary α phase is nucleated, precipitated and grew on the β phase matrix,and the precipitated phase is lamellar structure which has burgers relation with the matrix. The secondary α phase content is increased rapidly and finally reach a steady-state as aging time increased and the final product of aging consists of α phase and β phase. there is a good linearity relationship between the content of secondary α phase and the hardness of age hardening. The TB17 titanium alloy isothermal phase transformation kinetics can be described by JMAK equation.

  4. Influence of Tb3+ Concentration on The Luminescent Properties of SrMoO4: Tb3+%Tb3+浓度对SrMoO4:Tb3发光性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关丽; 左金改; 刘冲; 孙明生; 刘海燕; 李旭; 杨志平; 傅广生

    2011-01-01

    Trivalent terbium (Tb3 + ) doped strontium molybdate (SrMoO4) was synthesized by sol-combustion method and the crystal structure and luminescent properties were investigated in this paper. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) showed that the phosphors sintered at 750 ℃ for 3 h were pure SrMoO4 phase. The excitation spectrum consisted of a broad band and a series of narrow bands, in which the higher energy peaks located at 288 nm and 375 nm, respectively. The emission spectrum was composed of four narrow bands and the strongest emission peak was located at 548 nm. The appropriate doping molar fraction of Tb3+ was 0.05 for the 548 nm emission. The concentration quenching of 548 nm (5D4→ F5) was attributed to d-d interaction. When the dosage of urea was 3 times of theory dosage, the luminescent intensity reached the maximum. The optimal sintering temperature and time were 750 ℃ and 3 h, respectively. These results showed that this Tb activated SrMoO4 was a promising green phosphor for ultraviolet (UV) and blue InGaN-based white LED.%采用溶胶-燃烧法合成了Tb3+掺杂的SrMoO4荧光粉并研究了它的发光性能.X射线衍射(XRD)显示,前驱物在750℃下灼烧3h得到的样品为纯相的SrMoO4.样品的激发谱由一宽带和一组窄峰组成,其中激发强度较强的峰位于288 nm和375 nm.发射谱由4组窄带组成,其中最强峰位于548 nm.对于548 nm(5 D4→7 F5)发射峰,最佳的TB3+掺杂摩尔分数为0.05,其浓度猝灭机理为Tb3+离子的电偶极-电偶极相互作用.当尿素用量为理论用量的3倍时,发光强度最强.最佳烧结温度为750℃,最佳烧结时间为3h.当Tb3+摩尔分数为0.05时,样品发光的CIE色坐标为(0.279 4,0.565 2).结果表明,Tb3+激活的SrMoO4是一种较好可应用于白光LED的紫外激发的绿光发光材料.

  5. Growth and characterization of TbAs films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberger, Cory C.; Tew, Bo E.; Lewis, Matthew R.; Zide, Joshua M. O.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of TbAs films. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and ex situ high resolution X-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy are used to confirm the complete film growth and study the films' morphology. Spectrophotometry measurements provide the energy of optical transitions, revealing a red shift in optical band gap with increasing thickness. The Hall effect measurements show temperature insensitive carrier concentrations, resistivities, and mobilities. The carrier concentration decreases and resistivity increases with increasing film thickness; mobility appears thickness independent. The films' reflectivity, obtained via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, shows a possible Drude edge that differs from the trend of other lanthanide monopnictides. These measurements show that TbAs is a degenerately doped semiconductor with a combination of electronic and optical properties that is dissimilar to other lanthanide monopnictides.

  6. Tuberculosis diagnostic delay and its influencing factors in counties with or without TB control programme in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Biao; Jiang Qingwu; Xiu Yan; Shi Suhong; Tang Jie

    2003-01-01

    @@ Rational: Early passive case finding based on good access to TB care is the cornerstones of effective TB control.The accessibility to TB care could be reflected by the diagnostic delay including the "Patient's delay" (from onset of symptoms to the first visit to a hospital), and the "Doctor's delay" (from the first hospital visit to obtaining TB diagnosis).

  7. First characterization of the CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to QuantiFERON-TB Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccioli, Elisa; Chiacchio, Teresa; Pepponi, Ilaria; Vanini, Valentina; Urso, Rocco; Cuzzi, Gilda; Barcellini, Lucia; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Goletti, Delia

    2016-12-01

    QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) is the new generation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). QFT-Plus includes TB1 and TB2 tubes which contain selected Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) peptides designed to stimulate both CD4 and CD8 T-cells. Aim of this study is the flow cytometric characterization of the specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to Mtb antigens contained within QFT-Plus. We enrolled 27 active tuberculosis (TB) patients and 30 LTBI individuals. Following stimulation with TB1 and TB2, antigen-specific T-cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Data were also correlated with the grade of TB severity. TB1 mainly elicited a CD4 T-cell response while TB2 induced both CD4 and CD8 responses. Moreover, the TB2-specific CD4 response was detected for both active TB and LTBI patients, whereas the TB2-specific CD8 response was primarily associated with active TB (p = 0.01). To our knowledge, we report the first characterization of the CD4 and CD8 T-cell response to QFT-Plus. CD8 T-cell response is mainly due to TB2 stimulation which is largely associated to active TB. These results provide a better knowledge on the use of this assay. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors to non-compliance with TB treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Flor de María Cáceres

    2004-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB),at present declared as a world emergency, faces a very importantobstacle for their control which is the abandonment of treatment. It´salso called “no compliance”, no adherence, or, simply, the “patientmisses his medication”. This has a serious consequences as forthe sick person,as wells as for the community, because the patientis not treated and the transmission chain continues; in addition,the bacteria may develops resistance to current medications. Thiswill Increases treat...

  9. Microscopic Study of Superdeformed Rotational Bands in 151Tb

    OpenAIRE

    Aouad, N. El; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Li, X.; Luo, W. D.; Molique, H.; Bouguettoucha, A.; Byrski, Th.; Beck, F.; Finck, C.; Kharraja, B.

    1996-01-01

    Structure of eight superdeformed bands in the nucleus 151Tb is analyzed using the results of the Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon cranking approaches. It is demonstrated that far going similarities between the two approaches exist and predictions related to the structure of rotational bands calculated within the two models are nearly parallel. An interpretation scenario for the structure of the superdeformed bands is presented and predictions related to the exit spins are made. Small but systemat...

  10. Evaluation of three refurbished Guralp CMG-3TB seismometers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The overall objective of testing the Guralp CMG-3TB refurbished seismometers is to determine whether or not the refurbished sensors exhibit better data quality and require less maintenance when deployed than the original Guralp CMG-3TBs. SNL will test these 3 refurbished Guralps to verify performance specifications. The specifications that will be evaluated are sensitivity, bandwidth, self-noise, output impedance, clip-level, dynamic range over application passband, verify mathematical response and calibration response parameters for amplitude and phase.

  11. PolyTB: A genomic variation map for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-02-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the second major cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Recent advances in DNA sequencing are leading to the ability to generate whole genome information in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The identification of informative genetic variants such as phylogenetic markers and those associated with drug resistance or virulence will help barcode Mtb in the context of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical studies. Mtb genomic datasets are increasingly available as raw sequences, which are potentially difficult and computer intensive to process, and compare across studies. Here we have processed the raw sequence data (>1500 isolates, eight studies) to compile a catalogue of SNPs (n = 74,039, 63% non-synonymous, 51.1% in more than one isolate, i.e. non-private), small indels (n = 4810) and larger structural variants (n = 800). We have developed the PolyTB web-based tool (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/polytb) to visualise the resulting variation and important meta-data (e.g. in silico inferred strain-types, location) within geographical map and phylogenetic views. This resource will allow researchers to identify polymorphisms within candidate genes of interest, as well as examine the genomic diversity and distribution of strains. PolyTB source code is freely available to researchers wishing to develop similar tools for their pathogen of interest. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV-associated TB syndemic: A growing clinical challenge worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Theresa Montales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of tuberculosis (TB with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions like Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations such as the United States (US. Active screening should be performed for tuberculosis in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for tuberculosis is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough and unintentional weight loss. HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear-microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc, Sunnyvale, USA. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends instituting immediate therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced antiretroviral therapy (ART. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority.

  13. Titan scan TB 10/15 operating performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, K.; Mendonsa, R.; Anamkath, H.; Gower, F.; Zante, A.

    1997-02-01

    June of 1993 marked the installation of Titan Beta's first commercially designed LINAC for the exclusive use of the sterilization of new medical products at its contract sterilization facility located in Denver, Colorado. This system, a 10 MeV, 10 kW RF Linac has been operating successfully, since that time, at its planned duty cycle of up to 7,000 hours per year. More recently, Titan commissioned its second sterilization facility, located in San Diego, California, in the past summer of 1995. This facility incorporates a Titan Beta Model TB-10/15 RF Linac, a design based on the Denver machine with upgrades that have addressed marketing requirements and Denver's operational data. In addition to the San Diego machine, Titan Beta has recently completed the installation and validation of an identical TB-10/15 Linac at the BSE Mediscan facility located in Austria. Both the San Diego and Austrian machines were assembled, tested and installed within 11-12 months after receipt of order, and were fully operational and ready for facility integration and commissioning within 2-3 weeks after arrival on-site. Due to the high duty cycle at which these machines operate, the customer quickly acquires an in depth understanding of their operating performance. Because of this, Beta maintains constant communication with the users and compiles and maintains maintenance logs to trend systems performance. This paper describes the TB 10/15's in the field and presents their operating performance.

  14. Comparison of bacteriological conversion and treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients with and without diabetes in Mexico: Preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrico, M; Caminero Luna, J; Migliori, G B; D'Ambrosio, L; Carrillo-Alduenda, J L; Villareal-Velarde, H; Torres-Cruz, A; Flores-Ergara, H; Martínez-Mendoza, D; García-Sancho, C; Centis, R; Salazar-Lezama, M Á; Pérez-Padilla, R

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City.

  15. Impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs in treatment-naive TB patients : a randomized cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saktiawati, Antonia M. I.; Sturkenboom, Marieke G. G.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Subronto, Yanri W.; Sumardi, [No Value; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant food intake influences pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs in healthy volunteers. However, in treatment-naive TB patients who are starting with drug treatment, data on the influence of food intake on the pharmacokinetics are absent. This study aimed to quantify the influence of

  16. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Alban, Rebecca E; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R; Oberhelman, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child's or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.

  17. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  18. Laser power density dependent energy transfer between Tm3+ and Tb3+: tunable upconversion emissions in NaYF4:Tm3+,Tb3+,Yb3+ microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaojie; Thitsa, Makhin; Cheng, Tonglei; Gao, Weiqing; Deng, Dinghuan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-11-14

    Energy transfer between Tm3+ and Tb3+ dependent on the power density of pump laser was investigated in NaYF4: Tb3+,Tm3+,Yb3+ microcrystals. Under the excitation of a 976-nm near-infrared laser at various power densities, Tb3+-Tm3+-Yb3+ doped samples exhibited intense visible emissions with tunable color between green and blue. The ratio of blue and green emission were determined by energy transfer between Tm3+ and Tb3+. When the power density of pump laser was low, the energy transfer process from Tm3+ (3F4) to Tb3+ (7F0) occurred efficiently. Upconversion processes in Tm3+ were inhibited, only visible emissions from Tb3+ with green color were observed. When the power density increased, energy transfer from the 3F4 (Tm3+) to 7F0 level (Tb3+) was restrained and population on high energy levels of Tm3+ was increased. Contribution of upconversion emissions from Tm3+ gradually became dominant. The emission color was tuned from green to blue with increasing the power density. Energy transfer processes between low-lying levels of activators, such as Tm3+ will greatly reduce the population on certain levels for further high-order upconversion processes. The Tb3+-Tm3+-Yb3+ doped phosphors are promising materials for detecting the condition of power density of the invisible near-infrared laser.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-05-06

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests.

  20. Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Addressing policy needs for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atre, Sachin R; Murray, Megan B

    2016-05-06

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB diagnosis and management in a careful review of the literature including a systematic review of studies on the prevalence of MDR-TB. Of 995 articles published during 2001-2016 and retrieved from the PubMed, only 20 provided data on the population prevalence of MDR-TB. We further reviewed and describe diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithms in use and endorsed by the Revised National TB Control Program of India. We discuss problems encountered in treating MDR-TB patients with standardized regimens. Finally, we provide realistic suggestions for policymakers and program planners to improve the management and control of MDR-TB in India.Journal of Public Health Policy advance online publication, 6 May 2016; doi:10.1057/jphp.2016.14.

  1. EXAFS investigation and luminescent properties of nanosized Tb: Lu2O3 phosphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN

    2010-01-01

    Nanosized terbium doped Lu2O3 phosphors were synthesized via a modified co-precipitation processing.The as-prepared Tb:Lu2O3 phosphors was consisted of well crystallized nanosized sphere particles with a diameter of about 30 nnx Local structure of Tb ions in Lu2O3 lattice was investigated by an analytical approach based on Fourier transformation of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure(EXAFS) data.X-ray near edge structure (XANES) spectra suggested that all Tb ions doped were tervalonce.EXAFS results indicated that Tb ions have entered the Lu2O3 cubic lattice by means of solid solution.The coordination number and first shell Tb-O distance dropped with the increasing of Tb concentration.Emission spectra of the phosphors was shown to be typical for Tb3+ with main components at 542,550 and 490 nm,derived from irradiative relaxation of 5D4 level.The emission intensity decreased severely with the increasing of Tb concentration from 1 mol.% to 15 tool.%,suggesting a significant concentration quenching above 1 mol.% Tb.The reduction of emission intensity was interpreted by higher distortion derived relaxation among the surface state resident Tb3+ ions.

  2. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Sandy, Charles; Masuka, Nyasha; Hazangwe, Patrick; Choto, Regis C; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Nkomo, Brilliant; Sibanda, Edwin; Mugurungi, Owen; Harries, Anthony D; Siziba, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35-4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10-1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44-2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22-0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

  3. Magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Isnard, O.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic ordering of Hf3Ni2Si3-type {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and {Tb, Ho}3Ni2Ge3 compounds (space group Cmcm, oC32) was investigated via magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction study in a zero-applied field. {Sm, Tb, Er}3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 exhibit field sensitive complex antiferromagnetic orderings with TN=51 K, Tm=10 K for Sm3Co2Ge3, TN=34 K, Tm=13 K for Tb3Co2Ge3, TN=7 K for Er3Co2Ge3 and TN=11 K for Ho3Ni2Ge3. At 2 K and above the critical field of 5 kOe, 20 kOe, 4 kOe and 7 kOe for Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3, respectively, saturation magnetizations per rare-earth atom are 6.5 μB for Tb3Co2Ge3, 7.0 μB for Er3Co2Ge3 and 8.0 μB for Ho3Ni2Ge3 in the field of 140 kOe, whereas magnetization of Sm3Co2Ge3 has an antiferromagnetic behaviour. The isothermal magnetic entropy change, ΔSm, indicates a field-induced ferromagnetic ordering in Sm3Co2Ge3, Tb3Co2Ge3, Er3Co2Ge3 and Ho3Ni2Ge3 with a maximal ΔSm value of -10.9 J/kg K for Ho3Ni2Ge3 at 11 K for a field change of 50 kOe. In a zero-applied magnetic field, below TN=33 K and down to TmND=15 K Tb3Ni2Ge3 shows an ac-antiferromagnetic ordering with the C2‧/c magnetic space group, a K0=[0, 0, 0] propagation vector and a aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×cTb3Ni2Ge3 magnetic unit cell. Below TmND=15 K, its magnetic structure is a sum of the ac-antiferromagnetic component with the C2‧/c magnetic space group of the K0 vector and a sine-modulated a-antiferromagnetic component of the K1=[0, 0, ±1/3] propagation vector (the magnetic unit cell is aTb3Ni2Ge3×bTb3Ni2Ge3×3cTb3Ni2Ge3). The magnetic structure is made from the 'Tb2 - 2Tb1‧ clusters of the Tb1 8f and Tb2 4c sublattices with a dominant role of the Tb2 sublattices in the magnetic ordering of Tb3Ni2Ge3.

  4. Correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and microstructure in TbFeCo and TbFeCo-SiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z; Zhou, S M [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jiao, X B [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2009-01-07

    Both TbFeCo and TbFeCo-SiO{sub 2} films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. At a film thickness of less than 75 nm, TbFeCo-SiO{sub 2} films have coercivity and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy larger than those of TbFeCo films and vice versa at a film thickness of more than 75 nm. This phenomenon can be attributed to enhancement in the degree of preferred orientation of TbFeCo grains. For these two series of samples, the magnetization reversal process is accompanied by the combination of pinned domain wall motion (DWM) and domain rotation. The weak pinning of DWM cannot be excluded.

  5. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtar Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC

  6. Processing of metacaspase 2 from Trypanosoma brucei (TbMCA2) broadens its substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Joyce M; Marcondes, Marcelo F; Ferrari, Débora; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor; Machado, Maurício F M

    2017-04-01

    Metacaspases are members of the cysteine peptidase family and may be implicated in programmed cell death in plants and lower eukaryotes. These proteases exhibit calcium-dependent activity and specificity for arginine residues at P1. In contrast to caspases, they do not require processing or dimerization for activity. Indeed, unprocessed metacaspase-2 of Trypanosoma brucei (TbMCA2) is active; however, it has been shown that cleavages at Lys(55) and Lys(268) increase TbMCA2 hydrolytic activity on synthetic substrates. The processed TbMCA2 comprises 3 polypeptide chains that remain attached by non-covalent bonds. Replacement of Lys(55) and Lys(268) with Gly via site-directed mutagenesis results in non-processed but enzymatically active mutant, TbMCA2 K55/268G. To investigate the importance of this processing for the activity and specificity of TbMCA2, we performed activity assays comparing the non-processed mutant (TbMCA2 K55/268G) with the processed TbMCA2 form. Significant differences between TbMCA2 WT (processed form) and TbMCA2 K55/268G (non-processed form) were observed. Specifically, we verified that although non-processed TbMCA2 is active when assayed with small synthetic substrates, the TbMCA2 form does not exhibit hydrolytic activity on large substrates such as azocasein, while processed TbMCA2 is able to readily digest this protein. Such differences can be relevant for understanding the physiological regulation and function of TbMCA2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

  8. Patient reported delays in seeking treatment for Tuberculosis (TB among adult and pediatric TB patients and TB patients co-infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Paz-Soldan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n=43, within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n=11. Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of tuberculosis symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention.Conclusions: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.

  9. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  10. MDR-TB Antibody Response (Western Blot) to Fractions of Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistant Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to control of TB worldwide. Despite progress in the detection of Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases, a major diagnostic gap remains: 55% of reported TB patients estimated to have MDR-TB were not detected in 2013. MDR-TB antigens were conjugated to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Specific polyclonal antibodies against MDR-TB Ags were prepared in rabbits using two boosted injections of the MDR-TB antigen. The antibodies were purified and treated with susceptible TB to remove any non-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. In the present study, comparative analysis of electrophoretic pattern of different antigens of INH/RIF-resistant TB were studied for identifying protein profiles. A RIF-resistant TB antigen was shown here to have different protein profiles from INH-resistant TB isolate. The results of Western blotting analysis showed that in the RIF- and INH-resistant antigenic fractions some bands of 14.4 and 45 kDa as immunogenic were common. Moreover, four bands of RIF-resistant TB antigen fractions (16, 19, 21, and 45 KDa) and one band of INH-resistant TB (about 26 KDa) were detected as diagnostic antigens. This study suggests that the Western blot is an accurate test to survey INH- and RIF-resistant TB antigens of M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate that MDR-TB diagnosis (based on Ag detection) could be useful in the identification of disease stages that precede symptomatic and microbiologically positive TB, such as subclinical and incipient TB.

  11. Analysis of Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inlfammatory Syndrome in HIV/TB Co-infected Patients During HAART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate the clinical features of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inlfammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in patients co-infected with HIV/TB or latent infection during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods HIV-infected patients treated in the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, China between March 2012 and March 2013 were recruited, and divided into 3 groups: 1) HIV/TB co-infection group (n = 50), 2) HIV/MTB latent infection group (n = 50), and 3) HIV infection group (n = 50), with 12-month follow-up. Patients in the HIV/TB co-infection group were treated with HAART 2 weeks after TB therapy. Patients were assessed at different time-points. ResultsThe incidence and mortality rates of TB-IRIS were 40% and 10% in the HIV/TB co-infected patients, and 2% (and no mortality) in the HIV/MTB group. The HIV infected group did not display TB-IRIS or death. About 95% HIV/TB co-infected patients were 20-39 years old when TB-IRIS occurred, and 65% of the patients developed TB-IRIS 2 weeks after HAART. For the co-infection group, those with TB-IRIS (20/20, 100%) had fever, with a signiifcantly higher incidence than those who did not develop TB-IRIS (6.7%, 2/30,P < 0.05). The patients with TB-IRIS in co-infection group displayed markedly higher clinical biochemical markers, acute phase reactants, increased CD4+ cell counts, and 2 log10-decreases of HIV RNA loads, compared with the patients not presenting with TB-IRIS (P < 0.05). Conclusion HIV/TB co-infected patients presented with a high-risk of developing TB-IRIS during HAART treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment could decrease mortality rates in TB-IRIS.

  12. Catching the missing million: experiences in enhancing TB & DR-TB detection by providing upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing for people living with HIV in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing.2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 29.4‒32.8 HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3 of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1 who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6‒11.8 and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7‒17.1 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3‒99.8, with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment.The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.

  13. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture....... METHODS: On seven occasions, from September 2012 through June 2014, we offered TB screening to all persons present at 11 locations where socially marginalised people gather in Copenhagen. Spot sputum samples from participants were examined by smear microscopy and culture. Genotype, nucleic acid......-positive and seven (19.4%) were smear-positive. Twelve out of 21 (57.1%) cases tested were nucleic acid amplification test positive. Twenty-eight (77.8%) had chest X-ray suggestive of TB. All patients with TB started treatment, 30 (83.3%) had a successful outcome. DISCUSSION: Screening for TB by spot sputum culture...

  14. Enhancement of Tb-Yb quantum cutting emission by inverse opal photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhaoyi; Zhou, Dacheng; Wang, Siqin

    2016-04-01

    Yb3+, Tb3+ co-doped YPO4 inverse opal photonic crystal was prepared directly by sol-gel technique in combination with self-assembly method. With the influence of the photonic band gap, quantum cutting emission of Tb3+, Yb3+ was investigated in photonic crystals by photoluminescence and fluorescence lifetime. The result clearly shows that, when the spontaneous emission of donor Tb3+ is inhibited by photonic band gap, Tb3+-Yb3+ quantum cutting quantum efficiency from Tb3+ to Yb3+ could be enhanced from 131.2% to 140.5%. The mechanisms for the influence of the photonic band gap on quantum cutting process of Tb3+ and Yb3+ are discussed. We believe that the present work will be valuable for the foundational study of quantum cutting energy transfer process and application of quantum cutting optical devices in spectral modification materials for silicon solar cells.

  15. Optical down-conversion in doped ZnSe:Tb3+ nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sandip; Mandal, Krishna C

    2013-02-07

    Rare earth (RE) Tb(3+)-doped high quality ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by a facile chemical hot-injection method. ZnSe:Tb(3+) nanocrystals exhibited broadband absorption below the first excitonic absorption peak. Photoluminescence spectra showed Tb(3+) emission lines in the visible spectral window at room temperature when excited by UV radiation below the band-edge of the host ZnSe nanocrystals. Our experimental results indicate optical down-conversion in these Tb(3+)-doped Zn-chalcogenide nanocrystals via energy migration from host ZnSe to the Tb(3+) dopant. The host-dopant energy transfer mechanism for this ZnSe:Tb(3+) nanocrystal system is correlated with the emission spectra.

  16. Nationwide HIV-, MDR-TB survey in Japan and collaborative study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshio; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Hideaki; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Telan, Elizabeth; Solante, Marietta B

    2016-12-01

    Although the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection in Japan is low, careful monitoring of these two diseases is necessary. We conducted a nationwide survey on multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB (2011-2013) and HIV-TB (2007-2014) to understand the mode of prevention and the effect of therapy. A study on MDR-TB and HIV in San Lazaro Hospital (SLH) in the Philippines was also conducted. These studies introduced an international collaborative study against the global epidemics of HIV-TB/MDR-TB. The nationwide survey of MDR-TB was done in hospitals that treat TB patients in Japan from 2011 to 2013. The HIV-TB survey has been done every year since 2007. Classic information such as chest X-ray (CXR) as well as computed tomography (CT) results for each patient were analyzed. Likewise, the presence of a cavity, involved segments, and patterns of parenchymal lesion were assessed. Finally, tentative diagnosis and disease activity, bronchogenic spread of the lesion with CT, and bronchiectasis were recorded. At SLH, sputa of suspected cases were subjected to GeneXpert testing and HIV testing was performed on all TB patients. In the nationwide MDR survey in Japan, 171 patients were diagnosed as pulmonary MDR-TB (0.2% of total Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Japan). Among them, 48 (28%) were foreigners and most were living in big cities. In Tokyo metropolitan areas, 27 out of 53 MDR-TB patients were foreigners: 13 were from China, 4 from the Philippines, and 3 from Myanmar. Thirty nine among 53 MDR-TB patients were cured or treatment was completed with favorable prognosis. Five deaths (9.4%) and six departures from Japan (11.3%) were noted. In the HIV-TB survey in National Hospitals, the HIV-positive rates on MTB were constantly low (0.23-0.46%) from 2007 to 2014. Among the reported 114 HIV-TB patients (0.37% of total MTB in National Hospitals), 17 were foreigners and 3 (2.6%) were MDR-TB cases (2 Chinese, 1 Japanese). Half of the HIV-TB patients have low CD4

  17. Strain-Modulated Exchange-Spring Magnetic Behavior in Amorphous Tb-Fe Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwan; Panduranga, Mohanchandra Kotekar; Han, Chang Wan; Ortalan, Volkan; Carman, Gregory Paul

    2017-08-01

    This paper studies the room-temperature exchange-spring magnetic behavior of amorphous TbFe films subjected to an applied strain. The cross-sectional composition measurement of the sputter-deposited TbFe film shows a compositional gradient through the thickness. The gradient is near the compensation composition of amorphous TbFe film producing a Tb-dominant region and a Fe-dominant region. The as-deposited film shows a two-step switching behavior with a negative coercive field, while an applied compressive (or tensile) strain eliminates (or enhances) the two-step switching behavior. The strain influence is attributed to the TbFe composition gradient and relatively large magnetoelastic property of the Tb-dominant region as compared to the Fe-dominant one.

  18. Preparation of DyFe2 and TbFe2 by Reduction-Diffusion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsi GUO; Guangtai WANG; Zhitong SUI

    2004-01-01

    The pure intermetallic compounds (Tb1-xDyx)Fe2 are super-magnetostriction materials, which were produced from DyFe2and TbFe2 in this paper. The thermodynamic possibility and kinetic feasible conditions for DyFe2 and TbFe2 preparation by reduction-diffusion in Ca-Dy2O3-Fe and Ca-Tb4O7-Fe systems were analyzed and the products of DyFe2 and TbFe2 were confirmed by XRD. The contracting core model was applied to describe the reduction-diffusion process in which the diffusion is a rate-controlled step. The apparent activation energies of DyFe2 and TbFe2 processes are 45 and 39 k J/mol respectively.

  19. Immunoendocrine Interactions during HIV-TB Coinfection: Implications for the Design of New Adjuvant Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Veronica Suarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, around 14 million individuals are coinfected with both tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In coinfected individuals, both pathogens weaken immunological system synergistically through mechanisms that are not fully understood. During both HIV and TB infections, there is a chronic state of inflammation associated to dramatic changes in immune cytokine and endocrine hormone levels. Despite this, the relevance of immunoendocrine interaction on both the orchestration of an effective immune response against both pathogens and the control of the chronic inflammation induced during HIV, TB, or both infections is still controversial. The present study reviews immunoendocrine interactions occurring during HIV and TB infections. We also expose our own findings on immunoendocrine cross talk in HIV-TB coinfection. Finally, we evaluate the use of adrenal hormones and their derivatives in immune-therapy and discuss the use of some of these compounds like the adjuvant for the prevention and treatment of TB in HIV patients.

