WorldWideScience

Sample records for higgins productions motion

  1. Emerging Perspectives on Editorial Ethics: An Interview with Chris Higgins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Chris Higgins took on the roles of Editor of "Educational Theory," and Editor-in-Chief of the "Philosophy of Education Yearbook" published by the Philosophy of Education Society, in 2013, after having been an Associate Editor and Book Review Editor for "Educational Theory" for six years. Higgins worked closely with…

  2. 78 FR 51064 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, IL... from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones... work, low-flying helicopter, and other hazards involved in the filming of a motion picture. DATES:...

  3. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago... will enforce the temporary safety zone for motion picture filming in Calumet Harbor, Chicago, IL from 9... intended to ensure safety of life on navigable waters during nighttime filming of a motion picture...

  4. Kink pair production and dislocation motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The motion of extended defects called dislocations controls the mechanical properties of crystalline materials such as strength and ductility. Under moderate applied loads, this motion proceeds via the thermal nucleation of kink pairs. The nucleation rate is known to be a highly nonlinear function of the applied load, and its calculation has long been a theoretical challenge. In this article, a stochastic path integral approach is used to derive a simple, general, and exact formula for the rate. The predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental and computational investigations, and unambiguously explain the origin of the observed extreme nonlinearity. The results can also be applied to other systems modelled by an elastic string interacting with a periodic potential, such as Josephson junctions in superconductors.

  5. Chester Higgins, New York City, a Young Moslem Woman in Brooklyn, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zrann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Né en 1946, Chester Higgins est l’un des photographes majeurs de sa génération. Témoin de périodes phares de l'histoire politique et artistique noire américaine, il explore à travers ses images l’identité culturelle des Africains-Américains. Son rapport à la photographie a été fortement influencé par sa rencontre avec P.H. Polk (1898-1985, photographe officiel du Tuskegee Institute,  (le premier établissement d'enseignement afro-américain fondé en 1881 en Alabama. Tandis que Higgins fut en...

  6. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, B.K. [Theoretical Division (T-12, MS-B268), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mead, C.A. [92 Bartram Road, Savannah, Georgia 31411 (United States); Truhlar, D.G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  8. Twin pregnancy: the impact of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dubois, S

    1991-06-01

    Perinatal outcomes were compared between 354 twins treated with the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program and 686 untreated twins. After differing distributions of key confounding variables were adjusted for, the twins in the intervention group weighed an average of 80 g more (P less than 0.06) than the nonintervention twins; their low-birth-weight rate was 25% lower (P less than 0.05) and their very-low-birth-weight rate was almost 50% lower (P less than 0.05). Although the rate of preterm delivery was 30% lower in the intervention group (P less than 0.05), the rates of intrauterine growth retardation were similar in the two groups. Fetal mortality was slightly higher (14 vs 12 per 1000, NS), but early neonatal mortality was fivefold lower (3 vs 19 per 1000, P less than 0.06) in the intervention group. Maternal morbidity was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the intervention group. There was a trend towards lower infant morbidity in the intervention group. These results suggest that nutritional intervention can significantly improve twin-pregnancy outcome.

  9. Dynamics study of a three-fold pseudo-Jahn-Teller system using the extended Longuet-Higgins formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biplab Sarkar; A J C Varandas

    2012-01-01

    An extended Longuet-Higgins formalism recently utilized to obtain generalized Born-Oppenheimer equations including the geometrical phase effect has been used to study a three-fold pseudo-Jahn-Teller type electronic degeneracy. The results of dynamics calculations carried out with the novel formalism are compared with Born-Oppenheimer (geometrical phase ignored), extended Born-Oppenheimer, and coupled three-state ones for the same system. The theory shows unprecedented simplicity while depicting all features.

  10. John Dalton and the London atomists: William and Bryan Higgins, William Austin, and new Daltonian doubts about the origin of the atomic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Most historians have ruled out the possibility that John Dalton was influenced by the theories of atomists William and Bryan Higgins, as well as William Austin, in developing his first table of atomic weights on 6 September 1803. I review and evaluate the case to be made for the influence of each scientist on Dalton. Contrary to prevailing views, I raise new Daltonian doubts, especially for Bryan Higgins.

  11. Chest Wall Motion during Speech Production in Patients with Advanced Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliakosta, Georgia; Mandros, Charalampos; Tzelepis, George E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that ankylosing spondylitis (AS) alters the pattern of chest wall motion during speech production. Method: The pattern of chest wall motion during speech was measured with respiratory inductive plethysmography in 6 participants with advanced AS (5 men, 1 woman, age 45 plus or minus 8 years, Schober test 1.45 plus or…

  12. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector yearly Product in netCDF format (Suggested Usage: This file contains one year of MISR Level 2 TC_STEREO...

  13. Development of a usability evaluation method using natural product-use motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joonho; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Wonsup; You, Heecheon

    2017-04-01

    The present study developed and tested a new usability evaluation method which considers natural product-use motions. The proposed method measures both natural product-use motions (NMs) and actual product-use motions (AMs) for a product using an optical motion capture system and examines the usability of the product based on motion similarity (MS; %) between NMs and AMs. The proposed method was applied to a usability test of four vacuum cleaners (A, B, C, and D) with 15 participants and their MSs were compared with EMG measurements and subjective discomfort ratings. Cleaners A (44.6%) and C (44.2%) showed higher MSs than cleaners B (42.9%) and D (41.7%); the MSs mostly corresponded to the EMG measurements, which could indicate that AMs deviated from NMs may increase muscular efforts. However, the MSs were slightly different from the corresponding discomfort ratings. The proposed method demonstrated its usefulness in usability testing, but further research is needed with various products to generalize its effectiveness.

  14. How NASA KSC Controls Interfaces with the use of Motion Skeletons and Product Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will show how NASA KSC controls interfaces for Modular Product Architecture (MPA) using Locator Skeletons, Interface Skeletons, and Product Structure, to be combined together within a Motion Skeleton. The user will learn how to utilize skeleton models to communicate interface data, as successfully done at NASA KSC in their use of Motion Skeletons to control interfaces for multi-launch systems. There will be discussion of the methodology used to control design requirements through WTParts, and how to utilize product structure for non-CAD documents.

  15. Topological complexity of motion planning in projective product spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Jesus; Torres-Giese, Enrique; Xicotencatl, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    We study Farber's topological complexity (TC) of Davis' projective product spaces (PPS's). We show that, in many non-trivial instances, the TC of PPS's coming from at least two sphere factors is (much) lower than the dimension of the manifold. This is in high contrast with the known situation for (usual) real projective spaces for which, in fact, the Euclidean immersion dimension and TC are two facets of the same problem. Low TC-values have been observed for infinite families of non-simply connected spaces only for H-spaces, for finite complexes whose fundamental group has cohomological dimension not exceeding 2, and now in this work for infinite families of PPS's. We discuss general bounds for the TC (and the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category) of PPS's, and compute these invariants for specific families of such manifolds. Some of our methods involve the use of an equivariant version of TC. We also give a characterization of the Euclidean immersion dimension of PPS's through generalized concepts of axial maps a...

  16. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ, Se describe una comunidad bentónica constituida por un ensamble de cuatro especies de corales de profundidad recolectados mediante un lance de arrastre efectuado sobre el margen de la meseta del monte submarino O'Higgins I, Chile central. Sobre la meseta se detectó la presencia de agua oxigenadas frías correspondientes al Agua Intermedia Antártica (>400 m de profundidad y sobre ésta, el Agua Ecuatorial Subsuperficial asociada a la zona de mínimo de oxígeno (OMZ, <1 mL O2 L-1. La fauna muestra un origen biogeográfico de tipo subantártico sumado a la presencia de fauna típica del margen continental de la zona central de Chile. Este ensamble está representado por dos especies de Antipataria (Leiopathes sp. y Chrysopathes sp., una especie no identificada de la familia Paragorgiidae y una especie perteneciente a la familia Isididae (Acanella chilensis. Este estudio muestra que este ensamble de corales de profundidad provee un hábitat crítico para el camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi, crustáceo de importancia pesquera. La presencia de este crustáceo más algunos peces como el alfonsino (Beryx splendens y orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus podrían atraer la atención de la industria sobre estas frágiles, singulares y escasamente conocidas comunidades bentónicas chilenas y por lo tanto se requiere con urgencia acciones para su conservación.

  17. Essential motions in a fungal lipase with bound substrate, covalently attached inhibitor and product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Bywater, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    of response along the pathway suggesting that binding, catalysis and product clearance occur along different energy surfaces. Motions in the enzyme with a covalently attached ligand are more complex and occur along several eigenvectors. The magnitudes of the fluctuations in these individual subspaces...... are significantly smaller than those observed for the substrate and product molecules, indicating that the energy surface is shallow and that a relatively large number of conformational substates are accessible. On the other hand, substrate binding and product release occur at distinct modes of the protein...... flexibility suggesting that these processes occur along rough energy surfaces with only a few minima. Detailed energetic analyses along the trajectories indicated that in all cases binding is dominated by van der Waals interactions. The carboxylate form of the product is stabilized by a tight hydrogen bond...

  18. MODELING METHOD FOR PRODUCT STRUCTURE MAPPING BASED ON REVERSE SOLVING OF LOCUS AND MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuyou; YI Guodong; XU Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of structure design in reverse-design of mechanism, a structure mapping method based on reverse solving of locus and motion (RSLM) is presented. The mechanism scheme meeting the requirements of geometric and structural features is obtained through RSLM. The element instance subsets related to component are established based on the element type mapping, pair structure type mapping and design knowledge mapping between components and elements layer by layer. The assembly position mapping of elements is established based on the topological structure information of mechanism scheme, and the product modeling of structure mapping is realized. The algorithm program and prototype system of product structure mapping based on RSLM are developed. Application samples show that the method implements the integration of scheme design, assembly design and structure design, and modeling for product structure mapping based on RSLM. The feasibility of assembly is analyzed in scheme design that contributes to reducing the design error, and raising the design efficiency and quality.

  19. New location of Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae in the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ramírez Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 is an amphibian species endemic to Chile, described and known just from its type locality: the mountain streams in La Parva zone, Metropolitan region, central Chile. In this manuscript I report a new location for this species (the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile, thus extending its current geographical range in about 100 kilometers southward. This finding suggests that we need to invest more efforts to clearly establish its conservation status in Chile.

  20. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo; Morong Reyes, Germán; Arellano Araya, Ana Olga; Merino Vidangossy, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiante...

  1. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo; Morong Reyes, Germán; Arellano Araya, Ana Olga; Merino Vidangossy, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características,  motivaciones y expectativas  que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiante...

  2. CARACTERÍSTICAS, MOTIVACIONES Y EXPECTATIVAS DE ESTUDIANTES DE GÉNERO MASCULINO DE CARRERAS PEDAGÓGICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD BERNARDO O`HIGGINS

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo Merino Pantoja; Germán Morong Reyes; Ana Olga Arellano Araya; Edgar Merino Vidangossy

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones) a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83), fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes....

  3. Event Structure Influences Language Production: Evidence from Structural Priming in Motion Event Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Ann; Papafragou, Anna; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This priming study investigates the role of conceptual structure during language production, probing whether English speakers are sensitive to the structure of the event encoded by a prime sentence. In two experiments, participants read prime sentences aloud before describing motion events. Primes differed in 1) syntactic frame, 2) degree of lexical and conceptual overlap with target events, and 3) distribution of event components within frames. Results demonstrate that conceptual overlap between primes and targets led to priming of (a) the information that speakers chose to include in their descriptions of target events, (b) the way that information was mapped to linguistic elements, and (c) the syntactic structures that were built to communicate that information. When there was no conceptual overlap between primes and targets, priming was not successful. We conclude that conceptual structure is a level of representation activated during priming, and that it has implications for both Message Planning and Linguistic Formulation. PMID:24072953

  4. Quantifying melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from global mantle convection models with plate motion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Black, Benjamin; Zhong, Shijie; Manga, Michael; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Olson, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Earth's surface volcanism exerts first-order controls on the composition of the atmosphere and the climate. On Earth, the majority of surface volcanism occurs at mid-ocean ridges. In this study, based on the dependence of melt fraction on temperature, pressure, and composition, we compute melt production and degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges from three-dimensional global mantle convection models with plate motion history as the surface velocity boundary condition. By incorporating melting in global mantle convection models, we connect deep mantle convection to surface volcanism, with deep and shallow mantle processes internally consistent. We compare two methods to compute melt production: a tracer method and an Eulerian method. Our results show that melt production at mid-ocean ridges is mainly controlled by surface plate motion history, and that changes in plate tectonic motion, including plate reorganizations, may lead to significant deviation of melt production from the expected scaling with seafloor production rate. We also find a good correlation between melt production and degassing rate beneath mid-ocean ridges. The calculated global melt production and CO2 degassing rate at mid-ocean ridges varies by as much as a factor of 3 over the past 200 Myr. We show that mid-ocean ridge melt production and degassing rate would be much larger in the Cretaceous, and reached maximum values at ˜150-120 Ma. Our results raise the possibility that warmer climate in the Cretaceous could be due in part to high magmatic productivity and correspondingly high outgassing rates at mid-ocean ridges during that time.

  5. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Magma production rate along the Ninetyeast Ridge and its relationship to Indian plate motion and Kerguelen hot spot activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, K. M.; Krishna, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    The Ninetyeast Ridge, a linear trace of the Kerguelen hot spot in the Indian Ocean, was emplaced on a rapidly drifting Indian plate. Magma production rates along the ridge track are computed using gravity-derived excess crustal thickness data. The production rates change between 2 and 15 m3/s over timescales of 3-16 Myr. Major variations in magma production rates are primarily associated with significant changes in the Indian plate velocity with low-production phases linked to high plate velocity periods. The lowest magma production rate (2 m3/s) at 62 Ma is associated with the rapid northward drift of Indian plate under the influence of the Reunion mantle plume. The contemporaneous slowing of the African plate coincides with increase in magma production rate along the Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean. The present study suggests that variations in the Indian plate motion and frequent ridge jumps have a major role in controlling the magma production, particularly on long-period cycles (~16 Myr). Short-period variations (~5 Myr) in magma productions may be associated with intrinsic changes in the plume, possibly due to the presence of solitary waves in the plume conduit.

  7. Investigación, Planificación y Estudio del Potencial Turístico del Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins, Patagonia Chilena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaynee Vela-Ruiz Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Bernardo O’Higgins (PNBO, ubicado en el extremo austral de Chile, protege 3,5 millones de hectáreas caracterizadas por una geomorfología de fiordos, archipiélagos, islas y glaciares del Campo de Hielo Sur. Este Parque Nacional resalta además por ser el territorio ancestral de los últimos habitantes que mantienen la lengua y el acervo cultural del pueblo indígena Kawésqar. El presente artículo muestra el proceso de investigación ecológica y cultural realizado en el PNBO, así como el proceso de planificación participativa y la elaboración de una propuesta de potencial turístico de dicho territorio. Proyecto que ha sido innovador en la planificación de áreas protegidas en Chile, ya que ha incorporado directamente a una comunidad kawésqar como equipo técnico del proyecto, así como ha permitido levantar información de base de una zona de relevancia mundial escasamente conocida hasta antes de este estudio.

  8. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli in a rocking-motion-type bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-use rocking-motion-type bag bioreactors provide advantages compared to standard stirred tank bioreactors by decreased contamination risks, reduction of cleaning and sterilization time, lower investment costs, and simple and cheaper validation. Currently, they are widely used for cell cultures although their use for small and medium scale production of recombinant proteins with microbial hosts might be very attractive. However, the utilization of rocking- or wave-induced motion-type bioreactors for fast growing aerobic microbes is limited because of their lower oxygen mass transfer rate. A conventional approach to reduce the oxygen demand of a culture is the fed-batch technology. New developments, such as the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system pave the way for applying advanced fed-batch control strategies also in rocking-motion-type bioreactors. Alternatively, internal substrate delivery systems such as EnBase® Flo provide an opportunity for adopting simple to use fed-batch-type strategies to shaken cultures. Here, we investigate the possibilities which both strategies offer in view of high cell density cultivation of E. coli and recombinant protein production. Results Cultivation of E. coli in the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system in a conventional batch mode without control yielded an optical density (OD600 of 3 to 4 which is comparable to shake flasks. The culture runs into oxygen limitation. In a glucose limited fed-batch culture with an exponential feed and oxygen pulsing, the culture grew fully aerobically to an OD600 of 60 (20 g L-1 cell dry weight. By the use of an internal controlled glucose delivery system, EnBase® Flo, OD600 of 30 (10 g L-1 cell dry weight is obtained without the demand of computer controlled external nutrient supply. EnBase® Flo also worked well in the CultiBag RM system with a recombinant E. coli RB791 strain expressing a heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH to very high levels, indicating that

  9. The Texas Production Manual. A Source Book for the Motion Picture and Video Industry. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Film Commission, Austin.

    This cross-reference directory to the resources of film and video personnel and services in Texas is divided into eight sections: who's who, pre-production, production, post-production, video, miscellaneous, major city information, and addenda. The first section contains alphabetical listings of companies and individuals engaged in some aspect of…

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS, MOTIVACIONES Y EXPECTATIVAS DE ESTUDIANTES DE GÉNERO MASCULINO DE CARRERAS PEDAGÓGICAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD BERNARDO O`HIGGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Merino Pantoja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83, fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes. Los resultados obtenidos de su procesamiento permiten señalar que en su mayoría los estudiantes, han egresado recientemente del colegio, presentando un rendimiento académico en la media nacional y proviniendo, un tercio de ellos, de familia de profesores. En relación a la visión que tienen del sistema educativo, se aprecia que dan una baja valoración a la educación subvencionada por el Estado, cuestionan la labor docente de sus profesores de colegio, tienen serios reparos respecto a la preparación de la enseñanza y a la pertinencia de los contenidos de la educación secundaria y consideraran que la sociedad otorga una baja valoración al trabajo de los profesores. Prevalece en ellos la motivación intrínseca por sobre la extrínseca, lo que permite establecer que los estudiantes que ingresaron, orientaron su decisión en función de intereses propios del campo educativo, prevaleciendo en ellos la vocación de ser maestros, a pesar del momento controversial que vive la carrera magisterial en Chile.

  11. Características, motivaciones y expectativas de estudiantes de género masculino de carreras pedagógicas de la Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino Pantoja, Edgardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada en el año 2014, en la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad Bernardo O´Higgins. Esta apuntaba a describir las características, motivaciones y expectativas que impulsaron a un grupo de jóvenes (varones a estudiar carreras pedagógicas. La metodología utilizada es de tipo cuantitativa descriptiva, considerando un cuestionario, que luego de su validación y pilotaje (Alfa Crombrach de 0.83, fue aplicado a 42 estudiantes. Los resultados obtenidos de su procesamiento permiten señalar que en su mayoría los estudiantes, han egresado recientemente del colegio, presentando un rendimiento académico en la media nacional y proviniendo, un tercio de ellos, de familia de profesores. En relación a la visión que tienen del sistema educativo, se aprecia que dan una baja valoración a la educación subvencionada por el Estado, cuestionan la labor docente de sus profesores de colegio, tienen serios reparos respecto a la preparación de la enseñanza y a la pertinencia de los contenidos de la educación secundaria y consideraran que la sociedad otorga una baja valoración al trabajo de los profesores. Prevalece en ellos la motivación intrínseca por sobre la extrínseca, lo que permite establecer que los estudiantes que ingresaron, orientaron su decisión en función de intereses propios del campo educativo, prevaleciendo en ellos la vocación de ser maestros, a pesar del momento controversial que vive la carrera magisterial en Chile.

  12. Parton intrinsic motion: unpolarized cross sections and the Sivers effect in inclusive particle production

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alesio, U

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed study, performed in the framework of LO perturbative QCD with the inclusion of spin and k_T effects, of unpolarized cross sections for the Drell-Yan process and for inclusive pion and photon production in hadronic collisions, in different kinematical situations. We find a satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental data. This supports the study of spin effects and transverse single spin asymmetries (SSA) within the same scheme. We then present results for SSA, generated by the so-called Sivers effect, in inclusive pion production in proton-proton collisions.

  13. On the Integration of Skilled Robot Motions for Productivity in Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Björkelund, Anders; Edström, Lisett; Haage, Mathias; Malec, Jacek; Nilsson, Klas; Nugues, Pierre; Robertz, Sven; Störkle, Denis; Blomdell, Anders; Johansson, Rolf; Linderoth, Magnus; Nilsson, Anders; Robertsson, Anders; Stolt, Andreas; Bruyninckx, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Robots used in manufacturing today are tailored to their tasks by system integration based on expert knowledge concerning both production and machine control. For upcoming new generations of even more flexible robot solutions, in applications such as dexterous assembly, the robot setup and programming gets even more challenging. Reuse of solutions in terms of parameters, controls, process tuning, and of software modules in general then gets increasingly important. There has been valuable prog...

  14. Ultrafast photochemistry with two product channels: Wavepacket motion through two distinct conical intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedle, Eberhard; Roos, Matthias K.; Thallmair, Sebastian; Sailer, Christian F.; Krebs, Nils; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2017-09-01

    Light induced bond cleavage is an ubiquitous process in large molecules, yet its quantum nature is not fully understood. We present a comprehensive description of the ultrafast light induced Csbnd Cl bond cleavage in diarylmethyl chlorides combining femtosecond transient absorption measurements with ab initio calculations. We observe a delayed appearance of radicals (80 fs) and cations (125 fs). The excited state wavepacket moves initially toward two conical intersections and the passing through these intersections determines the partitioning into the differing product channels. Different locations of the conical intersections explain the observed delay times.

  15. Classifying Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  16. Los estudios de economía en la Universidad Simón Bolívar y la perspectiva de la formación desde los aportes de José Consuegra Higgins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Álvarez García

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Si queremos rescatar, procesar, recrear elementos didácticos y pedagógicos en el devenir de los enseñabilidad y la aprendibilidad de la economía, con el encuadre académico de la Universidad Simón Bolívar, es muy valedero observar toda la actividad que alrededor de ella desarrolló el maestro José Consuegra Higgins, fundador de esta institución bolivariana, constructor no solo de la Facultad de Economía, sino de otras facultades del mismo nombre en el país, y de un accionar político, humano y social infatigableAbstractIf we want to rescue, to process, to recreate didactic and pedagogical elements in the becoming of teaching and learning of the economy with the academic current of the Simon Bolivar University, it is valid to observe all the activities developed by the teacher Jose Consuegra Higgins. This person is the Simon Bolivar University and its Economics Faculty founder, besides of other faculties in the same field in the country and the owner of a political, human and social charisma

  17. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv's Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-21

    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF) and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT), an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed-referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv's distribution (2D-PMLVD)-for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  18. The Academy Color Encoding System (ACES: A Professional Color-Management Framework for Production, Post-Production and Archival of Still and Motion Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Arrighetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has been pivotal in the inception, design and later adoption of a vendor-agnostic and open framework for color management, the Academy Color Encoding System (ACES, targeting theatrical, TV and animation features, but also still-photography and image preservation at large. For this reason, the Academy gathered an interdisciplinary group of scientists, technologists, and creatives, to contribute to it so that it is scientifically sound and technically advantageous in solving practical and interoperability problems in the current film production, postproduction and visual-effects (VFX ecosystem—all while preserving and future-proofing the cinematographers’ and artists’ creative intent as its main objective. In this paper, a review of ACES’ technical specifications is provided, as well as the current status of the project and a recent use case is given, namely that of the first Italian production embracing an end-to-end ACES pipeline. In addition, new ACES components will be introduced and a discussion started about possible uses for long-time preservation of color imaging in video-content heritage.

  19. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  20. Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  1. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  2. Visualizing how Seismic Waves Propagate Across Seismic Arrays using the IRIS DMS Ground Motion Visualization (GMV) Products and Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Bahavar, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Butler, R. F.; Kilb, D. L.; Trabant, C.; Woodward, R.; Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Data from dense seismic arrays can be used to visualize the propagation of seismic waves, resulting in animations effective for teaching both general and advanced audiences. One of the first visualizations of this type was developed using Objective C code and EarthScope/USArray data, which was then modified and ported to the Matlab platform and has now been standardized and automated as an IRIS Data Management System (IRIS-DMS) data product. These iterative code developments and improvements were completed by C. Ammon, R. Woodward and M. Bahavar, respectively. Currently, an automated script creates Ground Motion Visualizations (GMVs) for all global earthquakes over magnitude 6 recorded by EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (USArray TA) network. The USArray TA network is a rolling array of 400 broadband stations deployed on a uniform 70-km grid. These near real-time GMV visualizations are typically available for download within 4 hours or less of their occurrence (see: www.iris.edu/dms/products/usarraygmv/). The IRIS-DMS group has recently added a feature that allows users to highlight key elements within the GMVs, by providing an online tool for creating customized GMVs. This new interface allows users to select the stations, channels, and time window of interest, adjust the mapped areal extent of the view, and specify high and low pass filters. An online tutorial available from the IRIS Education and Public Outreach (IRIS-EPO) website, listed below, steps through a teaching sequence that can be used to explain the basic features of the GMVs. For example, they can be used to demonstrate simple concepts such as relative P, S and surface wave velocities and corresponding wavelengths for middle-school students, or more advanced concepts such as the influence of focal mechanism on waveforms, or how seismic waves converge at an earthquake's antipode. For those who desire a greater level of customization, including the ability to use the GMV framework with data

  3. Several methods of smoothing motion capture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingjing; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wang, Zhifei; Zhang, Shujun

    2011-06-01

    Human motion capture and editing technologies are widely used in computer animation production. We can acquire original motion data by human motion capture system, and then process it by motion editing system. However, noise embed in original motion data maybe introduced by extracting the target, three-dimensional reconstruction process, optimizing algorithm and devices itself in human motion capture system. The motion data must be modified before used to make videos, otherwise the animation figures will be jerky and their behavior is unnatural. Therefore, motion smoothing is essential. In this paper, we compare and summarize three methods of smoothing original motion capture data.

  4. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  5. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  6. Frustrated quantum-spin system on a triangle coupled with e{sub g} lattice vibrations: correspondence to Longuet-Higgins et al' s Jahn-Teller model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Hisatsugu [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Natsume, Yuhei [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Terai, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Nakamura, Katsuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    We investigate the frustrated quantum three-spin model (S{sub 1},S{sub 2},S{sub 3}) of spin = 1/2 on a triangle, in which spins are coupled with lattice-vibrational modes through the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction depending on distances between spin sites. The present model corresponds to the dynamic Jahn-Teller system E{sub g} - e{sub g} proposed by Longuet-Higgins et al (1958 Proc. R. Soc. A 244 1). This correspondence is revealed by using the transformation to Nakamura-Bishop's bases used in Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 861 (1985). Furthermore, we elucidate the relationship between a chiral order parameter {chi}-circumflex = S{sub 1}{center_dot}(S{sub 2}xS{sub 3}) in the spin system and the electronic orbital angular momentum l-circumflex{sub z} in E{sub g} - e{sub g} vibronic model: the regular oscillatory behaviour of the expectation value <{chi}-circumflex> with increasing energy can be found as in the case of for vibronic structures. The increase of the additional anharmonicity(chaoticity) is found to yield a rapidly decaying irregular oscillation of <{chi}-circumflex>. (letter to the editor)

  7. The missing leopard lizard: Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., a new species of the leopardinus clade (Reptilia: Squamata: Liolaemidae) from the Andes of the O'Higgins Region in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Damien; Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Garín, Carlos F; Núnez, Herman

    2014-06-17

    Liolaemus is an extremely species rich genus of iguanid lizards from southern South America. Most of the diversity though is found in the Andes Cordillera, between Argentina and Chile. Here we describe Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov., from El Teniente Mine, in the Andean mountains of the O'Higgins Region in Chile. This species presents scalation and pattern traits that belong to the leopardinus clade, a group of viviparous, high altitude lizards that inhabit the mountain ranges surrounding Santiago City. The species of this clade in turn belong to the Andean and Patagonian elongatus-kriegi complex. Liolaemus ubaghsi sp. nov. has been previously recognized as L. leopardinus and L. elongatus, nevertheless we present diagnostic traits that allow us to describe it as a new species. It mainly differs from the rest of the leopardinus clade (L. leopardinus, L. ramonensis, L. valdesianus and L. frassinettii) by having the following unique combination of traits: ochre background coloration, a wide dark occipital stripe, dark flanks, white dots dispersed on the dorsum, absence of leopard-like spots and enlarged infralabial scales. 

  8. Magma production rate along the Ninetyeast Ridge and its relationship to Indian plate motion and Kerguelen hot spot activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.

    The Ninetyeast Ridge, a linear trace of the Kerguelen hot spot in the Indian Ocean, was emplaced on a rapidly drifting Indian plate. Magma production rates along the ridge track are computed using gravity-derived excess crustal thickness data...

  9. Near instantaneous production of digital terrain models in the field using smartphone and Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Natan; Chandler, Jim; Lane, Stuart

    2013-04-01

    Whilst high-resolution topographic and terrain data is essential in many geoscience applications, its acquisition has traditionally required either specific expertise (e.g. applications of photogrammetry) or expensive equipment (e.g. ground-based laser altimetric systems). Recent work in geomorphology (e.g. James and Robson, 2012; Carbonneau et al., 2012) has demonstrated the potential of Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry as a low cost, low expertise alternative for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generation. These methods have geomorphological appeal because the more sophisticated image matching approaches remove many of the geometrical constraints associated with image acquisition: traditionally, vertical and "normal" image pairs acquired with a metric camera. This increases both the number of potential applications and the efficacy of image acquisition in the field. It also allows for genuine 3D (where the same (x,y) can have multiple z values) rather than 2.5D (where each (x,y) must have a unique z value) representation of the terrain surface. In this paper, we progress this technology further, by testing what can be acquired using hand-held smartphone technology, where the acquired images can be uploaded in the field to Open Source technology freely available to the research community. This is achieved by evaluating the quality of DEMs generated with a fully automated, open-source, Structure-from-Motion package and a smartphone (Apple Iphone 4) integrated camera (5 megapixels) using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data as benchmark. To allow a more objective assessment, it is necessary to compare both device and package with traditional approaches. Accordingly, we compare the error in the smartphone DEMs with the errors associated with data derived using a 16.2 megapixel digital camera and processed using the more traditional, commercial, close-range and semi-automated software PhotoModeler. Results demonstrate that centimeter precision DTMs can be achieved

  10. The Effects of Shared Consumption on Product Life Cycles and Advertising Effectiveness : The Case of the Motion Picture Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, Sebastiano A.; Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers frequently consume hedonic products together with other consumers and derive value from this shared experience. This article investigates the impact of shared consumption, a type of social influence that determines the enjoyment of joint experiences, in the context of a typical hedonic pro

  11. The Effects of Shared Consumption on Product Life Cycles and Advertising Effectiveness : The Case of the Motion Picture Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, Sebastiano A.; Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers frequently consume hedonic products together with other consumers and derive value from this shared experience. This article investigates the impact of shared consumption, a type of social influence that determines the enjoyment of joint experiences, in the context of a typical hedonic

  12. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  13. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv’s Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT, an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed—referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv’s distribution (2D-PMLVD—for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  14. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv’s Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF) and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT), an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed—referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv’s distribution (2D-PMLVD)—for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified. PMID:28635640

  15. Motion-corrected Fourier ptychography

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Liheng; Guo, Kaikai; Suo, Jinli; Yang, Changhuei; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Fourier ptychography (FP) is a recently proposed computational imaging technique for high space-bandwidth product imaging. In real setups such as endoscope and transmission electron microscope, the common sample motion largely degrades the FP reconstruction and limits its practicability. In this paper, we propose a novel FP reconstruction method to efficiently correct for unknown sample motion. Specifically, we adaptively update the sample's Fourier spectrum from low spatial-frequency regions towards high spatial-frequency ones, with an additional motion recovery and phase-offset compensation procedure for each sub-spectrum. Benefiting from the phase retrieval redundancy theory, the required large overlap between adjacent sub-spectra offers an accurate guide for successful motion recovery. Experimental results on both simulated data and real captured data show that the proposed method can correct for unknown sample motion with its standard deviation being up to 10% of the field-of-view scale. We have released...

  16. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  17. Collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  18. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  19. STORYBOARD DALAM PEMBUATAN MOTION GRAPHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-09-01

    screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.

  20. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET...

  1. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.  

  2. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  3. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  4. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  5. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  6. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  7. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  8. Measurement of visual motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  9. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  10. Body Motion and Graphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…

  11. Teaching Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  12. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  13. Scalable motion vector coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Inflation and Cyclotron Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We consider, in the context of a braneworld cosmology, the motion of the universe coupled to a four-form gauge field, with constant field strength, defined in higher dimensions. It is found, under rather general initial conditions, that in this situation there is a period of exponential inflation combined with cyclotron motion in the inflaton field space. The main effect of the cyclotron motion is that conditions on the flatness of the inflaton potential, which are typically necessary for exponential inflation, can be evaded. There are Landau levels associated with the four-form gauge field, and these correspond to quantum excitations of the inflaton field.

  15. Projectile Motion Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  16. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  17. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  18. Mathisson's helical motions demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L Filipe O; Zilhão, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The motion of spinning test particles in general relativity is described by Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations, which are undetermined up to a spin supplementary condition, the latter being today still an open question. The Mathisson-Pirani (MP) condition is known to lead to rather mysterious helical motions which have been deemed unphysical, and for this reason discarded. We show that these assessments are unfounded and originate from a subtle (but crucial) misconception. We discuss the kinematical explanation of the helical motions, and dynamically interpret them through the concept of hidden momentum, which has an electromagnetic analogue. We also show that, contrary to previous claims, the frequency of the helical motions coincides exactly with the zitterbewegung frequency of the Dirac equation for the electron.

  19. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ... motion sickness. Adding distractions—controlling breathing, listening to music, or using aromatherapy scents such as mint or ...

  20. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  1. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  2. Coupled transverse motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  4. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  5. Motion Belts: Visualization of Human Motion Data on a Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kaihara, Ryota; Saito, Suguru; Nakajima, Masayuki

    Because motion capture system enabled us to capture a number of human motions, the demand for a method to easily browse the captured motion database has been increasing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate simple visual outlines of motion clips, for the purpose of efficient motion data browsing. Our method unfolds a motion clip into a 2D stripe of keyframes along a timeline that is based on semantic keyframe extraction and the best view point selection for each keyframes. With our visualization, timing and order of actions in the motions are clearly visible and the contents of multiple motions are easily comparable. In addition, because our method is applicable for a wide variety of motions, it can generate outlines for a large amount of motions fully automatically.

  6. / production

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  7. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  8. The Particle--Motion Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demana, Franklin; Waits, Bert K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses solutions to real-world linear particle-motion problems using graphing calculators to simulate the motion and traditional analytic methods of calculus. Applications include (1) changing circular or curvilinear motion into linear motion and (2) linear particle accelerators in physics. (MDH)

  9. The Work of the Motion Picture Cameraman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Freddie; Petzold, Paul

    Meant to serve as an authoritative source of information on camera work in large scale feature productions, this book attempts to give some basic understanding of the problems of motion picture photography, the working conditions and artistry of lighting for mood and dramatic effect, budget problems for making films, and facts about working with a…

  10. Muscle Motion Solenoid Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Shuji

    It is one of our dreams to mechanically recover the lost body for damaged humans. Realistic humanoid robots composed of such machines require muscle motion actuators controlled by all pulling actions. Particularly, antagonistic pairs of bi-articular muscles are very important in animal's motions. A system of actuators is proposed using the electromagnetic force of the solenoids with the abilities of the stroke length over 10 cm and the strength about 20 N, which are needed to move the real human arm. The devised actuators are based on developments of recent modern electro-magnetic materials, where old time materials can not give such possibility. Composite actuators are controlled by a high ability computer and software making genuine motions.

  11. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  12. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  13. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  14. Hand in motion reveals mind in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFreeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science—from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes.

  15. The Motion Picture and the Teaching of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Marion C.; And Others

    Written to help a viewer watch a motion picture perceptively, this book explains the characteristics of the film as an art form and examines the role of motion pictures in the English curriculum. Specific topics covered include (1) the technical aspects of the production of films (the order of "shots," camera angle, and point of view), (2) the…

  16. The Motion Picture and the Teaching of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Marion C.; And Others

    Written to help a viewer watch a motion picture perceptively, this book explains the characteristics of the film as an art form and examines the role of motion pictures in the English curriculum. Specific topics covered include (1) the technical aspects of the production of films (the order of "shots," camera angle, and point of view), (2) the…

  17. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  18. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  19. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  20. MotionsFloorball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup, Jacob; Seidelin, Kåre

    Med denne "opskriftsbog" er I nu klar til at begynde med MotionsFloorball. Ingen vellykket middagsret tilbereder som bekendt sig selv - de vigtigste ingredienser til et succesfuldt forløb er vilje og handlingskraft. Tilsættes værktøjerne og vidensdelen fra denne bog, er der dog ikke langt fra tanke...

  1. Nuclear motion is classical

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The notion from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations that nuclear motion is best described by classical Newton dynamics instead of the time-dependent Schr{\\"o}dinger equation is substantiated. In principle a single experiment should bring clarity. Caution is however necessary, as temperature dependent effects must be eliminated when trying to determine the existence of a zero-point energy.

  2. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  3. Noncommutative Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Willien O; Souza, Andre M C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the Brownian motion of a particle in a two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) space. Using the standard NC algebra embodied by the sympletic Weyl-Moyal formalism we find that noncommutativity induces a non-vanishing correlation between both coordinates at different times. The effect itself stands as a signature of spatial noncommutativity and offers further alternatives to experimentally detect the phenomena.

  4. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  5. Animating with Stop Motion Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Animating with Stop Motion Pro is comprehensive, hands-on guide to achieving professional results with Stop Motion Pro 7.0 software. Gone are the days of stop motion guesswork and waiting to see the finalized result of your meticulous, labor intensive animations. With the push of a mouse button and the Stop Motion Pro software, animators have ten times the capability of simple camera stop motion capture. Re-visualize stop motion character movements, graph these movements and composite characters into a flawless animations with the techniques and step by step tutorials featured in Animating wit

  6. Motion segmentation method for hybrid characteristic on human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman; Wong, Ben; Chow, Daniel

    2009-03-11

    Motion segmentation and analysis are used to improve the process of classification of motion and information gathered on repetitive or periodic characteristic. The classification result is useful for ergonomic and postural safety analysis, since repetitive motion is known to be related to certain musculoskeletal disorders. Past studies mainly focused on motion segmentation on particular motion characteristic with certain prior knowledge on static or periodic property of motion, which narrowed method's applicability. This paper attempts to introduce a method to tackle human joint motion without having prior knowledge. The motion is segmented by a two-pass algorithm. Recursive least square (RLS) is firstly used to estimate possible segments on the input human-motion set. Further, period identification and extra segmentation process are applied to produce meaningful segments. Each of the result segments is modeled by a damped harmonic model, with frequency, amplitude and duration produced as parameters for ergonomic evaluation and other human factor studies such as task safety evaluation and sport analysis. Experiments show that the method can handle periodic, random and mixed characteristics on human motion, which can also be extended to the usage in repetitive motion in workflow and irregular periodic motion like sport movement.

  7. Negotiation in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    related to interaction, mobility, and transit that focus on notions of the “mobile with,” “negotiation in motion,” “mobile sense making,” and “temporary congregations.” The theoretical approach aims at seeing public transit spaces as sites where cars, pedestrians, mopeds, and bikes on a regular basis...... “negotiate” not only routes in and across the space but also express dynamic flows of interaction in motion. The claim is that what seems like ordinary urban movement patterns are more than this. By moving in the city among buildings, objects, and people, one interacts with the “environment,” making sense...

  8. Motion of Confined Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David E

    2016-01-01

    We carry out numerical evaluations of the motion of classical particles in Minkowski Space $\\mathbb{M}^{4}$ which are confined to the inside of a bag. In particular, we analyze the structure of the paths evolving from the breaking of the dilatation symmetry, the conformal symmetry and the combination of both together. The confining forces arise directly from the corresponding nonconserved currents. We demonstrate in our evaluations that these particles under certain initial conditions move toward the interior of the bag.

  9. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  10. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  11. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many motion

  12. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  13. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  14. Motion analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.

    1985-01-01

    Human motion analysis is the task of converting actual human movements into computer readable data. Such movement information may be obtained though active or passive sensing methods. Active methods include physical measuring devices such as goniometers on joints of the body, force plates, and manually operated sensors such as a Cybex dynamometer. Passive sensing de-couples the position measuring device from actual human contact. Passive sensors include Selspot scanning systems (since there is no mechanical connection between the subject's attached LEDs and the infrared sensing cameras), sonic (spark-based) three-dimensional digitizers, Polhemus six-dimensional tracking systems, and image processing systems based on multiple views and photogrammetric calculations.

  15. Motion dynamics of submersibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalske, Seppo

    1991-04-01

    A literature survey of motion dynamics of subsea vehicles of a general shape was performed. Hydrodynamic tests were carried out with an existing tethered remotely operated vehicle and with its full scale model. The experiments give data of maneuvering capabilities, and of hydrodynamic characteristics of small subsea vehicles. A simulation method was developed on this basis to compute the vehicle trajectory in the time domain as a function of different control commands. The method can be applied to any subsea vehicle controlled by thruster units.

  16. Evaporation in motion

    CERN Document Server

    Machrafi, Hatim; Colinet, Pierre; Dauby, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work presents fluid dynamics videos obtained via numerical (CFD) calculations using ComSol (finite elements method) software, showing the evaporation of HFE7100 (3M company refrigerant) into a nitrogen gas flow along the liquid interface. The overall temperature evolution and liquid motion, which is caused by surface-tension (Marangoni) and buoyancy (Rayleigh) instability mechanisms, are shown as well. Flow behavior in the liquid caused by the aforementioned instability mechanisms can be nicely seen. Finally, these observations are made for three liquid thicknesses in order to appreciate the qualitative influence of confinement.

  17. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  18. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  19. Robust global motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A global motion estimation method based on robust statistics is presented in this paper. By using tracked feature points instead of whole image pixels to estimate parameters the process speeds up. To further speed up the process and avoid numerical instability, an alterative description of the problem is given, and three types of solution to the problem are compared. By using a two step process, the robustness of the estimator is also improved. Automatic initial value selection is an advantage of this method. The proposed approach is illustrated by a set of examples, which shows good results with high speed.

  20. The Other Side of the Camera: Behind-the-Scenes Jobs in Television and Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Describes the principal occupations involved with television and motion picture production: producers, photographers, electricians, sound mixers, and script supervisors. Discusses salaries, hours, employment opportunities, and schools. (JOW)

  1. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  2. Fast and Simple Motion Tracking Unit with Motion Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeon-cheol YANG; Yoon-sup KIM; Seong-soo LEE; Sang-keun OH; Sung-hwa KIM; Doo-won CHOI

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance system using active tracking camera has no distance limitation of surveillance range compared to supersonic or sound sensors. However, complex motion tracking algorithm requires huge amount of computation, and it often requires expensive DSPs or embedded processors. This paper proposes a novel motion tracking unit based on different image for fast and simple motion tracking. It uses configuration factor to avoid noise and inaccuracy. It reduces the required computation significantly, so as to be implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGAs) instead of expensive Digital Signal Processing(DSPs). It also performs calculation for motion estimation in video compression, so it can be easily combined with surveillance system with video recording functionality based on video compression. The proposed motion tracking system implemented on Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGA can process 48 frames per second, and operating frequency of motion tracking unit is 100 MHz.

  3. New motion illusion caused by pictorial motion lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Miura, Kayo

    2008-01-01

    Motion lines (MLs) are a pictorial technique used to represent object movement in a still picture. This study explored how MLs contribute to motion perception. In Experiment 1, we reported the creation of a motion illusion caused by MLs: random displacements of objects with MLs on each frame were perceived as unidirectional global motion along the pictorial motion direction implied by MLs. In Experiment 2, we showed that the illusory global motion in the peripheral visual field captured the perceived motion direction of random displacement of objects without MLs in the central visual field, and confirmed that the results in Experiment 1 did not stem simply from response bias, but resulted from perceptual processing. In Experiment 3, we showed that the spatial arrangement of orientation information rather than ML length is important for the illusory global motion. Our results indicate that the ML effect is based on perceptual processing rather than response bias, and that comparison of neighboring orientation components may underlie the determination of pictorial motion direction with MLs.

  4. The allwise motion survey and the quest for cold subdwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fowler, John W.; Cutri, Roc M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schneider, Adam; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Baloković, Mislav [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lansbury, George B. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rich, J. A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Skrzypek, Nathalie, E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Astro Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-03-10

    The AllWISE processing pipeline has measured motions for all objects detected on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images taken between 2010 January and 2011 February. In this paper, we discuss new capabilities made to the software pipeline in order to make motion measurements possible, and we characterize the resulting data products for use by future researchers. Using a stringent set of selection criteria, we find 22,445 objects that have significant AllWISE motions, of which 3525 have motions that can be independently confirmed from earlier Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images, yet lack any published motions in SIMBAD. Another 58 sources lack 2MASS counterparts and are presented as motion candidates only. Limited spectroscopic follow-up of this list has already revealed eight new L subdwarfs. These may provide the first hints of a 'subdwarf gap' at mid-L types that would indicate the break between the stellar and substellar populations at low metallicities (i.e., old ages). Another object in the motion list—WISEA J154045.67–510139.3—is a bright (J ≈ 9 mag) object of type M6; both the spectrophotometric distance and a crude preliminary parallax place it ∼6 pc from the Sun. We also compare our list of motion objects to the recently published list of 762 WISE motion objects from Luhman. While these first large motion studies with WISE data have been very successful in revealing previously overlooked nearby dwarfs, both studies missed objects that the other found, demonstrating that many other nearby objects likely await discovery in the AllWISE data products.

  5. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  6. Cosmology as geodesic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Paul K [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-07

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields, with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N + 1)-dimensional 'augmented' target space of Lorentzian signature (1, N), timelike if V > 0, null if V = 0 and spacelike if V < 0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an 'acceleration subcone' of the 'lightcone'. Non-flat (k = {+-}1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N + 2, of signature (1, N + 1) for k = -1 and signature (2, N) for k = +1. This formalism is illustrated by cosmological solutions of models with an exponential potential, which are comprehensively analysed; the late-time behaviour for other potentials of current interest is deduced by comparison.

  7. Cosmology as Geodesic Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2004-01-01

    For gravity coupled to N scalar fields with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N+1)-dimensional `extended target space' of Lorentzian signature (1,N), timelike if V>0 and spacelike if V<0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an `acceleration subcone' of the `lightcone'. Non-flat (k=-1,+1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N+2, of signature (1,N+1) for k=-1 and signature (2,N) for k=+1. We illustrate these results for various potentials of current interest, including exponential and inverse power potentials.

  8. Multivariate respiratory motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürichen, R.; Wissel, T.; Ernst, F.; Schlaefer, A.; Schweikard, A.

    2014-10-01

    In extracranial robotic radiotherapy, tumour motion is compensated by tracking external and internal surrogates. To compensate system specific time delays, time series prediction of the external optical surrogates is used. We investigate whether the prediction accuracy can be increased by expanding the current clinical setup by an accelerometer, a strain belt and a flow sensor. Four previously published prediction algorithms are adapted to multivariate inputs—normalized least mean squares (nLMS), wavelet-based least mean squares (wLMS), support vector regression (SVR) and relevance vector machines (RVM)—and evaluated for three different prediction horizons. The measurement involves 18 subjects and consists of two phases, focusing on long term trends (M1) and breathing artefacts (M2). To select the most relevant and least redundant sensors, a sequential forward selection (SFS) method is proposed. Using a multivariate setting, the results show that the clinically used nLMS algorithm is susceptible to large outliers. In the case of irregular breathing (M2), the mean root mean square error (RMSE) of a univariate nLMS algorithm is 0.66 mm and can be decreased to 0.46 mm by a multivariate RVM model (best algorithm on average). To investigate the full potential of this approach, the optimal sensor combination was also estimated on the complete test set. The results indicate that a further decrease in RMSE is possible for RVM (to 0.42 mm). This motivates further research about sensor selection methods. Besides the optical surrogates, the sensors most frequently selected by the algorithms are the accelerometer and the strain belt. These sensors could be easily integrated in the current clinical setup and would allow a more precise motion compensation.