  20. The frequency distribution of vitamin D Receptor fok I gene polymorphism among Ugandan pulmonary TB patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acen, Ester L.; Worodria, William; Mulamba, Peter; Kambugu, Andrew; Erume, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is still a major problem globally and especially in Africa. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to TB in the past and studies have found vitamin D deficiency to be common among Ugandan TB patients. The functional activity of vitamin D is dependent on the genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphic genes. Recent findings have indicated that VDR polymorphisms may cause increased resistance or susceptibility to TB. The vitamin D ligand and its receptor play a pivotal role in innate immunity by eliciting antimicrobial activity, which is important in prevention of TB. The fok I vitamin D receptor gene has extensively been examined in TB patients but findings so far have been inconclusive. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the frequency distribution of the VDR fok I gene polymorphisms in pulmonary TB patients and controls. Methods: A pilot case control study of 41 newly diagnosed TB patients and 41 healthy workers was set up. Vitamin D receptor fok I gene was genotyped. Results: The frequency distribution of fok I genotype in Ugandan TB patients was 87.8% homozygous-dominant (FF), 7.3% (Ff) heterozygous and 4.8% (ff) homozygous recessive. For normal healthy subjects the frequencies were (FF) 92.6%, (Ff) 2.4% and (ff) 4.8%. No significant difference was observed in the FF and ff genotypes among TB patients and controls. The Ff heterozygous genotype distribution appeared more in TB patients than in controls. A significant difference was observed in the fok I genotype among gender p value 0.02. No significant difference was observed in ethnicity, p value 0.30. Conclusions: The heterozygous Ff fok I genotype may be associated with TB in the Ugandan population.

  1. Luminescence properties of Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate scintillating glass under UV excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chenggang; Zhou, Zhihua; Zhu, Ligang; Xiao, Anguo; Chen, Yuandao; Zhang, Xiangyang; Zhuang, Yongbing; Li, Xiaoyang; Ge, Qizhi

    2015-08-05

    Transparent Li₂O-BaO-La₂O₃-Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂ glasses doped with Tb(3+) ion were prepared by high temperature melting method. Luminescence properties of Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glasses have been investigated by transmission, excitation, emission and luminescence decay measurements. The transmission spectrum shows the glass has good transmittance in the visible region. Under the 236 nm UV excitation the intense green emission from (5)D₄ level is observed in Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glass, comparable in intensity to the violet-blue emission starting from the (5)D₃ level. The green emission intensity of Tb(3+) ion firstly increases and then decreases with the decreasing B₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in glass matrix. (5)D₄→(7)FJ (J=6, 5, 4 and 3) transitions of Tb(3+) ion in borosilicate glass are greatly enhanced with increasing concentration of Tb(3+) through the cross relaxation [Tb(3+) ((5)D₃)+Tb(3+) ((7)F6)→Tb(3+) ((5)D₄)+Tb(3+) ((7)F₀)] between two Tb(3+) ions. Luminescence decay time of 2.13 ms is obtained for the emission transitions starting from (5)D₄ level in 2.5Li₂O-20BaO-20La₂O₃-2.5Al₂O₃-20B₂O₃-35SiO₂-0.5Tb₄O₇ glass. The results show that Tb(3+)-doped borosilicate glasses would be potential candidates for scintillating material for static X-ray imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scale-up of collaborative TB/HIV activities in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brian J; Peterson, Brandy; Mohanlall, Jeetendra; Singh, Shanti; Hicks, Collene; Jacobs, Ruth; Ramos, Ruth; Allen, Barbara; Pevzner, Eric

    2017-04-20

    To assess scale-up of recommended tuberculosis (TB)/HIV activities in Guyana and to identify specific strategies for further expansion. Medical records and clinic registers were reviewed at nine TB clinics and 10 HIV clinics. At TB clinics, data were collected on HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with TB/HIV; at HIV clinics, data were collected on intensified case finding (ICF), tuberculin skin test (TST) results, and provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). At TB clinics, among 461 patients newly diagnosed with TB, 419 (90.9%) had a known HIV status and 121 (28.9%) were HIV-infected. Among the 63 patients with TB/HIV, 33 (52.4%) received ART. Among the 45 patients with TB/HIV for whom dates of HIV diagnosis were available, 38 (84.4%) individuals knew their HIV status prior to TB diagnosis. At HIV clinics, among 127 patients eligible to receive a TST, 87 (68.5%) received a TST, 66 (75.9%) had a TST result, seven (10.6%) had a newly positive result, two had a previously positive result, and six of nine patients with positive results (66.7%) received IPT. ICF could not be assessed because of incomplete or discrepant documentation. An in-depth evaluation of TB/HIV activities successfully identified areas of success and remaining challenges. At TB clinics, HIV testing rates are high; further scale-up of ART for persons with TB/HIV is needed. At HIV clinics, use of TST to focus IPT is a feasible and efficient strategy; improving rates of annual TST screening will allow for further expansion of IPT.

  3. Role of t{sub 2g} electrons in Mn-Tb coupling of multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. Y. [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Wang, Y. L.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei, T. [College of Science, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300 (China)

    2014-08-14

    We investigate the effect of Cr-doping in polycrystalline TbMn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} (x ≤ 6%) ceramics on the magnetism, ferroelectricity, and dielectricity. The Cr substitution gradually suppresses the ferroelectricity induced by the Mn spiral spin ordering, and results in a stronger modulation of polarization by magnetic field with increasing x. However, the transition temperature T{sub Tb} corresponding to onset of Tb magnetic ordering has barely shifted with Cr doping. In other words, although the Cr-doping obviously disrupts the Mn spiral spin ordering, the exchange field J{sub Mn-Tb} acting on the Tb moments from the Mn-spin structure is hardly impacted. Our work demonstrates that the e{sub g} electron of Mn{sup 3+} plays an important role in forming the Mn spiral spin order, but the f-d exchange interaction between the Mn 3d spins and the Tb 4f moments in multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3} almost involves only the t{sub 2g} electrons.

  4. Comparison of interferon-γ release assays, QuantiFERON TB-GIT and T-Spot.TB, in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Igari, Hidetoshi; Akutsu, Naotake; Tsuyuzaki, Mizue; Aoyama, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Otsuki, Kazunori; Maruyama, Michihiro; Saigo, Kenichi; Suzuki, Kiminori; Yamagishi, Fumio

    2017-07-01

    Renal transplant recipients are at increased risk of reactivating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progressing to active tuberculosis (TB). This study was conducted in National hospital for tuberculosis and renal transplantation (RT) in Japan. The purpose is to compare two interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs), QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold in Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT(®).TB (TSPOT), in patients after renal transplantation for detecting latent TB infection (LTBI). Total 92 renal transplant recipients (median age 46 years, range 17-75) were prospectively enrolled, and QFT and TSPOT were concurrently examined. Total subjects were 92 patients (median age 46 years, range 17-75). The positive rate in QFT and TSPOT were 6.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-13.5) and 2.2% (95% CI 1.0-7.6), respectively. There was a significant difference in IGRAs positivity (P TB during median follow-up of 994 days. Neither QFT nor TSPOT reaches estimated TB infection rate in Japan, especially elderly recipients aged 60 year-old or more. Therefore, both IGRAs might underestimate LTBI owing to immune suppressive therapy and aging. Physicians for renal transplantation need to understand the characteristics of both IGRAs and pay attention to the possibility of developing active TB even in patients of negative IGRAs results. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of TbFe2 and TbCo2 in C15- laves phase: Spin-polarized DFT+U approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of materials are intimately related to their electronic band structure. Combining first- and second-principles calculations, we have obtained the transport properties for the spin-up and spin-down electrons of the laves phase TbFe2 and TbCo2 compounds. The unique band structure feature and the density of states at Fermi level (EF) promote the EF to a point where carriers are in energetic proximity to these features. The non-zero density of states at EF for the spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) electrons leads to unusual transport properties because both the (↑) and (↓) densities contributes to the states at EF. The parabolic bands in the vicinity of EF enhance the carriers mobility and hence the transport properties of TbFe2 and TbCo2. Calculations show that the spin-up/down transport coefficients are temperature-dependent. It has been found that TbCo2 possess larger Seebeck coefficient than that of TbFe2 and hence the power factor. The calculated Seebeck coefficient of TbCo2 agree well with the available experimental data.

  6. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum by Patho-TB kit in comparison with direct microscopy and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Selma, Walid; Ben-Kahla, Imen; Marzouk, Manel; Ferjeni, Asma; Ghezal, Samira; Ben-Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

    2009-11-01

    The usefulness of a new rapid diagnostic test (Patho-TB) using antibodies specific to mycobacterial antigens was evaluated for the rapid discrimination between pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and non-TB pulmonary diseases on sputa. One hundred sputa collected from 79 active TB patients and from 21 patients with non-TB pulmonary diseases (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were enrolled into the study and tested for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, Patho-TB kit, and Löwenstein-Jensen culture. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Patho-TB test were 95%, 100%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Patho-TB test is simple, quick, and easy to perform. Its sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value are satisfactory. Therefore, it could be used as a screening test in poorly equipped laboratories of TB endemic areas.

  7. Update on Immunological Test (Quantiferon-TB Gold) Contribution in the Management of Tuberculosis-Related Ocular Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, S; Bodaghi, B; Saadoun, D

    2017-07-12

    To clarify interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) contributions to intraocular tuberculosis management, according to related TB endemic prevalence. Despite extensive investigations, including IGRA, the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) is still challenging and remains mostly presumptive. According to the literature, it appears that management of suspected ocular TB differs significantly based on whether patients are from areas of high TB prevalence or from non-TB-endemic countries. The accuracy and final contribution of chest X-rays, tuberculin skin test and IGRA differ significantly according to low or high endemic TB areas. This work aims to review IGRA test outcomes in the light of these clinical and epidemiological settings. We therefore focused our analysis and its subsequent guidelines proposal based on the TB prevalence where the patient lives. We believe that distinct guidelines should be determined for managing patients with suspected ocular TB, first taking into consideration the relative TB prevalence.

  8. Prognostic value of interferon-γ release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas Stig; Lillebaek, Troels; Langholz Kristensen, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of interferon-γ release assays to predict the development of TB has been investigated in many studies, but few cases develop TB during follow-up limiting the generalisation of results. METHODS: We assessed QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) results from 15 980 Danish...... individuals and data on all TB cases in Denmark from 2005 to 2012 and determined the predictive value of the QFT for coprevalent TB (0-90 days after testing) and incident TB (>90 days). RESULTS: Coprevalent TB was diagnosed in 10.7% (183/1703) and 0.3% (38/13 463) cases with a positive and negative QFT......, respectively. For the QFT-positive cases, coprevalent TB was more frequent among persons 35  years (19.3% vs 7.2%, pTB, the positive and negative predictive values (PPV...

  9. Evaluation of TB Case Finding through Systematic Contact Investigation, Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Khaparde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Contact investigation is an established tool for early case detection of tuberculosis (TB. In India, contact investigation is not often conducted, despite national policy, and the yield of contact investigation is not well described. Objective. To determine the yield of evaluating household contacts of sputum smear-positive TB cases in Rajnandgaon district, Chhattisgarh, India. Methods. Among 14 public health care facilities with sputum smear microscopy services, home visits were conducted to identify household contacts of all registered sputum smear-positive TB cases. We used a standardized protocol to screen for clinical symptoms suggestive of active TB with additional referral for chest radiograph and sputa collection. Results. From December 2010 to May 2011, 1,556 household contacts of 312 sputum smear-positive TB cases were identified, of which 148 (9.5% were symptomatic. Among these, 109 (73.6% were evaluated by sputum examination resulting in 11 cases (10.1% of sputum smear-positive TB and 4 cases (3.6% of smear-negative TB. Household visits contributed additional 63% TB cases compared to passive case detection alone. Conclusion. A standard procedure for conducting household contact investigation identified additional TB cases in the community and offered an opportunity to initiate isoniazid chemoprophylaxis among children.

  10. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Dennis; Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities.In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. The content of this work is ©the authors or their employers. Design and branding are ©ERS 2016.

  11. The WHO's new End TB Strategy in the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Raviglione, Mario

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's new End TB Strategy 2016-2035 has evolved from previous global strategies to respond to old and new challenges and take advantage of new opportunities. It frames the global fight against TB as a development, social justice and human rights issue, while re-emphasizing the public health and clinical fundaments of TB care and prevention. In this commentary, we outline how TB prevention, care and control will both benefit from and contribute to the achievement of the new Sustainable Development Goals that were recently adopted at the United Nations.

  12. Digital health for the End TB Strategy: developing priority products and making them work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timimi, Hazim; Kurosinski, Pascal; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; Denkinger, Claudia; Isaacs, Chris; Story, Alistair; Garfein, Richard S.; do Valle Bastos, Luis Gustavo; Yassin, Mohammed A.; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Skrahina, Alena; Van Hoi, Le; Broger, Tobias; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hayward, Andrew; Thomas, Bruce V.; Temesgen, Zelalem; Quraishi, Subhi; von Delft, Dalene; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Weyer, Karin; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in response to a World Health Assembly Resolution requesting Member States to end the worldwide epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035. For the strategy's objectives to be realised, the next 20 years will need novel solutions to address the challenges posed by TB to health professionals, and to affected people and communities. Information and communication technology presents opportunities for innovative approaches to support TB efforts in patient care, surveillance, programme management and electronic learning. The effective application of digital health products at a large scale and their continued development need the engagement of TB patients and their caregivers, innovators, funders, policy-makers, advocacy groups, and affected communities. In April 2015, WHO established its Global Task Force on Digital Health for TB to advocate and support the development of digital health innovations in global efforts to improve TB care and prevention. We outline the group's approach to stewarding this process in alignment with the three pillars of the End TB Strategy. The supplementary material of this article includes target product profiles, as developed by early 2016, defining nine priority digital health concepts and products that are strategically positioned to enhance TB action at the country level. PMID:27230443

  13. Optimal Control for TB disease with vaccination assuming endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggriani, N.; Wicaksono, B. C.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the deadliest infectious disease in the world which caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease is spread through the air via the droplets from the infectious persons when they are coughing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has paid a special attention to the TB by providing some solution, for example by providing BCG vaccine that prevent an infected person from becoming an active infectious TB. In this paper we develop a mathematical model of the spread of the TB which assumes endogeneous reactivation and exogeneous reinfection factors. We also assume that some of the susceptible population are vaccinated. Furthermore we investigate the optimal vaccination level for the disease.

  14. Strategies for halting the rise of multidrug resistant TB epidemics: assessing the effect of early case detection and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Aquino L; Varughese, Marie; Laskowski, Marek; Shoukat, Affan; Heffernan, Jane M; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2017-03-01

    The increasing rates of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) have posed the question of whether control programs under enhanced directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS-Plus) are sufficient or implemented optimally. Despite enhanced efforts on early case detection and improved treatment regimens, direct transmission of MDR-TB remains a major hurdle for global TB control. We developed an agent-based simulation model of TB dynamics to evaluate the effect of transmission reduction measures on the incidence of MDR-TB. We implemented a 15-day isolation period following the start of treatment in active TB cases. The model was parameterized with the latest estimates derived from the published literature. We found that if high rates (over 90%) of TB case identification are achieved within 4 weeks of developing active TB, then a 15-day patient isolation strategy with 50% effectiveness in interrupting disease transmission leads to 10% reduction in the incidence of MDR-TB over 10 years. If transmission is fully prevented, the rise of MDR-TB can be halted within 10 years, but the temporal reduction of MDR-TB incidence remains below 20% in this period. The impact of transmission reduction measures on the TB incidence depends critically on the rates and timelines of case identification. The high costs and adverse effects associated with MDR-TB treatment warrant increased efforts and investments on measures that can interrupt direct transmission through early case detection.

  15. Dynamic parameters of Tb-Dy-Fe giant magnetostrictive alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白夏冰; 蒋成保

    2010-01-01

    Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.90 oriented rods were prepared by zone melting with unidirectional solidification.The magnetomechanical coupling factor(k33) was measured by magnetomechanical resonance under different DC bias fields up to 77.4 mT.An effective method was provided to calculate sonic velocity,elastic modulus and compliance constant through measuring resonate frequency(fr),and calculate dynamic magnetostriction(d33) via measuring magnetic permeability,magnetomechanical coupling factor(k33) and compliance co...

  16. Luminescence Properties of SrZrO3/Tb(3+) Perovskite: Host-Dopant Energy-Transfer Dynamics and Local Structure of Tb(3+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Ghosh, Partha Sarathi; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Pathak, Nimai; Arya, Ashok; Jha, Shambhu Nath; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Kadam, Ramakant Mahadeo

    2016-02-15

    SrZrO3 perovskite (SZP) was synthesized using gel-combustion route and characterized systematically using X-ray diffraction and time-resolved photoluminescence techniques. A detailed analysis of the optical properties of Tb(3+) ions in SrZrO3 was performed to correlate them with the local environment of the lanthanide ions in this perovskite. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed that emission spectrum consists of host as well as Tb(3+) emission indicating the absence of complete host-dopant energy transfer. On the basis of emission spectrum and PL decay study it was also observed that Tb(3+) is not homogeneously distributed in SrZrO3 perovskite; rather, it is occupying two different sites. It is corroborated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies that Tb(3+) is stabilized on both six-coordinated Zr(4+) and eight-coordinated Sr(2) site. The energies calculated using density functional theory (DFT) indicates that Tb occupation in Sr site is energetically more favorable than Zr site. The analysis of valence charge distribution also substantiated our structural stability analysis of site-selective Tb doping in SrZrO3. Time-resolved emission spectroscopy is employed to elucidate the difference in the spectral feature of Tb(3+) ion at Sr(2+) and Zr(4+) site. DFT-calculated density of states analysis showed that energy mismatch of Tb-d states with Zr-d and O-p states of SZP makes the energy transfer from host SZP to Tb(3+) ion difficult.

  17. Superconductivity of up to 80 K for Tb-123 - TbSr2Cu2.7Mo0.3O7

    OpenAIRE

    Awana, V. P. S.; Kishan, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E; WATANABE, T.; Karppinen, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Malik, S K; Yelon, W. B.; Ganesan, V; Narlikar, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    The Tb-123 phase has been synthesized in single-phase form with the composition TbSr2Cu2.7Mo0.3O7 by solid-state reaction route and its phase purity is confirmed by neutron powder diffraction experiments. As-synthesized sample does not show superconductivity down to 5 K. An unusually high antiferromagnetic ordering temperature (TN) of around 7 K is seen for Tb. After 120-atm-O2 post-annealing, bulk superconductivity is achieved in the compound at around 30 K, without any significant effect on...

  18. A survey of TB knowledge among medical students in Southwest China: is the information reaching the target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Ehiri, John; Li, Daikun; Luo, Xingneng; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis (TB) control in schools is a concern in low-income and middle-income countries with high TB burdens. TB knowledge is recognised as important for TB control in China, which has one of the highest TB prevalence in the world. Accordingly, National TB Control Guideline in China emphasised TB-health education in schools as one of the core strategies for improving TB knowledge among the population. It was important to assess the level of TB knowledge in schools following 5-year implementation of the guideline, to determine whether the information was reaching the targets. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods and study setting This survey assessed TB knowledge and access to TB-health information by questionnaire survey with 1486 undergraduates from two medical universities in Southwest China. Results Overall, the students had inadequate TB knowledge. Only 24.1%, 27.2% and 34.1% of the students had knowledge of TB symptoms of cough/blood-tinged sputum, their local TB dispensaries and free TB treatment policy, respectively. Very few (14.5%) had heard about the Directly Observed Therapy Short Course (DOTS), and only about half (54%) had ever accessed TB-health education information. Exposure to health education messages was significantly associated with increased knowledge of the five core TB knowledge as follows: classic TB symptoms of cough/blood-tinged sputum (OR (95% CI) 0.5(0.4 to 0.7)), TB modes of transmission (OR (95% CI) 0.4(0.3 to 0.5)), curability of TB (OR (95% CI) 0.6(0.5 to 0.7)), location and services provided by TB local dispensaries (OR (95% CI) 0.6(0.5 to 0.8)) and the national free TB treatment policy (OR (95% CI) 0.7(0.5 to 0.8)). Conclusions The findings pose the question of whether it is time for a rethink of the current national and global approach to TB-health education/promotion which favours promotion of awareness on World TB Days rather than regular community sensitisation efforts. PMID:24056486

  19. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Van't Hoog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.0-5.9, but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85-3.7. Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.97 per 10 years increase, and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.73. Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79. Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV

  20. Barriers and outcomes: TB patients co-infected with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chileshe, Muatale; Bond, Virginia Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerabilities that underlie barriers faced by the rural poor whilst trying to access and adhere to "free" antiretroviral treatment (ART) demand more attention. This paper highlights barriers that poor rural Zambians co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV and their households faced in accessing ART between September 2006 and July 2007, and accounts for patient outcomes by the end of TB treatment and (more sporadically) beyond October 2009. The analysis draws on findings from wider anthropological fieldwork on the converging impact of TB, HIV and food insecurity, focusing for the purpose of this paper on ethnographic case-studies of seven newly diagnosed TB patients co-infected with HIV and their six households (one household had two TB patients). Economic barriers included being pushed into deeper poverty by managing TB, rural location, absence of any external assistance, and mustering time and extended funds for transport and "special food" during and beyond the end of TB. In the case of death, funeral costs were astronomical. Social barriers included translocation, broken marriages, a sub-ordinate household position, gender relations, denial, TB/HIV stigma and the difficulty of disclosure. Health facility barriers involved understaffing, many steps, lengthy procedures and inefficiencies (lost blood samples, electricity cuts). By the end of TB treatment, outcomes were mixed; two co-infected patients had died, three had started ART and two had yet to start ART. The three on ART underwent a striking transformation in the short term. By October 2009, two more had died and three were doing well. The study advocates nutritional support and other material support (especially transport funds) for co-infected TB patients until ART is accessed and livelihood regained. More prompt diagnosis of TB and reducing steps and increasing the reach of the ART programme in rural areas are also recommended.

  1. TB in healthcare workers in the UK: a cohort analysis 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer A; Lalor, Maeve K; Anderson, Laura F; Tamne, Surinder; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Thomas, H Lucy

    2017-07-01

    To describe the burden of TB in healthcare workers (HCWs) in the UK and determine whether HCWs are at increased risk of TB due to occupational exposure. Retrospective cohort analysis of national UK TB surveillance and genotyping data between 2009 and 2013. The rate of TB in HCWs compared with non-HCWs to calculate incidence rate ratios stratified by country of birth. 2320 cases of TB in HCWs were notified in the study period, 85% were born abroad. The TB rate in HCWs was 23.4 (95% CI 22.5 to 24.4) per 100 000 compared with 16.2 (95% CI 16.0 to 16.3) per 100 000 in non-HCWs. After stratifying by country of birth, there was not an increased TB incidence in HCWs for the majority of countries of birth, including in the UK-born. Using combined genotyping and epidemiological data, only 10 confirmed nosocomial transmission events involving HCWs were identified between 2010 and 2012. Of these, only two involved transmission to patients. The lack of an increased risk of TB after stratifying by country of birth, and the very few transmission events involving nosocomial transmission in the UK suggests that TB in HCWs in the UK is not generally acquired through UK occupational exposure. The majority of cases in foreign-born HCWs are likely to result from reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) acquired abroad, and is not likely to be prevented by BCG vaccination in the UK. Testing and treatment of LTBI in HCWs with exposure to high TB burden countries should be the focus of occupational health prevention activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. TB/HIV risk factors identified from a General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka

    2014-01-01

    The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN.

  3. Incidence of tuberculosis and immunological profile of TB/HIV co-infected patients in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Maiyaki Musa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We obtained estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis (TB among patients receiving HIV Treatment. We also modeled the relationship between incident TB and change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. Methods: We analyzed the incidence of TB over 10 years from initiation of HIV treatment among 345 HIV treatment-naοve persons, who were enrolled in a cohort in Kano, Nigeria. We used Generalized Estimating Equation [GEE] to identify determinants of TB incidence and model the relationship between the occurrences of TB with change in CD4 count over the follow-up period. We created Kaplan-Meier curves stratified by anti-retroviral therapy (ART treatment failure status to examine the effect of first line ART treatment failure on occurrence of TB. Result: During the 10-year period, 47(13.62% had TB [incidence was 7.43 per (1,000 person year]. It is associated with decreasing age (OR = 0.98, female gender (OR = 0.83, being on first line ART other than AZT (OR = 0.87, poor adherence (OR = 1.25, change in ART regimen (OR = 2.3 and ART treatment failure (OR = 1.51. Odds of TB occurrence was also associated with CD4 increment at 10 years (OR = 0.99. Those with TB/HIV co-infection tend to have statistically significant shorter time to failing first line ART regimen compared to those with HIV infection alone. Conclusion: There was high incidence of TB in the studied HIV cohort with a deleterious effect on the outcome of ART treatment. There is need for early TB screening and re-screening among all HIV patients.

  4. Usefulness of interferon-γ release assay for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Lou, Yong-Liang; Wu, Zhong-Xiu; Jiang, Jin-Qin; Fan, Xing-Li; Wang, Li-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Xiang; Du, Peng; Yan, Jie; Sun, Ai-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Quick diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB are urgently needed in clinical diagnosis. Our research aims to investigate the usefulness of the interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. We performed TB antibody and TB-IGRA tests on 389 pulmonary TB patients (including 120 smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and 269 smear-negative pulmonary TB patients), 113 extra-pulmonary TB patients, 81 patients with other pulmonary diseases and 100 healthy controls. Blood samples for the TB-Ab test and the TB-IGRA were collected, processed, and interpreted according to the manufacturer's protocol. The detection ratio of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients and smear-negative pulmonary TB patients were 90.8% (109 of 120) and 89.6% (241 of 269), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of its performance between these two sample sets (P > 0.05). The detection ratio of positive TB patients and extra-pulmonary TB patients were 90.0% (350 of 389) and 87.6% (99 of 113), respectively, which was not significantly different (P > 0.05). In this work, the total detection ratio using TB-IGRA was 89.4%, therefore TB-IGRA has diagnostic values in smear-negative pulmonary TB and extra-pulmonary TB diagnosis.

  5. Fluctuating Behavior and Influential Factors in the Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis: e0103763

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Bao; Tao Li; Ni Diao; Yaojie Shen; Lingyun Shao; Ying Zhang; Shuihua Lu; Wenhong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    ...] release assay for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). However, research has not determined whether age or the use of an immune suppressive or anti-TB treatment influences this assay's ability to detect TB...

  6. Fluctuating Behavior and Influential Factors in the Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bao, Lei; Li, Tao; Diao, Ni; Shen, Yaojie; Shao, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Shuihua; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    ... release assay for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). However, research has not determined whether age or the use of an immune suppressive or anti-TB treatment influences this assay's ability to detect TB...

  7. Association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB is dependent on vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, A R; Leandro, A C C S; Anderson, S T; Newton, S M; Wilkinson, K A; Nicol, M P; Pienaar, S M; Skolimowska, K H; Rocha, M A; Rolla, V C; Levin, M; Davidson, R N; Bremner, S A; Griffiths, C J; Eley, B S; Bonecini-Almeida, M G; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-05-01

    Group-specific component (Gc) variants of vitamin D binding protein differ in their affinity for vitamin D metabolites that modulate antimycobacterial immunity. We conducted studies to determine whether Gc genotype associates with susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). The following subjects were recruited into case-control studies: in the UK, 123 adult TB patients and 140 controls, all of Gujarati Asian ethnic origin; in Brazil, 130 adult TB patients and 78 controls; and in South Africa, 281 children with TB and 182 controls. Gc genotypes were determined and their frequency was compared between cases versus controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were obtained retrospectively for 139 Gujarati Asians, and case-control analysis was stratified by vitamin D status. Interferon (IFN)-gamma release assays were also performed on 36 Gujarati Asian TB contacts. The Gc2/2 genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to active TB in Gujarati Asians, compared with Gc1/1 genotype (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.19-6.66; p = 0.009). This association was preserved if serum 25(OH)D was or =20 nmol.L(-1) (p = 0.36). Carriage of the Gc2 allele was associated with increased PPD of tuberculin-stimulated IFN-gamma release in Gujarati Asian TB contacts (p = 0.02). No association between Gc genotype and susceptibility to TB was observed in other ethnic groups studied.