  9. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  10. Method of manufacturing a motion simulator, and a motion simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; Van Baten, T.; Advani, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a motion simulator, which motion simulator has a deck and a number of deck-supporting legs (2) that are pivotally connected with the deck in first pivot points (4), the legs being actively and continuously length-adjustable, such that the deck is capable of describing a mot

  11. Photonic equation of motion with application to the Lamb shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, A B

    2006-12-21

    A photonic equation of motion is proposed which is the scalar product of four-vectors and therefore a Lorentz invariant. A photonic equation of motion, which has not been heretofore established in quantum electrodynamics (QED), would capture the quantum nature of light but yet not have the standard field-operator form, thereby making practical calculations easier to perform. The equation of motion proposed here is applied to the Lamb shift. No divergences exist, and the result agrees with the observed Lamb shift for the 1S{sub 1/2} state of hydrogen within experimental error.

  12. Approximations of fractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuqiang; 10.3150/10-BEJ319

    2012-01-01

    Approximations of fractional Brownian motion using Poisson processes whose parameter sets have the same dimensions as the approximated processes have been studied in the literature. In this paper, a special approximation to the one-parameter fractional Brownian motion is constructed using a two-parameter Poisson process. The proof involves the tightness and identification of finite-dimensional distributions.

  13. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many

  14. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  15. Brownian Motion Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, K; Basu, Kasturi; Baishya, Kopinjol

    2003-01-01

    Brownian motion is the perpetual irregular motion exhibited by small particles immersed in a fluid. Such random motion of the particles is produced by statistical fluctuations in the collisions they suffer with the molecules of the surrounding fluid. Brownian motion of particles in a fluid (like milk particles in water) can be observed under a microscope. Here we describe a simple experimental set-up to observe Brownian motion and a method of determining the diffusion coefficient of the Brownian particles, based on a theory due to Smoluchowski. While looking through the microscope we focus attention on a fixed small volume, and record the number of particles that are trapped in that volume, at regular intervals of time. This gives us a time-series data, which is enough to determine the diffusion coefficient of the particles to a good degree of accuracy.

  16. Entropic forces in Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Nico

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the concept of entropic forces has risen considerably since E. Verlinde proposed to interpret the force in Newton s second law and Gravity as entropic forces. Brownian motion, the motion of a small particle (pollen) driven by random impulses from the surrounding molecules, may be the first example of a stochastic process in which such forces are expected to emerge. In this note it is shown that at least two types of entropic motion can be identified in the case of 3D Brownian motion (or random walk). This yields simple derivations of known results of Brownian motion, Hook s law and, applying an external (nonradial) force, Curie s law and the Langevin-Debye equation.

  17. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    model being correct is computed through a likelihood function for each model.  The study presented a simple technique to introduce additional models into the system using deterministic acceleration which basically defines the dynamics of the system.  Therefore, based on this value more motion models can...... be employed to increase the coverage.  Finally, the combined estimate is obtained using posteriori probabilities from different filter models.   The implemented approach provides an adaptive scheme for selecting various number of motion models.  Motion model description is important as it defines the kind...

  18. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  19. Muon motion in titanium hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, J. R.; Petzinger, K. G.; Kossler, W. J.; Schone, H. E.; Hitti, B. S.; Stronach, C. E.; Adu, N.; Lankford, W. F.; Reilly, J. J.; Seymour, E. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon spin rotation signal was observed in gamma-TiH(x) for x = 1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the data for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. Monte Carlo calculations to simulate the effect of muon and proton motion upon the muon field-correlation time were used to interpret the motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K. The interpretation is dependent upon whether the Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound (BPP) theory or an independent spin-pair relaxation model is used to obtain the vacancy jump rate from proton NMR T1 measurements. Use of BPP theory shows that the field-correction time can be obtained if the rate of motion of the muon with respect to the rate of the motion for the protons is decreased. An independent spin-pair relaxation model indicates that the field-correlation time can be obtained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased.

  20. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  1. Motion Model Employment using interacting Motion Model Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simulation study to track a maneuvering target using a selective approach in choosing Interacting Multiple Models (IMM) algorithm to provide a wider coverage to track such targets.  Initially, there are two motion models in the system to track a target.  Probability of each...... model being correct is computed through a likelihood function for each model.  The study presented a simple technique to introduce additional models into the system using deterministic acceleration which basically defines the dynamics of the system.  Therefore, based on this value more motion models can...... be employed to increase the coverage.  Finally, the combined estimate is obtained using posteriori probabilities from different filter models.   The implemented approach provides an adaptive scheme for selecting various number of motion models.  Motion model description is important as it defines the kind...

  2. From fractional Brownian motion to multifractional and multistable motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Fractional Brownian motion, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot and John Van Ness in 1968, has had a major impact on stochastic processes and their applications. We survey a few of the many developments that have stemmed from their ideas. In particular we discuss the local structure of fractional and multifractional Brownian, stable and multistable processes, emphasising the `diagonal' construction of such processes. In all this, the ubiquity and centrality of fractional Brownian motion is striking.

  3. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  4. Video-Based Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Paul; Peterson, Joel; Arrighi, Julie

    2005-04-01

    Video-based motion analysis has recently become very popular in introductory physics classes. This paper outlines general recommendations regarding equipment and software; videography issues such as scaling, shutter speed, lighting, background, and camera distance; as well as other methodological aspects. Also described are the measurement and modeling of the gravitational, drag, and Magnus forces on 1) a spherical projectile undergoing one-dimensional motion and 2) a spinning spherical projectile undergoing motion within a plane. Measurement and correction methods are devised for four common, major sources of error: parallax, lens distortion, discretization, and improper scaling.

  5. Sparse MRI for motion correction

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    MR image sparsity/compressibility has been widely exploited for imaging acceleration with the development of compressed sensing. A sparsity-based approach to rigid-body motion correction is presented for the first time in this paper. A motion is sought after such that the compensated MR image is maximally sparse/compressible among the infinite candidates. Iterative algorithms are proposed that jointly estimate the motion and the image content. The proposed method has a lot of merits, such as no need of additional data and loose requirement for the sampling sequence. Promising results are presented to demonstrate its performance.

  6. DRP Product Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    81 4-B-90: Plans & Specifications for Universal Heave Compensation System...Universal Heave Compensation System b. Product Key Word: Plans and Specifications c. Technical Key Word: Hydrosurvey d. Description: A common problem when...performing offshore hydrosurveys is compensating for the wave induced vertical motion of the survey vessel. The vertical motion ( heave ) compensation system

  7. Model of human visual-motion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Ahumada, A. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A model of how humans sense the velocity of moving images is proposed. The model exploits constraints provided by human psychophysics, notably that motion-sensing elements appear tuned for two-dimensional spatial frequency, and by the frequency spectrum of a moving image, namely, that its support lies in the plane in which the temporal frequency equals the dot product of the spatial frequency and the image velocity. The first stage of the model is a set of spatial-frequency-tuned, direction-selective linear sensors. The temporal frequency of the response of each sensor is shown to encode the component of the image velocity in the sensor direction. At the second stage, these components are resolved in order to measure the velocity of image motion at each of a number of spatial locations and spatial frequencies. The model has been applied to several illustrative examples, including apparent motion, coherent gratings, and natural image sequences. The model agrees qualitatively with human perception.

  8. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  9. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  10. Projectile Motion in Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Cory J.; Dudley, Scott C.; Haaland, Ryan K.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the motion that occurs when a particle with an initial velocity to the right is acted upon by a constant downward force. Considers what happens when the speed of the particle approaches the speed of light in particular. (WRM)

  11. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  12. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddharth Gautam; S Mitra; R Mukhopadhyay

    2008-10-01

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time scales involved in the motion and the geometry of motion can be studied using QENS. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation not only provides insight into the details of the different types of motion possible but also does not suffer limitations of the experimental set-up. Here we report the effect of confinement on molecular dynamics in various restricted geometries as studied by QENS and MD simulations: An example where the QENS technique provided direct evidence of phase transition associated with change in the dynamical behaviour of the molecules is also discussed.

  13. Brownian Motion, "Diverse and Undulating"

    CERN Document Server

    Duplantier, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    We describe in detail the history of Brownian motion, as well as the contributions of Einstein, Sutherland, Smoluchowski, Bachelier, Perrin and Langevin to its theory. The always topical importance in physics of the theory of Brownian motion is illustrated by recent biophysical experiments, where it serves, for instance, for the measurement of the pulling force on a single DNA molecule. In a second part, we stress the mathematical importance of the theory of Brownian motion, illustrated by two chosen examples. The by-now classic representation of the Newtonian potential by Brownian motion is explained in an elementary way. We conclude with the description of recent progress seen in the geometry of the planar Brownian curve. At its heart lie the concepts of conformal invariance and multifractality, associated with the potential theory of the Brownian curve itself.

  14. Video summarization using motion descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Peker, Kadir A.; Sun, Huifang

    2001-01-01

    We describe a technique for video summarization that uses motion descriptors computed in the compressed domain to speed up conventional color based video summarization technique. The basic hypothesis of the work is that the intensity of motion activity of a video segment is a direct indication of its 'summarizability.' We present experimental verification of this hypothesis. We are thus able to quickly identify easy to summarize segments of a video sequence since they have a low intensity of motion activity. Moreover, the compressed domain extraction of motion activity intensity is much simpler than the color-based calculations. We are able to easily summarize these segments by simply choosing a key-frame at random from each low- activity segment. We can then apply conventional color-based summarization techniques to the remaining segments. We are thus able to speed up color-based summarization techniques by reducing the number of segments on which computationally more expensive color-based computation is needed.

  15. Is Diaphragm Motion a Good Surrogate for Liver Tumor Motion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Juan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Cai, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Hongjun [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chang, Zheng; Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Bashir, Mustafa R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, Fang-Fang, E-mail: fangfang.yin@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between liver tumor motion and diaphragm motion. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (10 of 14) or liver metastases (4 of 14) undergoing radiation therapy were included in this study. All patients underwent single-slice cine–magnetic resonance imaging simulations across the center of the tumor in 3 orthogonal planes. Tumor and diaphragm motion trajectories in the superior–inferior (SI), anterior–posterior (AP), and medial–lateral (ML) directions were obtained using an in-house-developed normalized cross-correlation–based tracking technique. Agreement between the tumor and diaphragm motion was assessed by calculating phase difference percentage, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis (Diff). The distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was analyzed to understand its impact on the correlation between the 2 motions. Results: Of all patients, the mean (±standard deviation) phase difference percentage values were 7.1% ± 1.1%, 4.5% ± 0.5%, and 17.5% ± 4.5% in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.02, and 0.08 ± 0.06 in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. The mean Diff values were 2.8 ± 1.4 mm, 2.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm in the SI, AP, and ML directions, respectively. Tumor and diaphragm motions had high concordance when the distance between the tumor and tracked diaphragm area was small. Conclusions: This study showed that liver tumor motion had good correlation with diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions, indicating diaphragm motion in the SI and AP directions could potentially be used as a reliable surrogate for liver tumor motion.

  16. Unperturbed Chandler Motion and Perturbation Theory of the Rotation Motion of Deformable Celestial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    New unperturbed motions are suggested for the study of the rotational motion of deformable celestial bodies. This motion describes the rotation of an isolated celestial body deformed by its own rotation. By some natural simplifications and by using special forms of canonical variables (similar to Andoyer's variables) the problem is reduced to the classical Euler-Poinsot problem for a rigid body, but with different moments of inertia. The suggested unpertubed motion describes Chandler's pole motion and we shall call it Chandler or Euler-Chandler motion. The development of the unperturbed theory is described in this paper. The solution of the Chandler problem (Andoyer's variables, components of angular velocity of the body's axes, and their direction cosines) is presented in elliptical and - functions, and in the form of Fourier series in the angle-action variables. Similar Fourier series were obtained for products and squares of the diraction cosines. The coefficients of these series are expressed through full elliptical integrals of the first, second and third kinds with modulus which is the defining function of the action variables. It is the principal peculiarity of these series. As an illustration we give a application of this unperturbed theory to the study of the Earth's rotation (the principal properties of the Earth's rotation and perturbations). So, the unperturbed motion describes the following phenomena of the Earth's rotation: Chandler's motion of the pole of the Earth's axis of rotation; the ellipticity of the trajectory of the Earth's pole; the non-uniformity of the pole motion along the elliptical trajectory; the variation with Chandler's period of the modulus of the Earth's angular velocity. Theory of the perturbed rotational motion of the Earth is constructed on the basis of the special forms of equations of the rotation of a deformable body (in angle-action variables and their modifications for the Chandler-Euler problem). For the construction of

  17. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Hadian Jazi; Alireza Bab-Hadiashar; Reza Hoseinnezhad

    2013-01-01

    Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility an...

  18. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  19. Neural Basis of Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-31

    Oxford University, England. 11. Interviewed on BBC television ("Antenna"). Debate with Daniel C. Dennett . Aired on August 8, 1992. 12. Interviewed on PBS...integrated approach to vision. We have had two goals in mind: (1) To develoN~onceptual links between neurophysiology and perception ; (2) Fo develop specific...range of new "natural constraints" that govern the perception of shape-from shading structure from motion and motion correspondence. Also, we have

  20. On the Crab Proper Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, P A; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Mignani, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the dramatic evolution of telescopes as well as optical detectors in the last 20 yrs, we are now able to measure anew the proper motion of the Crab pulsar, after the classical result of Wyckoff and Murray (1977) in a time span 40 times shorter. The proper motion is aligned with the axis of symmetry of the inner Crab nebula and, presumably, with the pulsar spin axis.

  1. Emergent Property in Macromolecular Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴嘉麟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the model of inverse cascade fractal super-blocks along one direction (in the positive or negative) in the 3-dimensional space is developed to describe the self-similar motion in macromolecular system. Microscopically the cohesive and dispersed states of the motion blocks are co-existent states with vastly different probability of occurrence.Experimental results and theoretical analysis show that the microscopic cohesive state energy and dispersed state energy of each motion block are respectively equal to the macroscopic glassy state energy kT8 and molten state energy kTm of the system. This singularity unveils topologically the nonintegrability, mathematically the anholonomy, and macroscopically the emergent property. This singularity also reveals that the glass, viscoelastic and melt states are three distinct emergent properties of macromolecular motion from a macroscopic viewpoint. The fractal concept of excluded volume is introduced to depict the random motion at various scales in the system. The Hausdorff dimensions of the excluded volune and the motion blocks are both found equal to 3/2.

  2. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    if we could ascertain a specific ontology for animation within technology that would explain how its marginality is rooted to its essence at least in one of its forms? In this paper I will try to argue that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical standard workings with their hand, authors exposed its...... functional scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically...

  3. The "motion silencing" illusion results from global motion and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Marco; Burr, David

    2013-04-18

    Suchow and Alvarez (2011) recently devised a striking illusion, where objects changing in color, luminance, size, or shape appear to stop changing when they move. They refer to the illusion as "motion silencing of awareness to visual change." Here we present evidence that the illusion results from two perceptual processes: global motion and crowding. We adapted Suchow and Alvarez's stimulus to three concentric rings of dots, a central ring of "target dots" flanked on either side by similarly moving flanker dots. Subjects had to identify in which of two presentations the target dots were continuously changing (sinusoidally) in size, as distinct from the other interval in which size was constant. The results show: (a) Motion silencing depends on target speed, with a threshold around 0.2 rotations per second (corresponding to about 10°/s linear motion). (b) Silencing depends on both target-flanker spacing and eccentricity, with critical spacing about half eccentricity, consistent with Bouma's law. (c) The critical spacing was independent of stimulus size, again consistent with Bouma's law. (d) Critical spacing depended strongly on contrast polarity. All results imply that the "motion silencing" illusion may result from crowding.

  4. Attitude Dynamics of a Spinning Rocket with Internal Fluid Whirling Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ionut MARMUREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact that helical motion of fluid products of combustion within the combustion chamber of a rocket can have on the attitude dynamics of rocket systems. By developing the study presented by Sookgaew (2004, we determined the configuration of the Coriolis moment components, which catch the impact of the combustion product’s whirling motion, for the radial and centripetal propellant burn pattern specific to S-5M and S-5K solid rocket motors. We continue the investigation of the effects of internal whirling motion of fluid products of combustion on the attitude behavior of variable mass systems of the rocket type by examining the spin motion and transverse attitude motion of such systems. The results obtained show that internal fluid whirling motion can cause appreciable deviations in spin rate predictions, and also affects the frequencies of the transverse angular velocity components.

  5. Acromioclavicular motion after surgical reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Pierorazio; Bruno, Laura; Maderni, Alberto; Tosco, Piermario; Mariotti, Umberto

    2012-06-01

    A retrospective long-term study was carried out to determine whether there was any correlation between the clinical motion of the acromioclavicular joint evaluated by a test we set up using 90° of abduction and 0° of external rotation against resistance [90°/0°RTest] and the cross arm test (compared to the healthy side) and full return to everyday activities after surgical repair. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out on 51/80 subjects at a 5.4-year mean follow-up, treated for acromioclavicular joint dislocation with an extra-articular artificial loop, between 2000 and 2006. The 25 subjects with ossifications obtained a normal acromioclavicular joint motion, on both the horizontal and vertical planes. There was a correlation between the normal motion of the reconstructed acromioclavicular joint (compared to the healthy side) in these 25 patients and full clinical recovery, whilst there was no correlation between the Constant score, the simple shoulder test, the radiographic evaluation on one hand and the clinical motion of the joint on the other. Two patients had recurrent dislocation. Three had mobilization of the screws without reduction loss, or negative clinical outcome. A postoperative radiographic evaluation should be correlated with a clinical evaluation of the acromioclavicular joint motion (normal, hypermobile, unstable). Normal acromioclavicular joint motion was observed in subjects who developed significant ossifications. The study shows that the clinical evaluation of acromioclavicular joint motion is a simple and trustworthy method to assess the clinical result of a surgical repair. Diagnostic study investigating a diagnostic test, Level III.

  6. Motion perception modelling in flight simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Bos, J.E.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion cueing algorithms are indispensable to transform aircraft motions into simulator motions. Usually, such algorithms apply to the whole flight envelope. Since a motion base should stay within its six degrees of freedom workspace, the parameter settings necessarily involve concessions, which may

  7. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  8. Hybrid Motion Graphs for Character Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalouache Saida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works in the literature have improved the performance of motion graphs for synthesis the humanlike results in limited domains that necessity few constraints like dance, navigation in small game like environments or in games by the gesture of feedback on a snowboard tutorial. The humanlike cannot exist in an environment without interacting with the world surrounding them; the naturalness of the entire motion extremely depends on the animation of the walking character, the chosen path and the interaction motions. Addressing exact position of end-effectors is the main disadvantage of motion graphs which cause less importance expended to the search for motions with no collision in complex environments or manipulating motions. This fact motivates this approach which is the proposition of an hybrid motion graphs taking advantages of motion graphs to synthesis a natural locomotion and overcoming their limitations in synthesis manipulation motions by combined it with an inverse kinematic method for synthesis the upper-body motions.

  9. Types of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, T; Kuroda, C; Fujita, M

    1997-01-01

    To determine the types and causes of diaphragmatic motion during hepatic angiography, the authors used transarterial cut-film portography (TAP) to study movement of the diaphragm during breath-holding. Thirty-three TAP sequences were studied, and the patients' diaphragmatic motions were classified into four categories according to the distance their diaphragms moved. Results showed that the diaphragm was stationary in 33% of the TAP studies, while perpetual motion occurred in 15% of the studies, early-phase motion occurred in 12% and late-phase motion occurred in 40%. Ten sequences showed diaphragmatic motion of more than 10 mm, with eight sequences showing caudal motion and two showing cranial motion. This article discusses the cause of diaphragmatic motion during breath-holding for hepatic angiography and presents suggestions to reduce motion artifacts during the exam.

  10. [COSMOS motion design optimization in the CT table].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hong; Huang, Jian; Ren, Chao

    2013-03-01

    Through the CT Table dynamic simulation by COSMOS Motion, analysis the hinge of table and the motor force, then optimize the position of the hinge of table, provide the evidence of selecting bearing and motor, meanwhile enhance the design quality of the CT table and reduce the product design cost.

  11. Theoretical motions of hydrofoil systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlay, Frederick H

    1948-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation that has been undertaken to develop theoretical methods of treating the motions of hydrofoil systems and to determine some of the important parameters. Variations of parameters include three distributions of area between the hydrofoils, two rates of change of downwash angle with angle of attack, three depths of immersion, two dihedral angles, two rates of change of lift with immersion, three longitudinal hydrofoil spacings, two radii of gyration in pitching, and various horizontal and vertical locations of the center of gravity. Graphs are presented to show locations of the center of gravity for stable motion, values of the stability roots, and motions following the sudden application of a vertical force or a pitching moment to the hydrofoil system for numerous sets of values of the parameters.

  12. Piezoelectric step-motion actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentesana; Charles P.

    2006-10-10

    A step-motion actuator using piezoelectric material to launch a flight mass which, in turn, actuates a drive pawl to progressively engage and drive a toothed wheel or rod to accomplish stepped motion. Thus, the piezoelectric material converts electrical energy into kinetic energy of the mass, and the drive pawl and toothed wheel or rod convert the kinetic energy of the mass into the desired rotary or linear stepped motion. A compression frame may be secured about the piezoelectric element and adapted to pre-compress the piezoelectric material so as to reduce tensile loads thereon. A return spring may be used to return the mass to its resting position against the compression frame or piezoelectric material following launch. Alternative embodiment are possible, including an alternative first embodiment wherein two masses are launched in substantially different directions, and an alternative second embodiment wherein the mass is eliminated in favor of the piezoelectric material launching itself.

  13. Motion sensor technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bratitsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to raise a discussion regarding motion sensor technologies, mainly seen as peripherals of contemporary video game consoles, by examining their exploitation within educational context. An overview of the existing literature is presented, while attempting to categorize the educational approaches which involve motion sensor technologies, in two parts. The first one concerns the education of people with special needs. The utilization of motion sensor technologies, incorporated by game consoles, in the education of such people is examined. The second one refers to various educational approaches in regular education, under which not so many research approaches, but many teaching ideas can be found. The aim of the paper is to serve as a reference point for every individual/group, willing to explore the Sensor-Based Games Based Learning (SBGBL research area, by providing a complete and structured literature review.

  14. Mental imagery of gravitational motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, Silvio; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable evidence that gravitational acceleration is taken into account in the interaction with falling targets through an internal model of Earth gravity. Here we asked whether this internal model is accessed also when target motion is imagined rather than real. In the main experiments, naïve participants grasped an imaginary ball, threw it against the ceiling, and caught it on rebound. In different blocks of trials, they had to imagine that the ball moved under terrestrial gravity (1g condition) or under microgravity (0g) as during a space flight. We measured the speed and timing of the throwing and catching actions, and plotted ball flight duration versus throwing speed. Best-fitting duration-speed curves estimate the laws of ball motion implicit in the participant's performance. Surprisingly, we found duration-speed curves compatible with 0g for both the imaginary 0g condition and the imaginary 1g condition, despite the familiarity with Earth gravity effects and the added realism of performing the throwing and catching actions. In a control experiment, naïve participants were asked to throw the imaginary ball vertically upwards at different heights, without hitting the ceiling, and to catch it on its way down. All participants overestimated ball flight durations relative to the durations predicted by the effects of Earth gravity. Overall, the results indicate that mental imagery of motion does not have access to the internal model of Earth gravity, but resorts to a simulation of visual motion. Because visual processing of accelerating/decelerating motion is poor, visual imagery of motion at constant speed or slowly varying speed appears to be the preferred mode to perform the tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  16. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  17. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  18. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  19. Extreme Motion Predictions for Deepwater TLP Floaters for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the calculation of extreme motion of a TLP type of floater for an offshore wind turbine. Motions are of significant importance for the operation of the wind turbine as they influence the blade loadings and hence the downtime of the wind turbine energy production. The paper ill...

  20. How Does Force Affect Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Whether playing soccer at recess, walking to lunch, or sitting at their desk, children encounter forces every moment of their lives. The connection between force and motion is absolutely amazing to children, so anyone working with them better be prepared for the battery of tough questions they ask: "What made the ball move that way? Why does a…

  1. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  2. Projectile Motion Gets the Hose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Liyanage, Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Students take a weekly quiz in our introductory physics course. During the week in which material focused on projectile motion, we not-so-subtly suggested what problem the students would see on the quiz. The quiz problem was an almost exact replica of a homework problem we worked through in the class preceding the quiz. The goal of the problem is…

  3. Motion psychophysics: 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, David; Thompson, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This review traces progress made in the field of visual motion research from 1985 through to 2010. While it is certainly not exhaustive, it attempts to cover most of the major achievements during that period, and speculate on where the field is heading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  5. VVV High Proper Motion Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gromadzki, M; Folkes, S; Beamin, J C; Ramirez, K Pena; Borissova, J; Pinfield, D; Jones, H; Minniti, D; Ivanov, V D

    2013-01-01

    Here we present survey of proper motion stars towards the Galactic Bulge and an adjacent plane region base on VISTA-VVV data. The searching method based on cross-matching photometric Ks-band CASU catalogs. The most interesting discoveries are shown.

  6. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  7. Pendulum Motion and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Thomas F.; King, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    A common example of real-world motion that can be modeled by a differential equation, and one easily understood by the student, is the simple pendulum. Simplifying assumptions are necessary for closed-form solutions to exist, and frequently there is little discussion of the impact if those assumptions are not met. This article presents a…

  8. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  9. Radiation camera motion correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  10. Methods for Structure from Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    the factorization approach, relaxing the rigidity constrains, and in considering alternative ways of solving the surface estimation problem. In Danish: Structure from motion problematikken beskæftiger sig med at estimere 3D struktur fra 2D afbildninger heraf. Denne problemstilling er en af de mest populære og...

  11. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  12. Video super-resolution using simultaneous motion and intensity calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune Høgild; Lauze, Francois Bernard; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    for the joint estimation of a super-resolution sequence and its flow field. Via the calculus of variations, this leads to a coupled system of partial differential equations for image sequence and motion estimation. We solve a simplified form of this system and as a by-product we indeed provide a motion field...... for super-resolved sequences. Computing super-resolved flows has to our knowledge not been done before. Most advanced super-resolution (SR) methods found in literature cannot be applied to general video with arbitrary scene content and/or arbitrary optical flows, as it is possible with our simultaneous VSR...

  13. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth

    2008-11-01

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  14. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Harmonic functions on Walsh's Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jehring, Kristin Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we examine a variation of two- dimensional Brownian motion introduced in 1978 by Walsh. Walsh's Brownian motion can be described as a Brownian motion on the spokes of a (rimless) bicycle wheel. We will construct such a process by randomly assigning an angle to the excursions of a reflecting Brownian motion from 0. With this construction we see that Walsh's Brownian motion in R² behaves like one-dimensional Brownian motion away from the origin, but at the origin behaves di...

  16. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  17. Analysis of motion on agile shell-feeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since cannon drum of agile shell-feeding system rotates frequently and intermittently, its motion must be steady. Outline of driving cam determines the motion of cannon drum, so it is necessary to select the proper outline of cam. Through analysis of parabolic outline and cycloid outline of the cams, the outline that combines the two curves is obtained. According to the demand of production,the value of the outline is revised, and then the method of fitting curve is used to get the expression of the angle of cam and the displacement of the driven part. Through analyzing the motion of the cannon drum, it is suggested that the angle of the cam is proportion to the displacement of the driven part. The cam with the specially derived outline can move steadily.

  18. Two-character motion analysis and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taesoo; Cho, Young-Sang; Park, Sang Il; Shin, Sung Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of synthesizing novel motions of standing-up martial arts such as Kickboxing, Karate, and Taekwondo performed by a pair of human-like characters while reflecting their interactions. Adopting an example-based paradigm, we address three non-trivial issues embedded in this problem: motion modeling, interaction modeling, and motion synthesis. For the first issue, we present a semi-automatic motion labeling scheme based on force-based motion segmentation and learning-based action classification. We also construct a pair of motion transition graphs each of which represents an individual motion stream. For the second issue, we propose a scheme for capturing the interactions between two players. A dynamic Bayesian network is adopted to build a motion transition model on top of the coupled motion transition graph that is constructed from an example motion stream. For the last issue, we provide a scheme for synthesizing a novel sequence of coupled motions, guided by the motion transition model. Although the focus of the present work is on martial arts, we believe that the framework of the proposed approach can be conveyed to other two-player motions as well.

  19. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Height and Motion parameters V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Level 2 TOA/Cloud Product containing the Stereo Heights, Stereoscopically Derived Cloud Mask (SDCM) and Cloud Motion Vectors with associated data....

  20. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  1. Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Human muscle fatigue is considered to be one of the main reasons for Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD). Recent models have been introduced to define muscle fatigue for static postures. However, the main drawbacks of these models are that the dynamic effect of the human and the external load are not taken into account. In this paper, each human joint is assumed to be controlled by two muscle groups to generate motions such as push/pull. The joint torques are computed using Lagrange's formulation to evaluate the dynamic factors of the muscle fatigue model. An experiment is defined to validate this assumption and the result for one person confirms its feasibility. The evaluation of this model can predict the fatigue and MSD risk in industry production quickly.

  2. Motion-Adaptive Depth Superresolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilov, Ulugbek S; Boufounos, Petros T

    2017-04-01

    Multi-modal sensing is increasingly becoming important in a number of applications, providing new capabilities and processing challenges. In this paper, we explore the benefit of combining a low-resolution depth sensor with a high-resolution optical video sensor, in order to provide a high-resolution depth map of the scene. We propose a new formulation that is able to incorporate temporal information and exploit the motion of objects in the video to significantly improve the results over existing methods. In particular, our approach exploits the space-time redundancy in the depth and intensity using motion-adaptive low-rank regularization. We provide experiments to validate our approach and confirm that the quality of the estimated high-resolution depth is improved substantially. Our approach can be a first component in systems using vision techniques that rely on high-resolution depth information.

  3. Energy Conservation Equations of Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A

    2015-01-01

    A conventional derivation of motion equations in mechanics and field equations in field theory is based on the principle of least action with a proper Lagrangian. With a time-independent Lagrangian, a function of coordinates and velocities that is called energy is constant. This paper presents an alternative approach, namely derivation of a general form of equations of motion that keep the system energy, expressed as a function of generalized coordinates and corresponding velocities, constant. These are Lagrange equations with addition of gyroscopic forces. The important fact, that the energy is defined as the function on the tangent bundle of configuration manifold, is used explicitly for the derivation. The Lagrangian is derived from a known energy function. A development of generalized Hamilton and Lagrange equations without the use of variational principles is proposed. The use of new technique is applied to derivation of some equations.

  4. Brownian Motion and General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We construct a model of Brownian Motion on a pseudo-Riemannian manifold associated with general relativity. There are two aspects of the problem: The first is to define a sequence of stopping times associated with the Brownian "kicks" or impulses. The second is to define the dynamics of the particle along geodesics in between the Brownian kicks. When these two aspects are taken together, we can associate various distributions with the motion. We will find that the statistics of space-time events will obey a temperature dependent four dimensional Gaussian distribution defined over the quaternions which locally can be identified with Minkowski space. Analogously, the statistics of the 4-velocities will obey a kind of Maxwell-Juttner distribution. In contrast to previous work, our processes are characterized by two independent proper time variables defined with respect to the laboratory frame: a discrete one corresponding to the stopping times when the impulses take place and a continuous one corresponding to th...

  5. Perpetual Motion with Maxwell's Demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lyndsay G. M.

    2002-11-01

    A method for producing a temperature gradient by Brownian motion in an equilibrated isolated system composed of two fluid compartments and a separating adiabatic membrane is discussed. This method requires globular protein molecules, partially embedded in the membrane, to alternate between two conformations which lie on opposite sides of the membrane. The greater part of each conformer is bathed by one of the fluids and rotates in Brownian motion around its axis, perpendicular to the membrane. Rotational energy is transferred through the membrane during conformational changes. Angular momentum is conserved during the transitions. The energy flow becomes asymmetrical when the conformational changes of the protein are sterically hindered by two of its side-chains, the positions of which are affected by the angular velocity of the rotor. The heat flow increases the temperature gradient in contravention of the Second Law. A second hypothetical model which illustrates solute transfer at variance with the Second Law is also discussed.

  6. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  7. Radiation Reaction on Brownian Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Seto, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the real trajectory of a quantum particle is one of the interpretation problem and it is expressed by the Brownian (stochastic) motion suggested by E. Nelson. Especially the dynamics of a radiating electron, namely, radiation reaction which requires us to track its trajectory becomes important in the high-intensity physics by PW-class lasers at present. It has been normally treated by the Furry picture in non-linear QED, but it is difficult to draw the real trajectory of a quantum particle. For the improvement of this, I propose the representation of a stochastic particle interacting with fields and show the way to describe radiation reaction on its Brownian motion.

  8. 32 CFR 150.23 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.23 Motions. (a) Content. All motions, unless made... documents containing language other than English shall have, attached, a certified English translation....

  9. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  10. Motion correction in thoracic positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gigengack, Fabian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and cardiac motion leads to image degradation in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which impairs quantification. In this book, the authors present approaches to motion estimation and motion correction in thoracic PET. The approaches for motion estimation are based on dual gating and mass-preserving image registration (VAMPIRE) and mass-preserving optical flow (MPOF). With mass-preservation, image intensity modulations caused by highly non-rigid cardiac motion are accounted for. Within the image registration framework different data terms, different variants of regularization and parametric and non-parametric motion models are examined. Within the optical flow framework, different data terms and further non-quadratic penalization are also discussed. The approaches for motion correction particularly focus on pipelines in dual gated PET. A quantitative evaluation of the proposed approaches is performed on software phantom data with accompanied ground-truth motion information. Further, clinical appl...

  11. Magnetic fields for fluid motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).

  12. Tropical Cyclone Structure and Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    rotational motion of the storm due to storm tilt that was identified in dry simulations is reduced in simulations that include parameterizations of convective...right of the zero-shear storm track. Currently, the model resolution is being increased to 5 km with a third inner mesh and all convective processes...that were previously parameterized on the 15- and 45-km meshes are calculated using an explicit physical representation of convection scheme. Because

  13. Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA I WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square . Cambridge, MA 02139 C\\ II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO0 ADDRESS...INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A.I.Memo No. 1037 April, 1988 Dynamical Systems and Motion Vision Joachim Heel Abstract: In this... Artificial Intelligence L3 Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Support for the Laboratory’s [1 Artificial Intelligence Research is

  14. Male Spine Motion During Coitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  15. Global motion estimation with Gabor wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm of global motion estimation is proposed. First, through Gabor wavelet transform (GWT), a kind of energy distribution of image is obtained and checkpoints are selected according to a probability decision approach proposed. Then, the initialized motion vectors are obtained via a hierarchal block-matching based on these checkpoints.Finally, by employing a 3-parameter motion model, precise parameters of global motion are found. From the experiment, the algorithm is reliable and robust.

  16. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  17. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven David Rosenblatt

    Full Text Available A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37 participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001 and rotation (p0.1 for both. Thus, although a true moving visual field can induce self-motion, results of this

  18. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  19. 39 CFR 955.6 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motions. 955.6 Section 955.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.6 Motions. (a) Any motion addressed to the jurisdiction of the Board shall be promptly filed...

  20. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  1. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  2. Motion Factors in Flight Simulation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, Sol; Gage, Howard

    The effect of different simulator motion conditions on pilot performance was investigated, and the cuing function of simulator motion was explored. Subjects were required to perform a simulated air-to-air gunnery task under four conditions of motion. While treatment effects did not meet the predetermined level of statistical significance,…

  3. Motion Analysis during Sabot Opening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Acharya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available For FSAPDS projectile, the trajectory and stability are dependent on different forces indifferent phases of the motion. During the first phase gravity, aerodynamic drag along withpropellant gas force affect the motion. The motion is influenced by shock wave and mechanicalforce in sabot opening phase and the effect of time lag during opening of sabots also forms partof this work.

  4. An Inexpensive Mechanical Model for Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, David

    2011-01-01

    As experienced physicists, we see the beauty and simplicity of projectile motion. It is merely the superposition of uniform linear motion along the direction of the initial velocity vector and the downward motion due to the constant acceleration of gravity. We see the kinematic equations as just the mathematical machinery to perform the…

  5. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  6. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  7. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  8. Enhanced motion coding in MC-EZBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Yingkun

    2005-07-01

    Since hierarchical variable size block matching and bidirectional motion compensation are used in the motioncompensated embedded zero block coding (MC-EZBC), the motion information consists of motion vector quadtree map and motion vectors. In the conventional motion coding scheme, the quadtree structure is coded directly, the motion vector modes are coded with Huffman codes, and the motion vector differences are coded by an m-ary arithmetic coder with 0-order models. In this paper we propose a new motion coding scheme which uses an extension of the CABAC algorithm and new context modeling for quadtree structure coding and mode coding. In addition, we use a new scalable motion coding method which scales the motion vector quadtrees according to the rate-distortion slope of the tree nodes. Experimental results show that the new coding scheme increases the efficiency of the motion coding by more than 25%. The performance of the system is improved accordingly, especially in low bit rates. Moreover, with the scalable motion coding, the subjective and objective coding performance is further enhanced in low bit rate scenarios.

  9. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  10. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2003-01-01

    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...

  11. Motion of polar cap arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Moen, J. I.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A statistics of motion of polar cap arcs is conducted by using 5 years of optical data from an all-sky imager at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.73°N, 265.07°E). We identified 743 arcs by using an automated arc detection algorithm and statistically examined their moving velocities as estimated by the method of Hosokawa et al. (2006). The number of the arcs studied is about 5 times larger than that in the previous statistics of polar cap arcs by Valladares et al. (1994); thus, we could expect to obtain more statistically significant results. Polar cap arcs are found to fall into two distinct categories: the By-dependent and By-independent arcs. The motion of the former arcs follows the rule reported by Valladares et al. (1994), who showed that stable polar cap arcs move in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By. About two thirds of the arcs during northward IMF conditions belong to this category. The latter arcs always move poleward irrespective of the sign of the IMF By, which possibly correspond to the poleward moving arcs in the morning side reported by Shiokawa et al. (1997). At least one third of the arcs belong to this category. The By-dependent arcs tend to move faster when the magnitude of the IMF By is larger, suggesting that the transport of open flux by lobe reconnection from one polar cap compartment to the other controls their motion. In contrast, the speed of the By-independent arcs does not correlate with the magnitude of the By. The motions of both the By-dependent and By-independent arcs are most probably caused by the magnetospheric convection. Convection in the region of By-dependent arcs is affected by the IMF By, which indicates that their sources may be on open field lines or in the closed magnetosphere adjacent to the open-closed boundary, whereas By-independent arcs seem to be well on closed field lines. Hence, the magnetospheric source of the two types of arc may be different. This implies that the mechanisms causing the

  12. Motion in images is essential to cause motion sickness symptoms, but not to increase postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeck, A.J.A.; Bos, J.E.; Stins, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective It is generally assumed that motion in motion images is responsible for increased postural sway as well as for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). However, this has not yet been tested. To that end, we studied postural sway and VIMS induced by motion and still images. Method

  13. Covariance, Curved Space, Motion and Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak external forces and non-inertial motion are equivalent with thefree motion in a curved space. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is derivedfor such motion and the effects of the curvature upon the quantizationare analyzed, starting from a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved spaces. It is shown that the quantization is actually destroyed, in general, by a non-inertial motion in the presence of external forces, in the sense that such a motion may produce quantum transitions. Examples are given for a massive scalar field and for photons.

  14. Probabilistic Motion Estimation Based on Temporal Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Grzywacz, Norberto M; 10.1162/089976600300015169

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory for the temporal integration of visual motion motivated by psychophysical experiments. The theory proposes that input data are temporally grouped and used to predict and estimate the motion flows in the image sequence. This temporal grouping can be considered a generalization of the data association techniques used by engineers to study motion sequences. Our temporal-grouping theory is expressed in terms of the Bayesian generalization of standard Kalman filtering. To implement the theory we derive a parallel network which shares some properties of cortical networks. Computer simulations of this network demonstrate that our theory qualitatively accounts for psychophysical experiments on motion occlusion and motion outliers.

  15. Estimation of visual motion in image sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1994-01-01

    The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... with a priori knowledge. We have surveyed a series of attempts to extract motion invariants. Specifically we have illustrate the use of local Fourier phase. The Fourier phase is shown to define the local shape of the signal, thus accurately localizing an event. Different strategies for local measurement...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....

  16. Range of motion after thoracolumbar corpectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrchen, Poul Martin; Hegde, Sajan K; Moldavsky, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ; (2) ATLP with one cross-connector and spacer; (3) ATLP with spacer. Data were normalized to intact (100 %) and statistical analysis was used to determine between-group significances. RESULTS: Both constructs reduced motion compared to intact in flexion-extension and lateral bending. Axial rotation...... motion became unstable after the corpectomy and motion was greater than intact, even with two cross-connectors with both systems. Relative to their respective intact groups, LP DRS significantly reduced motion compared to analogous DRS in flexion-extension. The addition of cross-connectors reduced motion...

  17. Respiratory Motion Prediction in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Sastry

    Active respiratory motion management has received increasing attention in the past decade as a means to reduce the internal margin (IM) component of the clinical target volume (CTV)—planning target volume (PTV) margin typically added around the gross tumor volume (GTV) during radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Engineering and technical developments in linear accelerator design and respiratory motion monitoring respectively have made the delivery of motion adaptive radiation therapy possible through real-time control of either dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion (gantry based linear accelerator design) or robotic arm motion (robotic arm mounted linear accelerator design).

  18. A Global Correction to PPMXL Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, John J; Grebel, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we notice that extragalactic sources seem to have non-zero proper motions in the PPMXL proper motion catalog. We collect a large, all-sky sample of extragalactic objects and fit their reported PPMXL proper motions to an ensemble of spherical harmonics in magnitude shells. A magnitude dependent proper motion correction is thus constructed. This correction is applied to a set of fundamental radio sources, quasars, and is compared to similar corrections to assess its utility. We publish, along with this paper, code which may be used to correct proper motions in the PPMXL catalog over the full sky which have 2 Micron All Sky Survey photometry.

  19. O movimento do sangue no corpo humano: do contexto da produção do conhecimento para o do seu ensino The motion of blood in human body: from the knowledge production context to its teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Castilho Delizoicov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de um estudo histórico-epistemológico das explicações de Galeno e de Harvey sobre o movimento do sangue no corpo humano, discute-se o papel da História da Ciência na formação de professores. O foco do artigo está no enfrentamento de problemas oriundos do ensino descontextualizado historicamente de analogias que se acham imiscuídas nos conteúdos da Biologia, bem como daqueles relativos à concepção da natureza do conhecimento científico presente entre professores das ciências naturais. Numa perspectiva referenciada no epistemólogo e médico polonês Ludwick Fleck, as categorias analíticas - "estilo de pensamento", "coletivo de pensamento" e "circulação inter e intracoletiva de idéias e práticas" - são usadas para uma análise das duas interpretações que se sucederam para explicitar o movimento do sangue no corpo humano. Recomenda-se o uso de bibliografias e a produção de textos adequados à inserção da História e da Filosofia das Ciências nos currículos escolares, particularmente o de formação de professores.Based on a historical and epistemological study of the explanations of Galeno and Harvey about the movement of blood in the human body, this paper discusses the role of the History of Science in teacher education. The article focuses on the confrontation of problems stemming from historically decontextualized teaching of analogies found within the content of Biology. It also discusses those problems related to conceptions about the nature of scientific knowledge found in science teachers. Based on the concepts of Polish epistemologist and physician Ludwick Fleck, the analytical categories - "style of thinking", "collective thinking" and "inter and intra-collective circulation of ideas and practices" are used for an analysis of two successive interpretations that have been used to explain the movement of blood in the human body. The use of bibliographies is recommended as well as the production of

  20. PCA-based lung motion model

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Organ motion induced by respiration may cause clinically significant targeting errors and greatly degrade the effectiveness of conformal radiotherapy. It is therefore crucial to be able to model respiratory motion accurately. A recently proposed lung motion model based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been shown to be promising on a few patients. However, there is still a need to understand the underlying reason why it works. In this paper, we present a much deeper and detailed analysis of the PCA-based lung motion model. We provide the theoretical justification of the effectiveness of PCA in modeling lung motion. We also prove that under certain conditions, the PCA motion model is equivalent to 5D motion model, which is based on physiology and anatomy of the lung. The modeling power of PCA model was tested on clinical data and the average 3D error was found to be below 1 mm.

  1. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  2. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  3. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  4. Brownian motion of helical flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, H; Saito, N

    1979-07-01

    We develops a theory of the Brownian motion of a rigid helical object such as bacterial flagella. The statistical properties of the random forces acting on the helical object are discussed and the coefficients of the correlations of the random forces are determined. The averages , and are also calculated where z and theta are the position along and angle around the helix axis respectively. Although the theory is limited to short time interval, direct comparison with experiment is possible by using the recently developed cinematography technique.

  5. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  6. Motion Control along Relative Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is control of mechanical systems as they evolve along the steady motions called relative equilibria. These trajectories are of interest in theory and applications and have the characterizing property that the system's body-fixed velocity is constant. For example, constant...... on a Lie group is locally controllable along a relative equilibrium. These conditions subsume the well-known local controllability conditions for equilibrium points. Second, for systems that have fewer controls than degrees of freedom, we present a novel algorithm to control simple mechanical control...

  7. Analysis of Piston Slap Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-05-01

    Piston slap is the major force contibuting towards noise levels in combustion engines.This type of noise depends upon a number of factors such as the piston-liner gap, type of lubricant used, number of piston pins as well as geometry of the piston. In this work the lateral and rotary motion of the piston in the gap between the cylinder liner and piston has been analyzed. A model that can predict the forces and response of the engine block due to slap has been dicussed. The parameters such as mass, spring and damping constant have been predicted using a vibrational mobility model.

  8. Visual motion detection sensitivity is enhanced by an orthogonal motion aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Hiromasa; Murakami, Ikuya

    2010-09-09

    A recent study (H. Takemura & I. Murakami, 2010) showed enhancement of motion detection sensitivity by an orthogonal induced motion, suggesting that a weak motion component can combine with an orthogonal motion component to generate stronger oblique motion perception. Here we examined how an orthogonal motion aftereffect (MAE) affects motion detection sensitivity. After adaptation to vertical motion, a Gabor patch barely moving leftward or rightward was presented. As a result of an interaction between horizontal physical motion and a vertical MAE, subjects perceived the stimulus as moving obliquely. Subjects were asked to judge the horizontal direction of motion irrespective of the vertical MAE. The performance was enhanced when the Gabor patch was perceived as moving obliquely as the result of a weak MAE. The enhancement effect depended on the strength of the MAE for each subject rather than on the temporal frequency of the adapting stimulus. These results suggest that weak motion information that is hard to detect can interact with orthogonal adaptation and yield stronger oblique motion perception, making directional judgment easier. Moreover, the present results indicate that the enhancement effect of orthogonal motion involves general motion integration mechanisms rather than a specific mechanism only applicable to a particular type of illusory motion.