  8. Tunable luminescence properties and energy transfer in LaAl₁₁O₁₈:Eu,Tb phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, M S; Puppalwar, S P; Dhoble, S J

    2016-05-01

    Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) singly doped and co-doped LaAl11O18 phosphors were prepared by a combustion method using urea as a fuel. The phase structure and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the prepared phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. When the content of Eu(2+) was fixed at 0.01, the emission chromaticity coordinates could be adjusted from blue to green region by tuning the contents of Tb(3+) ions from 0.01 to 0.03 through an energy transfer (ET) process. The fluorescence data collected from the samples with different contents of Tb(3+) into LaAl11O18: Eu, show the enhanced green emission at 545 nm associated with (5)D(4)-(7)F(5) transitions of Tb(3+). The enhancement was attributed to ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+), and therefore Eu(2+) ion acts as a sensitizer (an energy donor) while Tb(3+) ion as an activator. The ET from Eu(2+) to Tb(3+) is performed through dipole-dipole interaction. The ET efficiency and critical distance were also calculated. The present Eu(2+)-Tb(3+) co-doped LaAl11O18 phosphor will have potential application for UV convertible white light-emitting diodes.

  9. 46 CFR 38.10-10 - Cargo piping-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping-TB/ALL. 38.10-10 Section 38.10-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-10 Cargo piping—TB/ALL. (a) The piping shall be designed for...

  10. Heart failure and cardiogenic shock associated with the TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Schrueder, Neshaad; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Meintjes, Graeme

    2012-04-12

    Heart failure has not been described in the setting of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe a case of cardiogenic shock in the setting of TB-IRIS four weeks after commencement of antiretroviral therapy. Possible aetiologies and pathophysiology as well as suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  11. Instability of the Characteristic Emissions of Dopant Tb in ZnO Hexagonal Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bao-gai; Ma, Qing-lan; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2017-02-01

    Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids with the doping level of 0.1 mol.% were synthesized by thermal decomposing the mixture of zinc nitrate and terbium nitrate at 500°C in an air-filled furnace. The crystal structures and photoluminescent properties of Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer and photoluminescence excitation spectrophotometer. Four characteristic emission peaks of Tb3+ ions were recorded over the broad green luminescent band of ZnO, at 488 nm, 544 nm, 584 nm and 620 nm for Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids. The characteristic emissions of the rare-earth dopant in Tb-doped ZnO were found to be unstable when stored in air. The 544-nm emission of dopant Tb in ZnO lost 12%, 37%, 78%, and 100% of its original intensity after stored in air for 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 8 months, respectively. With the help of calculated band structures, our results suggest that the instability of the characteristic emissions of dopant Tb in ZnO can be attributed to the possible expulsion of Tb out of the ZnO host.

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-29 - Gas free-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas free-TB/ALL. 30.10-29 Section 30.10-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-29 Gas free—TB/ALL. The term gas free means free from dangerous concentrations of flammable or toxic gases. ...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-23 - Flame arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-23 Section 30.10-23 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-23 Flame arrester—TB/ALL. The term flame arrester means any device or assembly of a cellular, tubular...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-62a - Service spaces-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service spaces-TB/ALL. 30.10-62a Section 30.10-62a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-62a Service spaces—TB/ALL. Service spaces are spaces that are used for galleys, pantries containing...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-69 - Tank vessel-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank vessel-TB/ALL. 30.10-69 Section 30.10-69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-69 Tank vessel—TB/ALL. The term tank vessel means a vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that...

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-25 - Flame screen-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame screen-TB/ALL. 30.10-25 Section 30.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-25 Flame screen—TB/ALL. The term flame screen means a fitted single screen of corrosion-resistant wire of...

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-63 - Spark arrester-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spark arrester-TB/ALL. 30.10-63 Section 30.10-63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-63 Spark arrester—TB/ALL. The term spark arrester means any device, assembly, or method of a...

  18. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose-TB/ALL. 32.50-30 Section 32.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on...

  19. 46 CFR 32.50-3 - Cargo discharge-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo discharge-TB/ALL. 32.50-3 Section 32.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-3 Cargo discharge—TB/ALL. (a) Pumps or other...

  20. Kebutuhan Psikososial Keluarga yang Mempunyai Anggota Keluarga MenderitaTB Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Indyah Rachmawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available TB paru masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di Indonesia dan dunia. Upaya pengendalian TB paru menjadi perhatian dunia dan menjadi salah satu indikator dalam pencapaian tujuan pembangunan global. Peran keluarga dalam pengobatan TB paru sangat besar yaitu sebagai PMO, pemberi dukungan psikis dan menciptakan lingkungan yang sehat untuk mencegah penularan. Keluarga yang mempunyai anggota keluarga menderita TB paru sering mendapat stigma negatif sehingga bisa menyebabkan kegagalan dalam merawat pasien. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui gambaran kebutuhan psikososial keluarga yang mempunyai anggota keluarga menderita TB Paru di RS X. Jenis penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif dengan total sampling keluarga pasien TB Paru yang sedang dirawat sebanyak 57 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa seluruh responden membutuhkan kebutuhan psikososial yang meliputi kebutuhan interaksi sosial, emosi, pengetahuan dan spiritual. Kebutuhan psikososial yang paling banyak dibutuhkan adalah dalam hal pengetahuan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan sangat berpengaruh terhadap peran keluarga sebagai PMO dan dalam merawat anggota keluarganya yang menderita TB paru. Kebutuhan dengan nilai persentase tertinggi adalah dalam hal spiritual pada item adanya harapan untuk kesembuhan anggota keluarga yang menderita TB paru. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diharapkan RS X berupaya meningkatkan pemenuhan kebutuhan psikososial keluarga, dengan cara menambah frekuensi penyuluhan, mengembangkan metode pemberian informasi untuk menguatkan pengetahuan atas informasi yang diberikan, kemudahan konsultasi dengan teknik konseling dapat diberikan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan partisipasi keluarga dalam program pengobatan.

  1. High pressure behaviour of TbN: an X-ray diffraction and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.M.; Madsen, G.K.H.; Jorgensen, J.E.;

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, we report an X-ray powder diffraction study of TbN up to an applied hydrostatic pressure of 43 GPa. TbN was found to be stable in the 131 (NaCl structure) within the examined pressure interval, and the zero pressure bulk modulus was determined to be 176(7) GPa. The electronic...

  2. 46 CFR 39.10-13 - Submission of vapor control system designs-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of vapor control system designs-TB/ALL. 39.10-13 Section 39.10-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS General § 39.10-13 Submission of vapor control system designs—TB/ALL. (a) Plans, calculations, and...

  3. 46 CFR 35.30-5 - Fires, matches, and smoking-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires, matches, and smoking-TB/ALL. 35.30-5 Section 35... Rules § 35.30-5 Fires, matches, and smoking—TB/ALL. (a) General. In making the determinations required... reasonable safety during the loading operation. (c) Smoking. Smoking is prohibited on the weather decks...

  4. PROPORSI RESISTENSI GANDA (MDR TB PARU DI KABAUPATEN DAN KOTA PEKALONGAN BERDASARKAN SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Gitawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant (MDR on tuberculosis (TB becomes a threatening in the world, especially with the increasing of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Auto Immune Disease Syndroms (HIV/AIDS cases. And for Indonesia, this could become a new public health problem. The Global Surveillance data on anti-tuberculosis drugs showed the MDR varied 0% to 22.1%. Indonesia is one of Asian countries that has not contributed to MDR data because the Indonesia (TB Control Program has no accurate and neither recognized data. This research aimed to determine the proportion of MDR on TB. It was a cross sectional survey  on Micobacterium tuberculosis resistance anti-tuberculosis drugs conducted in Pekalongan District and Pekalongan Municipality. We examined 200 patients' sputum by sputum smears and who had clinically TB positive. They were from all Health Centers (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat that implemented the TB program by TB treatment with DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse strategy recommended in both areas,100% sampling  of diagnostic centers. Results showed the proportions of MDR on TB were relatively low, either 2. 1 % in Pekalongan District (Kabupaten or 4.3% in Pekalongan Municipality. The overall proportion of the MDR on TB in Pekalongan was 2.7%.   Key words:  tuberculosis, multi-drug resistant, anti-tuberculosis, Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse

  5. Spin structure and magnetic frustration in multiferroic RMn2O5 (R=Tb,Ho,Dy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G.R.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Park, S.; Hur, N.; Cheong, S-W.; Rodríguez-Carvajal, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the crystal and magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric materials RMn2O5 (R=Tb,Ho,Dy) using neutron diffraction as a function of temperature. All three materials display incommensurate antiferromagnetic ordering below 40 K, becoming commensurate on further cooling. For R=Tb,Ho, a

  6. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be...

  7. 46 CFR 30.10-62 - Self-propelled tank vessel-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-propelled tank vessel-TB/ALL. 30.10-62 Section 30.10-62 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-62 Self-propelled tank vessel—TB/ALL. Self-propelled tank vessel means a...

  8. Changes in cell-mediated immune response after lung resection surgery for MDR-TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Hong, Sunghee; Eum, Seok-Yong; Lee, In Hee; Shin, Donk Ok; Cho, Jang Eun; Cho, Sungae; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2011-07-01

    The immune responses of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients undergoing lung resection surgery were investigated in order to understand the mechanism of strong immune suppression in MDR-TB. We examined changes in cell-mediated immune response (CMI) of a total of sixteen MDR-TB patients, three of them extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients, after the removal of the heavily diseased lung section. The IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins (Mtb-CFP), one of the most important CMI to defend TB, showed a statistically significant elevation in 2-4 months after operation when compared to the preoperative CMI in patients who were converted into AFB negative and cured in two years' follow-up, suggesting that the recovery of CMI may be one of the key factors in the successful treatment of MDR-TB. Interestingly, IL-10 response to Mtb-CFP was also elevated in 2-4 months after surgery in cured patients although both proliferative response and PBMC composition were not significantly changed. Infection with first- or second-line drugs resistant Mtb reduces the efficiency of chemotherapeutic treatment of MDR-TB to about 50%. Thus, this study suggests that chemotherapeutic treatment of MDR-TB may be more effective when combined with accompanying therapy that increases CMI, includes lung resection surgery.

  9. TB/HIV integration at primary care level: A quantitative assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-02

    Sep 2, 2012 ... (13%) of the 8.8 million new TB cases globally were among people living with ... TB patients, activities included HIV counselling and testing. (HCT) ... progress has been made in implementation, targets of the ... diagnosis and treatment services, HCT, pre- ..... point-of-care – such as the Xpert MTB/RIF10 test ...

  10. Instability of the Characteristic Emissions of Dopant Tb in ZnO Hexagonal Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bao-gai; Ma, Qing-lan; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2016-10-01

    Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids with the doping level of 0.1 mol.% were synthesized by thermal decomposing the mixture of zinc nitrate and terbium nitrate at 500°C in an air-filled furnace. The crystal structures and photoluminescent properties of Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer and photoluminescence excitation spectrophotometer. Four characteristic emission peaks of Tb3+ ions were recorded over the broad green luminescent band of ZnO, at 488 nm, 544 nm, 584 nm and 620 nm for Tb-doped ZnO hexagonal pyramids. The characteristic emissions of the rare-earth dopant in Tb-doped ZnO were found to be unstable when stored in air. The 544-nm emission of dopant Tb in ZnO lost 12%, 37%, 78%, and 100% of its original intensity after stored in air for 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 8 months, respectively. With the help of calculated band structures, our results suggest that the instability of the characteristic emissions of dopant Tb in ZnO can be attributed to the possible expulsion of Tb out of the ZnO host.

  11. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  12. 46 CFR 30.10-39 - Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied flammable gas-TB/ALL. 30.10-39 Section 30.10-39 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-39 Liquefied flammable gas—TB/ALL. The term liquefied flammable gas means any flammable gas...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is manned...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-21 - Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flammable or inflammable-TB/ALL. 30.10-21 Section 30.10-21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-21 Flammable or inflammable—TB/ALL. The words flammable and inflammable are interchangeable or...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-1 - Definition of terms-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of terms-TB/ALL. 30.10-1 Section 30.10-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-1 Definition of terms—TB/ALL. Certain terms used in the regulations in this subchapter are defined in this...

  16. A configurable FPGA FEC unit for Tb/s optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Larsen, Knud J.; Bering Bøgh, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Decoding of FEC (forward error correction) for optical communication beyond 1 Tb/s is investigated. A configurable single FPGA solution is presented having configurations supporting bit-rates in the range from 40 Gb/s to 1.6 Tb/s. The design allows for trade-offs of bit-rate, footprint, and latency...

  17. 46 CFR 35.30-20 - Emergency equipment-TB/ALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency equipment-TB/ALL 35.30-20 Section 35.30-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS General Safety Rules § 35.30-20 Emergency equipment—TB/ALL (a) Two emergency outfits, stored for use in widely separated...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-59 - Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reid vapor pressure-TB/ALL. 30.10-59 Section 30.10-59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-59 Reid vapor pressure—TB/ALL. The term Reid vapor pressure means the vapor pressure of a liquid at a...

  19. 46 CFR 30.01-5 - Application of regulations-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of regulations-TB/ALL. 30.01-5 Section 30.01-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Administration § 30.01-5 Application of regulations—TB/ALL. Note: 33 CFR subchapter O (parts 151 through 157...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-57 - Recognized classification society-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society-TB/ALL. 30.10-57 Section 30.10-57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-57 Recognized classification society—TB/ALL. The term recognized classification society...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-9 - Classification requirements-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification requirements-TB/ALL. 30.10-9 Section 30.10-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-9 Classification requirements—TB/ALL. The term classification requirements means...

  2. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PERILAKU PENCEGAHAN DAN KEPATUHAN BEROBAT PENDERITA TB DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Edi Widya Sukoco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia constitutes the third highest of Tuberculosis (TB cases after India and China. One of the problem in TB control is still low of drug treatment compliance of TB patients. The objective of this study was to know the relationship between TB disease prevention behaviors with treatment compliance of TB patients in Indonesia. Methods: Data explored from National Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2010. The data is designed to represent provinces. Design of study is cross sectional. The population is all respondents of Riskesdas 2010, while samples were chosen aged > 5 years with Pulmonary TB, particularly the TB patients who was received medication and treated by health facilities. The number of samples are all 968 patients. Interviews were conducted by skilled interviewers. Data were processed by SPSS 15 version. Results: The behavior of respondents drying the wrong mattress have risk non-compliant treatment about 1. 64 compared with the behavior of respondents drying the right mattress (OR = 1. 64; P = 0.001; confidence interval (CI=1. 21-2.22. Likewise, low education has risk non-compliant treatment in the amount of 1.62 compared with highly educated respondents (OR= 1.62; P = 0.005; confidence interval (CI = 1.15-2.27. Conclusion: The updated data signify that analysis of drug adherence TB patients will show significantly in correlation between drug adherence with level of education, and behaviour of dry mattress. Key words: drug compliance, preventive behavior. tuberculosis

  3. Sensitization of Tb3+ Luminescence in NaGdSiO4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiliaan, H.S.; Herwijnen, S.P. van; Blasse, G.

    1987-01-01

    The luminescence properties of the system Na(Gd,S,Tb)SiO4 (S = Ce3+ or Bi3+) are reported, for the orthorhombic olivine modification as well as for the tetragonal NaF-stabilized modification. The Tb3+ luminescence can be sensitized by Ce3+, Gd3+ or Bi3+. The efficiencies of the several processes are

  4. Novel trichromatic phosphor Co-doped with Eu, Tb in SiO2 gel matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU XiaoYun; FAN Jun; LI Ting; ZHANG DeKai; BAI JinTao; REN ZhaoYu; HOU Xun

    2007-01-01

    The Eu, Tb co-doped SiO2 matrix tricolor fluorescence system was prepared by sol-gel technique. Red emission at 618 nm, green emission at 543 nm and blue emission at 350-500 nm were observed in the PL spectra of the sample, indicating that Eu3+, Eu2+ and Tb3+ ions coexisted in the matrix. In the co-doped sample, the blue emission of Eu2+ was much stronger than that of the sample single doped with Eu, which implied that the electron transfer between Eu3+ and Tb3+ maybe happened in the SiO2 matrix. The influences of the annealing temperature and Tb concentration on the PL spectra of the samples were investigated. The optimal doped concentration of Tb was determined to be 0.2% and the optimal annealing temperature 850℃. Annealed at 600℃, Tb3+ had a sensitizing effect on Eu3+ in the SiO2 matrix, and the emission intensity of Eu3+ in the Eu, Tb co-doped sample was more than four times that of the single doped sample, which could be attributed to the energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+.

  5. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the

  6. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available to further elucidate the wurtzitic structure of the prepared samples. PL study revealed that among different Tb(sup3+) concentrations, 0.5 mol% Tb(sup3+) doped ZnO nanoparticles showed clear emission from the dopant originating from the 4f–4f intra...

  7. 46 CFR 32.20-10 - Flame arresters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flame arresters-TB/ALL. 32.20-10 Section 32.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Installations § 32.20-10 Flame arresters—TB/ALL. Flame arresters must be of a type...

  8. Sensitization of Sn2+ on Tb3+ luminescence for deep UV excitation in phosphate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Li; Yang Wang; Duojin Wang; Jian Qi; Fanshu Xia; Huidan Zeng; Guorong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Tb3+ and Sn2+ co-doped strontium phosphate glasses are prepared and their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties for deep UV excitation are investigated.With the co-doped Sn2+ ions,Tb3+ keeps the original PL behaviors under near UV excitation while its PL action for deep UV excitation is enhanced tremendously.PL emission and excitation spectra demonstrate the sensitization role of Sn2+ on the Tb3+ emissions for deep UV excitation that is associated with the strong deep UV absorption of Sn2+ for greatly enhancing the resonance of the Tb3+ excitation with the deep UV light source.The decay curves of Sn2+ and Tb3+ emissions for both singly doped and co-doped samples are single exponentially well fitted with almost the same emission lifetime (τ) values in the microsecond and millisecond time regimes,respectively,confirming that Sn2+ and Tb3+ act as an independent activator in the present phosphate glass matrix while an involved energy transfer from Sn2+ to Tb3+ is radiative.Moreover,Sn2+ and Tb3+ can be co-excited with deep UV light to emit tunable light from blue to green with the definite CIE chromaticity coordinate for different applications.

  9. 46 CFR 38.10-1 - Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valves to close in case of fire. The quick-closing shutoff valves shall be capable of local manual... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves, fittings, and accessories-TB/ALL. 38.10-1... GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-1 Valves, fittings, and accessories—TB...

  10. Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    1 Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 Daniel F . Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion...Comments and Position Regarding the Proposed TB 700-2 Rewrite Dated June 2007 Daniel F . Schwartz Air Force Research Laboratory Propulsion Directorate

  11. Retooling national TB control programmes (NTPs with new diagnostics: the NTP perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne C van Kampen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A delay is evident between the development of new policies on TB diagnostics and their implementation at country level. The Stop TB Partnership would benefit from information from national TB program (NTP managers on progress towards implementation of new recommendations as well as the opportunities and challenges encountered in the process. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To solicit information on the introduction of new TB diagnostics at country level, questionnaires were sent out to NTP managers of high-burden TB countries and a subset of managers was interviewed. The results indicate that about 50% of high-burden TB countries are using the TB diagnostic tools newly recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. Most NTP managers reported that new diagnostics would only be implemented when officially endorsed by the WHO. All countries have plans to adopt newly endorsed diagnostics at reference laboratory level, while approaches to optimize smear microscopy at lower levels of the health service are given less attention. NTP managers reported diverse challenges to the implementation of new diagnostics. CONCLUSIONS: More information on the obstacles and advantages of introducing new diagnostic tools should be provided to NTP managers to ensure the rational adoption of new diagnostics. A single recommendation covering the introduction of a package of diagnostic tools might be preferable to NTP managers and facilitate implementation in high-burden TB countries.

  12. Are TB control programmes in South Asia ignoring children with disease? A situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Qamar, Farah Naz; Mir, Fatima; Zaidi, Anita; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-02-01

    Paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has long been an evasive entity for public health practitioners striving to control the disease. Owing to difficulty in diagnosis of paediatric TB, incidence estimates based on current case detection fall short of actual rates. The four high-burden countries in South Asia (SA-HBC)-Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh-alone account for >75% of missed TB cases worldwide. It follows that these countries are also responsible for a large although unmeasured proportion of missed paediatric cases. In view of current Millennium Development Goals recommending a scale-up of paediatric TB detection and management globally, there is a dire need to improve paediatric TB programmes in these high-burden countries. Inherent problems with diagnosis of paediatric TB are compounded by programmatic and social barriers in SA-HBC. We have reviewed the current situation of TB control programmes in SA-HBC countries based on published statistics and performed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats situational analysis with a view towards identifying critical issues operant in the region posing barriers to improving paediatric TB control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and...

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-42 - Machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-42 Section 30.10-42...-42 Machinery space—TB/ALL. The term machinery space means any space that contains machinery and related equipment including Category A machinery spaces, propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel...

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-19a - Control space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control space-TB/ALL. 30.10-19a Section 30.10-19a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-19a Control space—TB/ALL. The term control space means an enclosed space in which is located a...

  17. Photoluminescence of Tb-doped MgAl-LDHs depending on phase transition caused by annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉凤; 鲍垚; 余志鹏; 杨广超; 王肖庆

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented the photoluminescence of Tb-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Tb-doped MgAl-LDHs) de-pending on phase transition caused by annealing. Tb-doped MgAl-LDHs structure transformed from hexagonal LDHs, cubic MgO to spinel MgAl2O4 phase as temperature varied from 200 to 1000 °C. Emission and excitation spectra of Tb-doped MgAl-LDHs obvi-ously changed with phase transformation. The emissions of Tb3+ ions attributed to5D4→7FJ transitions (J=3, 4, 5, 6) were observed in the emission spectra of all the Tb-doped samples. The ratio of (5D4→7F5)/(5D4→7F6) emission intensity, which was sensitive to sur-roundings of Tb3+ ion, markedly enhanced with temperature rising to 600 from 400 °C. Over 600 °C, the ratio of (5D4→7F5)/ (5D4→7F6) intensity tended to decreasing up to 1000 °C. The change concerning the ratio of the (5D4→7F5)/(5D4→7F6) emission in-tensity might be due to various surroundings of Tb3+ induced by phase transformation.

  18. Pulmonary Immune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Gamma Responses in HIV-Infected Individuals with Active Tuberculosis (TB in an Area of High TB Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buldeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data on the pulmonary immune-compartment interferon gamma (IFNγ response to M. tuberculosis, particularly in settings of high tuberculosis (TB prevalence and in HIV-coinfected individuals. This data is necessary to understand the diagnostic potential of commercially available interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs in both the pulmonary immune-compartment and peripheral blood. We used intracellular cytokine staining by flow cytometry to assess the IFNγ response to purified protein derivative (PPD and early secretory antigen 6 (ESAT6 in induced sputa (ISp and blood samples from HIV-infected, smear-negative, TB suspects. We found that individuals with active TB disease produced significantly less IFNγ in response to PPD in their induced sputa samples than individuals with non-active TB (control group. This difference was not reflected in the peripheral blood, even within the CD27− CD4+ memory T lymphocyte population. These findings suggest that progression to active TB disease may be associated with the loss of IFNγ secretion at the site of primary infection. Our findings highlight the importance of studying pulmonary immune-compartment M. tuberculosis specific responses to elucidate IFNγ secretion across the spectrum of TB disease.

  19. How do patients who fail first-line TB treatment but who are not placed on an MDR-TB regimen fare in South India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Burugina Nagaraja

    Full Text Available SETTING: Seven districts in Andhra Pradesh, South India. OBJECTIVES: To a determine treatment outcomes of patients who fail first line anti-TB treatment and are not placed on an multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB regimen, and b relate the treatment outcomes to culture and drug susceptibility patterns (C&DST. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using routine programme data and Mycobacterium TB Culture C&DST between July 2008 and December 2009. RESULTS: There were 202 individuals given a re-treatment regimen and included in the study. Overall treatment outcomes were: 68 (34% with treatment success, 84 (42% failed, 36 (18% died, 13 (6.5% defaulted and 1 transferred out. Treatment success for category I and II failures was low at 37%. In those with positive cultures, 81 had pan-sensitive strains with 31 (38% showing treatment success, while 61 had drug-resistance strains with 9 (15% showing treatment success. In 58 patients with negative cultures, 28 (48% showed treatment success. CONCLUSION: Treatment outcomes of patients who fail a first-line anti-TB treatment and who are not placed on an MDR-TB regimen are unacceptably poor. The worst outcomes are seen among category II failures and those with negative cultures or drug-resistance. There are important programmatic implications which need to be addressed.

  20. LiZnPO4:Tb3+ ,Ce3+ green phosphors with high efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Chunmei; MA Shuai; RAO Yang; ZHOU Xinmu; ZHOU Xuezhen; LI Yongxiu

    2012-01-01

    Tb3+ and Ce3+ co-activated LiZnPO4 phosphors with high luminescence efficiency were synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction at 1000 C for 3 h.The XRD patterns,photoluminescence spectra and SEM were recorded and the effects of Tb3+ and Ce3+ concentration,sintering condition on the luminescent properties of as-synthesized phosphors were investigated.The emission spectra under ultraviolet (200-300 um) radiation showed a dominant peak at 543 nm attributed to the 5D4→7F5 transition of Tb3+,which was greatly enhanced by the co-doping of Ce3+,indicating that there occurred an efficient non-radiative energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+.The optimal doping concentrations of Tb3+ and Ce3+ were determined to be 9% and 10%,respectively.

  1. The normal and inverse magnetocaloric effect in RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X. Q.; Xu, Z. Y.; Zhang, B.; Hu, F. X.; Shen, B. G.

    2017-01-01

    Orthorhombic polycrystalline RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds were synthesized and the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) were investigated in detail. All of the RCu2 compounds are antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered. As temperature increases, RCu2 compounds undergo an AFM to AFM transition at Tt and an AFM to paramagnetic (PM) transition at TN. Besides of the normal MCE around TN, large inverse MCE around Tt was found in TbCu2 compound. Under a field change of 0-7 T, the maximal value of inverse MCE is even larger than the value of normal MCE around TN for TbCu2 compound. Considering of the normal and inverse MCE, TbCu2 shows the largest refrigerant capacity among the RCu2 (R=Tb, Dy, Ho and Er) compounds indicating its potential applications in low temperature multistage refrigeration.

  2. Preparation of transparent conductive ZnO:Tb films and their photoluminescence properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ze-Bo; Tan Yong-Sheng; Liu Xue-Qin; Yang Ying-Hu; Wang Yin-Yue

    2004-01-01

    Tb-doped Zinc oxide (ZnO:Tb) films were prepared by RF reactive magnetron sputtering of a Zn target withsome Tb-chips attached. The results show that the appropriate Tb ions incorporated into ZnO films can improve the structural and electrical properties of ZnO films. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the characteristic emission lines correspond to the intra-4fn-shell transitions in Tbs+ ions at room temperature. Under the optimal conditions, the ZnO:Tb films were prepared with the lowest resistivity (ρ) of 9.34 × 10-4Ωcm, transmittance over 80% at the visible region and the strong blue emission.

  3. Developing a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Outcomes of Good Participatory Practices in TB Clinical Drug Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Eley, Natalie T; Frick, Mike; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Chou, Alicia; Seidel, Stephanie S; Hannah, Stacey; Hamilton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical research. Though the need for such strategies is clear, evaluation of the benefits and burdens are needed. Working with a diverse group of global TB stakeholders including advocates, scientists, and ethicists, we used a Theory of Change approach to develop an evaluation framework for GPP-TB that includes a clearly defined ethical goal, a set of powerful strategies derived from GPP-TB practices for achieving the goal, and outcomes connecting strategies to goal. The framework is a first step in systematically evaluating participatory research in clinical trials.