  9. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Kenemans, J Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; van der Lubbe, Rob H J; Lommers, Marjolein W; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2007-08-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following adaptation to static or moving random dot patterns. The implied motion response was defined as the difference between evoked potentials to pictures with and without implied motion. Interaction between real and implied motion was found as a modulation of this difference response by the preceding motion adaptation. The amplitude of the implied motion response was significantly reduced after adaptation to motion in the same direction as the implied motion, compared to motion in the opposite direction. At 280 msec after stimulus onset, the average difference in amplitude reduction between opposite and same adapted direction was 0.5 muV on an average implied motion amplitude of 2.0 muV. These results indicate that the response to implied motion arises from direction-selective motion-sensitive neurons. This is consistent with interactions between real and implied motion processing at a neuronal level.

  10. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  11. Topological characterization of safe coordinated vehicle motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILGRAM.R. JAMES; KAUFMAN,STEPHEN G.

    2000-04-03

    This paper characterizes the homotopy properties and the global topology of the space of positions of vehicles which are constrained to travel without intersecting on a network of paths. The space is determined by the number of vehicles and the network. Paths in the space correspond to simultaneous non-intersecting motions of all vehicles. The authors therefore focus on computing the homotopy type of the space, and show how to do so in the general case. Understanding the homotopy type of the space is the central issue in controlling the vehicles, as it gives a complete description of the distinct ways that vehicles may move safely on the network. The authors exhibit graphs, products of graphs, and amalgamations of products of graphs that are homotopy equivalent to the full configuration space, and are far simpler than might be expected. The results indicate how a control system for such a network of vehicles (such as a fleet of automatically guided vehicles guided by wires buried in a factory floor) may be implemented.

  12. Geometric decompositions of collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischiati, Matteo; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2017-04-01

    Collective motion in nature is a captivating phenomenon. Revealing the underlying mechanisms, which are of biological and theoretical interest, will require empirical data, modelling and analysis techniques. Here, we contribute a geometric viewpoint, yielding a novel method of analysing movement. Snapshots of collective motion are portrayed as tangent vectors on configuration space, with length determined by the total kinetic energy. Using the geometry of fibre bundles and connections, this portrait is split into orthogonal components each tangential to a lower dimensional manifold derived from configuration space. The resulting decomposition, when interleaved with classical shape space construction, is categorized into a family of kinematic modes-including rigid translations, rigid rotations, inertia tensor transformations, expansions and compressions. Snapshots of empirical data from natural collectives can be allocated to these modes and weighted by fractions of total kinetic energy. Such quantitative measures can provide insight into the variation of the driving goals of a collective, as illustrated by applying these methods to a publicly available dataset of pigeon flocking. The geometric framework may also be profitably employed in the control of artificial systems of interacting agents such as robots.

  13. Conditional replenishment using motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, D. N.; Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Conditional replenishment is an interframe video compression method that uses correlation in time to reduce video transmission rates. This method works by detecting and sending only the changing portions of the image and by having the receiver use the video data from the previous frame for the non-changing portion. The amount of compression that can be achieved through this technique depends to a large extent on the rate of change within the image, and can vary from 10 to 1 to less than 2 to 1. An additional 3 to 1 reduction in rate is obtained by the intraframe coding of data blocks using a 2-dimensional variable rate Hadamard transform coder. A further additional 2 to 1 rate reduction is achieved by using motion prediction. Motion prediction works by measuring the relative displacements of a subpicture from one frame to the next. The subpicture can then be transmitted by sending only the value of the 2-dimensional displacement. Computer simulations have demonstrated that data rates of 2 to 4 Mega-bits/second can be achieved while still retaining good fidelity in the image.

  14. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-02-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  15. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  16. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  17. Multi-Directional Motion Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick McGovern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The direction aftereffect (DAE is a phenomenon whereby prolonged exposure to a moving stimulus biases the perceived direction of subsequent stimuli. It is believed to arise through a selective suppression of directionally tuned neurons in the visual cortex, causing shifts in the population response away from the adapted direction. Whereas most studies consider only unidirectional adaptation, here we examine how concurrent adaptation to multiple directions affects the DAE. Observers were required to judge whether a random dot kinematogram (RDK moved clockwise or counter-clockwise relative to upwards. In different conditions, observers adapted to a stimulus comprised of directions drawn from a distribution or to bidirectional motion. Increasing the variance of normally distributed directions reduced the magnitude of the peak DAE and broadened its tuning profile. Asymmetric sampling of Gaussian and uniform distributions resulted in shifts of DAE tuning profiles consistent with changes in the perceived global direction of the adapting stimulus. Discrimination thresholds were elevated by an amount that related to the magnitude of the bias. For bidirectional adaptors, adding dots in directions away from the adapting motion led to a pronounced reduction in the DAE. This reduction was observed when dots were added in opposite or orthogonal directions to the adaptor suggesting that it may arise via inhibition from a broadly tuned normalisation pool. Preliminary simulations with a population coding model, where the gain of a direction-selective neuron is inversely proportional to its response to the adapting stimulus, suggest that it provides a parsimonious account of these adaptation effects.

  18. Attentional Networks and Biological Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Chandrasekaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to see meaningful actions when presented with pointlight traces of human movement is commonly referred to as the perception of biological motion. While traditionalexplanations have emphasized the spontaneous and automatic nature of this ability, morerecent findings suggest that attention may play a larger role than is typically assumed. Intwo studies we show that the speed and accuracy of responding to point-light stimuli is highly correlated with the ability to control selective attention. In our first experiment we measured thresholds for determining the walking direction of a masked point-light figure, and performance on a range of attention-related tasks in the same set of observers. Mask-density thresholds for the direction discrimination task varied quite considerably from observer to observer and this variation was highly correlated with performance on both Stroop and flanker interference tasks. Other components of attention, such as orienting, alerting and visual search efficiency, showed no such relationship. In a second experiment, we examined the relationship between the ability to determine the orientation of unmasked point-light actions and Stroop interference, again finding a strong correlation. Our results are consistent with previous research suggesting that biological motion processing may requite attention, and specifically implicate networks of attention related to executive control and selection.

  19. Motion of a helical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Oscar Velasco

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of a single helical vortex in an unbounded, inviscid, incompressible fluid. The vortex is an infinite tube whose centerline is a helix and whose cross section is a circle of small radius (compared to the radius of curvature) where the vorticity is uniform and parallel to the centerline. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex translates and rotates steadily without change of form, numerous attempts have been made to compute these self-induced velocities. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field to find new expressions for the vortex's linear and angular velocities. Our results, verified by numerically computing the Helmholtz integral and the Rosenhead-Moore approximation to the Biot-Savart law, are more accurate than previous results over the whole range of values of the vortex pitch and cross-section. We then use the new formulas to study the advection of passive particles near the vortex; we find that the vortex's motion and capacity to transport fluid dep...

  20. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-01-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions – stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived – do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size. PMID:28205639

  1. Generalized functionals of Brownian motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some recent developments in the theory of generalized functionals of Brownian motion. First we give a brief summary of the Wiener-Ito multiple Integrals. We discuss some of their basic properties, and related functional analysis on Wiener measure space. then we discuss the generalized functionals constructed by Hida. The generalized functionals of Hida are based on L2-Sobolev spaces, thereby, admitting only Hs, s∈R valued kernels in the multiple stochastic integrals. These functionals are much more general than the classical Wiener-Ito class. The more recent development, due to the author, introduces a much more broad class of generalized functionals which are based on Lp-Sobolev spaces admitting kernels from the spaces p,s, s∈R. This allows analysis of a very broad class of nonlinear functionals of Brownian motion, which can not be handled by either the Wiener-Ito class or the Hida class. For s≤0, they represent generalized functionals on the Wiener measure space like Schwarz distributions on finite dimensional spaces. In this paper we also introduce some further generalizations, and construct a locally convex topological vector space of generalized functionals. We also present some discussion on the applications of these results.

  2. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberle, Elisabeth; Rupek, Paul; Lappe, Markus; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral ("what") and a dorsal ("where") visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: perception of biological motion might be impaired when "non-biological" motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots ("Shape-from-Motion"), recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  3. A new adaptive fast motion estimation algorithm based on local motion similarity degree (LMSD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long; HAN Chongzhao; BAI Yan

    2005-01-01

    In the motion vector field adaptive search technique (MVFAST) and the predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST), the size of the largest motion vector from the three adjacent blocks (left, top, top-right) is compared with the threshold to select different search scheme. But a suitable search center and search pattern will not be selected in the adaptive search technique when the adjacent motion vectors are not coherent in local region. This paper presents an efficient adaptive search algorithm. The motion vector variation degree (MVVD) is considered a reasonable factor for adaptive search selection. By the relationship between local motion similarity degree (LMSD) and the variation degree of motion vector (MVVD), the motion vectors are classified as three categories according to corresponding LMSD; then different proposed search schemes are adopted for motion estimation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant computational speedup compared with MVFAST and PMVFAST algorithms, and offers a similar, even better performance.

  4. A method of meta-mechanism combination and replacement based on motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lacking the effective methods to reduce labor and cost, many small- and medium-sized assembly companies are facing with the problem of high cost for a long time. In order to reduce costs of manual operations, the method of meta-mechanism combination and replacement is studied. In this paper, we mainly discuss assembling motion analysis, workpieces position information acquisition, motion library construction, assembling motion analysis by Maynard’s operation sequence technique, meta-mechanism database establishment, and match of motion and mechanism. At the same time, the principle, process, and system realization framework of mechanism replacement are introduced. Lastly, problems for low-cost automation of the production line are basically resolved by operator motion analysis and meta-mechanism combination and match.

  5. Pebble-bed pebble motion: Simulation and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-11-01

    determine the contact forces and the lengths of motion in contact. This information combined with the proper wear coefficients can be used to determine the dust production from mechanical wear. These new capabilities enhance the understanding of PBRs, and the capabilities of the code will allow future improvements in understanding.

  6. Robot motion control in mobile environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iliya V Miroshnik; HUANG Xian-lin(黄显林); HE Jie(贺杰)

    2003-01-01

    With the problem of robot motion control in dynamic environment represented by mobile obstacles,working pieces and external mechanisms considered, a relevant control actions design procedure has been pro-posed to provide coordination of robot motions with respect to the moving external objects so that an extension ofrobot spatial motion techniques and active robotic strategies based on approaches of nonlinear control theory canbe achieved.

  7. Motion estimation techniques for digital video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Metkar, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    The book deals with the development of a methodology to estimate the motion field between two frames for video coding applications. This book proposes an exhaustive study of the motion estimation process in the framework of a general video coder. The conceptual explanations are discussed in a simple language and with the use of suitable figures. The book will serve as a guide for new researchers working in the field of motion estimation techniques.

  8. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  9. Curvature Gradient Driving Droplets in Fast Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cunjing; Yin, Yajun; Tseng, Fan-gang; Zheng, Quanshui

    2011-01-01

    Earlier works found out spontaneous directional motion of liquid droplets on hydrophilic conical surfaces, however, not hydrophobic case. Here we show that droplets on any surface may take place spontaneous directional motion without considering contact angle property. The driving force is found to be proportional to the curvature gradient of the surface. Fast motion can be lead at surfaces with small curvature radii. The above discovery can help to create more effective transportation technology of droplets, and better understand some observed natural phenomena.

  10. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Liaci; Michael Bach; Ludger Tebartz Van Elst; Heinrich, Sven P; Jürgen Kornmeier

    2016-01-01

    Background In von Schiller’s Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM) stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio (“AR”, i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances). Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (A...

  11. Computer Vision Method in Human Motion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Li; FANG Shuai; XU Xin-he

    2007-01-01

    Human motion detection based on computer vision is a frontier research topic and is causing an increasing attention in the field of computer vision research. The wavelet transform is used to sharpen the ambiguous edges in human motion image. The shadow's effect to the image processing is also removed. The edge extraction can be successfully realized.This is an effective method for the research of human motion analysis system.

  12. Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.

    1999-09-16

    We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.

  13. General techniques for constrained motion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Watterberg, P.A.; Chen, Pang, C.; Lewis, C.L.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents automatic motion planning algorithms for robotic manipulators performing a variety of tasks. Given a task and a robot manipulator equipped with a tool in its hand, the motion planners compute robot motions to complete the task while respecting manipulator kinematic constraints and avoiding collisions with objects in the robot`s work space. To handle the high complexity of the motion planning problem, a sophisticated search strategy called SANDROS is developed and used to solve many variations of the motion planning problem. To facilitate systematic development of motion planning algorithms, robotic tasks are classified into three categories according to the dimension of the manifold the robot tool has to travel: visit-point (0 dimensional), trace-curve (1 dimensional) and cover-surface (2 dimensional) tasks. The motion planner for a particular dimension is used as a sub-module by the motion planner for the next-higher dimension. This hierarchy of motion planners has led to a set of compact and systematic algorithms that can plan robot motions for many types of robotic operations. In addition, an algorithm is developed that determines the optimal robot-base configuration for minimum cycle time. The SANDROS search paradigm is complete in that it finds a solution path if one exists, up to a user specified resolution. Although its worst-case time complexity is exponential in the degrees of freedom of the manipulator, its average performance is commensurate with the complexity of the solution path. Since solution paths for most of motion planning problems consist of a few monotone segments, the motion planners based on SANDROS search strategy show approximately two-orders of magnitude improvements over existing complete algorithms.

  14. Combinatorial fractal Brownian motion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炬波; 梁甸农

    2000-01-01

    To solve the problem of how to determine the non-scaled interval when processing radar clutter using fractal Brownian motion (FBM) model, a concept of combinatorial FBM model is presented. Since the earth (or sea) surface varies diversely with space, a radar clutter contains several fractal structures, which coexist on all scales. Taking the combination of two FBMs into account, via theoretical derivation we establish a combinatorial FBM model and present a method to estimate its fractal parameters. The correctness of the model and the method is proved by simulation experiments and computation of practial data. Furthermore, we obtain the relationship between fractal parameters when processing combinatorial model with a single FBM model. Meanwhile, by theoretical analysis it is concluded that when combinatorial model is observed on different scales, one of the fractal structures is more obvious.

  15. Localised Plate Motion on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, R. C.

    1996-03-01

    The volcanic and tectonic features observed in Dali Vinculum, Parga Vinculum and Imdr Regio are concentrated at long, narrow, curvilinear zones, with relatively minor volcanism and tectonism between these zones. These zones, whilst more diffuse than terrestrial plate boundaries, nevertheless define the margins of tectonic plates. In contrast to Earth, however, it appears that venusian plates are neither created nor destroyed by lateral motion. Rather, plates are thinned and intruded at vincula plate boundaries, vertically accreted by small-scale intra-plate (planitia) volcanism and perhaps destroyed by delamination of thickened crust in tesserae and montane regions such as Thetis Regio and Ishtar Terra. The diversity in age both between and within these three areas together with the evidence for infrequent, small scale resurfacing in the planitiae are difficult to reconcile with a non-uniformitarian geological process.

  16. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  17. Motion magnification in coronal seismology

    CERN Document Server

    Anfinogentov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features, observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT$\\mathbb{C}$WT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes imitating exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes provided they are sufficiently small. Also, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/A...

  18. Collective motion of oscillatory walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishi, Ryosuke; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2013-07-01

    We study a system of interacting self-propelled particles whose walking velocity depends on the stage of the locomotion cycle. The model introduces a phase equation in the optimal velocity model for vehicular traffic. We find that the system exhibits novel types of flow: synchronized free flow, phase-anchoring free flow, orderly jam flow, and disordered jam flow. The first two flows are characterized by synchronization of the phase, while the others do not have the global synchronization. Among these, the disordered jam flow is very complex, although the underlying model is simple. This phenomenon implies that the crowd behavior of moving particles can be destabilized by coupling their velocity to the phase of their motion. We also focus on "phase-anchoring" phenomena. They strongly affect particle flow in the system, especially when the density of particles is high.

  19. Collective motion of oscillatory walkers

    CERN Document Server

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    We study a system of interacting self-propelled particles whose walking velocity depends on the stage of the locomotion cycle. The model introduces a phase equation in the optimal velocity model for vehicular traffic. We find that the system exhibits novel types of flow: synchronized free flow, phase-anchoring free flow, orderly jam flow, and disordered jam flow. The first two flows are characterized by synchronization of the phase, while the others do not have the global synchronization. Among these, the disordered jam flow is very complex, although the underlying model is simple. This phenomenon implies that the crowd behavior of moving particles can be destabilized by coupling their velocity to the phase of their motion. We also focus on "phase-anchoring" phenomena. They strongly affect particle flow in the system, especially when the density of particles is high.

  20. Charged gravastars admitting conformal motion

    CERN Document Server

    Usmani, A A; Ray, Saibal; Nandi, K K; Kuhfittig, Peter K F; Rakib, Sk A; Hasan, Z

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new model of a {\\it gravastar} admitting conformal motion. While retaining the framework of the Mazur-Mottola model, the gravastar is assumed to be internally charged, with an exterior defined by a Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m rather than a Schwarzschild line element. The solutions obtained involve (i) the interior region, (ii) the shell, and (iii) the exterior region of the sphere. Of these three cases the first case is of primary interest since the total gravitational mass vanishes for vanishing charge and turns the total gravitational mass into an {\\it electromagnetic mass} under certain conditions. This suggests that the interior de Sitter vacuum of a charged gravastar is essentially an electromagnetic mass model that must generate the gravitational mass. We have also analyzed various other aspects such as the stress energy tensor in the thin shell and the entropy of the system.

  1. Brownian motion from molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Hyun Kyung; Talkner, Peter; Lee, Eok Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Brownian motion of single particles with various masses M and diameters D is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Besides the momentum auto-correlation function of the Brownian particle the memory function and the fluctuating force which enter the generalized Langevin equation of the Brownian particle are determined and their dependence on mass and diameter are investigated for two different fluid densities. Deviations of the fluctuating force distribution from a Gaussian form are observed for small particle diameters. For heavy particles the deviations of the fluctuating force from the total force acting on the Brownian particle decrease linearly with the mass ratio m/M where m denotes the mass of a fluid particle.

  2. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  3. Machine learning in motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renjeng; Kermiche, Noureddine

    1989-01-01

    The existing methodologies for robot programming originate primarily from robotic applications to manufacturing, where uncertainties of the robots and their task environment may be minimized by repeated off-line modeling and identification. In space application of robots, however, a higher degree of automation is required for robot programming because of the desire of minimizing the human intervention. We discuss a new paradigm of robotic programming which is based on the concept of machine learning. The goal is to let robots practice tasks by themselves and the operational data are used to automatically improve their motion performance. The underlying mathematical problem is to solve the problem of dynamical inverse by iterative methods. One of the key questions is how to ensure the convergence of the iterative process. There have been a few small steps taken into this important approach to robot programming. We give a representative result on the convergence problem.

  4. Amoeboid motion in confined geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2015-01-01

    Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...

  5. Brownian motion and stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Karatzas, Ioannis

    1998-01-01

    This book is designed as a text for graduate courses in stochastic processes. It is written for readers familiar with measure-theoretic probability and discrete-time processes who wish to explore stochastic processes in continuous time. The vehicle chosen for this exposition is Brownian motion, which is presented as the canonical example of both a martingale and a Markov process with continuous paths. In this context, the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic calculus is developed. The power of this calculus is illustrated by results concerning representations of martingales and change of measure on Wiener space, and these in turn permit a presentation of recent advances in financial economics (option pricing and consumption/investment optimization). This book contains a detailed discussion of weak and strong solutions of stochastic differential equations and a study of local time for semimartingales, with special emphasis on the theory of Brownian local time. The text is complemented by a large num...

  6. Handheld vibration effects shoulder motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, B L; Eberman, L E; Dwelly, P M

    2009-12-01

    We explored effects of handheld vibration on glenohumeral motion in competitive overhead-throwing athletes. We used a randomized, blinded pre-test post-test cross-over design. Each arm of each subject experienced 2 conditions (1-control, 1-experimental), each with pre-test and post-test measures; the order of which was randomized. Participants included Division-I baseball and softball players (n=35: age=20+/-2 yr, height=178+/-9 cm, mass=84+/-12 kg, years of sport participation=13+/-4 yrs). During the experimental condition, participants held a vibrating (2.2 mm, 15 Hz, 20 s), 2.55 kg (5.62 lbs) Mini-VibraFlex dumbbell (Orthometric, New York, NY) in neutral glenohumeral rotation. During the control condition, participants held the still dumbbell (0 mm, 0 Hz, 20 s). Participants rested one min after each trial (3). We used a digital protractor to assess range of motion bilaterally, employing a standard technique for measuring maximal internal (IR) and external rotation (ER). Repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated that range of dominant IR increased 6.8% ( P=0.001, ES=0.16) after handheld vibration. Handheld vibration did not affect range of dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.20), non-dominant IR ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.41), or non-dominant ER ( P>0.05, 1-beta=0.05). Short bouts of handheld vibration increased dominant IR in collegiate baseball and softball athletes. These results suggest that handheld vibration may help maintain glenohumeral IR that is vital to the healthy and competitive throwing shoulder.

  7. Imaging electron motion in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sagar; Westervelt, Robert M.

    2017-02-01

    A cooled scanning probe microscope (SPM) is an ideal tool to image electronic motion in graphene: the SPM tip acts as a scanning gate, which interacts with the electron gas below. We introduce the technique using our group’s previous work on imaging electron flow from a quantum point contact in a GaAs 2DEG and tuning an InAs quantum dot in an InAs/InP nanowire. Carriers in graphene have very different characteristics: electrons and holes travel at a constant speed with no bandgap, and they pass through potential barriers via Klein tunneling. In this paper, we review the extension of SPM imaging techniques to graphene. We image the cyclotron orbits passing between two narrow contacts in a single-atomic-layer graphene device in a perpendicular magnetic field. Magnetic focusing produces a peak in transmission between the contacts when the cyclotron diameter is equal to the contact spacing. The charged SPM tip deflects electrons passing from one contact to the other, changing the transmission when it interrupts the flow. By displaying the change in transmission as the tip is raster scanned above the sample, an image of flow is obtained. In addition, we have developed a complementary technique to image electronic charge using a cooled scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) that uses a sensitive charge preamplifier near the SPM tip to achieve a charge noise level 0.13 e Hz-1/2 with high spatial resolution 100 nm. The cooled SPM and SCM can be used to probe the motion of electrons on the nanoscale in graphene devices.

  8. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  9. Modeling repetitive motions using structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Aliaga, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Obtaining models of dynamic 3D objects is an important part of content generation for computer graphics. Numerous methods have been extended from static scenarios to model dynamic scenes. If the states or poses of the dynamic object repeat often during a sequence (but not necessarily periodically), we call such a repetitive motion. There are many objects, such as toys, machines, and humans, undergoing repetitive motions. Our key observation is that when a motion-state repeats, we can sample the scene under the same motion state again but using a different set of parameters; thus, providing more information of each motion state. This enables robustly acquiring dense 3D information difficult for objects with repetitive motions using only simple hardware. After the motion sequence, we group temporally disjoint observations of the same motion state together and produce a smooth space-time reconstruction of the scene. Effectively, the dynamic scene modeling problem is converted to a series of static scene reconstructions, which are easier to tackle. The varying sampling parameters can be, for example, structured-light patterns, illumination directions, and viewpoints resulting in different modeling techniques. Based on this observation, we present an image-based motion-state framework and demonstrate our paradigm using either a synchronized or an unsynchronized structured-light acquisition method.

  10. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  11. Asymmetric gear rectifies random robot motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhang, H. P.

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of centimetric robots and their interactions with rotary gears through inelastic collisions. Under the impacts of self-propelled robots, a gear with symmetric teeth diffuses with no preferred direction of motion. An asymmetric gear, however, rectifies random motion of nearby robots which, in return, exert a torque on the gear and drive it into unidirectional motion. Rectification efficiency increases with the degree of gear asymmetry. Our work demonstrates that asymmetric environments can be used to rectify and extract energy from random motion of macroscopic self-propelled particles.

  12. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  13. Perceptual interaction of local motion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzany, Eyal I; Loe, Maren E; Palmer, Stephanie E; Victor, Jonathan D

    2016-11-01

    Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals. However, these mathematically-distinct varieties of local motion signals typically co-exist in natural scenes. This study focuses on interactions between two kinds of local motion signals: Fourier and glider. Fourier signals are typically associated with translation, while glider signals occur when an object approaches or recedes. Here, using a novel class of synthetic stimuli, we ask how distinct kinds of local motion signals interact and whether context influences sensitivity to Fourier motion. We report that local motion signals of different types interact at the perceptual level, and that this interaction can include subthreshold summation and, in some subjects, subtle context-dependent changes in sensitivity. We discuss the implications of these observations, and the factors that may underlie them.

  14. Apsidal motion in eclipsing binary GG Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilan, E.; Bulut, I.

    2016-03-01

    The study of apsidal motion in binary stars with eccentric orbit is well known as an important source of information for the stellar internal structure as well as the possibility of verification of general relativity. In this study, the apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary GG Ori (P = 6.631 days, e = 0.22) has been analyzed using the times of minimum light taken from the literature and databases and the elements of apsidal motion have been computed. The method described by Giménez and García-Pelayo (1983) has been used for the apsidal motion analysis.

  15. Droplet Motion on a Shape Gradient Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Cailong; Xing, Haiting; Wen, Xiufang; Pi, Pihui; Xu, Shouping

    2017-05-02

    We demonstrate a facile method to induce water droplet motion on an wedge-shaped superhydrophobic copper surface combining with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oil layer on it. The unbalanced interfacial tension from the shape gradient offers the actuating force. The superhydrophobicity critically eliminates the droplet contact line pinning and the slippery PDMS oil layer lubricates the droplet motion, which makes the droplet move easily. The maximum velocity and furthest position of droplet motion were recorded and found to be influenced by the gradient angle. The mechanism of droplet motion on the shape gradient surface is systematically discussed, and the theoretical model analysis is well matched with the experimental results.

  16. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding andmotion compensation. The methods incorporate state-of-the-art lossless techniques such ascontext based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding, high resolution motion field estimation,3d-dimensional predictors, prediction...... using one or multiple previous images, predictor dependent error modelling, and selection of motion field by code length. For slow pan or slow zoom sequences, coding methods that use multiple previous images are up to 20% better than motion compensation using a single previous image and up to 40% better...... than coding that does not utilize motion compensation....

  17. Unconscious local motion alters global image speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieu K Khuu

    Full Text Available Accurate motion perception of self and object speed is crucial for successful interaction in the world. The context in which we make such speed judgments has a profound effect on their accuracy. Misperceptions of motion speed caused by the context can have drastic consequences in real world situations, but they also reveal much about the underlying mechanisms of motion perception. Here we show that motion signals suppressed from awareness can warp simultaneous conscious speed perception. In Experiment 1, we measured global speed discrimination thresholds using an annulus of 8 local Gabor elements. We show that physically removing local elements from the array attenuated global speed discrimination. However, removing awareness of the local elements only had a small effect on speed discrimination. That is, unconscious local motion elements contributed to global conscious speed perception. In Experiment 2 we measured the global speed of the moving Gabor patterns, when half the elements moved at different speeds. We show that global speed averaging occurred regardless of whether local elements were removed from awareness, such that the speed of invisible elements continued to be averaged together with the visible elements to determine the global speed. These data suggest that contextual motion signals outside of awareness can both boost and affect our experience of motion speed, and suggest that such pooling of motion signals occurs before the conscious extraction of the surround motion speed.

  18. Neutron Star Motion in the Disk Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-Chun; A.Taani; PAN Yuan-Yue; WANG Jing; CAI Yan; LIU Gao-Chao; LUO A-Li; ZHANG Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yong-Heng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The neutron star motions are based on the undisturbed finitely thick galactic disk gravitational potential model.Two initial conditions,I.e.the locations and velocities,are considered.The Monte Carlo method is employed to separate rich diversities of the orbits of neutron stars into several sorts.The Poincaré section has the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of the neutron star motion.It has been observed that the increasing ratio of the motion range vertical to the galactic plane to that parallel to the galactic plane results in the irregularity of neutron star motion.

  19. Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...

  20. Multisensory Contributions to Visual Motion Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Soto-Faraco

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In humans, as well as most animal species, perception of object motion is critical to successful interaction with the surrounding environment. Yet, as the observer moves, the retinal projections of the various motion components add to each other and extracting accurate object motion becomes computationally challenging. Recent psychophysical studies have demonstrated that observers use a flow parsing mechanism to estimate and subtract self-motion from the optic flow field. We investigated whether concurrent acoustic cues for motion can facilitate visual flow parsing, thereby enhancing the detection of moving objects during simulated self-motion. Participants identified an object (the target that moved either forward or backward within a visual scene containing nine identical textured objects simulating forward observer translation. We found that spatially co-localized, directionally congruent, moving auditory stimuli enhanced object motion detection. Interestingly, subjects who performed poorly on the visual-only task benefited more from the addition of moving auditory stimuli. When auditory stimuli were not co-localized to the visual target, improvements in detection rates were weak. Taken together, these results suggest that the parsing object motion from self-motion induced optic flow can operate on multisensory object representations.

  1. Exoskeleton Motion Control for Children Walking Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ploscaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a quick method for motion control of an exoskeleton used on children walking rehabilitation with ages between four to seven years old. The exoskeleton used on this purpose has six servomotors which work independently and actuates each human lower limb joints (hips, knees and ankles. For obtaining the desired motion laws, a high-speed motion analysis equipment was used. The experimental rough data were mathematically modeled in order to obtain the proper motion equations for controlling the exoskeleton servomotors.

  2. Periodic Motion near the Surface of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Li, Hengnian

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in the periodic motion and bifurcations near the surface of an asteroid. The gravity field of an irregular asteroid and the equation of motion of a particle near the surface of an asteroid are studied. The periodic motions around the major body of triple asteroid 216 Kleopatra and the OSIRIS REx mission target asteroid 101955 Bennu are discussed. We find that motion near the surface of an irregular asteroid is quite different from the motion near the surface of a homoplastically spheroidal celestial body. The periodic motions around the asteroid 101955 Bennu and 216 Kleopatra indicate that the geometrical shapes of the orbits are probably very sophisticated. There exist both stable periodic motions and unstable periodic motions near the surface of the same irregular asteroid. This periodic motion which is unstable can be resonant or non resonant. The period doubling bifurcation and pseudo period doubling bifurcation of periodic orbits coexist in the same gravity field of the primary of the t...

  3. Multiple-stage ambiguity in motion perception reveals global computation of local motion directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Andrew T; Nishida, Shin'ya; Johnston, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The motion of a 1D image feature, such as a line, seen through a small aperture, or the small receptive field of a neural motion sensor, is underconstrained, and it is not possible to derive the true motion direction from a single local measurement. This is referred to as the aperture problem. How the visual system solves the aperture problem is a fundamental question in visual motion research. In the estimation of motion vectors through integration of ambiguous local motion measurements at different positions, conventional theories assume that the object motion is a rigid translation, with motion signals sharing a common motion vector within the spatial region over which the aperture problem is solved. However, this strategy fails for global rotation. Here we show that the human visual system can estimate global rotation directly through spatial pooling of locally ambiguous measurements, without an intervening step that computes local motion vectors. We designed a novel ambiguous global flow stimulus, which is globally as well as locally ambiguous. The global ambiguity implies that the stimulus is simultaneously consistent with both a global rigid translation and an infinite number of global rigid rotations. By the standard view, the motion should always be seen as a global translation, but it appears to shift from translation to rotation as observers shift fixation. This finding indicates that the visual system can estimate local vectors using a global rotation constraint, and suggests that local motion ambiguity may not be resolved until consistencies with multiple global motion patterns are assessed.

  4. Coordinating robot motion, sensing, and control in plans. LDRD project final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, P.G.; Brown, R.G.; Watterberg, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1997-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a framework for robotic planning and execution that provides a continuum of adaptability with respect to model incompleteness, model error, and sensing error. For example, dividing robot motion into gross-motion planning, fine-motion planning, and sensor-augmented control had yielded productive research and solutions to individual problems. Unfortunately, these techniques could only be combined by hand with ad hoc methods and were restricted to systems where all kinematics are completely modeled in planning. The original intent was to develop methods for understanding and autonomously synthesizing plans that coordinate motion, sensing, and control. The project considered this problem from several perspectives. Results included (1) theoretical methods to combine and extend gross-motion and fine-motion planning; (2) preliminary work in flexible-object manipulation and an implementable algorithm for planning shortest paths through obstacles for the free-end of an anchored cable; (3) development and implementation of a fast swept-body distance algorithm; and (4) integration of Sandia`s C-Space Toolkit geometry engine and SANDROS motion planer and improvements, which yielded a system practical for everyday motion planning, with path-segment planning at interactive speeds. Results (3) and (4) have either led to follow-on work or are being used in current projects, and they believe that (2) will eventually be also.

  5. Non-ballistic superluminal motion in the plane of the sky - II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Biping; Kong, S. W.; Xue, F.; Li, Yaping; Huang, Y. F.

    2011-12-01

    The model of non-ballistic jet motion Gong (2008) provides a simple explanation for inward jet motion and bent jets. Recently, evidence for such non-radial motion has accumulated rapidly, and more complicated morphologies have appeared. However, the ballistic plus precession model is likely to hold in most samples of jet motion. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the ballistic and non-ballistic models of jet motion. This relationship suggests that the interaction of ejectors with ambient matter can produce knots at different stages of evolution, and hence different separations to the core. Also, as a jet precesses, knots produced between the core and the deceleration radius result in a spiral pattern, as predicted by the model of ballistic plus precession. Knots generated at the deceleration radius display non-radial motion, such as a bent jet or the oscillation of the ridge line. We develop the first non-ballistic model and we highlight the following four features. (i) The model provides a numerical simulation for the production of a multiknot for a precessing jet. (ii) It fits the precession behaviour of multiknot and interprets the oscillation of ridge lines, such as S5 1803+784. (iii) It gives a unified interpretation to the bent jet, which is applicable to both a multiknot and a single knot. (iv) The problem of the very large numbers of observed outward motions, rather than inward motions, is addressed in a new way.

  6. Mass asymmetry and tricyclic wobble motion assessment using automated launch video analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker

    2016-04-01

    Examination of the pitch and yaw histories clearly indicates that in addition to epicyclic motion's nutation and precession oscillations, an even faster wobble amplitude is present during each spin revolution, even though some of the amplitudes of the oscillation are smaller than 0.02 degree. The results are compared to a sequence of shots where little appreciable mass asymmetries were present, and only nutation and precession frequencies are predominantly apparent in the motion history results. Magnitudes of the wobble motion are estimated and compared to product of inertia measurements of the asymmetric projectiles.

  7. Development of a web-based simulator for estimating motion errors in linear motion stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, G.; Oh, J.-S.; Park, C.-H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a web-based simulator for estimating 5-DOF motion errors in the linear motion stages. The main calculation modules of the simulator are stored on the server computer. The clients uses the client software to send the input parameters to the server and receive the computed results from the server. By using the simulator, we can predict performances such as 5-DOF motion errors, bearing and table stiffness by entering the design parameters in a design step before fabricating the stages. Motion errors are calculated using the transfer function method from the rail form errors which is the most dominant factor on the motion errors. To verify the simulator, the predicted motion errors are compared to the actually measured motion errors in the linear motion stage.

  8. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  9. Vertical velocities from proper motions of red clump giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Abedi, H.; Garzón, F.; Figueras, F.

    2014-12-01

    of the warp amplitude in a time of about one hundred Myr. Conclusions: The vertical motion in the warp apparently indicates that the main S-shaped structure of the warp is a long-lived feature, whereas the perturbation that produces an irregularity in the southern part is most likely a transient phenomenon. But we need higher accuracy in the systematic errors of proper motions to confirm this tentative detection of vertical motion in the outer disk. With the use of the Gaia end-of-mission products together with spectroscopically classified red clump giants, the precision in vertical motions can be increased by an order of magnitude at least.

  10. Data-Driven Approach to Synthesizing Facial Animation Using Motion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Kerstin; Prasad, Mukta; McDonnell, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Producing cartoon animations is a laborious task, and there is a distinct lack of automatic tools to help animators, particularly with creating facial animation. The proposed method uses real-time video-based motion tracking to generate facial motion as input and then matches it to existing hand-created animation curves. The synthesized animations can then be refined and polished by an animator, saving considerable time in overall production.

  11. Advancement of motion psychophysics: review 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shin'ya

    2011-12-05

    This is a survey of psychophysical studies of motion perception carried out mainly in the last 10 years. It covers a wide range of topics, including the detection and interactions of local motion signals, motion integration across various dimensions for vector computation and global motion perception, second-order motion and feature tracking, motion aftereffects, motion-induced mislocalizations, timing of motion processing, cross-attribute interactions for object motion, motion-induced blindness, and biological motion. While traditional motion research has benefited from the notion of the independent "motion processing module," recent research efforts have been also directed to aspects of motion processing in which interactions with other visual attributes play critical roles. This review tries to highlight the richness and diversity of this large research field and to clarify what has been done and what questions have been left unanswered.

  12. Influence of Visual Motion on Tactile Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensmaïa, S. J.; Killebrew, J. H.; Craig, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Subjects were presented with pairs of tactile drifting sinusoids and made speed discrimination judgments. On some trials, a visual drifting sinusoid, which subjects were instructed to ignore, was presented simultaneously with one of the two tactile stimuli. When the visual and tactile gratings drifted in the same direction (i.e., from left to right), the visual distractors were found to increase the perceived speed of the tactile gratings. The effect of the visual distractors was proportional to their temporal frequency but not to their perceived speed. When the visual and tactile gratings drifted in opposite directions, the distracting effect of the visual distractors was either substantially reduced or, in some cases, reversed (i.e., the distractors slowed the perceived speed of the tactile gratings). This result suggests that the observed visual-tactile interaction is dependent on motion and not simply on the oscillations inherent in drifting sinusoids. Finally, we find that disrupting the temporal synchrony between the visual and tactile stimuli eliminates the distracting effect of the visual stimulus. We interpret this latter finding as evidence that the observed visual-tactile interaction operates at the sensory level and does not simply reflect a response bias. PMID:16723415

  13. The Motion Of A Spring Released From Uniform Circular Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Dooling, Thomas; Carnaghi, Matthew; Titus, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    A weak spring is connected at one end to a rotor turning at constant angular velocity. The spring extends to a stretched length as determined by the spring mass, rest length, spring constant, rotor radius and rotor angular velocity. When released from the rotor, the inner end of the spring pulls away as expected, causing a wave to travel down the spring as it collapses. During this time interval, the outer end of the spring continues to move along its original circular path in uniform circular motion, as if the spring were still connected to the rotor. This is analogous to the effect of a hanging Slinky released from rest whose bottom end remains at a fixed position above the ground until a wave from the top of the Slinky reaches the bottom of the Slinky. Values from a numerical model and measurements from video analysis show that upon release the inner end travels along a circle of similar radius as the outer end. The effect appears as a series of alternating semi-circles. In addition, the simulation and dat...

  14. Remo Dance Motion Estimation with Markerless Motion Capture Using The Optical Flow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neny Kurniati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion capture has been developed and applied in various fields, one of them is dancing. Remo dance is a dance from East Java that tells the struggle of a prince who fought on the battlefield. Remo dancer does not use body-tight costume. He wears a few costume pieces and accessories, so required a motion detection method that can detect limb motion which does not damage the beauty of the costumes and does not interfere motion of the dancer. The method is Markerless Motion Capture. Limbs motions are partial behavior. This means that all limbs do not move simultaneously, but alternately. It required motion tracking to detect parts of the body moving and where the direction of motion. Optical flow is a method that is suitable for the above conditions. Moving body parts will be detected by the bounding box. A bounding box differential value between frames can determine the direction of the motion and how far the object is moving. The optical flow method is simple and does not require a monochrome background. This method does not use complex feature extraction process so it can be applied to real-time motion capture. Performance of motion detection with optical flow method is determined by the value of the ratio between the area of the blob and the area of the bounding box. Estimate coordinates are not necessarily like original coordinates, but if the chart of estimate motion similar to the chart of the original motion, it means motion estimation it can be said to have the same motion with the original. Keywords: Motion Capture, Markerless, Remo Dance, Optical Flow

  15. Killing (absorption) versus survival in random motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    We address diffusion processes in a bounded domain, while focusing on somewhat unexplored affinities between the presence of absorbing and/or inaccessible boundaries. For the Brownian motion (Lévy-stable cases are briefly mentioned) model-independent features are established of the dynamical law that underlies the short-time behavior of these random paths, whose overall lifetime is predefined to be long. As a by-product, the limiting regime of a permanent trapping in a domain is obtained. We demonstrate that the adopted conditioning method, involving the so-called Bernstein transition function, works properly also in an unbounded domain, for stochastic processes with killing (Feynman-Kac kernels play the role of transition densities), provided the spectrum of the related semigroup operator is discrete. The method is shown to be useful in the case, when the spectrum of the generator goes down to zero and no isolated minimal (ground state) eigenvalue is in existence, like in the problem of the long-term survival on a half-line with a sink at origin.

  16. Direct Contribution of Auditory Motion Information to Sound-Induced Visual Motion Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souta Hidaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have recently demonstrated that alternating left-right sound sources induce motion perception to static visual stimuli along the horizontal plane (SIVM: sound-induced visual motion perception, Hidaka et al., 2009. The aim of the current study was to elucidate whether auditory motion signals, rather than auditory positional signals, can directly contribute to the SIVM. We presented static visual flashes at retinal locations outside the fovea together with a lateral auditory motion provided by a virtual stereo noise source smoothly shifting in the horizontal plane. The flashes appeared to move in the situation where auditory positional information would have little influence on the perceived position of visual stimuli; the spatiotemporal position of the flashes was in the middle of the auditory motion trajectory. Furthermore, the auditory motion altered visual motion perception in a global motion display; in this display, different localized motion signals of multiple visual stimuli were combined to produce a coherent visual motion perception so that there was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the auditory stimuli and each visual stimulus. These findings suggest the existence of direct interactions between the auditory and visual modalities in motion processing and motion perception.

  17. Motion-sensitive cortex and motion semantics in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Korpics, Franco; Emmorey, Karen

    2012-10-15

    Previous research indicates that motion-sensitive brain regions are engaged when comprehending motion semantics expressed by words or sentences. Using fMRI, we investigated whether such neural modulation can occur when the linguistic signal itself is visually dynamic and motion semantics is expressed by movements of the hands. Deaf and hearing users of American Sign Language (ASL) were presented with signed sentences that conveyed motion semantics ("The deer walked along the hillside.") or were static, conveying little or no motion ("The deer slept along the hillside."); sentences were matched for the amount of visual motion. Motion-sensitive visual areas (MT+) were localized individually in each participant. As a control, the Fusiform Face Area (FFA) was also localized for the deaf participants. The whole-brain analysis revealed static (locative) sentences engaged regions in left parietal cortex more than motion sentences, replicating previous results implicating these regions in comprehending spatial language for sign languages. Greater activation was observed in the functionally defined MT+ ROI for motion than static sentences for both deaf and hearing signers. No modulation of neural activity by sentence type was observed in the FFA. Deafness did not affect modulation of MT+ by motion semantics, but hearing signers exhibited stronger neural activity in MT+ for both sentence types, perhaps due to differences in exposure and/or use of ASL. We conclude that top down modulation of motion-sensitive cortex by linguistic semantics is not disrupted by the visual motion that is present in sign language sentences.

  18. Adaptation to real motion reveals direction-selective interactions between real and implied motion processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Lommers, M.W.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  19. Delayed response to animate implied motion in human motion processing areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Kenemans, J.L.; Jellema, T.; Lubbe, R.H.J. van der; Heer, F. de; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  20. Delayed Response to Animate Implied Motion in Human Motion Processing Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, J. Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Heer, de Frederiek; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Viewing static photographs of objects in motion evokes higher fMRI activation in the human medial temporal complex (MT+) than looking at similar photographs without this implied motion. As MT+ is traditionally thought to be involved in motion perception (and not in form perception), this finding sug

  1. Adaptation to Real Motion Reveals Direction-selective Interactions between Real and Implied Motion Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, Jeannette A.M.; Kenemans, Leon; Jellema, Tjeerd; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Lommers, Marjolein W.; Wezel, van Richard J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Viewing static pictures of running humans evokes neural activity in the dorsal motion-sensitive cortex. To establish whether this response arises from direction-selective neurons that are also involved in real motion processing, we measured the visually evoked potential to implied motion following a

  2. Use of FBG sensors for weigh in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardis, S.; Caponero, Michele A.; Felli, F.; Rocco, F.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques able to perform weighing of road vehicles not requiring any lowering of their cruise speed are of great interest for a large amount of applications. Many of such applications are traditionally related to determining custom duties, toll-way fares and cost of paying freight, but new applications often concerned with high-speed travelling vehicles are arising, as for instance the smart management of highway lorry traffic. In this paper we present preliminary results for the development of a weigh-in-motion technique based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The proposed technique is intended for the production of a weigh-in-motion station suitable for high-speed road vehicle and high load resolution.

  3. A measurement system of magnetism parameters for motion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ming; HUANG Xu-yan; LEI Tao

    2007-01-01

    Magnetism parameters vary with the position and the speed of electromagnetic actuator's motion parts. The measurement unit presented in the paper can be applied to get the position and the speed feedback information from the measurement of electromagnetism parameters, and can constitute the untouched feedback sensing unit in the closed-loop motion control, and it adapts to the diversified feedback control of electromagnetic actuator. The digital miniaturization meter, based on MSP430 single chip processor, which can do the multiformance evaluation and improvement, and also the online quality control in production process. Both real-time data graph and data table can be displayed in the meter. The paper presents the system's structure, describes the principle, discusses the working modes, and shows the software flowchart and the measuring results.

  4. Body Motion and Graphing. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracey

    This paper explores children's efforts to make sense of graphs by analyzing two students' use of a computer-based motion detector. The analysis focuses on the students' growing understanding of the motion detector which enables them to plan their movements in order to create graphs and interpret them in terms of kinesthetic actions. Students…

  5. Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, Coert; Baka, Nora; Kirisli, Hortense

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic...

  6. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local i

  7. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  8. Teaching Projectile Motion to Eliminate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Anne; Mitchelmore, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Student misconceptions of projectile motion are well documented, but their effect on the teaching and learning of the mathematics of motion under gravity has not been investigated. An experimental unit was designed that was intended to confront and eliminate misconceptions in senior secondary school students. The approach was found to be…

  9. Motion fidelity during a simulated takeoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Dominicus, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this psychophysical study, seven airline pilots reported on their perceived self-motion in response to variations of motion filter gains during a simulated takeoff. Each pilot participated both as pilot flying and pilot non-flying. In order to vary the gains of the simulated linear acceleration

  10. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle

  11. Branner-Hubbard Motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce a new notion of attracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-like mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard Motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  12. Visual-vestibular interaction in motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Cardullo, F.M.; Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Correct perception of self motion is of vital importance for both the control of our position and posture when moving around in our environment. With the development of human controlled vehicles as bicycles, cars and aircraft motion perception became of interest for the understanding of vehicle cont

  13. 12 CFR 308.527 - Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Motions. 308.527 Section 308.527 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.527 Motions. (a) Any application to the ALJ for...

  14. Motion control of a population of Artemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fortuna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the collective behavior of Artemia Salina is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Several experiments have been designed to investigate the Artemia motion under different environment conditions. From the results of such experiments, a strategy to control the direction of motion of an Artemia population, by exploiting their sensitivity to light, has been derived and then implemented.