  4. [Duties of TB patients or suspected patients and their close relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2015-01-01

    The effective laws impose the duty upon TB patients or persons suspected to have TB as well as their close relations to undergo compulsory sanitary and epidemiological examinations. Furthermore, treatment is also mandatory and in case of infective patients hospitalization and isolation. Duty does not however denote enforcement, which is required in certain particularly dangerous infectious diseases. Poland operates a system of mandatory TB vaccination applicable, today, only to infants. Persons suspected of TB have the obligation to provide necessary information helping in diagnosing the disease or helping to find the source of infection and transmission of the disease. TB patients are under obligation to discontinue performing their work to prevent the disease from spreading to other persons.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denti, Paolo; Jeremiah, Kidola; Chigutsa, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to lower-than-therapeutic levels of anti-tuberculosis drugs is likely to cause selection of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment failure. The first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) regimen consists of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, and correct...... management reduces risk of TB relapse and development of drug resistance. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of standard of care plus nutritional supplementation versus standard care on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol among sputum smear positive TB patients...... with and without HIV. In a clinical trial in 100 Tanzanian TB patients, with or without HIV infection, drug concentrations were determined at 1 week and 2 months post initiation of anti-TB medication. Data was analysed using population pharmacokinetic modelling. The effect of body size was described using...

  6. Vaccines for TB: Lessons from the Past Translating into Future Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gee Jun Tye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of vaccines for infectious diseases has come a long way with recent advancements in adjuvant developments and discovery of new antigens that are capable of eliciting strong immunological responses for sterile eradication of disease. Tuberculosis (TB that kills nearly 2 million of the population every year is also one of the highlights of the recent developments. The availability or not of diagnostic methods for infection has implications for the control of the disease by the health systems but is not related to the immune surveillance, a phenomenon derived from the interaction between the bacteria and their host. Here, we will review the immunology of TB and current vaccine candidates for TB. Current strategies of developing new vaccines against TB will also be reviewed in order to further discuss new insights into immunotherapeutic approaches involving adjuvant and antigens combinations that might be of potential for the control of TB.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denti, Paolo; Jeremiah, Kidola; Chigutsa, Emmanuel;

    2015-01-01

    allometric scaling, and the effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, age, sex, CD4+ count, weight-adjusted dose, NAT2 genotype, and time on TB treatment were investigated. The kinetics of all drugs was well characterised using first-order elimination and transit compartment absorption, with isoniazid...... management reduces risk of TB relapse and development of drug resistance. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of standard of care plus nutritional supplementation versus standard care on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol among sputum smear positive TB patients...... with and without HIV. In a clinical trial in 100 Tanzanian TB patients, with or without HIV infection, drug concentrations were determined at 1 week and 2 months post initiation of anti-TB medication. Data was analysed using population pharmacokinetic modelling. The effect of body size was described using...

  8. Concordant or discordant results by the tuberculin skin test and the quantiFERON-TB test in children reflect immune biomarker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhanasekaran, S; Jenum, S; Stavrum, R

    2014-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-In-tube (QFTGIT) are adjunctive tests used in the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Neither test can rule out TB; however, a positive test usually triggers preventive treatment in TB contacts aged ...-endemic region with routine neonatal BCG vaccination) who were referred to a TB case verification ward on suspicion of TB. Two hundred and ten children aged

  9. FEATURES OF ADOLESCENTS TUBERCULOSIS AT A REFERRAL TB'S HOSPITAL IN TEHRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferial Lotfian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify the pattern of the clinical, radiological, diagnostic procedures and loss to follow -up of the diagnosed cases of active tuberculosis (TB adolescents. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 143 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with tuberculosis who were admitted TB wards of National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March2011. RESULTS: Of the 143 patients identified, 62.9% were females. Median age of the patients was 16 years. The contact source was identified in 47.5%.The most common presenting symptom was cough (86%.Isolated pulmonary TB (PTB was detected in 113 patients (79%, 21 patients (14.7% had extrapulmonary TB(EPTB, and 9 patients (6.3% had PTB and EP TB .The most common site of  EPTB was pleural (14% .The most common radiographic finding was infiltration (61%.Positive acid fast smears were seen in 67.8%.Positive cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis(M. TB were seen in 31.6%. Positive PCR results were seen in 60%.The adolescents aged 15 to 18 years were more likely to lose weight (p=0.001, smear positive (p=0.002and have positive PCR results (p=0.009. The type of TB (p=0.017 was a significant factor influencing loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with the high rate of positive sputum smear results and the high treatment default rate are more likely to increase risk for TB transmission to the community. The TB control programs should pay more attention to prevention and treatment of TB in adolescents.     Key words: adolescents, tuberculosis, Lost to follow-up, prevention

  10. Tunable emission and concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} in magnesium phosphate lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Mingming; Zhang, Dongyun, E-mail: dyz@sit.edu.cn; Chang, Chengkang

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • It is very likely the first time to realize tunable emission using Tb{sup 3+} as emitting centers. • Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4} with colorful emissions are obtained by simply adjusting the Tb concentration. • The energy transfer method is implied by calculating the index of electric multipole interaction. • Either the dipole–dipole or exchange interaction method is proposed for each emission. - Abstract: Tunable photoluminescence of Tb{sup 3+}-doped LiMgPO{sub 4} (Tb{sup 3+}:LiMgPO{sub 4}) phosphors with different Tb{sup 3+} concentrations are successfully synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction routine. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectroscope (PLS) are employed to characterize the phosphors. It is found that a suitable firing temperature is important for the synthesis of the phosphors, and pure phase material can only be obtained around 900 °C. PL spectra reveals typical {sup 5}D{sub 4} to {sup 7}F{sub j} energy transition of Tb{sup 3+} ions, and the emission colors varied from red to green with Tb{sup 3+} concentration increasing, which is caused by the concentration quenching of Tb{sup 3+} emission centers in the LiMgPO{sub 4} matrix. The emissions peaking at 591, 619 and 695 nm are quenched at concentration of 1.5%, while the emissions at 489 nm and 543 nm are quenched at concentration of 8%. Further analysis of the data reveals two different energy transfer mechanisms for the five emission bands. The dipole–dipole model is proposed for the energy transfer of the red bands peaking at 694 nm, 619 nm and 591 nm, while the exchange interaction model is suggested for that of the green bands (543 nm and 489 nm), due to the different ion separations caused by different Tb concentrations.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistant TB in South West, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusoji Daniel; Eltayeb Osman

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistant tuberculosis(TB) in South West Nigeria.Methods: A retrospective study conducted among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from Oyo and Osun States in South West Nigeria who had their culture and drug susceptibility test performed at the institute of tropical medicine Antwerp, Belgium between2007 and2009. Data on the patient’s characteristics were retrieved from the TB treatment card. Univariate analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for drug resistant tuberculosis. The Level of significance was atP<0.05.Results:Among the88 patients who had drug-susceptibility test result, there were50 males and38 females. Of the88patients,55 (62.5%) had strains resistant to at least one or more anti-drugs. The proportion ofTBcases with resistance to a single drug was12.7%. The multi-drug resistantTB (MDR-TB) rate was76.4%. The only significant factor for the development of drug resistance andMDR was the history of previous anti TB treatment (P<0.01). Other factors such as age[OR 0.86 (0.35-2.13);P=0.72] and gender[OR 1.24 (0.49-3.14);P=0.62] were not significantly associated with drug resistanceTB.Conclusions: The study highlighted a high prevalence ofMDR-TBamong the study population. History of previous TB treatment was associated withMDR-TB. There is an urgent need to conduct a nationalTB drug resistance survey to determine the actual burden and risk factors associated with drug resistance TB in the country.

  12. Luminescence properties of Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses for green laser application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Batalla, J.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Muñoz H., G.; Camarillo, I.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses of composition in mol%: (100.0 - x)Zn(PO3)2 - xTb2O3, x = 0.6, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0, were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique and characterized by photoluminescence and decay time spectroscopy. The integrated intensities of the 5D4 → 7F5 (green at 541 nm) and 5D3 → 7F4 (blue at 435 nm) emissions and their intensity ratios IG/IB upon 350 nm excitation have been evaluated as function of Tb3+ concentration. The CIE1931 color of the glasses excited at 350 nm varies from turquoise to green by increasing the Tb3+ content. The increased IG/IB ratio up to a factor of 364 for the phosphor with the highest Tb3+ content (ZP5Tb) is consistent with the observed shift toward the green region in the CIE coordinates, so that the ZP5Tb glass exhibits a green color purity of 66.9% with chromaticity coordinates (0.290, 0.581), being very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. This interesting feature of the ZP5Tb phosphor, together with an experimental branching ratio larger than 60% of the 5D4 → 7F5 green emission, highlights its capability as solid state green laser pumped by AlGaN (350 nm) LEDs. The decay time profiles of the 5D3 level resulted to be non-exponential for all the studied concentrations due to energy transfer between Tb3+ ions through cross-relaxation. Such decay profiles were well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model for S = 6, which indicates that an electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the cross-relaxation energy transfer occurring in Tb3+ ion clusters.

  13. Assessment of the influence of direct tobacco smoke on infection and active TB management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altet, Neus; Latorre, Irene; Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Maldonado, José; Molina, Israel; González-Díaz, Yoel; Milà, Celia; García-García, Esther; Muriel, Beatriz; Villar-Hernández, Raquel; Laabei, Maisem; Gómez, Andromeda-Celeste; Godoy, Pere; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Solano, Segismundo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Domínguez, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease progression. Tobacco smoking increases susceptibility to TB in a variety of ways, one of which is due to a reduction of the IFN-γ response. Consequently, an impaired immune response could affect performance of IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). In the present study, we assess the impact of direct tobacco smoking on radiological manifestations, sputum conversion and immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, analyzing IFN-γ secretion by IGRAs. A total of 525 participants were studied: (i) 175 active pulmonary TB patients and (ii) 350 individuals coming from contact tracing studies, 41 of whom were secondary TB cases. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. T-SPOT.TB and QFN-G-IT were processed according manufacturer's instructions. In smoking patients with active TB, QFN-G-IT (34.4%) and T-SPOT.TB (19.5%) had high frequencies of negative results. In addition, by means of an unconditional logistic regression, smoking was a main factor associated with IGRAs' false-negative results (aOR: 3.35; 95%CI:1.47-7.61; pTB presented a high probability of having cavitary lesions (aOR: 1.88; 95%CI:1.02-3.46;pTB infection (LTBI) was favored in smoking contacts, being a risk factor associated with infection (aOR: 11.57; 95%CI:5.97-22.41; pTB due to a weakened IFN-γ response caused by direct tobacco smoke.

  14. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay in Neuro-Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Leanne M; Rigi, Mohammed; Suleiman, Ayman; Smith, Stacy V; Graviss, Edward A; Foroozan, Rod; Lee, Andrew G

    2017-09-01

    Although QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing is regularly used to detect infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its utility in a patient population with a low risk for tuberculosis (TB) has been questioned. The following is a cohort study analyzing the efficacy of QFT-GIT testing as a method for detection of active TB disease in low-risk individuals in a neuro-ophthalmologic setting. Ninety-nine patients from 2 neuro-ophthalmology centers were identified as having undergone QFT-GIT testing between January 2012 and February 2016. Patients were divided into groups of negative, indeterminate, and positive QFT-GIT results. Records of patients with positive QFT-GIT results were reviewed for development of latent or active TB, as determined by clinical, bacteriologic, and/or radiographic evidence. Of the 99 cases reviewed, 18 patients had positive QFT-GIT tests. Of these 18 cases, 12 had documentation of chest radiographs or computed tomography which showed no evidence for either active TB or pulmonary latent TB infection (LTBI). Four had chest imaging which was indicative of possible LTBI. None of these 18 patients had symptoms of active TB and none developed active TB within the follow-up period. Based on our results, we conclude that routine testing with QFT-GIT in a low-risk cohort did not diagnose active TB infection. We do not recommend routine QFT-GIT testing for TB low-risk individuals, as discerned through patient and exposure history, ocular examination, and clinical judgment, in neuro-ophthalmology practice.

  15. NMR Structures and Interactions of Temporin-1Tl and Temporin-1Tb with Lipopolysaccharide Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Anirban; Saravanan, Rathi; Mohanram, Harini; Mangoni, Maria L.; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2011-01-01

    Temporins are a group of closely related short antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, plays important roles in the activity of temporins. Earlier studies have found that LPS induces oligomerization of temporin-1Tb (TB) thus preventing its translocation across the outer membrane and, as a result, reduces its activity on Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, temporin-1Tl (TL) exhibits higher activity, presumably because of lack of such oligomerization. A synergistic mechanism was proposed, involving TL and TB in overcoming the LPS-mediated barrier. Here, to gain insights into interactions of TL and TB within LPS, we investigated the structures and interactions of TL, TB, and TL+TB in LPS micelles, using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the context of LPS, TL assumes a novel antiparallel dimeric helical structure sustained by intimate packing between aromatic-aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic residues. By contrast, independent TB has populations of helical and aggregated conformations in LPS. The LPS-induced aggregated states of TB are largely destabilized in the presence of TL. Saturation transfer difference NMR studies have delineated residues of TL and TB in close contact with LPS and enhanced interactions of these two peptides with LPS, when combined together. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and 31P NMR have pointed out the proximity of TL and TB in LPS and conformational changes of LPS, respectively. Importantly, these results provide the first structural insights into the mode of action and synergism of antimicrobial peptides at the level of the LPS-outer membrane. PMID:21586570

  16. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hong-Anh T; Vu, Hoa D; Rozenbaum, Mark H; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Postma, Maarten J

    2012-03-01

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in particular, miliary TB and tuberculous meningitis. However, it has a limited effect in preventing pulmonary TB, which occurs more frequently in adults. BCG vaccination has now been implemented in more than 157 countries worldwide. For various countries, the benefits of vaccination are only limited and potentially not cost effective. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases had set the criteria for discontinuation of BCG vaccination in 1994. This decision, however, was not based on economic considerations. Many developed countries have met the criteria set by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and stopped universal BCG vaccination. For developing countries, the BCG vaccine is still an effective intervention in protecting young children from TB infection. A lot of effort has been spent on R&D of new TB vaccines, the first of which are expected to be available within 5-7 years from now. Novel TB vaccines are expected to be better and more effective than the current BCG vaccine and should provide a viable strategy in controlling TB morbidity and mortality. In this review, the aim is to explore economic evaluations that have been carried out for vaccination against TB worldwide. In addition to epidemiological evidence, economic evidence can play a crucial role in supporting the governments of countries in making proper public health decisions on BCG vaccination policies, in particular, to implement, continue, or discontinue.

  17. Taking forward the World TB Day 2016 theme 'Unite to End Tuberculosis' for the WHO Africa Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumi, Francine; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Macete, Eusebio; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Petersen, Eskild; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency, with an estimated 9.6 million new TB cases worldwide reported in 2014. Twenty-eight percent of these cases were in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region, where the annual case detection rate was 281 per 100000 population-more than double the global average of 133 per 100000. Of the 9.6 million people who developed TB, an estimated 1.2 million (12%) were HIV-positive, and the Africa Region accounted for 74% of these cases. Three million people with TB remain undiagnosed and untreated. Globally, an estimated 480000 had multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Whilst of the African countries, only South Africa has reported a high prevalence of MDR-TB, it is likely that all of Sub-Saharan Africa has an unreported high load of drug-resistant TB. Tragically, in 2014, only 48% of individuals diagnosed with MDR-TB had successful treatment and an estimated 190000 people died of MDR-TB. Of the global TB funding gap of US$ 0.8 billion, the largest funding gap was in the Africa Region, amounting to US$ 0.4 billion in 2015. The MDR-TB pandemic in particular now threatens to devastate entire regions and may fundamentally alter the life-expectancy and demographic profile of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme designated for this year's World TB Day, March 24, 2016, is 'Unite to End TB'. From the Africa Region, there is an urgent need to seriously address the political, economic, and social factors that influence host-Mycobacterium tuberculosis interactions and result in disease. Recent political and funder initiatives that provide renewed hope for the alleviation of Africa's TB and TB/HIV problems are discussed.

  18. Luminescence and Valence of Tb Ions in Alkaline Earth Stannates and Zirconates Examined by X-ray Absorption Fine Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Shimizu, Yuhei; Nagamizu, Kouta; Matsuo, Masashi; Honma, Tetsuo

    2017-10-03

    The difference in Tb(3+) green luminescence intensities in doped perovskite(ABO3)-type alkaline earth stannates, AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba), and the Mg codoping effect on the luminescence intensities in doped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) were investigated utilizing the X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFS) of the Tb LIII absorption edge. It is considered that the local symmetry at A sites is responsible for the different Tb(3+) luminescence intensities in AeSnO3 (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) doped with Tb ions at A sites. However, it was found from the XAFS spectra that some Tb ions are unintentionally stabilized at B sites as Tb(4+), especially in BaSnO3. Not only the central symmetry for Tb(3+) at A sites but also the presence of Tb(4+) at B sites were considered to bring about the absence of Tb(3+) luminescence in doped cubic BaSnO3. No obvious changes in the Tb(3+) local structure at A sites were detected between Tb single doped and Tb-Mg codoped CaMO3 (M = Sn, Zr) from the extended XAFS oscillation, but the trace of Tb(4+) at B sites in the Tb single doped sample was observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structures. It is, therefore, considered that the Tb(3+) luminescence enhancement by Mg codoping is primarily attributed to the charge compensation rather than the changes in the local structure around Tb(3+) at A sites.

  19. Microscopic study of superdeformed rotational bands in {sup 151} Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aouad, N.; Dudek, J.; Li, X.; Luo, W.D.; Molique, H.; Bouguettoucha, A.; Byrski, TH.; Beck, F.; Finck, C.; Kharraja, B. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Kharraja, B. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Structure of eight superdeformed bands in the nucleus {sup 151}Tb is analyzed using the results of the Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon cranking approaches. It is demonstrated that far going similarities between the two approaches exit and predictions related to the structure of rotational bands calculated within the two models are nearly parallel. An interpretation scenario for the structure of the superdeformed bands is presented and predictions related to the exit spins are made. Small but systematic discrepancies between experiment and theory, analyzed in terms of the dynamical moments, J{sup (2)}, are shown to exist. The pairing correlations taken into account by using the particle-number-projection technique are shown to increase the disagreement. Sources of these systematic discrepancies are discussed - they are most likely related to the yet not optimal parametrization of the nuclear interactions used. (authors). 60 refs.

  20. Microscopic study of superdeformed rotational bands in {sup 151} Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aouad, N.; Dudek, J.; Li, X.; Luo, W.D.; Molique, H.; Bouguettoucha, A.; Byrski, TH.; Beck, F.; Finck, C.; Kharraja, B. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Kharraja, B. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Structure of eight superdeformed bands in the nucleus {sup 151}Tb is analyzed using the results of the Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon cranking approaches. It is demonstrated that far going similarities between the two approaches exit and predictions related to the structure of rotational bands calculated within the two models are nearly parallel. An interpretation scenario for the structure of the superdeformed bands is presented and predictions related to the exit spins are made. Small but systematic discrepancies between experiment and theory, analyzed in terms of the dynamical moments, J{sup (2)}, are shown to exist. The pairing correlations taken into account by using the particle-number-projection technique are shown to increase the disagreement. Sources of these systematic discrepancies are discussed - they are most likely related to the yet not optimal parametrization of the nuclear interactions used. (authors). 60 refs.

  1. Treatment outcome and mortality at one and half year follow-up of HIV infected TB patients under TB control programme in a district of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data from India on the impact of HIV related immunosuppression in response to TB treatment and mortality among HIV infected TB patients. We assessed the TB treatment outcome and mortality in a cohort of HIV infected TB patients treated with intermittent short course chemotherapy under TB control programme in a high HIV prevalent district of south India. METHODOLOGY/ FINDINGS: Among 3798 TB patients registered for treatment in Mysore district from July 2007 to June 2008, 281 HIV infected patients formed the study group. The socio-demographic and treatment related data of these patients was obtained from TB and HIV programme records and patient interviews 19 months after TB treatment initiation by field investigators. Treatment success rate of 281 patients was 75% while in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases it was 62%, attributable to defaults (16% and deaths (19%. Only 2 patients had treatment failure. Overall, 83 (30% patients were reported dead; 26 while on treatment and 57 after TB treatment. Association of treatment related factors with treatment outcome and survival status was studied through logistic regression analysis. Factors significantly associated with 'unfavourable outcome' were disease classification as Pulmonary [aOR-1.96, CI (1.02-3.77], type of patient as retreatment [aOR-4.78, CI (2.12-10.76], and non initiation of ART [aOR-4.90, CI (1.85-12.96]. Factors associated with 'Death' were non initiation of ART [aOR-2.80, CI (1.15-6.81] and CPT [aOR-3.46, CI (1.47-8.14]. CONCLUSION: Despite the treatment success of 75% the high mortality (30% in the study group is a matter of concern and needs immediate intervention. Non initiation of ART has emerged as a high risk factor for unfavourable treatment outcome and mortality. These findings underscore the importance of expanding and improving delivery of ART services as a priority and reconsideration of the programme guidelines for ART initiation in

  2. Photoluminescence profile imaging of Eu(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III)/Tb(III)-doped yttrium oxide nanosheets and nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Insu [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712749 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jun-Gill, E-mail: jgkang@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305764 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Youngku, E-mail: youngkusohn@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Eu(III), Tb(III) and Eu(III)/Tb(III)-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanosheets and nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and post-thermal treatment. Their morphology, crystallinity, photoluminescence and UV–visible absorption profiles were fully examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography, photoluminescence imaging and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The as-prepared samples commonly showed the crystal structure of Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}NO{sub 3}, which crystallized to cubic phase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} after 550 °C-thermal annealing. The sharp emissions of Eu(III) between 580 and 720 nm were attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=0,1,2,3,4) transitions, and those of Tb(III) between 450 and 720 nm were attributed to {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub J} (J=6,5,4,3) transitions. Energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) was confirmed by the photoluminescence decay dynamics. In the cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure, Eu(III) was embedded at the C{sub 2} symmetry site and dominated by the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. Conversely, Tb(III) was oxidized to non-luminescent Tb(IV) in the cubic structure. - Highlights: • Eu(III), Tb(III)-doped and codoped Y complex nanorods and nanosheets prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Eu(III), Tb(III)-doped and codoped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and nanosheets prepared by a post-annealing method. • Photoluminescence imaging profiles were fully obtained. • Tb(III) oxidized to Tb(IV) upon thermal annealing in cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix.

  3. Superdeformation studies in {sup 150}Tb and {sup 153}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    There are now over 40 superdeformed (SD) bands known in the A {approximately} 150 region and in most cases the properties of these bands are understood in terms of single-particle excitations in the absence of pairing. By continuing the search for new SD bands we hope to gain insight into (1) the ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface in the SD well, (2) the effects that the alignment of those orbitals has on the moments of inertia, and (3) the collective excitations in the SD well. For {sup 150}Tb, which is one proton and one neutron away from the SD doubly-magic nucleus {sup 152}Dy, it should be possible to study SD bands based on both proton and neutron hole excitations. By adding one proton to the {sup 152}Dy nucleus (i.e. {sup 153}Ho) proton excitations above the Z = 66 shell gap can be studied. These excitations are important as calculations suggested that the proton intruder orbital N = 7 might become occupied. Interactions between this orbital and a N = 5 level may result in softness towards octupole vibrations. High spin states in {sup 150}Th and {sup 153}Ho were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 31}P,5n) and {sup 120}Sn({sup 37}Cl,4n) reactions, respectively. In both cases the early implementation phase of Gammasphere was used to detect the decay gamma rays and over 1 x 10{sup 9} triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. In {sup 150}Tb, the data analysis is complete and two new SD bands were identified. The fact that Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia are sensitive to the specific high-N intruder content of the SD bands was used to suggest configurations for the two new bands. A paper reporting these results is being prepared. For {sup 153}Ho, data analysis is still in its early stages.

  4. Linkage of presumptive multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients to diagnostic and treatment services in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhan Khann

    Full Text Available SETTING: National Tuberculosis Programme, Cambodia. OBJECTIVE: In a cohort of TB patients, to ascertain the proportion of patients who fulfil the criteria for presumptive MDR-TB, assess whether they underwent investigation for MDR-TB, and the results of the culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST. METHODS: A cross sectional record review of TB patients registered for treatment between July-December 2011. RESULTS: Of 19,236 TB patients registered, 409 (2% fulfilled the criteria of presumptive MDR-TB; of these, 187 (46% were examined for culture. This proportion was higher among relapse, failure, return after default (RAD and non-converters at 3 months of new smear positive TB patients (>60% as compared to non-converters at 2 months of new TB cases (<20%. Nearly two thirds (n = 113 of the samples were culture positive; of these, three-fourth (n = 85 grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc and one-fourth (n = 28 grew non-tuberculous Mycobacteria. DST results were available for 96% of the MTBc isolates. Overall, 21 patients were diagnosed as MDR-TB (all diagnosed among retreatment TB cases and none from non-converters and all of them were initiated on MDR-TB treatment. CONCLUSION: There is a need to strengthen mechanisms for linking patients with presumptive MDR-TB to culture centers. The policy of testing non-converters for culture and DST needs to be reviewed.

  5. Innate and adaptive host responses and their genetic control in tuberculosis : studies in Indonesia, a highly TB endemic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahiratmadja, Edhyana Kusumastuti

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. MTB infection does not necessarily progress to TB. Only 5-10% of exposed individuals develop clinical signs and symptoms of TB. Given the impact of mycobacterial exposure and the immunoregulatory consequences for host

  6. Antiretroviral treatment scale-up and tuberculosis mortality in high TB/HIV burden countries: An econometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Yan (Isabel); A. Bendavid (Avrom); E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing

  7. Antiretroviral treatment scale-up and tuberculosis mortality in high TB/HIV burden countries: An econometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Yan (Isabel); A. Bendavid (Avrom); E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing

  8. Viral hepatitis and HIV-associated tuberculosis: Risk factors and TB treatment outcomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likanonsakul Sirirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of tuberculosis (TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and viral hepatitis infections in the same patient poses unique clinical and public health challenges, because medications to treat TB and HIV are hepatotoxic. We conducted an observational study to evaluate risk factors for HBsAg and/or anti-HCV reactivity and to assess differences in adverse events and TB treatment outcomes among HIV-infected TB patients. Methods Patients were evaluated at the beginning, during, and at the end of TB treatment. Blood samples were tested for aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin (BR, complete blood count, and CD4+ T lymphocyte cell count. TB treatment outcomes were assessed at the end of TB treatment according to international guidelines. Results Of 769 enrolled patients, 752 (98% had serologic testing performed for viral hepatitis: 70 (9% were reactive for HBsAg, 237 (31% for anti-HCV, and 472 (63% non-reactive for both markers. At the beginning of TB treatment, 18 (26% patients with HBsAg reactivity had elevated liver function tests compared with 69 (15% patients non-reactive to any viral marker (p = 0.02. At the end of TB treatment, 493 (64% were successfully treated. Factors independently associated with HBsAg reactivity included being a man who had sex with men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–4.3 and having low TB knowledge (AOR, 1.8; CI, 1.0–3.0. Factors most strongly associated with anti-HCV reactivity were having injection drug use history (AOR, 12.8; CI, 7.0–23.2 and living in Bangkok (AOR, 15.8; CI, 9.4–26.5. The rate of clinical hepatitis and death during TB treatment was similar in patients HBsAg reactive, anti-HCV reactive, both HBsAg and anti-HCV reactive, and non-reactive to any viral marker. Conclusion Among HIV-infected TB patients living in Thailand, markers of viral hepatitis infection, particularly hepatitis C virus

  9. Role of routine abdominal ultrasonography in intensified tuberculosis case finding algorithms at HIV clinics in high TB burden settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalgais, Sonam; Agarwal, Upasna; Sarin, Rohit; Chauhan, Devesh; Yadav, Anita; Jaiswal, Anand

    2017-05-18

    High proportion of TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV) is undiagnosed. Due to this active TB case finding is recommended for HIV clinics in high TB burden countries. Presently sputum examination and chest radiography are frontline tests recommended for HIV infected TB presumptives. Abdominal TB which occurs frequently in PLHIV may be missed even by existing programmatic intensified case finding protocols. This study evaluated the routine use of ultrasonography (USG) for active case finding of abdominal TB in HIV clinics. Retrospective analysis of eight years' data from an HIV Clinic in a TB hospital in India. Patients underwent chest x-ray, sputum examination, USG abdomen and routine blood tests at entry to HIV care. Case forms were scrutinized for diagnosis of TB, USG findings and CD4 cell counts. Abdominal TB was classified as probable or possible TB. Probable TB was based on presence of two major USG (abdomen) findings suggestive of active TB, or one major USG finding with at least two minor USG findings or at least two symptoms, or any USG finding with microbiologically confirmed active TB at another site. Possible TB was based on the presence of one major USG finding, or the presence of two minor USG findings with at least two symptoms. Bacteriological confirmation was not obtained. Eight hundred and eighty-nine people PLHIV underwent a baseline USG abdomen. One hundred and thirteen of 340 cases already diagnosed with TB and 87 of the 91 newly diagnosed with TB at time of HIV clinic registration had abdominal TB. Non-abdominal symptoms like weight loss, fever and cough were seen in 53% and 22% cases had no symptoms at all. Enlarged abdominal lymph nodes with central caseation, ascitis, splenic microabsesses, bowel thickening and hepatosplenomegaly were the USG findings in these cases. Abdominal TB is a frequent TB site in PLHIV presenting with non-abdominal symptoms. It can be easily detected on basis of features seen on a simple abdominal ultrasound

  10. Microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Llenas-García, Jara; Hobbins, Michael; Ehmer, Jochen; Abellana, Rosa; Gonçalves, Alessandra Queiroga; Pérez-Porcuna, Tomàs Maria; Ascaso, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, African Index Medicus, ResearchGate, SciELO, and the abstracts of the main conferences on infectious diseases and tropical medicine were searched, and other sources investigated. Only studies including HIV-infected patients evaluating MODS for the diagnosis of TB and using culture-based diagnostic tests as a gold standard were analysed. Summary sensitivity and specificity were calculated with a bivariate model. 3259 citations were found, 29 were selected for full-text review and 10 studies including 3075 samples were finally analysed. Overall diagnostic accuracy of MODS for the diagnosis of TB was a sensitivity of 88.3% (95% CI 86.18-90.2%) and specificity 98.2% (95% CI 97.75-98.55%). For multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB, sensitivity was 89% (95% CI 66.07-97%) and specificity was 100% (95 CI 94.81-100%). For smear-negative pulmonary TB, a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% CI 86.1-89.9%) and specificity of 98.2% (95% CI 96.8-98.9%) were found. Costs varied between USD 0.72 and 7.31 per sample. Mean time to positivity was 8.24 days. MODS was found to have a good accuracy for the diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB in HIV-infected patients with low cost and fast results.

  11. 'TB or not TB?' Problems of differential diagnosis of cutaneous mycobacteriosis and tuberculosis--A Case Study and interdisciplinary discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Grzywa-Celińska, Anna; Zwolska, Zofia; Krawczyk, Paweł; Guz, Leszek; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis poses a serious challenge due to many skin diseases of different etiology resembling the lesions caused by the TB (tuberculosis) bacillus, and difficulties in confirming the disease. The presented case concerns skin lesions in a hobby aquarist stung in the finger of the left hand by a fish. The resulting inflammatory infiltration was to be cutaneous tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis caused by MOTT (Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis). Laboratory, pathomorphologic, genetic and microbiologic tests of samples obtained from the patient, fish and water in the aquarium gave ambiguous results. A multidisciplinary discussion is presented on the difficulties in the differential diagnosis, problems with a clear interpretation of the results of various conducted tests, and possible ways of transmission of the infection, relevant to the described example.

  12. (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 up-conversion nanocrystals for bimodal luminescence-MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debasu, Mengistie L.; Ananias, Duarte; Pinho, Sonia L. C.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.; Carlos, Luís D.; Rocha, João

    2012-07-01

    Up-conversion (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 materials and their potential for bimodal imaging have received little attention in the literature. Herein, we report the first study on the up-conversion emission of (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 nanocrystals synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 150 °C. These materials exhibit ultraviolet, blue and green up-conversion emissions upon excitation with a 980 nm continuous wave laser diode. The intensity of the blue-emission band at 479 nm, ascribed to the cooperative up-conversion emission of a pair of excited Yb3+ ions, depends on the Yb3+/Tb3+ concentration ratio, calcination temperature and particle size. Strong green up-conversion emission of Tb3+ is observed at 543 nm for the 5D4 --> 7F5 transition. Relaxometry measurements reveal that the nanocrystals are efficient T2-weighted (negative) contrast agents which, combined with visible-light emission generated by infrared excitation, affords them considerable potential for being used in bimodal, photoluminescence-magnetic resonance, imaging.Up-conversion (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 materials and their potential for bimodal imaging have received little attention in the literature. Herein, we report the first study on the up-conversion emission of (Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 nanocrystals synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 150 °C. These materials exhibit ultraviolet, blue and green up-conversion emissions upon excitation with a 980 nm continuous wave laser diode. The intensity of the blue-emission band at 479 nm, ascribed to the cooperative up-conversion emission of a pair of excited Yb3+ ions, depends on the Yb3+/Tb3+ concentration ratio, calcination temperature and particle size. Strong green up-conversion emission of Tb3+ is observed at 543 nm for the 5D4 --> 7F5 transition. Relaxometry measurements reveal that the nanocrystals are efficient T2-weighted (negative) contrast agents which, combined with visible-light emission generated by infrared excitation, affords them considerable potential for being used in bimodal

  13. The prevalence of HIV among adults with pulmonary TB at a population level in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Grobusch, Martin P; Cobelens, Frank

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause of death among individuals with HIV. Improving case detection of TB/HIV co-infection has the potential to lead to early treatment of both conditions and can impact positively on treatment outcomes. This study was conducted in order to determine the HIV prevalence among adults with tuberculosis in a national prevalence survey setting in Zambia, 2013-2014. A countrywide cross sectional survey was conducted in 2013/2014 using stratified cluster sampling, proportional to population size for rural and urban populations. Each of the 66 countrywide clusters represented one census supervisory area with cluster size averaging 825 individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected during a household visit by trained survey staff. A standard symptom-screening questionnaire was administered to 46,099 eligible individuals across all clusters, followed by chest x-ray reading for all eligible. Those symptomatic or with x-ray abnormalities were confirmed or ruled out as TB case by either liquid culture or Xpert MTBRif performed at the three central reference laboratories. HIV testing was offered to all participants at the survey site following the national testing algorithm with rapid tests. The prevalence was expressed as the proportion of HIV among TB cases with 95% confidence limits. A total of 265/6123 (4.3%) participants were confirmed of having tuberculosis. Thirty-six of 151 TB survey cases who accepted HIV testing were HIV-seropositive (23.8%; 95% CI 17.2-31.4). The mean age of the TB/HIV cases was 37.6 years (range 24-70). The majority of the TB/HIV cases had some chest x-ray abnormality (88.9%); were smear positive (50.0%), and/or had a positive culture result (94.4%). None of the 36 detected TB/HIV cases were already on TB treatment, and 5/36 (13

  14. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients......), SE (N = 164), and LA (N = 253) in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, pMDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p...% CI 1.00-4.09), prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22)), and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78)) were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST) results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results) anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66...

  15. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of amorphous TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; MI Yiming; QIAN Shiqiang; ZHOU Xiying

    2008-01-01

    Exchange coupling multilayer thin films, which combined giant magnetostriction and soft magnetic properties, were of growing interest for applications. The TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering onto glass substrates. The microstructure, magnetic, and magnetostrictive properties of TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin film was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The results indicated that the soft magnetic and magnetostrictive properties for TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin film compared with TbFe single layer film were obviously improved. In comparison with the intrinsic coercivity JHc of 59.2 kA/m for TbFe single layer film, the intrinsic coercivity JHc for TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin films rapidly dropped to 29.6 kA/m. After optimal annealing (350 ℃×60 min), magnetic properties of Hs=96 kA/m and JHc=16 kA/m were obtained, and magnetostrictive coefficient could reach to 574×10-6 under an external magnetic field of 400 kA·m-1 for the TbFe/FeAl multilayer thin film.

  16. Social, Economic, and Psychological Impacts of MDR-TB Treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: A Patient's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D.; Quezada, Liliana; Bhat, Priya; Moser, Kathleen; Smith, Jennifer; Perez, Hector; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Estrada-Guzman, Julia; Rodwell, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Setting The state of Baja California, Mexico had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. Objective To understand the socioeconomic burdens of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. Design From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients who were enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program called “Puentes de Esperanza” (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. Results While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes’ role in “saving their life.” Conclusion Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social, and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped ameliorate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment. PMID:23743315

  17. Comparison of T-Spot.TB and tuberculin skin test among silicotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C C; Yam, W C; Yew, W W; Ho, P L; Tam, C M; Law, W S; Wong, M Y; Leung, M; Tsui, D

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, T-Spot.TB and the tuberculin skin test (TST) were compared in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection among silicotic patients. A conditional probability model was used to compare the potential clinical utilities of T-Spot.TB and TST performed on 134 silicotic subjects from December 1, 2004 to January 31, 2007. Data from a historical cohort were also reanalysed for further comparison. Agreement with T-Spot.TB was best using a TST cut-off of 10 mm. Age >or=65 yrs independently predicted a tuberculin reaction Spot.TB response. Lower measures of agreement were observed among current smokers and those aged >or=65 yrs. Tuberculin reaction size was well correlated with both early secretary antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 spot counts, except among current smokers. Within the current estimates of sensitivity (88-95%) and specificity (86-99%) for T-Spot.TB, the positive likelihood ratio for T-Spot.TB test would be substantially higher (6.29-95.0 versus 1.65-1.94) and negative likelihood ratio substantially lower (0.05-0.14 versus 0.32-0.41) than the corresponding ratios for the tuberculin test. A low tuberculosis risk differential was similarly observed between tuberculin-negative and untreated tuberculin-positive subjects in the historical cohort. T-Spot.TB is likely to perform better than tuberculin test in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection among silicotic subjects.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Sensing of Tb2O3 Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari Arul, N.; Vidya, J.; Ramya, V.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2016-11-01

    One dimensional terbium oxide (Tb2O3) nanotubes have been synthesized by using surfactant free precipitation method and investigated its non-enzymatic electrochemical detection for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structural analysis and x-ray diffraction data confirmed the formation of cubic phase Tb2O3 in the synthesized Tb2O3 nanotubes. The optical property of the synthesized product was investigated by ultraviolet spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The PL spectrum of Tb2O3 nanotubes exhibited a strong green luminescence corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. The non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing of Tb2O3 nanotubes/carbon paper modified electrodes in 1 M KCl electrolyte was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometric (i-t) analysis. The enhanced electrocatalytic behavior was observed for Tb2O3 nanotubes with an excellent sensitivity of 875 μA mM-1 cm-2, linear ranges of 0.5-5 mM and a low detection limit of 5 μM.

  19. Preparation and Performance of Magneto-optical Glasses Doped with Tb3+/Dy3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hairong; ZHAO Gaoyang; LIU Pan; WANG Shunni; GUO Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the content of rare-earth oxides in magneto-optical glass and improve the Verdet constant, the rare-earth doped ternary Ga2O3-B2O3-SiO2(GBS) system magneto-optical glasses were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The influence of Tb3+and Dy3+ions on the structure of GBS glasses was investigated using FTIR, DSC and Faraday rotations. The experimental results showed that the content of rare-earth oxides in the glasses with the double incorporation of Tb2O3 and Dy2O3 was higher. The crystallization parameterβachieved the maximum 0.48 with Tb3+/Dy3+content of 35mol%. Terbium oxide existed mainly in [TbO3] units in the glasses and [TbO4] units were converted into [TbO3] with increasing Tb2O3 content. As Ga3+ion is larger than B3+ion in radius, leading to an increasing of the glass network gap and improvement in the ability of accommodating rare earth ions, Verdet constant increased.

  20. Structure and Magnetocaloric Effect in Tb( Co1-xSnx )2 Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phases and magnetocaloric effect in the alloys Tb (Co1 - xSnx) 2 with x = 0, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and magnetization measurement. The substitution of Sn in TbCo2 was limited. The cubic MgCu2-type structure for the sample of TbCo2 was confirmed by the results of X-ray powder diffraction and the rest samples consist of the TbCo2 phase mainly, together with some TbCo3 and Tb5Sn3 impurity phases. The impurity phases increase with the increase of Sn contents. The magnetic phase transition in all samples keeps second-order transition. TC increases slightly by Sn substitution from 230 K of the alloy with x = 0 to 233 K of the alloy with x = 0. 050 and then a slight decrease for higher concentration of x. The maximum magnetic entropy change in the samples Tb (Co1- x change from 0 to 2.0 T.

  1. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarder N. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ancient malady, which is one of the world’s most wide spread infectious bacterial agents. Fully one-third of the world’s population is already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the greatest burden of disease and infection borne by people in developing countries. Tuberculosis disease is still out of control. Alarming spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and emergence of drug resistance is now further complicating the major problem. HIV not only makes the diagnosis of TB more difficult; it contributes to an increase in TB incidence. The rate of breakdown to clinical TB in individuals infected both with HIV and tuberculosis is many times higher than in those without HIV. The present vaccine is not sufficient to reduce the death rate by eradicating TB with HIV/AIDS. The present review is based on the prevention and treatment of TB patient and co-infected with HIV/AIDS and effect of HIV/AIDS on the treatment and prevention of TB. It will help assuming idea about future steps in prevention and treatment of TB among HIV/AIDS patients.

  2. Fabrication, magnetostriction properties and applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-juan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an excellent giant-magnetostrictive material, Tb-Dy-Fe alloys (based on Tb0.27-0.30Dy0.73-0.70Fe1.9-2 Laves compound can be applied in many engineering fields, such as sonar transducer systems, sensors, and micro-actuators. However, the cost of the rare earth elements Tb and Dy is too high to be widely applied for the materials. Nowadays, there are two different ways to substitute for these alloying elements. One is to partially replace Tb or Dy by cheaper rare earth elements, such as Pr, Nd, Sm and Ho; and the other is to use non-rare earth elements, such as Co, Al, Mn, Si, Ce, B, Be and C, to substitute Fe to form single MgCu2-type Laves phase and a certain amount of Re-rich phase, which can reduce the brittleness and improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. This paper systemically introduces the development, the fabrication methods and the corresponding preferred growth directions of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys. In addition, the effects of alloying elements and heat treatment on magnetostrictive and mechanical properties of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are also reviewed, respectively. Finally, some possible applications of Tb-Dy-Fe alloys are presented.

  3. Eu/Tb codoped spindle-shaped fluorinated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for dual-color cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baojin; Zhang, Shan; Qiu, Jichuan; Li, Jianhua; Sang, Yuanhua; Xia, Haibing; Jiang, Huaidong; Claverie, Jerome; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-02

    Lanthanide doped fluorinated hydroxyapatite (FAp) nanoparticles are promising cell imaging nanomaterials but they are excited at wavelengths which do not match the light sources usually found in a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). In this work, we have successfully prepared spindle-shaped Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles by a hydrothermal method. Compared with single Eu doped FAp, Eu/Tb codoped FAp can be excited by a 488 nm laser, and exhibit both green and red light emission. By changing the amounts of Eu and Tb peaks, the emission in the green region (500-580 nm) can be decreased to the benefit of the emission in the red region (580-720 nm), thus reaching a balanced dual color emission. Using MC3T3-E1 cells co-cultured with Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles, it is observed that the nanoparticles are cytocompatible even at a concentration as high as 800 μg ml(-1). The Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and can be monitored by dual color-green and red imaging with a single excitation light at 488 nm. At a concentration of 200 μg ml(-1), the cytoplasm is saturated in 8 hours, and Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles retain their fluorescence for at least 3 days. The cytocompatible Eu/Tb codoped FAp nanoparticles with unique dual color emission will be of great use for cell and tissue imaging.

  4. Effect of Tb3+ doping in mixed-valence manganites and cobaltites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knížek, K.; Jirák, Z.; Kaman, O.; Maryško, M.; Damay, F.

    2017-10-01

    The magnetic ordering of four Tb3+-doped manganites and cobaltites, La0.7Tb0.1Sr0.2MnO3, La0.7Tb0.1Ca0.2MnO3, La0.7Tb0.1Sr0.2CoO3 and La0.7Tb0.1Ca0.2CoO3, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and SQUID magnetometry. All the samples were prepared by sintering of sol-gel precursors and their orthorhombic or rhombohedral perovskite structures at room and low temperatures were refined. A long-range ferromagnetic (FM) order was detected at the Mn and Co sites. In addition, a small but significant ordered moment was observed at A sites of studied cobaltites, which was attributed to local Tb3+ moments, aligned by exchange interactions due to FM ordered Co sublattice. No or minor Tb3+ contribution was detected in studied manganites.

  5. Access to and affordability of healthcare for TB patients in China: issues and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan Tang; Lixia Wang; Hong Wang; Daniel P.Chin

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the background,aim and objectives of the project entitled "China-the Gates Foundation Collaboration on TB Control in China" that has been underway for many years.It also summarizes the key findings of the nine papers included in this special issue,which used data from the baseline survey of Phase Ⅱ of the project.Data were collected from the survey of TB and MDR-TB patients,from designated hospitals,health insurance agencies and the routine health information systems,as well as key informant interviews and focus group discussions with relevant key stakeholders.Key issues discussed in this series of papers include the uses of TB services and anti-TB medicines and their determining factors related to socio-economic and health systems development;expenditures on TB care and the financial burden incurred on TB patients;and the impact of health insurance schemes implemented in China on financial protection.

  6. Expanded polyfunctional T cell response to mycobacterial antigens in TB disease and contraction post-treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T cells producing multiple factors have been shown to be required for protection from disease progression in HIV but we have recently shown this not to be the case in TB. Subjects with active disease had a greater proportion of polyfunctional cells responding to ESAT-6/CFP-10 stimulation than their infected but non-diseased household contacts (HHC. We therefore wanted to assess this profile in subjects who had successfully completed standard TB chemotherapy. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using PBMC from TB cases (pre- and post-treatment and HHC. Samples were stimulated overnight with TB antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10 and PPD and their CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were assessed for production of CD107a, IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and the complexity of the responses was determined using SPICE and PESTLE software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We found that an increase in complexity (i.e., production of more than 1 factor simultaneously of the T cell profile was associated with TB disease and that this was significantly reduced following TB treatment. This implies that T cells are able to respond adequately to TB antigens with active disease (at least initially but the ability of this response to protect the host from disease progression is hampered, presumably due to immune evasion strategies by the bacteria. These findings have implications for the development of new diagnostics and vaccine strategies.

  7. Effects of Roundabout 5 on adhesion, invasion and potential motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Rui; ZHAO yuan; WANG Li-jing; LI Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Roundabout 5 (R5) is a monoclonal antibody which can neutralize the binding of Roundabout 1 (Robo1)to Slit2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma angiogenesis was significantly inhibited when R5 blocked slit-robo signaling pathway. However, the effect of R5 on the invasion of tongue cancer cells has not been investigated clearly. Methods In this study, we treated human brain metastasis of tongue cancer cell lines (Tb cells) with R5 at different concentrations, and the control Tb cells were treated with 10 mg/ml immunoglobin G 2b (lgG2b). The effect of R5 on the proliferation, adhension, invasion and motility of Tb cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell attachment assay on fibronectin (FN), wound assay and chemotaxis assay,respectively. And gelatin-incorporated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to investigate the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9). Results R5 had no effect on the proliferation of Tb cells. However, R5 could significantly inhibit the motility, attachment and chemotaxis of Tb cells to FN, and it could also significantly inhibit the activity of MMP2 and MMP9 in Tb cells. Conclusion R5 can inhibit the adhesion, invasion and motility of human tongue carcinoma Tb cells.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Sensing of Tb2O3 Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari Arul, N.; Vidya, J.; Ramya, V.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2017-02-01

    One dimensional terbium oxide (Tb2O3) nanotubes have been synthesized by using surfactant free precipitation method and investigated its non-enzymatic electrochemical detection for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structural analysis and x-ray diffraction data confirmed the formation of cubic phase Tb2O3 in the synthesized Tb2O3 nanotubes. The optical property of the synthesized product was investigated by ultraviolet spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The PL spectrum of Tb2O3 nanotubes exhibited a strong green luminescence corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition of Tb3+ ions. The non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing of Tb2O3 nanotubes/carbon paper modified electrodes in 1 M KCl electrolyte was carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometric ( i- t) analysis. The enhanced electrocatalytic behavior was observed for Tb2O3 nanotubes with an excellent sensitivity of 875 μA mM-1 cm-2, linear ranges of 0.5-5 mM and a low detection limit of 5 μM.

  9. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe Multilayers Studied with Torque Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ataur

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of multilayers critically depend on the magnetic and structural ordering of the interface. To study the effect of interface on PMA, Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with varying Fe (0.8-9.0 nm) and Gd (0.5-2.8 nm) or Tb (0.3-6.3 nm) layer thicknesses were fabricated by planar magnetron sputtering. The magnetometer results of spin orientation clearly reveals that samples with Gd or Tb layer thickness of more than 1.2 nm display no PMA, regardless of the Fe layer thickness. Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with thin (<1.2 nm) Tb or Gd layers display large PMA, but no PMA is observed when the Fe layer thickness is increased to 4.0 nm and higher. The bulk magnetization and anisotropy energy constant of the samples are found to increase with increasing Fe layer thickness. Torque measurement also reveals that there are two distinctly different axes of spin alignment at different energy. Tb/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers with similar composition reveal similar magnetic and structural characteristics, and it may imply that single-ion-anisotropy of rare-earth element, which is quite large for Tb ions and very small for Gd ions, may not be the dominating cause of PMA in Td/Fe and Gd/Fe multilayers. A detailed explanation of the results will be provided based on exchange interaction at the interface.

  10. Feasibility and effectiveness of provider initiated HIV testing and counseling of TB suspects in Vizianagaram district, South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta Achanta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though internationally recommended, provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC of persons suspected of tuberculosis (TB is not a policy in India; HIV seroprevalence among TB suspects has never been reported. The current policy of PITC for diagnosed TB cases may limit opportunities of early HIV diagnosis and treatment. We determined HIV seroprevalence among persons suspected of TB and assessed feasibility and effectiveness of PITC implementation at this earlier stage in the TB diagnostic pathway. METHODS: All adults examined for diagnostic sputum microscopy (TB suspects in Vizianagaram district (population 2.5 million, in November-December 2010, were offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT and assessed for TB diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 2918 eligible TB suspects, 2465(85% consented to VCT. Among these, 246(10% were HIV-positive. Of the 246, 84(34% were newly diagnosed as HIV (HIV status not known previously. To detect a new case of HIV infection, the number needed to screen (NNS was 26 among 'TB suspects', comparable to that among 'TB patients'. Among suspects aged 25-54 years, not diagnosed as TB, the NNS was 17. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of HIV among 'TB suspects' was as high as that among 'TB patients'. Implementation of PITC among TB suspects was feasible and effective, detecting a large number of new HIV cases with minimal additional workload on staff of HIV testing centre. HIV testing of TB suspects aged 25-54 years demonstrated higher yield for a given effort, and should be considered by policy makers at least in settings with high HIV prevalence.

  11. T-Spot.TB outperforms tuberculin skin test in predicting development of active tuberculosis among household contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi Chiu; Yam, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Leung; Yew, Wing Wai; Chan, Chi Kuen; Law, Wing Sze; Lee, Shuk Nor; Chang, Kwok Chiu; Tai, Lai Bun; Tam, Cheuk Ming

    2015-04-01

    In Hong Kong, neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is practiced with 99% coverage. This study was to compare the performance of T-Spot.TB and tuberculin skin test (TST) in predicting tuberculosis (TB) among household contacts. From 1 March 2006 to 31 July 2010, 1049 asymptomatic household contacts of smear-positive patients were simultaneously tested with T-Spot.TB and TST, and then followed for up to 5 years for development of TB. Attending clinicians and subjects were blinded to the results of T-Spot.TB. T-Spot.TB gave a significantly higher positive rate (32.7% vs 22.1%) and better association with exposure time than TST at the 15 mm cut-off. Agreement between T-Spot.TB and TST using cut-offs of 5, 10 and 15 mm were relatively poor (kappa 0.25-0.41) irrespective of presence or absence of BCG scar. Only T-Spot.TB positivity was negatively associated with BCG scar. Both T-Spot.TB (incidence rate ratio between test-positive and test-negative subjects, IRR: 8.2) and TST (IRR: 4.1, 6.1 and 2.8, using cut-offs of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm, respectively) helped to predict TB. Using a TST cut-off of 15 mm, 56% of future TB cases and 62.5% of bacteriologically confirmed cases were missed. Lowering the TST cut-off to 10 mm or 5 mm could achieve sensitivity comparable with that of T-Spot.TB, but at the expense of lower specificities, with more positive tests (thus requiring treatment) per case of TB predicted. T-Spot.TB outperformed TST in predicting TB among household contacts in a high-income area with widespread BCG vaccination coverage. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  12. (Studi Kualitatif Deskripsi Interaksi antara Peran Pengawas Minum Obat dengan Pasien TB Paru di Kabupaten Majalengka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Edi Widya Sukoco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Lebih dari dua miliar penduduk (sekitar sepertiga penduduk dunia diduga terinfeksi Mycobacteriumtuberculosis. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah banyak pasien yang menerima self-administered pengobatan tidakpatuh. World Health Organization (WHO telah merekomendasikan strategi Directly Observed Treatment, Shortcourse chemotherapy (DOTS untuk pengendalian TB dengan melibatkan “Pengawas Minum Obat” (PMO. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengidentifi kasi faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi interaksi antara pasien dan PMO guna meningkatkan kualitas kepatuhan menurunkan angka TB. Metode: Desain penelitian adalah eksploratif dengan pendekatan kualitatif.Kabupaten Majalengka dipilih sebagai daerah penelitian karena memiliki persentase kedua tertinggi Baksil Tahan Asam(BTA positif TB di Jawa Barat pada tahun 2000. Informasi diperoleh dari informan yang terdiri atas PMO, pasien TB,pelaksana program TB tingkat kecamatan Kadipaten, kepala Puskesmas Kadipaten, dan penanggung jawab programTB tingkat Kabupaten majalengka (Wasor. Hasil: Studi menunjukkan bahwa keberadaan PMO memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan hasil akhir pengobatan. Sebagian besar pasien mengakui bahwa keberadaan PMO sangat membantu untuk lebih “patuh” (compliant dan mengurangi risiko kebosanan selama pengobatan. Kesimpulan: Kriteria terpenting dalam memilih PMO yang mempunyai hubungan dekat dengan pasien sebaiknya anggota keluarga atau kombinasi antara anggota keluarga dengan bukan anggota keluarga. Demikian juga, PMO yang berasal dari kader kesehatan atau petugas kesehatan menunjukkan pemahaman mengenai TB yang lebih baik daripada PMO yang berasal dari anggota keluarga. Penelitian memberikan saran bahwa promosi kesehatan harus menjadi program prioritas karena memberikan kontribusi terhadap penyebaran informasi tentang program dan pengobatan TB. Pembekalan pengetahuan TB harus diberikan kepada anggota keluarga terutama yang berperan sebagai PMO.