  15. Structural principles governing domain motions in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayward, S

    1999-01-01

    With the use of a recently developed method, twenty-four proteins for which two or more X-ray conformers are known have been analyzed to reveal structural principles that govern domain motions in proteins. In all 24 cases, the domain motion is a rotation about a physical axis created through local

  16. Ride Severity Profile for Evaluating Craft Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    pitch and roll rates can lead to uncomfortable motions that result in whiplash -like dynamics, especially in the neck and spine regions. Motions in a...tolerable by another. For example, one individual may experience 1 to 2 hour limited performance after being exposed to A1/10 equal to 1.5 g while another

  17. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  18. Integrability and the motion of curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuaki; Segur, Harvey; Wadati, Miki

    1992-11-01

    Recently discovered connections between integrable evolution equations and the motion of curves are based on the following fact: The Serret-Frenet equations are equivalent to the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) scattering problem at zero eigenvalue. This equivalence identifies those evolution equations, integrable or not, that can describe the motion of curves.

  19. Branner-Hubbard motions and attracting dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Tan, Lei

    We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics.......We introduce the new notion an aatracting dynamics, which is related to polynomial-likke mappings. Also we review the Branner-Hubbard motion and study its action on attracting dynamics....

  20. A dynamic human motion: coordination analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelkin, Stepan; Shiriaev, Anton S; Freidovich, Leonid B; Mettin, Uwe; Gusev, Sergei V; Kwon, Woong; Paramonov, Leonid

    2015-02-01

    This article is concerned with the generic structure of the motion coordination system resulting from the application of the method of virtual holonomic constraints (VHCs) to the problem of the generation and robust execution of a dynamic humanlike motion by a humanoid robot. The motion coordination developed using VHCs is based on a motion generator equation, which is a scalar nonlinear differential equation of second order. It can be considered equivalent in function to a central pattern generator in living organisms. The relative time evolution of the degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during a typical motion are specified by a set of coordination functions that uniquely define the overall pattern of the motion. This is comparable to a hypothesis on the existence of motion patterns in biomechanics. A robust control is derived based on a transverse linearization along the configuration manifold defined by the coordination functions. It is shown that the derived coordination and control architecture possesses excellent robustness properties. The analysis is performed on an example of a real human motion recorded in test experiments.

  1. Pulsar motions from VEP neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkovich, M.; Casini, H.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Montemayor, R.

    2002-07-01

    We show that a violation of the equivalence principle (VEP) can explain pulsar motions. We find that both the translational and rotational velocities can be accounted by VEP induced anisotropies in the linear and angular momentum of the neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star. The violation needed to obtain the observed motions is compatible with existing boundaries.

  2. Personalised real-time idle motion synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Molet, T.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an animation approach based on principal component analysis that allows generating two layers of subtle motions: small posture variations and personalised change of balance. Such a motion generator is needed in many cases when one attempts to create an animation sequence

  3. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  4. Using Phun to Study "Perpetual Motion" Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kores, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    The concept of "perpetual motion" has a long history. The Indian astronomer and mathematician Bhaskara II (12th century) was the first person to describe a perpetual motion (PM) machine. An example of a 13th-century PM machine is shown in Fig. 1. Although the law of conservation of energy clearly implies the impossibility of PM construction, over…

  5. Repurposing video recordings for structure motion estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Ali; Lattanzi, David

    2016-04-01

    Video monitoring of public spaces is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, particularly near essential structures and facilities. During any hazard event that dynamically excites a structure, such as an earthquake or hurricane, proximal video cameras may inadvertently capture the motion time-history of the structure during the event. If this dynamic time-history could be extracted from the repurposed video recording it would become a valuable forensic analysis tool for engineers performing post-disaster structural evaluations. The difficulty is that almost all potential video cameras are not installed to monitor structure motions, leading to camera perspective distortions and other associated challenges. This paper presents a method for extracting structure motions from videos using a combination of computer vision techniques. Images from a video recording are first reprojected into synthetic images that eliminate perspective distortion, using as-built knowledge of a structure for calibration. The motion of the camera itself during an event is also considered. Optical flow, a technique for tracking per-pixel motion, is then applied to these synthetic images to estimate the building motion. The developed method was validated using the experimental records of the NEESHub earthquake database. The results indicate that the technique is capable of estimating structural motions, particularly the frequency content of the response. Further work will evaluate variants and alternatives to the optical flow algorithm, as well as study the impact of video encoding artifacts on motion estimates.

  6. Attitudes toward Motion Pictures among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Several reasons for studying motion pictures and patrons' attitudes toward them include the following: (1) current data show that motion pictures account for 53% of the total United States spectator amusement expenditures; (2) the average weekly United States movie attendance has plummeted by more than half since 1930; (3) despite this decline,…

  7. Motion in gauge theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tresguerres, Romualdo

    2012-01-01

    A description of motion is proposed, adapted to the composite bundle interpretation of Poincar\\'e Gauge Theory. Reference frames, relative positions and time evolution are characterized in gauge-theoretical terms. The approach is illustrated by an appropriate formulation of the familiar example of orbital motion induced by Schwarzschild spacetime.

  8. Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    2000-01-01

    Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.

  9. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  10. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  11. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  12. Orbital Motion During Gravitational Lensing Events

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational lensing events provide unique opportunities to discover and study planetary systems and binaries. Here we build on previous work to explore the role that orbital motion can play in both identifying and learning more about multiple-mass systems that serve as gravitational lenses. We find that a significant fraction of planet-lens and binary-lens light curves are influenced by orbital motion. Furthermore, the effects of orbital motion extend the range of binaries for which lens multiplicity can be discovered and studied. Orbital motion will play an increasingly important role as observations with sensitive photometry, such as those made by the space missions Kepler, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, (TESS), and WFIRST discover gravitational lensing events. Similarly, the excellent astrometric measurements made possible by GAIA will allow it to study the effects of orbital motion. Frequent observations, such as those made possible with the Korean Microlensing Telescope Network, KMTNet, will al...

  13. Spinning Particle Motion in a Kerr Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.; Baker, W. M.; Staton, R.

    1999-12-01

    The physics of particle motion in a Kerr geometry has been extensively studied. The case of motion of particles with spin is not as well investigated. We have studied the case of the motion of a spinning particle by applying the Papapetrou equation, which includes a spin-curvature coupling term, and an equation that describes the evolution of the spin of the particle. The motion is considered for a Kerr geometry in the weak field limit. We have obtained numerical solutions to this system of equations. Our results suggest that spin orientation is important for particle trajectories in a manner that is similar to the Stern-Gerlach effect. This could be important for the study of the motion of very low mass neutrinos. Project funded by a grant from the South Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities, and the Furman Advantage Program.

  14. Supersonic Motions of Galaxies in Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Faltenbacher, A; Nagai, D; Gottlöber, S; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Nagai, Daisuke; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We study motions of galaxies in galaxy clusters formed in the concordance LCDM cosmology. We use high-resolution cosmological simulations that follow dynamics of dark matter and gas and include various physical processes critical for galaxy formation: gas cooling, heating and star formation. Analysing motions of galaxies and the properties of intracluster gas in the sample of eight simulated clusters at z=0, we study velocity dispersion profiles of the dark matter, gas, and galaxies. We measure the mean velocity of galaxy motions and gas sound speed as a function of radius and calculate the average Mach number of galaxy motions. The simulations show that galaxies, on average, move supersonically with the average Mach number of ~1.4, approximately independent of the cluster-centric radius. The supersonic motions of galaxies may potentially provide an important source of heating for the intracluster gas by driving weak shocks and via dynamical friction, although these heating processes appear to be inefficient ...

  15. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  16. Protein folding by motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shawna; Song, Guang; Amato, Nancy M.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate a novel approach for studying protein folding that has evolved from robotics motion planning techniques called probabilistic roadmap methods (PRMs). Our focus is to study issues related to the folding process, such as the formation of secondary and tertiary structures, assuming we know the native fold. A feature of our PRM-based framework is that the large sets of folding pathways in the roadmaps it produces, in just a few hours on a desktop PC, provide global information about the protein's energy landscape. This is an advantage over other simulation methods such as molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods which require more computation and produce only a single trajectory in each run. In our initial studies, we obtained encouraging results for several small proteins. In this paper, we investigate more sophisticated techniques for analyzing the folding pathways in our roadmaps. In addition to more formally revalidating our previous results, we present a case study showing that our technique captures known folding differences between the structurally similar proteins G and L. This research was supported in part by NSF CAREER Award CCR-9624315, NSF Grants ACI-9872126, EIA-9975018, EIA-0103742, EIA-9805823, ACR-0113971, CCR-0113974, EIA-9810937, EIA-0079874 and the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board grant ATP-000512-0261-2001. ST was supported in part by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship. GS was supported in part by an IBM PhD Fellowship.

  17. Wind-influenced projectile motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian; Perico Esguerra, Jose; Day Vallejos, Jazmine; Jerard Canda, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    We solved the wind-influenced projectile motion problem with the same initial and final heights and obtained exact analytical expressions for the shape of the trajectory, range, maximum height, time of flight, time of ascent, and time of descent with the help of the Lambert W function. It turns out that the range and maximum horizontal displacement are not always equal. When launched at a critical angle, the projectile will return to its starting position. It turns out that a launch angle of 90° maximizes the time of flight, time of ascent, time of descent, and maximum height and that the launch angle corresponding to maximum range can be obtained by solving a transcendental equation. Finally, we expressed in a parametric equation the locus of points corresponding to maximum heights for projectiles launched from the ground with the same initial speed in all directions. We used the results to estimate how much a moderate wind can modify a golf ball’s range and suggested other possible applications.

  18. Motion Magnification in Coronal Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfinogentov, Sergey; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new method for the investigation of low-amplitude transverse oscillations of solar plasma non-uniformities, such as coronal loops, individual strands in coronal arcades, jets, prominence fibrils, polar plumes, and other contrast features that have been observed with imaging instruments. The method is based on the two-dimensional dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTℂWT). It allows us to magnify transverse, in the plane-of-the-sky, quasi-periodic motions of contrast features in image sequences. The tests performed on the artificial data cubes that imitated exponentially decaying, multi-periodic and frequency-modulated kink oscillations of coronal loops showed the effectiveness, reliability, and robustness of this technique. The algorithm was found to give linear scaling of the magnified amplitudes with the original amplitudes, provided these are sufficiently small. In addition, the magnification is independent of the oscillation period in a broad range of the periods. The application of this technique to SDO/AIA EUV data cubes of a non-flaring active region allowed for the improved detection of low-amplitude decay-less oscillations in the majority of loops.

  19. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  20. Analysis methods for facial motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Mishima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective techniques to evaluate a facial movement are indispensable for the contemporary treatment of patients with motor disorders such as facial paralysis, cleft lip, postoperative head and neck cancer, and so on. Recently, computer-assisted, video-based techniques have been devised and reported as measuring systems in which facial movements can be evaluated quantitatively. Commercially available motion analysis systems, in which a stereo-measuring technique with multiple cameras and markers to facilitate search of matching among images through all cameras, also are utilized, and are used in many measuring systems such as video-based systems. The key is how the problems of facial movement can be extracted precisely, and how useful information for the diagnosis and decision-making process can be derived from analyses of facial movement. Therefore, it is important to discuss which facial animations should be examined, and whether fixation of the head and markers attached to the face can hamper natural facial movement.

  1. Wind-induced ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderyan, Vahid; Hickey, Craig J.; Raspet, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Wind noise is a problem in seismic surveys and can mask the seismic signals at low frequency. This research investigates ground motions caused by wind pressure and shear stress perturbations on the ground surface. A prediction of the ground displacement spectra using the measured ground properties and predicted pressure and shear stress at the ground surface is developed. Field measurements are conducted at a site having a flat terrain and low ambient seismic noise. Triaxial geophones are deployed at different depths to study the wind-induced ground vibrations as a function of depth and wind velocity. Comparison of the predicted to the measured wind-induced ground displacement spectra shows good agreement for the vertical component but significant underprediction for the horizontal components. To validate the theoretical model, a test experiment is designed to exert controlled normal pressure and shear stress on the ground using a vertical and a horizontal mass-spring apparatus. This experiment verifies the linear elastic rheology and the quasi-static displacements assumptions of the model. The results indicate that the existing surface shear stress models significantly underestimate the wind shear stress at the ground surface and the amplitude of the fluctuation shear stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the normal pressure. Measurement results show that mounting the geophones flush with the ground provides a significant reduction in wind noise on all three components of the geophone. Further reduction in wind noise with depth of burial is small for depths up to 40 cm.

  2. Relationship of area postrema to three putative measures of motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R.; Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.

    1991-01-01

    Although the rat has an incomplete emetic reflex, several species-specific responses to motion were proposed as measures of 'motion sickness' in rats. The purpose was to determine the dependence of these responses on one of several neural structures known to be essential to motion-induced vomiting in species with a complete emetic reflex. The Area Postrema (AP) was shown to play an important role in the production of motion sickness in vomiting species. The effects of thermo-cautery ablations of the AP on three different responses supposedly reflecting motion sickness in the rat were compared: conditioned taste aversion (CTA); drinking suppression; and fecal boli. Efficacy of the ablations was determined by subjecting ablated, sham-operated, and unoperated control animals to a CTA test which is known to require a functional AP. Animals with AP ablations failed to form CTA when 0.15 M LiCl was paired with a 10 percent sucrose solution, while sham-operated control subjects conditioned as well as the unoperated control subjects. The extent of the ablations was evaluated histologically at the end of the experiment. To determine the effects of the ablations on the measures of motion sickness, all animals were subjected to rotation for 30 min or 90 min on a platform displaced 20 deg from earth horizontal. Results indicate that ablation of AP in the rat has no effect on the formation of CTA to a 4 percent solution of cider paired with motion, on the suppression of drinking immediately after exposure to motion, or on the frequency of fecal boli during exposure to motion. This failure of AP ablations to eliminate the effects of motion on any of these responses discourages their use as equivalents of motion-induced vomiting. The appropriateness of other suggested measures, e.g., pica, remains untested but the dependence of such measures on stimulation more severe than commonly used in motion sickness research and the absence of a demonstration of their dependence on neural

  3. Perceptual shrinkage of a one-way motion path with high-speed motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

    2016-07-28

    Back-and-forth motion induces perceptual shrinkage of the motion path, but such shrinkage is hardly perceived for one-way motion. If the shrinkage is caused by temporal averaging of stimulus position around the endpoints, it should also be induced for one-way motion at higher motion speeds. In psychophysical experiments with a high-speed projector, we tested this conjecture for a one-way motion stimulus at various speeds (4-100 deg/s) along a straight path. Results showed that perceptual shrinkage of the motion path was robustly observed in higher-speed motion (faster than 66.7 deg/s). In addition, the amount of the forwards shift at the onset position was larger than that of the backwards shift at the offset position. These results demonstrate that high-speed motion can induce shrinkage, even for a one-way motion path. This can be explained by the view that perceptual position is represented by the integration of the temporal average of instantaneous position and the motion representation.

  4. Diaphragm motion characterization using chest motion data for biomechanics-based lung tumor tracking during EBRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Elham; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Samani, Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Despite recent advances in image-guided interventions, lung cancer External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is still very challenging due to respiration induced tumor motion. Among various proposed methods of tumor motion compensation, real-time tumor tracking is known to be one of the most effective solutions as it allows for maximum normal tissue sparing, less overall radiation exposure and a shorter treatment session. As such, we propose a biomechanics-based real-time tumor tracking method for effective lung cancer radiotherapy. In the proposed algorithm, the required boundary conditions for the lung Finite Element model, including diaphragm motion, are obtained using the chest surface motion as a surrogate signal. The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a function which is capable of inputting the chest surface motion data and outputting the diaphragm motion in real-time. For this purpose, after quantifying the diaphragm motion with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model, correlation coefficient between the model parameters of diaphragm motion and chest motion data was obtained through Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Preliminary results obtained in this study indicate that the PCA coefficients representing the diaphragm motion can be obtained through chest surface motion tracking with high accuracy.

  5. Effects of auditory information on self-motion perception during simultaneous presentation of visual shearing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Shigehito; Ashihara, Kaoru; Ujike, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that self-motion perception induced by simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion is facilitated when the directions of visual and auditory motion stimuli are identical. They did not, however, examine possible contributions of auditory motion information for determining direction of self-motion perception. To examine this, a visual stimulus projected on a hemisphere screen and an auditory stimulus presented through headphones were presented separately or simultaneously, depending on experimental conditions. The participant continuously indicated the direction and strength of self-motion during the 130-s experimental trial. When the visual stimulus with a horizontal shearing rotation and the auditory stimulus with a horizontal one-directional rotation were presented simultaneously, the duration and strength of self-motion perceived in the opposite direction of the auditory rotation stimulus were significantly longer and stronger than those perceived in the same direction of the auditory rotation stimulus. However, the auditory stimulus alone could not sufficiently induce self-motion perception, and if it did, its direction was not consistent within each experimental trial. We concluded that auditory motion information can determine perceived direction of self-motion during simultaneous presentation of visual and auditory motion information, at least when visual stimuli moved in opposing directions (around the yaw-axis). We speculate that the contribution of auditory information depends on the plausibility and information balance of visual and auditory information.

  6. Can walking motions improve visually induced rotational self-motion illusions in virtual reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Freiberg, Jacob B; Grechkin, Timofey Y

    2015-02-04

    Illusions of self-motion (vection) can provide compelling sensations of moving through virtual environments without the need for complex motion simulators or large tracked physical walking spaces. Here we explore the interaction between biomechanical cues (stepping along a rotating circular treadmill) and visual cues (viewing simulated self-rotation) for providing stationary users a compelling sensation of rotational self-motion (circular vection). When tested individually, biomechanical and visual cues were similarly effective in eliciting self-motion illusions. However, in combination they yielded significantly more intense self-motion illusions. These findings provide the first compelling evidence that walking motions can be used to significantly enhance visually induced rotational self-motion perception in virtual environments (and vice versa) without having to provide for physical self-motion or motion platforms. This is noteworthy, as linear treadmills have been found to actually impair visually induced translational self-motion perception (Ash, Palmisano, Apthorp, & Allison, 2013). Given the predominant focus on linear walking interfaces for virtual-reality locomotion, our findings suggest that investigating circular and curvilinear walking interfaces offers a promising direction for future research and development and can help to enhance self-motion illusions, presence and immersion in virtual-reality systems.

  7. Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.

  8. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  9. Motion coherence and direction discrimination in healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Karin S; Miller, Louisa; Agnew, Hannah C

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual functions change with age, particularly motion perception. With regard to healthy aging, previous studies mostly measured motion coherence thresholds for coarse motion direction discrimination along cardinal axes of motion. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the ability to discriminate between small angular differences in motion directions, which allows for a more specific assessment of age-related decline and its underlying mechanisms. We first assessed older (>60 years) and younger (discriminate coarse horizontal (left/right) and vertical (up/down) motion at 100% coherence and a stimulus duration of 400 ms. In a second step, we determined participants' motion coherence thresholds for vertical and horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination. In a third step, we used the individually determined motion coherence thresholds and tested fine motion direction discrimination for motion clockwise away from horizontal and vertical motion. Older adults performed as well as younger adults for discriminating motion away from vertical. Surprisingly, performance for discriminating motion away from horizontal was strongly decreased. Further analyses, however, showed a relationship between motion coherence thresholds for horizontal coarse motion direction discrimination and fine motion direction discrimination performance in older adults. In a control experiment, using motion coherence above threshold for all conditions, the difference in performance for horizontal and vertical fine motion direction discrimination for older adults disappeared. These results clearly contradict the notion of an overall age-related decline in motion perception, and, most importantly, highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences when assessing age-related changes in perceptual functions.

  10. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  11. Programmable motion of DNA origami mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Alexander E; Zhou, Lifeng; Su, Hai-Jun; Castro, Carlos E

    2015-01-20

    DNA origami enables the precise fabrication of nanoscale geometries. We demonstrate an approach to engineer complex and reversible motion of nanoscale DNA origami machine elements. We first design, fabricate, and characterize the mechanical behavior of flexible DNA origami rotational and linear joints that integrate stiff double-stranded DNA components and flexible single-stranded DNA components to constrain motion along a single degree of freedom and demonstrate the ability to tune the flexibility and range of motion. Multiple joints with simple 1D motion were then integrated into higher order mechanisms. One mechanism is a crank-slider that couples rotational and linear motion, and the other is a Bennett linkage that moves between a compacted bundle and an expanded frame configuration with a constrained 3D motion path. Finally, we demonstrate distributed actuation of the linkage using DNA input strands to achieve reversible conformational changes of the entire structure on ∼ minute timescales. Our results demonstrate programmable motion of 2D and 3D DNA origami mechanisms constructed following a macroscopic machine design approach.

  12. Improved motion description for action classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eJain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e.: camera and scene motion, significantly improves action recognition algorithms. This holds true both for the extraction of the space-time trajectories and for computation of descriptors.We designed a new motion descriptor – the DCS descriptor – that captures additional information on local motion patterns enhancing results based on differential motion scalar quantities, divergence, curl and shear features. Finally, applying the recent VLAD coding technique proposed in image retrieval provides a substantial improvement for action recognition. These findings are complementary to each other and they outperformed all previously reported results by a significant margin on three challenging datasets: Hollywood 2, HMDB51 and Olympic Sports as reported in (Jain et al. (2013. These results were further improved by (Oneata et al. (2013; Wang and Schmid (2013; Zhu et al. (2013 through the use of the Fisher vector encoding. We therefore also employ Fisher vector in this paper and we further enhance our approach by combining trajectories from both optical flow and compensated flow. We as well provide additional details of DCS descriptors, including visualization. For extending the evaluation, a novel dataset with 101 action classes, UCF101, was added.

  13. LCD motion blur: modeling, analysis, and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) devices are well known for their slow responses due to the physical limitations of liquid crystals. Therefore, fast moving objects in a scene are often perceived as blurred. This effect is known as the LCD motion blur. In order to reduce LCD motion blur, an accurate LCD model and an efficient deblurring algorithm are needed. However, existing LCD motion blur models are insufficient to reflect the limitation of human-eye-tracking system. Also, the spatiotemporal equivalence in LCD motion blur models has not been proven directly in the discrete 2-D spatial domain, although it is widely used. There are three main contributions of this paper: modeling, analysis, and algorithm. First, a comprehensive LCD motion blur model is presented, in which human-eye-tracking limits are taken into consideration. Second, a complete analysis of spatiotemporal equivalence is provided and verified using real video sequences. Third, an LCD motion blur reduction algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm solves an l(1)-norm regularized least-squares minimization problem using a subgradient projection method. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm gives higher peak SNR, lower temporal error, and lower spatial error than motion-compensated inverse filtering and Lucy-Richardson deconvolution algorithm, which are two state-of-the-art LCD deblurring algorithms.

  14. Analysis of motion in speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yuzo; Nishimura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Naoki; Okamoto, Kousuke; Wada, Yuhei

    1997-03-01

    A motion on sports has been studied by many researchers from the view of the medical, psychological and mechanical fields. Here, we try to analyze a speed skating motion dynamically for an aim of performing the best record. As an official competition of speed skating is performed on the round rink, the skating motion must be studied on the three phases, that is, starting phase, straight and curved course skating phase. It is indispensable to have a visual data of a skating motion in order to analyze kinematically. So we took a several subject's skating motion by 8 mm video cameras in order to obtain three dimensional data. As the first step, the movement of the center of gravity of skater (abbreviate to C. G.) is discussed in this paper, because a skating motion is very complicated. The movement of C. G. will give an information of the reaction force to a skate blade from the surface of ice. We discuss the discrepancy of several skating motion by studied subjects. Our final goal is to suggest the best skating form for getting the finest record.

  15. Motion Control and Coupled Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    way into consumer products, including ultrasonic motors for auto-focussing in cameras based on surface wave 1 A C 1 C 2 S Figure 1. INCHWORMTM clamps...for Nonholonomic Kinematic Chains, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, 1995. [31] S. Ueha and Tomikawa, Y., Ultrasonic Motors : Theory

  16. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  17. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  18. Antagonistic formation motion of cooperative agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢婉婷; 代明香; 薛方正

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a new formation motion problem of a class of first-order multi-agent systems with antagonis-tic interactions. A distributed formation control algorithm is proposed for each agent to realize the antagonistic formation motion. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure that all agents make an antagonistic formation motion in a distributed manner. It is shown that all agents can be spontaneously divided into several groups, and agents in the same group collab-orate while agents in different groups compete. Finally, a numerical simulation is included to demonstrate our theoretical results.