  13. A novel Bayesian geospatial method for estimating tuberculosis incidence reveals many missed TB cases in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaweno, Debebe; Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S

    2017-10-02

    Reported tuberculosis (TB) incidence globally continues to be heavily influenced by expert opinion of case detection rates and ecological estimates of disease duration. Both approaches are recognised as having substantial variability and inaccuracy, leading to uncertainty in true TB incidence and other such derived statistics. We developed Bayesian binomial mixture geospatial models to estimate TB incidence and case detection rate (CDR) in Ethiopia. In these models the underlying true incidence was formulated as a partially observed Markovian process following a mixed Poisson distribution and the detected (observed) TB cases as a binomial distribution, conditional on CDR and true incidence. The models use notification data from multiple areas over several years and account for the existence of undetected TB cases and variability in true underlying incidence and CDR. Deviance information criteria (DIC) were used to select the best performing model. A geospatial model was the best fitting approach. This model estimated that TB incidence in Sheka Zone increased from 198 (95% Credible Interval (CrI) 187, 233) per 100,000 population in 2010 to 232 (95% CrI 212, 253) per 100,000 population in 2014. The model revealed a wide discrepancy between the estimated incidence rate and notification rate, with the estimated incidence ranging from 1.4 (in 2014) to 1.7 (in 2010) times the notification rate (CDR of 71% and 60% respectively). Population density and TB incidence in neighbouring locations (spatial lag) predicted the underlying TB incidence, while health facility availability predicted higher CDR. Our model estimated trends in underlying TB incidence while accounting for undetected cases and revealed significant discrepancies between incidence and notification rates in rural Ethiopia. This approach provides an alternative approach to estimating incidence, entirely independent of the methods involved in current estimates and is feasible to perform from routinely collected

  14. Determining Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among BCG-immunised Ugandan children by T-SPOT.TB and tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunungi, Gyaviira; Lutangira, Jimreeves E; Lule, Swaib A; Akurut, Hellen; Kizindo, Robert; Fitchett, Joseph R; Kizito, Dennison; Sebina, Ismail; Muhangi, Lawrence; Webb, Emily L; Cose, Stephen; Elliott, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Children with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent a huge reservoir for future disease. We wished to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection prevalence among BCG-immunised five-year-old children in Entebbe, Uganda, but there are limited data on the performance of immunoassays for diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in children in endemic settings. We therefore evaluated agreement between a commercial interferon gamma release assay (T-SPOT.TB) and the tuberculin skin test (TST; 2 units RT-23 tuberculin; positive defined as diameter ≥10 mm), along with the reproducibility of T-SPOT.TB on short-term follow-up, in this population. We recruited 907 children of which 56 were household contacts of TB patients. They were tested with T-SPOT.TB at age five years and then re-examined with T-SPOT.TB (n = 405) and TST (n = 319) approximately three weeks later. The principal outcome measures were T-SPOT.TB and TST positivity. At five years, 88 (9.7%) children tested positive by T-SPOT.TB. More than half of those that were T-SPOT.TB positive at five years were negative at follow-up, whereas 96% of baseline negatives were consistently negative. We observed somewhat better agreement between initial and follow-up T-SPOT.TB results among household TB contacts (κ = 0.77) than among non-contacts (κ = 0.39). Agreement between T-SPOT.TB and TST was weak (κ = 0.28 and κ = 0.40 for T-SPOT.TB at 5 years and follow-up, respectively). Of 28 children who were positive on both T-SPOT.TB tests, 14 (50%) had a negative TST. Analysis of spot counts showed high levels of instability in responses between baseline and follow-up, indicating variability in circulating numbers of T cells specific for certain M.tb antigens. We found that T-SPOT.TB positives are unstable over a three-week follow-up interval, and that TST compares poorly with T-SPOT.TB, making the categorisation of children as TB-infected or TB-uninfected difficult. Existing tools for

  15. MDR-TB treatment as prevention: The projected population-level impact of expanded treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Dowdy, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios, on ten-year projections of MDR-TB incidence and mortality. Methods We constructed a dynamic transmission model of an MDR-TB epidemic in an illustrative East/Southeast Asian setting. Using approximate Bayesian computation, we investigated a wide array of potential epidemic trajectories consistent with current notification data and known TB epidemiology. Results Despite an overall projected decline in TB incidence, data-consistent simulations suggested that MDR-TB incidence is likely to rise between 2015 and 2025 under continued 2013 treatment practices, although with considerable uncertainty (median 17% increase, 95% Uncertainty Range [UR] -38% to +137%). But if, by 2017, all identified active TB patients with previously-treated TB could be tested for drug susceptibility, and 85% of those with MDR-TB could initiate MDR-appropriate treatment, then MDR-TB incidence in 2025 could be reduced by 26% (95% UR 4–52%) relative to projections under continued current practice. Also expanding this drug-susceptibility testing and appropriate MDR-TB treatment to treatment-naïve as well as previously-treated TB cases, by 2020, could reduce MDR-TB incidence in 2025 by 29% (95% UR 6–55%) compared to continued current practice. If this diagnosis and treatment of all MDR-TB in known active TB cases by 2020 could be implemented via a novel second-line regimen with similar effectiveness and tolerability as current first-line therapy, a 54% (95% UR 20–74%) reduction in MDR-TB incidence compared to current-practice projections could be achieved by 2025. Conclusions Expansion of diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB, even using current sub-optimal second-line regimens, is expected

  16. Sensitization and Intra-molecular Energy Transfer of Eu3+ by Tb3+ in Eu-Tb Binuclear Complexes/PMMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jing; LI Jie

    2011-01-01

    A series of Eu0.5Tb0.5(TTA)3Phen/PMMA (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone, Phen=phenanthroline)and Eu0.5Tb0.5(TTA)3Dipy/PMMA (Dipy=2,2'-dipyridyl) were prepared by in-situ polymerization. The structures of the composites were characterized by IR spectra and electron spectrum. Photoluminescence properties were investigated by UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, the energy transfer models were set up.The results indicated that polymer parts were attached with the rare-earth molecular parts in the composite luminescent materials. Eu0.5Tb0.5(TTA)3Phen/PMMA and Eu0.5Tb0.5(TTA)3Dipy/PMMA emitted mostly characteristic fluorescence of europium ion and intense red fluorescence with peak wavelength at 611.8 nm and bandwidth of 10.4 nm under UV excitation at 365 nm. Fluorescence intensity of Eu0.5Tb0.5(TTA)3Phen/PMMA was found to be influenced with the content of MMA. The fluorescence emission of europium ions was greatly sensitized by terbium ions and the enhancement of red emission was most likely due to the energy transfer enhancement from Th3+ to Eu3+.

  17. Magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions in TbCoSi{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penc, B.; Szytula, A.; Wawrzynska, E.; Hernandez-Velasco, J

    2004-03-10

    A study of the magnetic structure of TbCoSi{sub 2} has been made. Using a neutron diffractometer of better resolution, new results have been obtained. This compound crystallizes in the CeNiSi{sub 2}-type structure the magnetic moments are located only on Tb atoms. At 1.5 K the Tb moments have two components, a collinear and a noncollinear (spiral) one, and so the magnetic order at this temperature has a complex character. With increasing temperature, the magnetic structure change and the spiral one is observed only near the Neel temperature equal to T{sub N}=16 K.

  18. Giant magnetostriction in Tb-doped Fe83Ga17 melt-spun ribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Wei WU; Liu, Jinghua; Jiang, Chengbao; Xu, Huibin

    2013-01-01

    Giant magnetostriction is achieved in the slightly Tb-doped Fe83Ga17 melt-spun ribbons. The tested average perpendicular magnetostriction is -886 ppm along the melt-spun ribbon direction in the Fe82.89Ga16.88Tb0.23 alloy. The calculated parallel magnetostriction is 1772 ppm, more than 4 times as large as that of binary Fe83Ga17 alloy. The enhanced magnetostriction should be attributed to a small amount of Tb solution into the A2 matrix phase during rapid solidification. The localized strong m...

  19. Magnetic Structure of Tb-Tm Alloys Studied by Neutron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.; Lebech, Bente

    1976-01-01

    Single crystals of Tb-Tm alloys with Tm contents of 12%, 40%, 55% and 65% were investigated by neutron diffractometry over the temperature range 4.2-300K. All these alloys order magnetically to a basal plane spiral below the Neel temperature. Below the Curie temperature the magnetic ordering of t...... is modulated along the c axis (CAM structure). Tb-Tm alloys have an inhomogeneous phase, where the spins associated with the Tb ions lie in the basal plane, while the spins associated with the Tm ions order along the c axis....

  20. A Eu/Tb-mixed MOF for luminescent high-temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huizhen; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuangjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-02-01

    Temperature measurements and thermal mapping using luminescent MOF operating in the high-temperature range are of great interest in the micro-electronic diagnosis. In this paper, we report a thermostable Eu/Tb-mixed MOF Eu0.37Tb0.63-BTC-a exhibiting strong luminescence at elevated temperature, which can serve as a ratiometric luminescent thermometer for high-temperature range. The high-temperature operating range (313-473 K), high relative sensitivity and accurate temperature resolution, make such a Eu/Tb-mixed MOF useful for micro-electronic diagnosis.

  1. Hospitalized care for MDR-TB in Port Harcourt, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieh, Kingsley Lezor; Weigel, Ralf; Smith, Helen

    2017-01-10

    In Nigeria multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is prevalent in 2.9% of new TB cases and 14% of retreatment cases, and the country is one of 27 with high disease burden globally. Patients are admitted and confined to one of ten MDR-TB treatment facilities throughout the initial 8 months of treatment. The perspectives of MDR-TB patients shared on social media and in academic research and those of providers are limited to experiences of home-based care. In this study we explored the views of hospitalised MDR-TB patients and providers in one treatment facility in Nigeria, and describe how their experiences are linked to accessibility of care and support services, in line with international goals. We aimed to explore the physical, social and psychological needs of hospitalized MDR TB patients, examine providers' perceptions about the hospital based model and discuss the model's advantages and disadvantages from the patient and the provider perspective. We conducted two gender distinct focus group discussions and 11 in-depth interviews with recently discharged MDR-TB patients from one MDR-TB treatment facility in Nigeria. We triangulated this with the views of four providers who played key roles in the management of MDR-TB patients via key informant interviews. Transcribed data was thematically analysed, using an iterative process to constantly compare and contrast emerging themes across the data set for deeper understanding of the full range of participants' views. The study findings demonstrate the psycho-social impacts of prolonged isolation and the coping mechanisms of patients in the facility. The dislocation of patients from their normal social networks and the detachment between providers and patients created the need for interdependence of patients for emotional and physical support. Providers' fears of infection contributed to stigma and hindered accessibility of care and support services. The current trend towards discharging patients after culture

  2. Feasibility of shortening isolation of TB-suspects by first-sample PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Wejse, Christian; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard

    Rationale: Isolation of patients suspected for tuberculosis (TB) is usually guided by serial sputum smears. Many of patients initially isolated will turn out not to have TB, or will not be regarded as contagious. Current standards imply isolation for hours or days until contagiousness has been......-positive on the sample that produced the PCR-negative result. Conclusion: Though adequate sensitivity in diagnosing TB still requires serial samples for microbiological examination, the question of isolation can be determined by first-sample PCR in the majority of cases, when the test is negative. In our study, less...

  3. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum Samples using PURE TB-LAMP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'guessan, K; Horo, K; Coulibaly, I; Adegbele, J; Kouame-Adjei, N; Seck-Angu, H; Guei, A; Kouakou, J; Dosso, M

    2016-12-01

    Lack of rapid and accurate diagnostic testing is a critical obstacle to global tuberculosis (TB) control. Sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy (SSM) is not optimal; however, it remains the most prevalent tool for TB confirmation in poor countries. As a part of passive case finding of TB detection, this study was conducted to determine the clinical performance of PURE TB-LAMP assay using liquid culture medium as the gold standard. Centre Antituberculeux de Yopougon is one of the 17 intermediate Tuberculosis centers in Côte d'Ivoire. A standardized questionnaire was submitted to patients with signs and symptoms consistent with tuberculosis by a trained caregiver. After obtaining signed consent forms, sputum samples were collected according to National TB Control Programme guidelines (spot-morning). SSM after Ziehl-Neelsen staining and TB-LAMP assay were blindly performed on the first sample. Samples transported to Institut Pasteur de Côte d'Ivoire were decontaminated according to the N-acetyl-L-Cystein method. In Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), 500mL of pellets were inoculated and incubated in the MGIT 960 system. MPT64 antigen was detected in positive cultures. Of the 500 patients enrolled, 469 (232men and 239 women) patients were included. The mean ages of men and women were 36.9 (15-86) and 37.3 (15-37.3) years, respectively. There were 56 (12.2%) HIV-infected patients, including 14 women. Clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis complex were detected for 157 (33.5%) patients. Compared with culturing, the overall sensitivity and specificity of SSM were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI]=81-91) and 96% (95% CI=94-98), respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity for TB-LAMP was 92% (95% CI=0.88-0.96) and 94% (95% CI=0.91-0.97), respectively. Positive likelihood ratios for TB-LAMP and SSM were 15.3 and 21.5, respectively, and negative likelihood ratios for TB-LAMP and SSM were 0.09 and 0.15, respectively. Among the 469 patients, active

  4. Mortality among MDR-TB cases: comparison with drug-susceptible tuberculosis and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0% died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1-13.4 when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01, previous TB episodes (p<0.001, diabetes history (p<0.001 and HIV infection (p = 0.04 were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to therapy.

  5. Nilai Diagnostik Metode “Real Time” PCR GeneXpert pada TB Paru BTA Negatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kurniawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  AbstrakTuberkulosis (TB paru adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh kuman Mycobacterium tuberkulosis. TB masih tetap menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia karena lebih kurang 1/3 penduduk dunia terinfeksi oleh kuman ini dan sumber penularannya berasal dari Basil Tahan Asam (BTA positif maupun negatif. TB paru BTA negatif didiagnosis berdasarkan gambaran klinis dan rontgen torak yang sesuai TB serta pertimbangan dokter sehingga hal ini dapat menimbulkan under atau over diagnosis TB. GeneXpert merupakan pemeriksaan molekuler dengan metode “real time“ PCR dan merupakan penemuan terobosan untuk mendiagnosis TB secara cepat. Tujuan penelitiian ini adalah melakukan penilaian validitas GeneXpert pada TB paru BTA negatif dibandingkan dengan kultur Loweinstein Jensen. Desain penelitian uji diagnostik ini adalah cross sectional study. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap 40 orang pasien TB paru BTA negatif di Puskesmas sekitar kota Padang dan pasien yang dirawat di Bagian Penyakit Dalam RS dr. M. Djamil Padang. Dilakukan pemeriksaan sputum dengan GeneXpert dan dibandingkan dengan kultur Loweinstein Jensen. Hasil uji diagnostik dengan GeneXpert untuk mendiagnosis TB paru BTA negatif didapatkan sensitivitas 83.33%, spesifisitas 95.46%, nilai prediksi positif 93.75%, nilai prediksi negatif 87.5% dan akurasi 90% serta hasil uji kappa didapatkan 0.796. Disimpulkan GeneXpert memiliki sensitivitas, spesifisitas, nilai prediksi positif, nilai prediksi negatif dan akurasi yang tinggi pada TB paru BTA negatif.Kata kunci: nilai diagnostik, TB paru BTA negatif, GeneXpert AbstractPulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB is still a global health problem. Approximately one third of the world population is infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the source of infection came from smear positive and negative patient. Smear negative pulmonary TB can be considered based on clinical symptom and chest x-ray as well as

  6. New greenish-yellow and yellowish-green emitting glass phosphors: Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} in zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldino, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico (Mexico); Speghini, A. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy); IFAC CNR, Nello Carrara Institute of Applied Physics, MDF Lab, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    A spectroscopic investigation of zinc phosphate glasses activated with Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} ions is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time measurements. Greenish-yellow light emission, with x=0.42 and y=0.50 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the 5.0% Tb(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}-2.0% Eu(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} codoped zinc phosphate glass upon Tb{sup 3+} excitation at 340 nm. Such greenish-yellow luminescence is generated mainly by the {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 6,5} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 1,2} emissions of Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. By codoping with 0.1 Ce(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} in addition to Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} yellowish-green light emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x=0.33 and y=0.48, is achieved through non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} and from Ce{sup 3+} via Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} upon 280 nm excitation (peak emission wavelength of AlGaN-based LEDs). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses are optically activated with Tb{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+} (ZPO5Tb2Eu) and Ce{sup 3+}/Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+} (ZPOCe5Tb2Eu). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-radiative energy transfer Tb{sup 3+}{yields}Eu{sup 3+} takes place in ZPO5Tb2Eu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greenish-yellow light is generated by ZPO5Tb2Eu pumped with 340 nm-UV light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-radiative energy transfer Ce{sup 3+}{yields}Tb{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}{yields}Eu{sup 3+} via Tb{sup 3+} takes place in ZPOCe5Tb2Eu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yellowish-green light is generated by ZPOCe5Tb2Eu pumped with 280 nm-UV light (AlGaN-LEDs).

  7. Current and developing therapies for the treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Malaisamy; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2017-09-01

    India accounts for 25% of the global burden of MDR-TB. In 2016, the India's Revised National TB Control Programme reported a success rate of 46% among 19,298 MDR-TB patients treated under the programme. This suboptimal treatment outcome warrants an urgent need for newer drugs and newer regimens in the treatment of MDR-TB. India requires new shorter, cheap, safe and effective anti-TB regimen to treat MDR-TB. Areas covered: We used different search strategies to obtain relevant literature from PubMed, on Indian experiences of developing therapies for the treatment of MDR-TB. Further information from the Central TB Division Government of India on programmatic management of resistant TB was collected. Expert opinion: In 2016 WHO recommended a shorter MDR-TB regimen of 9-12 months (4-6 Km-Mfx-Pto-Cfz-Z-Hhigh-dose-E /5 Mfx-Cfz-Z-E) may be used instead of longer regimens. Currently, conducting trials involving newer drugs such as bedaquiline, have been proposed. The regimen will be of a shorter duration containing isoniazid, prothionamide, bedaquiline, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide (STREAM regimen). To successfully treat MDR-TB one requires new classes of antibiotic and newer diagnostic tests. This represents an enormous financial and technical challenge to the programme managers and policy makers.

  8. The effects of Tb3+ doping concentration on luminescence properties and crystal structure of BaF2 phosphor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhenxing Du; Quansheng Liu; Tianjiang Hou; Yue Song; Xiyan Zhang; Yanyu Cui

    2015-06-01

    This paper is aimed at explaining the effects of Tb3+ concentration on structure and luminescence properties and clarifying the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+. The lattice of BaF2 decreases with the increase of Tb3+ ions concentration. The emission spectrum of BaF2:Tb3+ consists of blue emission band and green emission band and corresponds to the transition of 5D3 $\\to$ 7F ( =0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) and 5D4 $\\to$ 7F ( =2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of Tb3+. The optimum concentration of Tb3+ is 4 mol%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Tb3+ can be interpreted by the dipole–quadrupole (d–q) interaction.

  9. Multiple Skin Colored Nodules on both Legs in Patient with Positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi Soo; Hong, Seung Phil; Park, Byung Cheol; Kim, Myung Hwa

    2017-02-01

    Nodular tuberculid (NT) was originally described by Jordaan et al. in 2000 in 4 patients from South Africa. It appeared as nodules on the legs; the pathologic changes were situated in the deep dermis and adjacent subcutaneous fat. A 34-year-old woman visited our hospital with subcutaneous skin-colored or slightly erythematous round to oval nodules. Skin biopsies revealed granulomatous inflammation at the dermo-subcutaneous junction with vasculitis. Chest X-ray, tuberculosus (TB)-polymerase chain reaction and TB culture of the skin specimen were normal. A QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test (QUIAGEN, Germany) was positive, which suggested a diagnosis of latent TB infection. The patient was treated with anti-TB medication and her condition has not recurred. Herein, we report a case of a patient with latent TB diagnosed by a positive QuantiFERON®-TB Gold test whose skin lesions had the clinical and histopathologic features of NT.

  10. Self Exchange Bias and Bi-stable Magneto-Resistance States in Amorphous TbFeCo and TbSmFeCo Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chung; Li, Xiaopu; Lu, Jiwei; Poon, Joseph; Comes, Ryan; Devaraj, Arun; Spurgeon, Steven

    Amorphous ferrimagetic TbFeCo and TbSmFeCo thin films are found to exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Self exchange bias effect and bi-stable magneto-resistance states are observed near compensation temperature by magnetic hysteresis loop, anomalous Hall effect and transverse magneto-resistance measurements. Atom probe tomography, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping have revealed two nanoscale amorphous phases with different Tb concentration distributed within the amorphous films. The observed exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the two nanoscale amorphous phases. Exchange bias effect is used for increasing stability in spin valves and magnetic tunneling junctions. This study opens up a new platform for using amorphous ferrimagnetic thin films that require no epitaxial growth in nanodevices.. The work was supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Grant and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. What are the reasons for poor uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB in an Eastern India District?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipra Bishnu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: National policy in India recommends HIV testing of all patients with TB. In West Bengal state, only 28% of patients with TB were tested for HIV between April-June, 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to understand patient, provider and health system related factors associated with low uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB. METHODS: We reviewed TB and HIV program records to assess the HIV testing status of patients registered for anti-TB treatment from July-September 2010 in South-24-Parganas district, West Bengal, assessed availability of HIV testing kits and interviewed a random sample of patients with TB and providers. RESULTS: Among 1633 patients with TB with unknown HIV status at the time of diagnosis, 435 (26% were tested for HIV within the intensive phase of TB treatment. Patients diagnosed with and treated for TB at facilities with co-located HIV testing services were more likely to get tested for HIV than at facilities without [RR = 1.27, (95% CI 1.20-3.35]. Among 169 patients interviewed, 67 reported they were referred for HIV testing, among whom 47 were tested. During interviews, providers attributed the low proportion of patients with TB being referred and tested for HIV to inadequate knowledge among providers about the national policy, belief that patients will not test for HIV even if they are referred, shortage of HIV testing kits, and inadequate supervision by both programs. DISCUSSION: In West Bengal, poor uptake of HIV testing among patients with TB was associated with absence of HIV testing services at sites providing TB care services and to poor referral practices among providers. Comprehensive strategies to change providers' beliefs and practices, decentralization of HIV testing to all TB care centers, and improved HIV test kit supply chain management may increase the proportion of patients with TB who are tested for HIV.

  12. Role of Quantiferon TB gold assays in monitoring the efficacy of antituberculosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Helmy

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: The analysis of QFT-G assay results showed that in the majority of our TB patients there was a correlation between clinical treatment outcome and changes of IFN-γ response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens.

  13. Research on the significance of TSPOT.TB test in diagnosing the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Li; Qi-Huang Chen; Yan-Yu Pan; Wei-Zheng Chen; Wen-Feng Lin; Sai-Li Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the TSPOT.TB test in diagnosing the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods:A total of 100 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were diagnosed by TSPOT.TB test and TST, and the difference between the two detection methods was compared.Results:The positive detection rate in the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly higher than that in the pulmonary tuberculosis group. The sensitivity (94.21), specificity (94.50), PPV (74.20), NPV (94.17), and LR+ (6.14) in the atypical pulmonary tuberculosis group by TSPOT.TB test were significantly higher than those by TST, while LR-(0.13) was significantly lower than that by TST.Conclusions:When compared with TST, TSPOT. TB test has a higher clinical application value, possesses advantages of rapidness and sensitivity, and plays a vital role in diagnosing atypical pulmonary tuberculosis.

  14. Accelerated approach of discovering plant derived drug leads for treatment of TB

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted by the Bioprospecting group to identify TB drug leads using the accelerated approach will be outlined. The Bioprospecting platform in collaboration with the South African National Botanical Institute (SANBI) has established a...

  15. Age-specific mortality among TB patients in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Løkke, Anders; Ibsen, Rikke

    Objective: To evaluate the age-specific mortality in a national TB cohort, and to estimate relative age-specific mortality compared with matched controls, in a retrospective case-control study. Methods: Using Danish National Patient Registry, we retrospectively identified TB-patients between 1998...... followed for max. 12 (span: 0-12) years. Mortality was higher for cases than controls in all age groups, and significantly so for age groups above 20 years, peaking at a Hazard Ratio of 8.7 (95% CI: 5.53;16.69) in the 30-39 years age Conclusion: Cumulative mortality of TB-patients is significantly inferior...... to matched controls. While the difference in survival is substantial among elderly patients, a high relative risk of dying is particularly of concern among young and middle-aged adult TB patients....

  16. Computer Simulation for Effect of Tb3+ on Ca2+Speciation in Human Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢兴; 王悦; 张海元; 王进平; 牛春吉; 倪嘉缵

    2002-01-01

    Effect of Tb3+ on Ca2+ speciation in human plasma was studied by means of the computer program of MINTEQA2. When Tb3+ ions are not added into the system, Ca2+ ions mostly distribute in free Ca2+ (74.7%) and the surplus distributes in Ca2+ complexes, such as [CaHCO3]+(7.9%), [Ca(Lac)]+(6.4%), CaHPO4 (1.3%), [CaHistidinateThreoninateH3]3+(2.4%), [CaCitrateHistidinateH2] (2.3%) and CaCO3(1.1%). Tb3+ can compete with Ca2+ for inorganic as well as biological ligands. An increase of concentration of Tb3+ in the system results in an increase of content of free Ca2+ and a decrease of contents of Ca2+ complexes.

  17. Micromagnetic simulation of ferrimagnetic TbFeCo films with exchange coupled nanophases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chung T.; Li, Xiaopu; Poon, S. Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Amorphous ferrimagnetic TbFeCo thin films are found to exhibit exchange bias effect near the compensation temperature by magnetic hysteresis loop measurement. The observed exchange anisotropy is believed to originate from the exchange interaction between the two nanoscale amorphous phases distributed within the films. Here, we present a computational model of phase-separated TbFeCo using micromagnetic simulation. Two types of cells with different Tb concentration are distributed within the simulated space to obtain a heterogeneous structure consisting of two nanoscale amorphous phases. Each cell contains separated Tb and FeCo components, forming two antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices. Using this model, we are able to show the existence of exchange bias effect, and the shift in hysteresis loops is in agreement with experiment. The micromagnetic model developed herein for a heterogeneous magnetic material may also account for some recent measurements of exchange bias effect in crystalline films.

  18. Exchange biasing single molecule magnets: coupling of TbPc2 to antiferromagnetic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi Rizzini, A; Krull, C; Balashov, T; Mugarza, A; Nistor, C; Yakhou, F; Sessi, V; Klyatskaya, S; Ruben, M; Stepanow, S; Gambardella, P

    2012-11-14

    We investigate the possibility to induce exchange bias between single molecule magnets (SMM) and metallic or oxide antiferromagnetic substrates. Element-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal, respectively, the presence and absence of unidirectional exchange anisotropy for TbPc(2) SMM deposited on antiferromagnetic Mn and CoO layers. TbPc(2) deposited on Mn thin films present magnetic hysteresis and a negative horizontal shift of the Tb magnetization loop after field cooling, consistent with the observation of pinned spins in the Mn layer coupled parallel to the Tb magnetic moment. Conversely, molecules deposited on CoO substrates present paramagnetic magnetization loops with no indication of exchange bias. These experiments demonstrate the ability of SMM to polarize the pinned uncompensated spins of an antiferromagnet during field-cooling and realize metal-organic exchange-biased heterostructures using antiferromagnetic pinning layers.

  19. Thermal Expansion Anomaly of Tb2Fe14Cr3 Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-Ming; HE Xiao-Hong; AN Li-Qun; Fu Bin

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the thermal expansion property of the Tb2Fe14Cr3 compound by means of x-ray diffraction.The result shows that the Tb2Fe14Cr3 compound has a hexagonal Th2Ni17-type structure.Negative thermal expansion is found in the Tb2Fe14Cr3 compound from 296 to 493K by x-ray dilatometry.The coefficient of the average thermal expansion is (a)=-2.82×10-5 K-1.In the temperature range 493-692K,the coefficient of the average thermal expansion is (a)=1.59×10-5 K-1.The physical mechanism of thermal expansion anomaly of the Tb2Fe14Cr3 compound is discussed according to the temperature dependence of magnetization measured by a superconducting quantum interference device.

  20. Selective-resputtering-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in amorphous TbFe films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, V G; Pokhil, T

    2001-08-06

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy in rf magnetron sputtered amorphous TbFe films is measured to increase exponentially with pair-order anisotropy induced by the selective resputtering of surface adatoms during film growth.

  1. Institutional factors and HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the principal institutional factors affecting the slow progress in reaching agreed targets in Africa regarding the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria. It focuses on three key factors: political analysis, strategic business approach and international inputs. Most of the analyses tend to look at the technical aspects of disease prevention and control, of political analysis there is a marked absence. Yet, we know that wider contextual or macro factors such as power and political decision making can make or break a programme. Many senior managers in public sector institutions are preoccupied with day-to-day work. Successful businesses in the private sector have some things in common with each other. Outstanding leadership, a strategic and action orientated culture, highly focused on comparative strengths on priorities and quality being some of the key ones. Adopting such successful business characteristics might make the difference to public institutions. The move to results based institutions by focussing on outputs and outcomes is for the better. However, we still need to rigorously examine the quality of inputs that the increasing availability of funds is being used on. This is especially so in relation to needing a better balance between aid for health services and that for institutional and health systems development. In addition, technical advisers from development partners need to work more across a ministry of health on institutional and management change to have a greater impact on achieving targets.

  2. Microscopic study of superdeformed rotational bands in 151Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aouad, N.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Li, X.; Luo, W. D.; Molique, H.; Bouguettoucha, A.; Byrski, Th.; Beck, F. A.; Curien, D.; Duchêne, G.; Finck, Ch.; Kharraja, B.

    2000-08-01

    Structure of eight experimentally known superdeformed bands in the nucleus 151Tb is analyzed using the results of the Hartree-Fock and Woods-Saxon cranking approaches. It is demonstrated that far going detailed similarities between the two approaches exist and predictions related to the structure of rotational bands calculated within the two models are nearly parallel. An interpretation scenario for the structure of the superdeformed bands is presented and predictions related to the exit spins are made. Small but systematic discrepancies between experiment and theory, analyzed in terms of the dynamical moments, J(2), are shown to exist. These discrepancies can be parametrized in terms of a scaling factor f, such that modifications J(1),(2)→f J(1),(2) together with the implied scaling of the frequencies ω→ f-1ω, correspond systematically better with the experimental data ( f≃0.9) for both the Woods-Saxon and Hartree-Fock with Skyrme SkM ★ interactions. The pairing correlations taken into account by using the particle-number-projection technique are shown to increase the disagreement. Sources of these systematic discrepancies are discussed — they are most likely related to the not yet optimal parametrization of the nuclear interactions used.

  3. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently the BICEP2 experiment has detected the B-mode in the CMB polarization map. The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a complex inflaton field which is charged under the $U(1)$ gauge. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic f...

  4. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  5. Green to white tunable light emitting phosphors: Dy3+/Tb3+ in zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Batalla, J.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Muñoz H., G.; Caldiño, Ulises

    2017-02-01

    Dy3+/Tb3+-doped zinc phosphate glasses of composition in mol.%: 98.0Zn(PO3)2-2.0Dy2O3, (100.0-x)Zn(PO3)2-xTb2O3 and (98.0-x)Zn(PO3)2-2.0Dy2O3-xTb2O3, x = 0.6, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0, were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique, and characterized by photoluminescence and decay time spectroscopy. The emission color can be adjusted from neutral white of 4279 K (98.0 Zn(PO3)2-2.0 Dy2O3 glass) toward the green region by codoping with Tb3+ from 0.6 to 5.0 mol% of Tb2O3 upon Dy3+ excitation at 392 nm. The Tb3+ emissions (5D4 → 7F6,5,4,3) being sensitized by Dy3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. Dysprosium 4F9/2 level emissions can also be sensitized through excitation of Tb3+ at 284 nm with an efficiency up to of 80%. Additionally, upon 284 nm excitation dominant 5D4 → 7F5 green emission in detriment of the 5D3 → 7FJ blue one is promoted by a cross relaxation process between Tb3+ and Dy3+ in addition to that among Tb3+ ions. In consequence, the most intense green emission observed in the ZP2Dy5Tb phosphor gives rise to a color purity of 67.8% and chromaticity coordinates (0.29, 0.59) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. Such cross relaxation processes enhancing the green emission of Tb3+ with ultraviolet excitation might contribute to increment the spectral response of solar photovoltaic cells by down-shifting of the incident solar spectrum.

  6. TB2钛合金直丝加工工艺改进及优化%Process Optimization of Processing TB2 Alloy Straight Wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊梦婷; 杨华斌; 曹继敏

    2013-01-01

    For the hydrogen content,strength and microstructure could not meet the standard during the production of the straight wire of TB2 alloy in Xi' an Saite Metal Materials Development Co.,Ltd.,the production process was analyzed and optimized in this paper.According to the test results,the hydrogen content of TB2 alloy straight wire increased in the processes of forging,rolling and drawing,which might connect with the hydrogen atmosphere generated in the hot work process.And the hydrogen content in the end products could be reduced by adding the process of heat treatment for dehydrogenation.By the analysis of the characteristics of electro-thermal straightening in the production process of the straight wire of TB2 alloy,it was found that the electro-thermal straightening might do bad effect on the strength and microstructure.And the strength and microstructure of the TB2 alloy straight wire could be able to meet the standard requirement of GJB 2219-1994 by the room-temperature straightening.%针对西安赛特金属材料开发有限公司在TB2钛合金直丝生产过程中出现的氢含量超标及强度、组织不达标的现象,分析产生问题的工序环节,并进行工艺改进及优化.经测试,TB2钛合金丝材在锻造、轧制、拉拔工序中都存在增氢现象,其原因与各热加工环节存在可能产生氢气氛的因素相关.通过增加去氢热处理工序,可达到防止成品氢含量超标的目的.通过对TB2钛合金直丝生产过程中电热矫直工序的特点进行分析,发现电热矫直工序对材料的性能和组织均可能产生不利影响.通过采用室温矫直工艺,可使TB2钛合金直丝的组织和性能均能够满足GJB2219-1994标准要求.

  7. Temperature dependence of the magnetic structure of TbCu2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sima, V.; Smetana, Z.; Lebech, Bente;

    1986-01-01

    The orthorhombic compound TbCu2 was studied by neutron powder diffraction. The temperature development of the magnetic structure is interpreted by means of Fourier analysis of the diffraction data below TN = 55 K.......The orthorhombic compound TbCu2 was studied by neutron powder diffraction. The temperature development of the magnetic structure is interpreted by means of Fourier analysis of the diffraction data below TN = 55 K....

  8. 46 CFR 30.10-48 - Oil fuel-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil fuel-TB/ALL. 30.10-48 Section 30.10-48 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-48 Oil fuel—TB/ALL. The term oil fuel means oil used as fuel for machinery in the vessel in which it is...

  9. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping... Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks and..., all intervening space within, between, below, or outboard of these tanks or holds, and the deck area...

  10. 46 CFR 35.01-10 - Shipping papers-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers-TB/ALL. 35.01-10 Section 35.01-10... Requirements § 35.01-10 Shipping papers—TB/ALL. Each loaded tank vessel shall have on board a bill of lading... agent of the owner: Provided, however, That in the case of unmanned barges where shipping papers are...

  11. Khayelitsha 2001 - 2011: 10 years of primary care HIV and TB programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belen Garone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB and HIV care in Khayelitsha, and in South Africa as a whole, has overcome numerous obstacles in the past three decades. This article highlights what has been achieved in Khayelitsha, describes the key clinical programme and policy changes that have supported universal coverage for HIV and TB care over the last 10 years, and outlines the challenges for the next decade.

  12. 46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38.25-10... and Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall be inspected at least once in every 2 years. (b) The safety relief valve discs must be lifted...

  13. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Transparent Nanocrystalline GdF3:Tb Glass-Ceramic Scintillator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Savage, Nicholas; Wagner, Brent; Zhang, Yuelan; Jacobs, Benjamin; Menkara, Hisham; Summers, Christopher; Kang, Zhitao

    2013-01-01

    Transparent glass-ceramic containing rare-earth doped halide nanocrystals exhibits enhanced luminescence performance. In this study, a glass-ceramic with Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is investigated for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocrystalline glass-ceramic scintillator was prepared by a melt-quench method followed by an anneal. The GdF3:Tb nanocrystals precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their lu...

  14. Experimental Demonstration of 7 Tb/s Switching Using Novel Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate BER performance <10^-9 for a 1 Tb/s/core transmission over 7-core fiber and SDM switching using a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit composed of a 7x7 fiber switch and low loss SDM couplers.......We demonstrate BER performance Tb/s/core transmission over 7-core fiber and SDM switching using a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit composed of a 7x7 fiber switch and low loss SDM couplers....

  15. Successful TB treatment induces B-cells expressing FASL and IL5RA mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Ilana C; Wagman, Chandre; Stanley, Kim; Beltran, Caroline; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Loxton, Andre G

    2017-01-10

    Activated B-cells increase T-cell behaviour during autoimmune disease and other infections by means of cytokine production and antigen-presentation. Functional studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) indicate that B-cell deficiencies, and a lack of IL10 and IL35 leads to a poor prognosis. We hypothesised that B-cells play a role during tuberculosis. We evaluated B-cell mRNA expression using real-time PCR from healthy community controls, individuals with other lung diseases and newly diagnosed untreated pulmonary TB patients at three different time points (diagnosis, month 2 and 6 of treatment).We show that FASLG, IL5RA, CD38 and IL4 expression was lower in B-cells from TB cases compared to healthy controls. The changes in expression levels of CD38 may be due to a reduced activation of B-cells from TB cases at diagnosis. By month 2 of treatment, there was a significant increase in the expression of APRIL and IL5RA in TB cases. Furthermore, after 6 months of treatment, APRIL, FASLG, IL5RA and CD19 were upregulated in B-cells from TB cases. The increase in the expression of APRIL and CD19 suggests that there may be restored activation of B-cells following anti-TB treatment. The upregulation of FASLG and IL5RA indicates that B-cells expressing regulatory genes may play an important role in the protective immunity against M.tb infection. Our results show that increased activation of B-cells is present following successful TB treatment, and that the expression of FASLG and IL5RA could potentially be utilised as a signature to monitor treatment response.

  16. Magnetic structures in RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleno, E., E-mail: eric.alleno@icmpe.cnrs.fr [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS-UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mazumdar, C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-1, Block-AF, 700064 Kolkata (India)

    2013-06-01

    Neutron diffraction has been performed on RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) polycrystals. The orthorhombic structure for NdNi₄B and the CeCo₄B structure type (hexagonal) for TbNi₄B and HoNi₄B are confirmed. Our data also show that this last structure is currently the best approximant for ErNi₄B. The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) order ferromagnetically at respectively 11.0, 18.1, 6.2 and 10.0 K. The crystal electric field (CEF) interaction controls the magnetic anisotropy in this series leading to an easy axis ~30 deg above the basal plane in RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) and parallel to the c-axis in ErNi₄B at 1.6 K. The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) display a spin re-orientation below Tc which arises from a competition between the second order term and the higher order terms of the CEF hamiltonian. - Graphical abstract: Simplified magnetic structure in NdNi₄B and full magnetic structure in RNi₄B (R=Tb, Ho). Variation with temperature of the easy magnetization axis direction (angle with c-axis) showing a spin re-orientation. Highlights: • RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho, Er) polycrystals were inductively melted. • Neutron diffraction confirms they all order ferromagnetically. • The magnetization easy axis is parallel to the c-axis in ErNi₄B. • The RNi₄B (R=Nd, Tb, Ho) display a spin re-orientation below Tc. • Their easy axis tilts from the c-axis at Tc to ~30 deg above the basal plane at 1.5 K.

  17. 46 CFR 31.25-1 - Load lines required-TB/OCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines required-TB/OCL. 31.25-1 Section 31.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Load Lines § 31.25-1 Load lines required—TB/OCL. All tank vessels of 150 gross tons or over, or 79 feet in...

  18. Layer-by-layer epitaxial thin films of the pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Laura; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Bramwell, Steven T.

    2017-02-01

    Layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of the pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 on the isostructural substrate Y2Ti2O7 results in high-quality single crystal films of up to 60 nm thickness. Substrate-induced strain is shown to act as a strong and controlled perturbation to the exotic magnetism of Tb2Ti2O7, opening up the general prospect of strain-engineering the diverse magnetic and electrical properties of pyrochlore oxides.

  19. Hospital design to accommodate multi- and extensively drug-resistant TB patients

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available population. The dose is treated statistically because the particles are randomly distributed in air. If they were perfectly evenly distributed each susceptible would inhale one dose, but because they are low concentration and randomly distributed, some... for protection of the HCW, from inhaling infectious droplets in high-risk M(X)DR TB settings, is the use of respiratory protective devices. These are designed to fit over the mouth and nose and filter out infectious TB particles. Respiratory protective...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-6a - Category A machinery space-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Category A machinery space-TB/ALL. 30.10-6a Section 30... Definitions § 30.10-6a Category A machinery space—TB/ALL. The term Category A machinery space means any space and trunks and ducts to such a space that contains: (a) Internal combustion machinery used for...

  1. Evolution of the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Tb{sub x}Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27-x} (7 at.% ≤ x ≤ 11 at.%) thin films upon the increase of Tb content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranchal, R., E-mail: rociran@fis.ucm.es [Dpto. Física de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Fin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bisero, D. [CNISM and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Tb{sub x}Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27-x} (7 at.% ≤ x ≤ 11 at.%) ternary alloys have been obtained by cosputtering from Tb{sub 33}Fe{sub 67} and Fe{sub 72}Ga{sub 28} targets. In contrast with other Tb–Fe–Ga compounds that consist of just one structural phase, the diffraction pattern of the Tb{sub 7}Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 20} shows the presence of two different phases related to binary Tb–Fe and Fe–Ga alloys. This microstructure evolves as the Tb content is increased, and for a Tb of 11 at.% X-ray diffractometry only evidences the presence of a phase close to the TbFe{sub 2}. Although none of the studied samples show perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, there is a significant component of the magnetization perpendicular to the sample plane. The increase of the Tb content on the compounds from 7 at.% to 11 at.% enhances this component most probably due to the shift of the microstructure towards one similar to the TbFe{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Tb{sub x}Fe{sub 73}Ga{sub 27-x} (7 at.% ≤ x ≤ 11 at.%) thin films grown by cosputtering. • Evolution of the microstructure upon the increase of Tb. • Out of plane component of the magnetization stable up to 800 Oe.

  2. Successful TB treatment outcome and its associated factors among TB/HIV co-infected patients attending Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: an institution based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinshaw, Yenework; Alemu, Shitaye; Fekadu, Abel; Gizachew, Mucheye

    2017-02-08

    Tuberculosis/Human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) co-infection is bidirectional and synergistic which mainly affects interventions that have been taken on the area. Tb patients co-infected with HIV have poorer treatment outcome as compared to non-co-infected patients. There is limited information regarding successful TB treatment outcomes and its associated factors; a reason that this study was planned to investigate. An institution based cross sectional study was carried out from July 2010 to January 2016. Data were abstracted from patients' medical chart using data abstraction format. The completeness of the data was checked and cleaned manually. Then, it was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Bi-variable and Multi-variable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with successful Tb treatment outcome. Significance was obtained through adjusted odds ratio with its 95% CI and a p TB treatment outcome among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Gondar University Hospital was 77.3% [95%CI 72.6-81.9]. Being residing in outside the Gondar town [AOR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.25-0.80], having less than the mean baseline weight (TB treatment [AOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29-0.89], being in the bedridden condition [AOR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.23], and experiencing anti-TB treatment side effect [AOR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.12-0.98] were the factors that resulted the patient in treatment failure. Successful Tb treatment outcome among TB/HIV co-infected patients was lower than the target set by Global Plan to Stop TB 2011-2015. Strengthening collaborative TB/HIV management activities that would trace the identified factors shall be recommended to increase successful treatment outcome of TB.

  3. Variation in T-SPOT.TB spot interpretation between independent observers from different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Willeke P J; Thijsen, Steven; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bouwman, John J M; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Kik, Sandra V; van Dissel, Jaap T; Arend, Sandra M

    2009-10-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a specific assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The assay needs to be performed with freshly isolated cells, and interpretation requires training. T-SPOT.TB has been used in various clinical-epidemiological settings, but so far no studies have evaluated the effect of interobserver variation in test reading. Our aim was to evaluate variation between different observers in reading T-SPOT.TB results. The study was nested within an ongoing cohort study, in which part of the T-SPOT.TB had been performed with frozen material. Culture plates were read visually by four different observers from two laboratories and by two automated readers. Of 313 T-SPOT.TB assays, 235 were performed with fresh cells and 78 were performed with frozen cells. No significant difference was found between results obtained with fresh cells and those obtained with frozen cells. The percentage of positive results varied between readers by maximally 15%; five/six raters were within a 6% difference in positive results. Analysis of the observed interrater differences showed that some individuals systematically counted more spots than others did. Because test interpretation includes subtraction of background values, this systematic variance had little influence on interindividual differences. The test result as positive or negative varied between independent raters, mainly due to samples with values around the cutoff. This warrants further study regarding determinants affecting the reading of T-SPOT.TB.

  4. HIV seroprevalence among new TB patients in the civilian and prisoner populations of Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykhert, Igor; Miskinis, Kestutis; Lepshyna, Svitlana; Kosinova, Olga; Kovalyova, Anna; Zaleskis, Risards; Nunn, Paul; Zignol, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    After the Russian Federation, Ukraine is the country of the Former Soviet Union experiencing the greatest epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, although complete official data are not available. This study investigates the prevalence of HIV among new TB patients in the civilian and penitentiary populations of Donetsk Oblast. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 1507 new patients with TB (1351 civilians, 156 prisoners) between January and June 2006. The prevalence of HIV among patients with TB was 15.5% (95% confidence interval 13.7-17.6) and 23.7% (95% CI 17.3-31.2) in the civilian and penitentiary sectors, respectively. Reported injecting drug use was the strongest independent predictor for HIV infection, followed by young age (25-44 y). Being prisoners was also found a significant independent predictor for HIV infection (OR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). In conclusion, the prevalence of HIV in the TB population is the highest ever reported in Ukraine, almost 2 times higher than the World Health Organization estimates for 2005 (7.9%), and 3 percentage points higher than the official data reported. These findings call for urgent measures to control HIV and, consequently, HIV-related TB.

  5. Emission Characteristics of PVK Doped TbY(o-MBA)6(phen)2 Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuanyuan; Deng Zhenbo; Liang Chunjun; Chen Baomei; Xiao Jing; Xu Denghui; Wang Ruifen

    2006-01-01

    A rare earth complex TbY (o-MBA)6(phen)2 was synthesized, which was first used as an emitting material in electroluminescence.By doping it into the conjugated polymer PVK, single-layer and double-layer devices were fabricated with structures: device A: ITO/PVK: TbY (o-MBA)6(phen)2/LiF/Al;B: ITO/PVK: TbY (o-MBA)6(phen)2/AlQ/LiF/Al;C: ITO/PVK: TbY (o-MBA)6(phen)2/BCP/AlQ/LiF/Al.The characteristics of these devices were investigated.For single-layer and double-layer devices, the emission of PVK was completely restrained, and only the green emission from Tb3+ was observed in electroluminescence.The above mentioned observation is attributed to the different mechanism of electroluminescence and photoluminescence.In photoluminescence process, the energy of Tb complex may come from PVK through Frster energy transfer process, while in electroluminescence process direct sequential charge trapping appeares to be the main operating mechanism.From the optimized device B, brightly green emission can be obtained, and the highest EL brightness of the device reaches 213 cd·m-2 at 14 V.

  6. The blueprint for vaccine research & development: walking the path for better TB vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhardt, Christian; Fruth, Uli; Greco, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Much progress has been made in TB vaccine research over the past ten years, and a series of new live genetically altered mycobacterial vaccines, viral-vectored vaccines and sub-unit vaccines composed of recombinant antigens are presently in clinical development phases. A series of challenges remain, however, to be addressed in order to develop new and better candidate TB vaccines, especially an expansion of our knowledge of what constitutes protective immunity in TB, the identification of the most suitable vaccination strategies, the capacity and infrastructure to conduct large-scale trials in endemic countries, the investment in vaccine manufacturing capacity, and the development of effective regulatory pathways that shorten review timelines. In this brief paper, we review how the Vaccine Blueprint places itself in the continuation and expansion of two groundbreaking initiatives taking place over the last two years, that is, an invigorated Global Plan to Stop TB 2011-2015 that gives a clear emphasis on Research and Development, and the International Roadmap for TB Research, that identifies key priorities for research on TB vaccines, spanning from the most fundamental research aspects to the more field-based epidemiological aspects.

  7. Latently and uninfected healthcare workers exposed to TB make protective antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wang, Xing-Xing; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Liu, Guan; Lu, Yu; Cao, Min; Huang, Hairong; Javid, Babak

    2017-05-09

    The role of Igs in natural protection against infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, is controversial. Although passive immunization with mAbs generated against mycobacterial antigens has shown protective efficacy in murine models of infection, studies in B cell-depleted animals only showed modest phenotypes. We do not know if humans make protective antibody responses. Here, we investigated whether healthcare workers in a Beijing TB hospital-who, although exposed to suprainfectious doses of pathogenic Mtb, remain healthy-make antibody responses that are effective in protecting against infection by Mtb. We tested antibodies isolated from 48 healthcare workers and compared these with 12 patients with active TB. We found that antibodies from 7 of 48 healthcare workers but none from active TB patients showed moderate protection against Mtb in an aerosol mouse challenge model. Intriguingly, three of seven healthcare workers who made protective antibody responses had no evidence of prior TB infection by IFN-γ release assay. There was also good correlation between protection observed in vivo and neutralization of Mtb in an in vitro human whole-blood assay. Antibodies mediating protection were directed against the surface of Mtb and depended on both immune complexes and CD4+ T cells for efficacy. Our results indicate that certain individuals make protective antibodies against Mtb and challenge paradigms about the nature of an effective immune response to TB.

  8. 'Sustaining the DOTS': stakeholders' experience of a social protection intervention for TB in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Alobu, Isaac; Mustapha, Gidado; Onazi, Olajumoke; Oshi, Daniel C

    2017-03-01

    Social protection for TB patients can lower patient costs and improve adherence. The aim of this study was to explore patients' and health workers' experiences of a social protection intervention for TB in order to inform a more patient-centred approach for the Nigeria National TB Programme strategy. This was a qualitative study consisting of 103 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with patients who received the intervention, and 10 key informant interviews with health workers. A thematic content analysis of the interviews was performed. Of those who completed the interviews, 53 (51.5%) were male, and 69 (67.0%) were below 40 years. Most of the participants received care and support from their families but delayed access to TB services due to lack of funds for transportation, nutritional supplementation and non-TB drugs. The intervention had a high level of acceptability and uptake; particularly clear benefits emerged for most patients who used the social protection funds to purchase food and supplements, other drugs, transportation and additional personal necessities. Some patients assert that the financial incentive package increased their awareness of timing of their follow-up visits. In addition, health workers observed increased enthusiasm to treatment and improvement in adherence among participants. Patients and health workers reported positive experiences with the financial incentives provided for TB treatment.

  9. Excitation and emission processes of Tb{sup 3+} in porous anodic alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabboussi, S. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanr 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanr 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn; Bouzidi, C. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanr 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Maliarevich, G.K.; Gaponenko, N.V. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Browki St. 6, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Oueslati, M. [Unite de recherche de Spectroscopie Raman, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Elmanr 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2009-01-15

    The strong photoluminescence (PL) of porous anodic alumina (PAA) with terbium deposition is reported. PAA, which has a regular pore morphology, is considered an effective template for fabricating luminescent composites. Tb was deposited onto PAA films by immersion in alcoholic solution with terbium chloride followed by heat treatment. The PL spectra demonstrate typical bands of Tb{sup 3+} corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub j} (j = 3, 4, 5, 6,) electron transition, with the maximum at 18,360 cm{sup -1} ({sup 5}D{sub 4} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 5}). The PL mechanism of Tb{sup 3+} was systematically studied with annealing temperature. The non-radiative relaxation channel is provided by OH hydroxyls at the surface of porous anodic alumina and, after annealing at 900 deg. C, the PL yield is highly improved. The PL intensity of Tb{sup 3+} increases with laser power and a saturation phenomenon, associated with the ratio of Tb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 4+} ions, is observed at approximately 90 W/cm{sup 2}. Based on a theoretical model, the optical cross-section {sigma} of terbium in PAA is estimated, with a value close to that of other porous materials doped with the rare-earth elements.

  10. Risk factors for MDR-TB and XDR-TB in Dalian patients%大连市耐多药结核危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋其生; 蔡春葵; 任彦薇; 路希伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors for MDR-TB and XDR-TB in Dalian patients.Methods We retrospec-tively analyzed the clinical records of 954 TB Patients with sputum and culture-proven MDR-or XDR-TB, who were reg-istered from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2014 in the Dalian Tuberculosis Hospital.Results All TB patients were culture-positive for M.tuberculosis complex and had positive sputum-smear microscopy results.Among first-time patients, 4.69%were MDR-TB and 0.88%were XDR-TB.In recurrent patients, MDR-TB and XDR-TB were 26.57%and 6.27%, respectively.Significant risk factors for MDR/XDR-TB included incomplete treatment regimen, inadequate doses, previous use of a fluoroquinolone and injectable agent, poor compliance, and diabetes.Conclusion Inadequate initial regimen and dia-betes are important risks of drug resistance.The mechanisms of TB drug-resistance are complex and need further studies.%目的:探索耐多药结核危险因素。方法回顾性分析2012年1月1日—2014年1月1日间大连市(市内四区)结核病医院所有同时有痰结核菌涂片及培养结果的患者954例的临床资料。利用临床相关因素比较及单因素危险因素分析,多因素危险因素分析统计耐药结核( MDR-TB)和广泛耐药结核( XDR-TB)的发生情况,致MDR和XDR的高危因素。结果初治者中耐多药肺结核MDR为4.69%,广泛耐多药肺结核XDR为0.88%。复治者中MDR为26.57%,XDR为6.27%。导致MDR/XDR的危险因素包括治疗方案不完整,剂量不足,应用喹诺酮或注射剂,依从性,糖尿病。结论治疗不规范,糖尿病是导致耐多药结核发生的重要因素,耐药机制复杂,需进一步探索。

  11. Use of the T-spot.TB test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection

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    Andrea Amodeo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Tuberculosis (TB represents a major health problem both in developing and both in industrialized countries.The identification of individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb play a key role for the efficacy of TB control. These individuals with a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, especially those with high risk of reactivation (e.g. HIV + / AIDS-infected individuals, patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy and children younger than 5 years could benefit from a preventive treatment with isoniazid reducing the risk of progression from LTBI to active TB. Until recently, detection of LTBI has relied on the tuberculin skin test (TST, but despite the widespread use in clinical practice,TST does not reliably diagnose LTBI because several drawbacks, e.g. lacking in specificity, particularly in who were exposed to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM or were vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG In addition, in young subjects,TST sensitivity is hampered by impaired T cell function leading frequently to false negative results.These several drawbacks limit the use of TST for the diagnose an LTBI in patients who may benefit from preventive chemotherapy. On the other hand, an accurate diagnosis of LTBI avoid the over-treatment of those patients with a positive TST results but not latently infected with Mtb. Recently, new tests based on the detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ after stimulation with Mtb-specific antigens: Early secretory Antigenic Target-6 (ESAT-6 and Culture Filtrate Protein-10 (CFP-10 have been proposed for the diagnosis of active TB and LTBI. Methods: During the period from January 2009 to June 2009, in our laboratory 70 patients were tested with T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotech, Abingdon, United Kingdom.We enrolled transplant patients and subjects ongoing transplant, patients immigrants from high prevalence TB countries, patients screened for immunosuppressive treatment, HIV / AIDS – infected

  12. Evaluation of immune responses in HIV infected patients with pleural tuberculosis by the QuantiFERON® TB-Gold interferon-gamma assay

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    Lekabe Jacob M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of tuberculous (TB pleuritis is difficult and better diagnostic tools are needed. New blood based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ tests are promising, but sensitivity could be low in HIV positive patients. The IFN-γ tests have not yet been validated for use in pleural fluid, a compartment with higher level of immune activation than in blood. Methods The QuantiFERON TB®-Gold (QFT-TB test was analysed in blood and pleural fluid from 34 patients presenting with clinically suspected pleural TB. Clinical data, HIV status and CD4 cell counts were recorded. Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA analysis and TB culture were performed on pleural fluid. Results The patients were categorised as 'confirmed TB' (n = 12, 'probable TB' (n = 16 and 'non-TB' pleuritis (n = 6 based on TB culture results and clinical and biochemical criteria. The majority of the TB patients were HIV infected (82%. The QFT-TB in pleural fluid was positive in 27% and 56% of the 'confirmed TB' and 'probable TB' cases, respectively, whereas the corresponding sensitivities in blood were 58% and 83%. Indeterminate results in blood (25% were caused by low phytohemagglutinin (PHA = positive control IFN-γ responses, significantly lower in the TB patients as compared to the 'non-TB' cases (p = 0.02. Blood PHA responses correlated with CD4 cell count (r = 0.600, p = 0.028. In contrast, in pleural fluid indeterminate results (52% were caused by high Nil (negative control IFN-γ responses in both TB groups. Still, the Nil IFN-γ responses were lower than the TB antigen responses (p Conclusion The QFT-TB test in blood could contribute to the diagnosis of TB pleuritis in the HIV positive population. Still, the number of inconclusive results is too high to recommend the commercial QFT-TB test for routine use in pleural fluid in a TB/HIV endemic resource-limited setting.

  13. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America.

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    Anne Marie W Efsen

    Full Text Available Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE. We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients in EE, Western Europe (WE and Latin America (LA.Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013, 1413 TB/HIV patients (62 clinics in 19 countries in EE, WE, Southern Europe (SE, and LA were enrolled.Significant differences were observed between EE (N = 844, WE (N = 152, SE (N = 164, and LA (N = 253 in the proportion of patients with a definite TB diagnosis (47%, 71%, 72% and 40%, p<0.0001, MDR-TB (40%, 5%, 3% and 15%, p<0.0001, and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART (17%, 40%, 44% and 35%, p<0.0001. Injecting drug use (adjusted OR (aOR = 2.03 (95% CI 1.00-4.09, prior anti-TB treatment (3.42 (1.88-6.22, and living in EE (7.19 (3.28-15.78 were associated with MDR-TB. Among 585 patients with drug susceptibility test (DST results, the empiric (i.e. without knowledge of the DST results anti-TB treatment included ≥3 active drugs in 66% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (p<0.0001.In EE, TB/HIV patients were less likely to receive a definite TB diagnosis, more likely to house MDR-TB and commonly received empiric anti-TB treatment with reduced activity. Improved management of TB/HIV patients in EE requires better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART.

  14. Luminescence, Energy Transfer and Concentration Quenching of Red Emitting Phosphor Ba3Eu(PO4)3:Tb3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yamin; YANG Zhiping; LI Xiang; SHI Xian; ZHANG Huan; TIAN Zhi; QI Shuai; YUAN Xiaoxian; LI Panlai; WANG Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    A red emitting phosphor of Ba3Eu(PO4)3:Tb3+ was synthesized by a solid state method. The energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ in Ba3Eu(PO4)3:Tb3+ was proved by the spectral properties and decay curves. The emission intensity of Ba3Eu(PO4)3 is enhanced by doping Tb3+ as a sensitizer. For Ba3Eu(PO4)3:Tb3+, the5D3→7FJ transition of Tb3+occurs, and the corresponding emission intensities can be tuned when Tb3+ content increases, and the concentration quenching effect appears. However, for the5D4→7FJ transition of Tb3+, its intensity straight increases with increasing Tb3+ content. For Ba3Eu(PO4)3:Tb3+, the values of CIE chromaticity coordinates are similar to those of commercial red phosphors of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ and Y2O2S:Eu3+. The results indicate that this red emitting phosphor has a potential application for white LEDs.

  15. [Factors associated with TB/HIV coinfection: evidence from notification data in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Evela da Silva; Saraceni, Valeria; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Magno, Regma da Silva; Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2017-06-12

    Tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) is the leading infectious cause of AIDS-related death. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection, evaluate notification of the two diseases over time by probabilistic database linkage, and identify factors associated with AIDS and TB notifications. Prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was 7.7%. The group of PLHIV with subsequent TB diagnosis was the most representative, despite available preventive measures. Underreporting of TB among AIDS cases was 35%, and 19.6% of TB cases could have been reported as AIDS. For AIDS cases with mention of TB, living in the state capital showed 75% greater odds of being reported to the Tuberculosis Notification System (SINAN-TB), and having died increased the odds of reporting by 40%. Of TB cases with mention of HIV, brown skin color, age 25 to 39 years, living in the state capital, and having evolved to death were associated with higher odds of reporting to the AIDS Notification System. Periodic linkage of these databases can be a powerful tool for programs to decrease underreporting.

  16. Enhanced diagnosis of HIV-1-associated tuberculosis by relating T-SPOT.TB and CD4 counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, T; Patel, J; Gideon, H P; Seldon, R; Wood, K; Hlombe, Y; Wilkinson, K A; Rangaka, M X; Mendelson, M; Wilkinson, R J

    2010-09-01

    The sensitivity of the tuberculin skin test is impaired in HIV-1-infected persons. Enzyme-linked immunospot-based detection of immune sensitisation may be less affected. Furthermore, the quantitative response can be related to the CD4 count, potentially improving specificity for active disease. The T-SPOT.TB assay was performed on HIV-1-infected participants, 85 with active tuberculosis (TB) and 81 healthy patients (non-TB). The ratio of the sum of the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target and culture filtrate protein 10 response to the CD4 count (spot-forming cell (SFC)/CD4) was calculated. Using the manufacturer's guidelines, active TB was diagnosed with 76% sensitivity and 53% specificity. Using an SFC/CD4 ratio of 0.12, sensitivity (80%) and specificity (62%) improved. The quantitative T-cell response increased with increasing smear-positivity in the active TB group (p = 0.0008). In the non-TB group, the proportion of persons scored positive by T-SPOT.TB assay was lower in the group with a CD4 count of SPOT.TB assay in HIV-1-infected persons, and a ratio of SFC/CD4 of >0.12 should prompt investigation for active disease. A strong association between the degree of sputum positivity and T-SPOT.TB score was found. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in active disease may be less impaired by advanced immunosuppression.

  17. Synthesis of new Tb-doped Zn-Al LDH/tryptophan hybrids and their fluorescent property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉凤; 王肖庆; 罗世地; 鲍垚

    2016-01-01

    A series of hybrids based on Tb-doped Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Tb-LDHs) combined with tryptophan (hereafter shortened as Try) were synthesized by soft-chemical method. The composition, structure, and fluorescence of the Tb-LDH/Try hy-brids were analyzed by various characterizations. Compositional analysis indicated that the content of tryptophan present in the hybrids gradually increased while the Tb-LDH reacted with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.25 mol/L Try solution, respectively. XRD results revealed that new reflections appeared in the Tb-LDH/Try hybrids. TGA curves of the Tb-LDH/Try hybrids were different from that of Tb-LDH and Try. IR spectra manifested that the IR spectra of the hybrids were characteristic of the Try and Tb-LDH. Fluorescent spectra sug-gested that the green emission due to5D4→7F5 transition of Tb3+ greatly decreased but not quenched, and the emission attributed to Try obviously increased. Meanwhile the fluorescent spectra of Tb-LDH/Try hybrids presented broad continuous bands in visible region.

  18. The risk factor of false-negative and false-positive for T-SPOT.TB in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Li, Yan

    2017-06-08

    T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd). Statistics were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 using logistic regression. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was 92.83% (233/251; 95%CI 0.8872-0.9557) and 83.67% (82/98; 95%CI 0.7454-0.9010), respectively. Patients with tuberculous meningitis were more likely to have false-negative results (OR 17.4, 95%CI 3.068-98.671; PTB tended to induce false-positive results (OR 30.297; 95%CI 7.069-129.849; PTB (exclude tuberculous meningitis) (P>.05). Tuberculous meningitis was a risk factor of false-negative for T-SPOT.TB, while cured TB was a risk factor of false-positive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube for contact screening in BCG-vaccinated adults: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura; Gonzalez, Lucia; Soldevila, Laura; Dorca, Jordi; Alcaide, Fernando; Santin, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the utility of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) for targeting preventive therapy in BCG-vaccinated contacts of tuberculosis (TB), based on its high specificity and negative predictive value for development of TB. We compared two screening strategies for TB contact tracing in two consecutive periods: the tuberculin skin test (TST) period, when all contacts were screened with the TST alone; and the QFT-GIT period, when BCG-vaccinated contacts underwent TST and QFT-GIT. Diagnosis of TB infection among BCG-vaccinated contacts relied on TST ≥5 mm in the TST period, while in the QFT-GIT period either a positive QFT-GIT or a TST ≥15 mm was required. Six hundred and sixty-one contacts were compared. In the QFT-GIT period there was a reduction in diagnoses of TB infection (77.4% vs. 51.2%; p TB were 0.62 and 0.29 in the TST and QFT-GIT periods respectively (p = 0.59). In BCG-vaccinated TB contacts, the addition of QFT-GIT safely reduced TB diagnosis and treatment rates without increasing the risk of subsequent active TB.

  20. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

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    German Henostroza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. METHODS: Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. RESULTS: A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88% were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%. TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6% individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8% and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%. Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22 of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. CONCLUSION: Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently

  1. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.

  2. TB treatment initiation and adherence in a South African community influenced more by perceptions than by knowledge of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a global health concern. Inadequate case finding and case holding has been cited as major barrier to the control of TB. The TB literature is written almost entirely from a biomedical perspective, while recent studies show that it is imperative to understand lay perception to determine why people seek treatment and may stop taking treatment. The Eastern Cape is known as a province with high TB incidence, prevalence and with one of the worst cure rates of South Africa. Its inhabitants can be considered lay experts when it comes to TB. Therefore, we investigated knowledge, perceptions of (access to TB treatment and adherence to treatment among an Eastern Cape population. Methods An area-stratified sampling design was applied. A total of 1020 households were selected randomly in proportion to the total number of households in each neighbourhood. Results TB knowledge can be considered fairly good among this community. Respondents' perceptions suggest that stigma may influence TB patients' decision in health seeking behavior and adherence to TB treatment. A full 95% of those interviewed believe people with TB tend to hide their TB status out of fear of what others may say. Regression analyses revealed that in this population young and old, men and women and the lower and higher educated share the same attitudes and perceptions. Our findings are therefore likely to reflect the actual situation of TB patients in this population. Conclusions The lay experts' perceptions suggests that stigma appears to effect case holding and case finding. Future interventions should be directed at improving attitudes and perceptions to potentially reduce stigma. This requires a patient-centered approach to empower TB patients and active involvement in the development and implementation of stigma reduction programs.

  3. Assessment of the influence of direct tobacco smoke on infection and active TB management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fuentes, María Ángeles; Maldonado, José; Molina, Israel; González-Díaz, Yoel; Milà, Celia; García-García, Esther; Muriel, Beatriz; Villar-Hernández, Raquel; Laabei, Maisem; Gómez, Andromeda-Celeste; Godoy, Pere; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Solano, Segismundo; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is a risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease progression. Tobacco smoking increases susceptibility to TB in a variety of ways, one of which is due to a reduction of the IFN-γ response. Consequently, an impaired immune response could affect performance of IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRAs). Objective In the present study, we assess the impact of direct tobacco smoking on radiological manifestations, sputum conversion and immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, analyzing IFN-γ secretion by IGRAs. Methods A total of 525 participants were studied: (i) 175 active pulmonary TB patients and (ii) 350 individuals coming from contact tracing studies, 41 of whom were secondary TB cases. Clinical, radiological and microbiological data were collected. T-SPOT.TB and QFN-G-IT were processed according manufacturer’s instructions. Results In smoking patients with active TB, QFN-G-IT (34.4%) and T-SPOT.TB (19.5%) had high frequencies of negative results. In addition, by means of an unconditional logistic regression, smoking was a main factor associated with IGRAs’ false-negative results (aOR: 3.35; 95%CI:1.47–7.61; p<0.05). Smoking patients with active TB presented a high probability of having cavitary lesions (aOR: 1.88; 95%CI:1.02–3.46;p<0.05). Mean culture negativization (months) ± standard deviation (SD) was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (2.47±1.3 versus 1.69±1.4). Latent TB infection (LTBI) was favored in smoking contacts, being a risk factor associated with infection (aOR: 11.57; 95%CI:5.97–22.41; p<0.00005). The IFN-γ response was significantly higher in non-smokers than in smokers. Smoking quantity and IFN-γ response analyzed by IGRAs were dose-dependent related. Conclusions Smoking had a negative effect on radiological manifestations, delaying time of sputum conversion. Our data establish a link between tobacco smoking and TB due to a weakened IFN-γ response caused by direct tobacco smoke. PMID:28837570

  4. CXCL10/IP10 is a novel potential in vitro marker of TB infection

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    Ilaria Sauzullo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction IFN-γ is a pivotal cytokine in the immune response to Myc. tuberculosis, infact this is the key cytokine produced in response to antigens specific following tuberculosis exposure causing either active or latent tuberculosis (TB and this observation forms the basis of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA, but there are alternative or additional cytokines and chemokines that could be used to improve detection of Myc. tuberculosis infection.The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of chemokine CXCL10/IP-10 as biomarker of active TB and to compare the results with classical QuantiFERON-Gold assay . Methods CXCL10/IP-10 and IFN-γ responses to stimulation with ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were evaluated in 21 patients with active tuberculosis and in 6 healthy unexposed subjects with no history of TB or TB contact were used as controls healthy controls. QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G, Cellestis was used for the measurement of IFN-γ levels; CXCL10/IP-10 was detected by ELISA (R&D Systems . Results Of the 21 TB patients included, 11 had a QFT-G positive and 10 had negative QFT-G results.All QFT-G positive patients had increased levels of CXCL10/IP-10 (median, pg/ml in both ESAT-6 and CFP-10 stimulated samples patients compared to healthy controls (1807 and 1111 vs 251 and 188 of controls, respectively (p<0.001 for both. The patients with active TB and QFT-G negative exhibited higher concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 following antigen stimulation (837 pg/ml for ESAT-6;1674 pg/ml for CFP-10 (p<0.001. Conclusion Our study showed that in all patients with active TB, the CXCL10/IP-10 is expressed in higher amounts than IFN-γ following Myc. tuberculosis antigen-specific stimulation, and CXCL10/IP-10 appeared to be even more sensitive than QuantiFERON TB-Gold in TB patients with negative IFN-γ response. The measurement of chemokine CXCL10/IP-10, although not specific for tuberculosis, may have potential as an alternative or additional marker

  5. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

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    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized

  6. 409-Tb/s + 409-Tb/s crosstalk suppressed bidirectional MCF transmission over 450 km using propagation-direction interleaving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sano, Akihide; Takara, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Takayuki;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate bidirectional transmission over 450 km of newly-developed dual-ring structured 12-core fiber with large effective area and low crosstalk. Inter-core crosstalk is suppressed by employing propagation-direction interleaving, and 409-Tb/s capacities are achieved for both directions...

  7. Ultrafast demagnetization, spin-dependent Seebeck effect, and thermal spin transfer torque in Pt/TbFe/Cu and Pt/TbFe/Cu/Fe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimling, Johannes; Hebler, Birgit; Kimling, Judith; Albrecht, Manfred; Cahill, David G.

    We investigate diffusive spin currents in Pt(20nm)/TbFe(10nm)/Cu(100nm) and Pt(20 nm)/TbFe(10nm)/ Cu(100nm)/Fe(3nm) stacks using time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect (TRMOKE) and time-domain thermoreflectance measurements. Our experiments are based on two hypothesis: (1) fast changes of magnetization due to laser excitation are transferred into spin accumulation, e.g., via electron-magnon scattering; the generated spin accumulation drives a diffusive spin current into adjacent normal metal layers; (2) electronic thermal transport through the ferromagnetic layer injects a spin current into adjacent normal metal layers, based on the spin-dependent Seebeck effect. We excite the Pt layer with ps-laser pulses. Resulting diffusive spin currents generate nonequilibrium magnetization in the Cu layer (sample I) and induce a precession of the magnetization of the Fe layer via spin transfer torque (sample II). Both responses are probed using TRMOKE. Prior experiments used [Co(0.2nm)/Pt(0.4nm)]x5/Co(0.2nm) instead of TbFe. The ferrimagnetic TbFe layer with introduces two major modifications: (1) slow demagnetization behavior, and (2) large thermal resistance. Hence, thermal spin transfer torques can be observed on significantly longer time scales. Financial support by the German Research Foundation under DFG-Grant No. KI 1893/1-1 and DFG-Grant No. AL 618/21-1 are kindly acknowledged.

  8. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens in active TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassa, Desta; de Jager, Wilco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816906; Gebremichael, Gebremedhin; Alemayehu, Yodit; Ran, Leonie; Fransen, Justin; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Tegbaru, Belete; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion

  9. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alffenaar, Jan-William C.; Anger, Holly A.; Caminero, Jose A.; Castiglia, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Ferrara, Giovanni; Koh, Won-Jung; Schecter, Giesela F.; Shim, Tae S.; Singla, Rupak; Skrahina, Alena; Spanevello, Antonio; Udwadia, Zarir F.; Villar, Miquel; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    Linezolid is used off-label to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in absence of systematic evidence. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid-containing regimes based on individual data analysis. 12 studies (11 countries from t

  10. Adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendam, Miranda W; Tiemersma, Edine W; van der Werf, Marieke J; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58-100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption.

  11. Determining the band alignment of TbAs:GaAs and TbAs:In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomberger, Cory C.; Chase, D. Bruce; Zide, Joshua M. O., E-mail: zide@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Vanderhoef, Laura R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Rahman, Abdur [Physics and Technology Department, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, Edinboro, Pennsylvania 16444 (United States); Shah, Deesha; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Azad, Abul K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Doty, Matthew F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    We propose and systematically justify a band structure for TbAs nanoparticles in GaAs and In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As host matrices. Fluence-dependent optical-pump terahertz-probe measurements suggest the TbAs nanoparticles have a band gap and provide information on the carrier dynamics, which are determined by the band alignment. Spectrophotometry measurements provide the energy of optical transitions in the nanocomposite systems and reveal a large blue shift in the absorption energy when the host matrix is changed from In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As to GaAs. Finally, Hall data provides the approximate Fermi level in each system. From this data, we deduce that the TbAs:GaAs system forms a type I (straddling) heterojunction and the TbAs:In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As system forms a type II (staggered) heterojunction.

  12. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Giovanni; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Alffenaar, Jan-William C.; Anger, Holly A.; Caminero, Jose A.; Castiglia, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Saverio; Ferrara, Giovanni; Koh, Won-Jung; Schecter, Giesela F.; Shim, Tae S.; Singla, Rupak; Skrahina, Alena; Spanevello, Antonio; Udwadia, Zarir F.; Villar, Miquel; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

    2012-01-01

    Linezolid is used off-label to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in absence of systematic evidence. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid-containing regimes based on individual data analysis. 12 studies (11 countries from t

  13. Structural, spectroscopic and cytotoxicity studies of TbF3@CeF3 and TbF3@CeF3@SiO2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzyb, Tomasz; Runowski, Marcin; Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Giersig, Michael; Lis, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Terbium fluoride nanocrystals, covered by a shell, composed of cerium fluoride were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Their complex structure was formed spontaneously during the synthesis. The surface of these core/shell nanocrystals was additionally modified by silica. The properties of TbF3@CeF3 and TbF3@CeF3@SiO2 nanocrystals, formed in this way, were investigated. Spectroscopic studies showed that the differences between these two groups of products resulted from the presence of the SiO2 shell. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the trigonal crystal structure of TbF3@CeF3 nanocrystals. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in connection with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a complex structure of the formed nanocrystals. Crystallized as small discs, 'the products', with an average diameter around 10 nm, showed an increase in the concentration of Tb(3+) ions from surface to the core of nanocrystals. In addition to photo-physical analyses, cytotoxicity studies were performed on HSkMEC (Human Skin Microvascular Endothelial Cells) and B16F0 mouse melanoma cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of the nanomaterials was neutral for the investigated cells with no toxic or antiproliferative effect in the cell cultures, either for normal or for cancer cells. This fact makes the obtained nanocrystals good candidates for biological applications and further modifications of the SiO2 shell. .

  14. Development of a POC test for TB based on multiple immunodominant epitopes of M. tuberculosis specific cell-wall proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus M Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The need for an accurate, rapid, simple and affordable point-of-care (POC test for Tuberculosis (TB that can be implemented in microscopy centers and other peripheral health-care settings in the TB-endemic countries remains unmet. This manuscript describes preliminary results of a new prototype rapid lateral flow TB test based on detection of antibodies to immunodominant epitopes (peptides derived from carefully selected, highly immunogenic M. tuberculosis cell-wall proteins. Peptide selection was initially based on recognition by antibodies in sera from TB patients but not in PPD-/PPD+/BCG-vaccinated individuals from TB-endemic settings. The peptides were conjugated to BSA; the purified peptide-BSA conjugates striped onto nitrocellulose membrane and adsorbed onto colloidal gold particles to devise the prototype test, and evaluated for reactivity with sera from 3 PPD-, 29 PPD+, 15 PPD-unknown healthy subjects, 10 patients with non-TB lung disease and 124 smear-positive TB patients. The assay parameters were adjusted to determine positive/negative status within 15 minutes via visual or instrumented assessment. There was minimal or no reactivity of sera from non-TB subjects with the striped BSA-peptides demonstrating the lack of anti-peptide antibodies in subjects with latent TB and/or BCG vaccination. Sera from most TB patients demonstrated reactivity with one or more peptides. The sensitivity of antibody detection ranged from 28-85% with the 9 BSA-peptides. Three peptides were further evaluated with sera from 400 subjects, including additional PPD-/PPD+/PPD-unknown healthy contacts, close hospital contacts and household contacts of untreated TB patients, patients with non-TB lung disease, and HIV+TB- patients. Combination of the 3 peptides provided sensitivity and specificity>90%. While the final fully optimized lateral flow POC test for TB is under development, these preliminary results demonstrate that an antibody-detection based rapid POC

  15. Hierarchy Low CD4+/CD8+ T-Cell Counts and IFN-γ Responses in HIV-1+ Individuals Correlate with Active TB and/or M.tb Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lingyun; Zhang, Xinyun; Gao, Yan; Xu, Yunya; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Shenglei; Weng, Xinhua; Shen, Hongbo; Chen, Zheng W; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of correlation between HIV-M.tb co-infection and hierarchy declines of CD8+/CD4+ T-cell counts and IFN-γ responses have not been done. We conducted case-control studies to address this issue. 164 HIV-1-infected individuals comprised of HIV-1+ATB, HIV-1+LTB and HIV-1+TB- groups were evaluated. Immune phenotyping and complete blood count (CBC) were employed to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts; T.SPOT.TB and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) were utilized to detect ESAT6, CFP10 or PPD-specific IFN-γ responses. There were significant differences in median CD4+ T-cell counts between HIV-1+ATB (164/μL), HIV-1+LTB (447/μL) and HIV-1+TB- (329/μL) groups. Hierarchy low CD4+ T-cell counts (500/μL) were correlated significantly with active TB but not M.tb co-infection. Interestingly, hierarchy low CD8+ T-cell counts were not only associated significantly with active TB but also with M.tb co-infection (PHierarchy low CD8+ T-cell counts and effector function in HIV-1-infected individuals are correlated with both M.tb co-infection and active TB. Hierarchy low CD4+ T-cell counts and Th1 effector function in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with increased frequencies of active TB, but not M.tb co-infection.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary TB Patients in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Denti

    Full Text Available Exposure to lower-than-therapeutic levels of anti-tuberculosis drugs is likely to cause selection of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment failure. The first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB regimen consists of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, and correct management reduces risk of TB relapse and development of drug resistance. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of standard of care plus nutritional supplementation versus standard care on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol among sputum smear positive TB patients with and without HIV. In a clinical trial in 100 Tanzanian TB patients, with or without HIV infection, drug concentrations were determined at 1 week and 2 months post initiation of anti-TB medication. Data was analysed using population pharmacokinetic modelling. The effect of body size was described using allometric scaling, and the effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, age, sex, CD4+ count, weight-adjusted dose, NAT2 genotype, and time on TB treatment were investigated. The kinetics of all drugs was well characterised using first-order elimination and transit compartment absorption, with isoniazid and ethambutol described by two-compartment disposition models, and pyrazinamide by a one-compartment model. Patients with a slow NAT2 genotype had higher isoniazid exposure and a lower estimate of oral clearance (15.5 L/h than rapid/intermediate NAT2 genotype (26.1 L/h. Pyrazinamide clearance had an estimated typical value of 3.32 L/h, and it was found to increase with time on treatment, with a 16.3% increase after the first 2 months of anti-TB treatment. The typical clearance of ethambutol was estimated to be 40.7 L/h, and was found to decrease with age, at a rate of 1.41% per year. Neither HIV status nor nutritional supplementations were found to affect the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in our cohort of patients.

  17. Nanocarrier-based interventions for the management of MDR/XDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sanaul; Pai, Roopa S; Singh, Gurinder; Kusum Devi, V

    2015-05-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB over the past decade presents an unprecedented public health challenge to which countries of concern are responding far too slowly. Global Tuberculosis Report 2014 marks the 20th anniversary of the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance, indicating the highest global level of drug-resistance ever recorded detection of 97 000 patients with MDR-TB resulting in 170 000 deaths in 2013. Treatment of MDR-TB is expensive, complex, prolonged (18-24 months) and associated with a higher incidence of adverse events. In this context, nanocarrier delivery systems (NDSs) efficiently encapsulating considerable amounts of second-line anti tubercular drugs ((s)ATDs), eliciting controlled, sustained and more profound effect to trounce the need to administer (s)ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and avoid hepatotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent (s)ATDs. Besides, NDSs are also known to inhibit the P-glycoprotein efflux, reduce metabolism by gut cytochrome P-450 enzymes and circumnavigate the hepatic first-pass effect, facilitating absorption of drugs via intestinal lymphatic pathways. This review first provides a holistic account on MDR-TB and discusses the molecular basis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to anti-tubercular drugs. It also provides an updated bird's eye view on current treatment strategies and laboratory diagnostic test for MDR-TB. Furthermore, a relatively pithy view on patent studies on second-line chemotherapy using NDSs will be discussed.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorder among TB and HIV infected patients in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O'Connell

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC across Zambia.649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV, and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering.The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5% for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1% for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14 and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67. The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%, and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38.Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population.

  19. Structural origin for the local strong anisotropy in melt-spun Fe-Ga-Tb: Tetragonal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hu, Shanshan; Bai, Guohua; Yan, Mi; Lu, Yunhao, E-mail: luyh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Huiying [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Peng, Xiaoling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-03-16

    Soluting rare earth atoms Tb or Dy into body centered cubic (BCC) Fe-Ga through rapid cooling significantly enhances the magnetostriction due to strong localized magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Origin of the local strong anisotropy, however, awaits comprehensive microstructural investigation. In this letter, formation of tetragonal nanoparticles with c/a ∼ 0.979 has been found in the giant magnetostrictive ribbons Fe{sub 82.89}Ga{sub 16.88}Tb{sub 0.23} due to local symmetry breaking of the BCC lattice using high resolution transmission electronic microscopy. First principal calculations suggest that random replacement of Tb atoms for Fe or Ga in the ordered DO{sub 3} superlattice is beneficial in the formation of such tetragonal symmetry. Exchange couplings between the nearest Tb-Fe or Tb-Tb pairs of the tetragonal nanoparticles might generate strong localized magnetocrystalline anisotropy, leading to extraordinary magnetostriction enhancement.

  20. [Duties of physicians and other medical personnel connected with diagnosis, treatment, dissemination of information, assessment and registration of TB patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M

    2011-01-01

    Effective laws provide for a series of duties to be performed by physicians and other medical personnel in connection with TB. Every TB case and death resulting from TB as well as any case of undesirable result of BCG test requires notification and filling in of a special form. Physician has the duty to inform TB patients their legal guardians or close relatives or friends about the need to undergo sanitary and diagnostic procedure, treatment or vaccination as well as on how to prevent disease from spreading. Persons failing to comply with relevant numerous legal requirements in this area are subject to a fine. TB patients can use special sick benefits extending to 270 days. There is a requirement to use appropriate codes to define TB irrespective of ICD-10 classification.