  19. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  20. University Students Alternative Conceptions On Circular Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Phil Canlas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find out university students alternative conceptions on circular motion. An 18-item researcher-compiled and content-validated questionnaire was administered to twenty-six 26 students taking up a program in Bachelor in Secondary Education-Physical Science in their second year enrolled in a course on mechanics. Results revealed that majority of the students possess alternative conceptions on circular motion specifically along velocity acceleration and force. Moreover results showed the inconsistencies in the students understanding of circular motion concepts.

  1. Motion under the influence of large resistence

    OpenAIRE

    Croselli, David

    2014-01-01

    In the diploma thesis, the motion of free fall and the projectile motion have been recorded using a high-speed camera and analysed with the Tracker software, a suitable tool for checking physical laws. A theoretical description of the drag law, is given. The change in position and velocity of a projectile, subjected to a large drag force, are determined theoretically. In the practical part, the analysis of the video clip of the free fall and the projectile motion, where the object are a plast...

  2. Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.

  3. Muscle's Motion in an Overdamped Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Bao-Quan; WANG Xian-Ju; LIU Liang-Gang; M. Nakano; H. Matsuura

    2002-01-01

    Based on the stochastic inclined rods model proposed by H. Matsuura et al., we study the motion of actin myosin system in an overdamped regime. Our model is composed ofan inclined spring (rod), a myosin head and a myosin filament. The results of calculation show that the modelcan convert the random motion to one-directional motion, and the myosin head works as a resonator of random noise, which absorbs the energy through a stochastic resonance. The results show that the inclined rod and the intermolecular potential are very important for the system to move.

  4. The Eigenmode Analysis of Human Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong; Gonzalez, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data carry great potential in applications such as urban planning as well as being of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  5. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C.

    2010-11-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion.

  6. Application of inertial sensors for motion analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Soha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our results on the application of various inertial sensors for motion analysis. After the introduction of different sensor types (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetic field sensor, we discuss the possible data collection and transfer techniques using embedded signal processing and wireless data communication methods [1,2]. Special consideration is given to the interpretation of accelerometer readings, which contains both the static and dynamic components, and is affected by the orientation and rotation of the sensor. We will demonstrate the possibility to decompose these components for quasiperiodic motions. Finally we will demonstrate the application of commercially available devices (Wii sensor, Kinect sensor, mobile phone for motion analysis applications.

  7. Motion aftereffect of combined first-order and second-order motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Smagt, M J; Verstraten, F A; Vaessen, E B; van Londen, T; van de Grind, W A

    1999-01-01

    When, after prolonged viewing of a moving stimulus, a stationary (test) pattern is presented to an observer, this results in an illusory movement in the direction opposite to the adapting motion. Typically, this motion aftereffect (MAE) does not occur after adaptation to a second-order motion stimulus (i.e. an equiluminous stimulus where the movement is defined by a contrast or texture border, not by a luminance border). However, a MAE of second-order motion is perceived when, instead of a static test pattern, a dynamic test pattern is used. Here, we investigate whether a second-order motion stimulus does affect the MAE on a static test pattern (sMAE), when second-order motion is presented in combination with first-order motion during adaptation. The results show that this is indeed the case. Although the second-order motion stimulus is too weak to produce a convincing sMAE on its own, its influence on the sMAE is of equal strength to that of the first-order motion component, when they are adapted to simultaneously. The results suggest that the perceptual appearance of the sMAE originates from the site where first-order and second-order motion are integrated.

  8. Modeling depth from motion parallax with the motion/pursuit ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eNawrot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of unambiguous scaled depth from motion parallax relies on both retinal image motion and an extra-retinal pursuit eye movement signal. The motion/pursuit ratio represents a dynamic geometric model linking these two proximal cues to the ratio of depth to viewing distance. An important step in understanding the visual mechanisms serving the perception of depth from motion parallax is to determine the relationship between these stimulus parameters and empirically determined perceived depth magnitude. Observers compared perceived depth magnitude of dynamic motion parallax stimuli to static binocular disparity comparison stimuli at three different viewing distances, in both head-moving and head-stationary conditions. A stereo-viewing system provided ocular separation for stereo stimuli and monocular viewing of parallax stimuli. For each motion parallax stimulus, a point of subjective equality was estimated for the amount of binocular disparity that generates the equivalent magnitude of perceived depth from motion parallax. Similar to previous results, perceived depth from motion parallax had significant foreshortening. Head-moving conditions produced even greater foreshortening due to the differences in the compensatory eye movement signal. An empirical version of motion/pursuit law, termed the empirical motion/pursuit ratio, which models perceived depth magnitude from these stimulus parameters, is proposed.

  9. Modeling depth from motion parallax with the motion/pursuit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Mark; Ratzlaff, Michael; Leonard, Zachary; Stroyan, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unambiguous scaled depth from motion parallax relies on both retinal image motion and an extra-retinal pursuit eye movement signal. The motion/pursuit ratio represents a dynamic geometric model linking these two proximal cues to the ratio of depth to viewing distance. An important step in understanding the visual mechanisms serving the perception of depth from motion parallax is to determine the relationship between these stimulus parameters and empirically determined perceived depth magnitude. Observers compared perceived depth magnitude of dynamic motion parallax stimuli to static binocular disparity comparison stimuli at three different viewing distances, in both head-moving and head-stationary conditions. A stereo-viewing system provided ocular separation for stereo stimuli and monocular viewing of parallax stimuli. For each motion parallax stimulus, a point of subjective equality (PSE) was estimated for the amount of binocular disparity that generates the equivalent magnitude of perceived depth from motion parallax. Similar to previous results, perceived depth from motion parallax had significant foreshortening. Head-moving conditions produced even greater foreshortening due to the differences in the compensatory eye movement signal. An empirical version of the motion/pursuit law, termed the empirical motion/pursuit ratio, which models perceived depth magnitude from these stimulus parameters, is proposed.

  10. Modeling Human Control of Self-Motion Direction With Optic Flow and Vestibular Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Peter M T; Nieuwenhuizen, Frank M; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of visual and motion stimuli on the manual control of one's direction of self-motion. In a flight simulator, subjects conducted an active target-following disturbance-rejection task, using a compensatory display. Simulating a vehicular control task, the direction of vehicular motion was shown on the outside visual display in two ways: an explicit presentation using a symbol and an implicit presentation, namely, through the focus of radial outflow that emerges from optic flow. In addition, the effects of the relative strength of congruent vestibular motion cues were investigated. The dynamic properties of human visual and vestibular motion perception paths were modeled using a control-theoretical approach. As expected, improved tracking performance was found for the configurations that explicitly showed the direction of self-motion. The human visual time delay increased with approximately 150 ms for the optic flow conditions, relative to explicit presentations. Vestibular motion, providing higher order information on the direction of self-motion, allowed subjects to partially compensate for this visual perception delay, improving performance. Parameter estimates of the operator control model show that, with vestibular motion, the visual feedback becomes stronger, indicating that operators are more confident to act on optic flow information when congruent vestibular motion cues are present.

  11. Reduction of Motion Data by Using Motion Assembly System for Haptic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Nagase, Kazuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    Recently, extensive research has been carried out on the preservation of human skill, a promising means of education and training. In the future, construction of motion database networks is required to preserve and utilize various skills. However, large-capacity data storage devices are required to save as many motion patterns as possible. Data compression methods based on signal processing are typically employed for data reduction. These methods, however, involve extensive and complex calculation and afford poor motion reproducibility. This paper presents a system for reducing motion data; this system has been designed without considering data compression methods. The proposed system is defined as a motion assembly system. During motion saving, the motion data measured by a master-slave system are saved and decomposed into a grasping mode and a manipulation mode. During motion reproduction, the data corresponding to the reproduced motion are generated by the assembly of the saved grasping and manipulation modes. Various motion patterns are reproduced by using some functional elements.

  12. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  13. Stochastic Calculus with respect to multifractional Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Lebovits, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic calculus with respect to fractional Brownian motion (fBm) has attracted a lot of interest in recent years, motivated in particular by applications in finance and Internet traffic modeling. Multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) is a Gaussian extension of fBm that allows to control the pointwise regularity of the paths of the process and to decouple it from its long range dependence properties. This generalization is obtained by replacing the constant Hurst parameter H of fBm by a function h(t). Multifractional Brownian motion has proved useful in many applications, including the ones just mentioned. In this work we extend to mBm the construction of a stochastic integral with respect to fBm. This stochastic integral is based on white noise theory, as originally proposed in [15], [6], [4] and in [5]. In that view, a multifractional white noise is defined, which allows to integrate with respect to mBm a large class of stochastic processes using Wick products. It\\^o formulas (both for tempered distribut...

  14. Automatic Motion Generation for Robotic Milling Optimizing Stiffness with Sample-Based Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ricardo Diaz Posada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal and intuitive robotic machining is still a challenge. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of robot stiffness, which is also dependent on the robot positioning in the Cartesian space. To make up for this deficiency and with the aim of increasing robot machining accuracy, this contribution describes a solution approach for optimizing the stiffness over a desired milling path using the free degree of freedom of the machining process. The optimal motion is computed based on the semantic and mathematical interpretation of the manufacturing process modeled on its components: product, process and resource; and by configuring automatically a sample-based motion problem and the transition-based rapid-random tree algorithm for computing an optimal motion. The approach is simulated on a CAM software for a machining path revealing its functionality and outlining future potentials for the optimal motion generation for robotic machining processes.

  15. Creating motion graphics with After Effects essential and advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Chris

    2010-01-01

    * 5th Edition of best-selling After Effects book by renowned authors Trish and Chris Meyer covers the important updates in After Effects CS4 and CS5 * Covers both essential and advanced techniques, from basic layer manipulation and animation through keying, motion tracking, and color management * Companion DVD is packed with project files for version CS5, source materials, and nearly 200 pages of bonus chapters Trish and Chris Meyer share over 17 years of hard-earned, real-world film and video production experience inside this critically acclaimed text. More than a step-by-step review of th

  16. The dynamics of Cenozoic and Mesozoic plate motions

    OpenAIRE

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Richards, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of plate motions is based almost entirely upon modeling of present-day plate motions. A fuller understanding, however, can be derived from consideration of the history of plate motions. Here we investigate the kinematics of the last 120 Myr of plate motions and the dynamics of Cenozoic motions, paying special attention to changes in the character of plate motions and plate-driving forces. We analyze the partitioning of the observed surface velocity field into...

  17. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment. With this educational philosophy in mind, Massimo Banzi and his team have developed and popularized the open source Arduino microcontroller board. The Arduino board has helped countless people in their science, electronics, robotics, or engineering projects, allowing them to build things that we have not even dreamed of. Physics instructors have also realized the advantages of using Arduino boards for lab experiments. The schools are saving money because the homemade experimental equipment is much cheaper than the commercial alternatives. The students are thankful for an educational experience that is more interesting, more loaded with STEM content, and more fun. As further proof of this new trend in physics education, Vernier5 is now documenting the use of their probes with Arduino boards. This is why we have developed an Arduino-based physics investigation of the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of a mass on a spring. The experimental data are collected with the help of an ultrasonic distance sensor and an Arduino Uno board. The data are then graphed and analyzed using Origin 9. This rich cross-curricular STEM activity integrates electronics, computer programming, physics, and mathematics in a way that is both experimentally exciting and intellectually rewarding.

  18. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  19. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....

  20. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from these experiments, categorizing the motion of falling sheets of paper based on the deviation from the original point of release and the shape of the path they take on their descending journey. We believe this new classification scheme can be very useful with potential applications in various fields such as biology, meteorology, etc.; it can also build a foundation for further experiments. The second set of experiments was focused on the dynamics and shape of the motion of the falling paper itself. It was observed from these...

  1. Topological fluid mechanics of point vortex motions

    CERN Document Server

    Boyland, P; Aref, H; Boyland, Philip; Stremler, Mark; Aref, Hassan

    1999-01-01

    Topological techniques are used to study the motions of systems of point vortices in the infinite plane, in singly-periodic arrays, and in doubly-periodic lattices. The reduction of each system using its symmetries is described in detail. Restricting to three vortices with zero net circulation, each reduced system is described by a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian. The phase portrait of this reduced system is subdivided into regimes using the separatrix motions, and a braid representing the topology of all vortex motions in each regime is computed. This braid also describes the isotopy class of the advection homeomorphism induced by the vortex motion. The Thurston-Nielsen theory is then used to analyse these isotopy classes, and in certain cases strong conclusions about the dynamics of the advection can be made.

  2. An Algorithm for Motion Parameter Direct Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation in image sequences is undoubtedly one of the most studied research fields, given that motion estimation is a basic tool for disparate applications, ranging from video coding to pattern recognition. In this paper a new methodology which, by minimizing a specific potential function, directly determines for each image pixel the motion parameters of the object the pixel belongs to is presented. The approach is based on Markov random fields modelling, acting on a first-order neighborhood of each point and on a simple motion model that accounts for rotations and translations. Experimental results both on synthetic (noiseless and noisy and real world sequences have been carried out and they demonstrate the good performance of the adopted technique. Furthermore a quantitative and qualitative comparison with other well-known approaches has confirmed the goodness of the proposed methodology.

  3. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  4. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eDubbs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm that uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many $L_2$ norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ.

  5. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbs, Alexander; Guevara, James; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm which uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many L 2 norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ.

  6. Motion transparency promotes synchronous perceptual binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Colin W G; Spehar, Branka; Pearson, Joel

    2004-12-01

    While identified regions of human extrastriate visual cortex are functionally specialized for processing different attributes of an object, the cognitive and neural mechanisms by which these attributes are dynamically bound into integrated percepts are still largely mysterious. Here, we report that perceptual organization influences the dynamics of binding. Specifically, the perception of motion transparency promotes the synchronous perceptual binding of colour and motion, which otherwise exhibits considerable asynchronies. In addition, we demonstrate that perceptual asynchrony can be reinstated by manipulating stereoscopic disparity or speed within the stimulus. Our findings suggest that the phenomenology of colour-motion binding parallels the known physiology of motion processing in area MT of primate visual cortex, supporting the view that the dynamics of perceptual binding is a direct reflection of the time course of the underlying neural processing.

  7. A Course in Physics of Human Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Eaton, B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course in elementary mechanics especially designed for students of athletics and dance. Includes photographs, taken in a gymnasium laboratory, used for analyzing human motion. Student response is described. (Author/CP)

  8. Landing Motion Control of Articulated Hopping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngil Youm

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the landing motion of an articulated legged robot. Humans use a peculiar crouching motion to land safely which can be characterized by body stiffness and damping. A stiffness controller formulation is used to realize this human behavior for the robot. Using this method, the landing motion is achieved with only the desired body stiffness and damping values, without desired COG(Center of Gravity or joint paths. To achieve soft landing, variable body stiffness and damping values were optimized. PBOT, which has four links with flexible joints was used for validation of the landing controller. A body stiffness and damping controller was used as an outer landing control loop and a fast subsystem controller for flexible joints was used as an inner force control loop. Simulations and experimental results about the landing motion are presented to show the performance of the body stiffness and damping controller.

  9. On superintegrable systems closed to geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiganov, A V

    1997-01-01

    In this work we consider superintegrable systems in the classical $r$-matrix method. By using other authomorphisms of the loop algebras we construct new superintegrable systems with rational potentials from geodesic motion on $R^{2n}$.

  10. MOTION MODELLINGUSINGCONCEPTS OF FUZZY ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Motlagh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial potential fields (APF are well established for reactive navigation of mobile robots. This paper describes a fast and robust fuzzy-APF on an ActivMedia AmigoBot. Obstacle-related information is fuzzified by using sensory fusion, which results in a shorter runtime. In addition, the membership functions of obstacle direction and range have been merged into one function, obtaining a smaller block of rules. The system is tested in virtual environments with non-concave obstacles. Then, the paper describes a new approach to motion modelling where the motion of intelligent travellers is modelled by consecutive path segments. In previous work, the authors described a reliable motion modelling technique using causal inference of fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM which has been efficiently modified for the purpose of this contribution. Results and analysis are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed motion modelling algorithm.

  11. 38 CFR 4.59 - Painful motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., painful motion is an important factor of disability, the facial expression, wincing, etc., on pressure or... either in the soft tissues such as the tendons or ligaments, or crepitation within the joint...

  12. NUMERICAL CALCULUS REGARDING THE MOTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinematic links motion is influenced mostly by the clearance size from the joint and the number of joints with clearance. The presented paper studies a particular kinematic chain as physical pendulum with clearance.

  13. The controversy of cranial bone motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J S; Witt, P L

    1997-08-01

    Cranial bone motion continues to stimulate controversy. This controversy affects the general acceptance of some intervention methods used by physical therapists, namely, cranial osteopathic and craniosacral therapy techniques. Core to these intervention techniques is the belief that cranial bone mobility provides a compliant system where somatic dysfunction can occur and therapeutic techniques can be applied. Diversity of opinion over the truth of this concept characterizes differing viewpoints on the anatomy and physiology of the cranial complex. Literature on cranial bone motion was reviewed for the purpose of better understanding this topic. Published research overall was scant and inconclusive. Animal and human studies demonstrate a potential for small magnitude motion. Physical therapists should carefully scrutinize the literature presented as evidence for cranial bone motion. Further research is needed to resolve this controversy. Outcomes research, however, is needed to validate cranial bone mobilization as an effective treatment.

  14. Adaptive GOP structure based on motion coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanzhuo; Wan, Shuai; Chang, Yilin; Yang, Fuzheng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2009-08-01

    Adaptive Group of Pictures (GOP) is helpful for increasing the efficiency of video encoding by taking account of characteristics of video content. This paper proposes a method for adaptive GOP structure selection for video encoding based on motion coherence, which extracts key frames according to motion acceleration, and assigns coding type for each key and non-key frame correspondingly. Motion deviation is then used instead of motion magnitude in the selection of the number of B frames. Experimental results show that the proposed method for adaptive GOP structure selection achieves performance gain of 0.2-1dB over the fixed GOP, and has the advantage of better transmission resilience. Moreover, this method can be used in real-time video coding due to its low complexity.

  15. Survey of stellar associations using proper motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar Proper Motions can be represented as great circles over the Celestial Sphere. This point of view creates a geometry over the sphere where the study of parallelism of the motions is possible in an easy form. Calculus of intersections between circles can detect convergence point of motions. This means parallel spatial motion. The model can be carried out to open stars clusters, identifying convergence points as apex, in order to get membership probabilities or, in a general form, to stars of our galaxy to detect big stellar structures and to infer some details about their kinematics. We present here a short description of the model and some examples using stars of the Hipparcos catalogue.

  16. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  17. Ross sea ice motion, area flux, and deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    kwok, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The sea ice motion, area export, and deformation of the Ross Sea ice cover are examined with satellite passive microwave and RADARSAT observations. The record of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, from 1998 and 2000, allows the estimation of the variability of ice deformation at the small scale (10 km) and to assess the quality of the longer record of passive microwave ice motion. Daily and subdaily deformation fields and RADARSAT imagery highlight the variability of motion and deformation in the Ross Sea. With the passive microwave ice motion, the area export at a flux gate positioned between Cape Adare and Land Bay is estimated. Between 1992 and 2003, a positive trend can be seen in the winter (March-November) ice area flux that has a mean of 990 x 103 km2 and ranges from a low of 600 x 103 km2 in 1992 to a peak of 1600 x 103 km2 in 2001. In the mean, the southern Ross Sea produces almost twice its own area of sea ice during the winter. Cross-gate sea level pressure (SLP) gradients explain 60% of the variance in the ice area flux. A positive trend in this gradient, from reanalysis products, suggests a 'spinup' of the Ross Sea Gyre over the past 12 yr. In both the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 surface pressure fields, longer-term trends in this gradient and mean SLP between 1979 and 2002 are explored along with positive anomalies in the monthly cross-gate SLP gradient associated with the positive phase of the Southern Hemisphere annular mode and the extrapolar Southern Oscillation.

  18. Predicting Ground Motion from Induced Earthquakes in Geothermal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J.; Edwards, B.; Convertito, V.; Sharma, N.; Tramelli, A.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Cabrera, B. M.; Maercklin, N.; Troise, C.

    2013-06-01

    Induced seismicity from anthropogenic sources can be a significant nuisance to a local population and in extreme cases lead to damage to vulnerable structures. One type of induced seismicity of particular recent concern, which, in some cases, can limit development of a potentially important clean energy source, is that associated with geothermal power production. A key requirement for the accurate assessment of seismic hazard (and risk) is a ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts the level of earthquake shaking (in terms of, for example, peak ground acceleration) of an earthquake of a certain magnitude at a particular distance. Few such models currently exist in regard to geothermal-related seismicity, and consequently the evaluation of seismic hazard in the vicinity of geothermal power plants is associated with high uncertainty. Various ground-motion datasets of induced and natural seismicity (from Basel, Geysers, Hengill, Roswinkel, Soultz, and Voerendaal) were compiled and processed, and moment magnitudes for all events were recomputed homogeneously. These data are used to show that ground motions from induced and natural earthquakes cannot be statistically distinguished. Empirical GMPEs are derived from these data; and, although they have similar characteristics to recent GMPEs for natural and mining-related seismicity, the standard deviations are higher. To account for epistemic uncertainties, stochastic models subsequently are developed based on a single corner frequency and with parameters constrained by the available data. Predicted ground motions from these models are fitted with functional forms to obtain easy-to-use GMPEs. These are associated with standard deviations derived from the empirical data to characterize aleatory variability. As an example, we demonstrate the potential use of these models using data from Campi Flegrei.

  19. Topological fluid mechanics of point vortex motions

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Topological techniques are used to study the motions of systems of point vortices in the infinite plane, in singly-periodic arrays, and in doubly-periodic lattices. The reduction of each system using its symmetries is described in detail. Restricting to three vortices with zero net circulation, each reduced system is described by a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian. The phase portrait of this reduced system is subdivided into regimes using the separatrix motions, and a braid representing the ...

  20. Stability of Synchronized Motion in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Tiago

    2011-01-01

    We give a succinct and self-contained description of the synchronized motion on networks of mutually coupled oscillators. Usually, the stability criterion for the stability of synchronized motion is obtained in terms of Lyapunov exponents. We consider the fully diffusive case which is amenable to treatment in terms of uniform contractions. This approach provides a rigorous, yet clear and concise, way to the important results.

  1. Motion of rock masses on slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Petje

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the different ways of how rock masses (stones, rocks, and blocks move along slopes and for each different way of motion (free fall, bouncing, rolling, sliding, slowing down, lubrication, fluidizationadequatedynamicequationsaregiven.Knowingthe kinematics and dynamics of travelling rock masses is necessary for mathematical modeling of motion and by this an assessment of maximal possible rockfall runout distances as an example of a sudden and hazardeous natural phenomenon, threatening man and his property, especially in the natural environment.

  2. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  3. Determining Sense Of Motion In Robotic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1990-01-01

    Image-processing algorithms based partly on natural visual/mental processes. Proposed digital image-processing scheme determines sense of motion of object in image along one coordinate axis (left to right or right to left) with respect to background in image. Image encoded by passing it through spatiotemporal filters, including nonlinear contrast function with threshold. Nonlinear response to sums and differences of imagery processed through even and odd spatial filters indicates sense of motion.

  4. No reactive motion arising from condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; Sheil, Douglas; Nobre, Antonio D; Bunyard, Peter; Li, Bai-Lian

    2012-01-01

    Bannon (2002, J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1967-1982) developed expressions governing the motion of moist air on the basis that when droplets condense and begin to fall the remaining gas moves upwards so as to conserve momentum. Here we show that such a reactive motion is based on a misunderstanding of the conservation of momentum in the presence of a gravitational field and does not exist.

  5. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.

  6. Incipient Motion of Sediment Under Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Guoren

    2000-01-01

    Summarized in the paper are the author′s studies on incipient motion of sediment in recent 40years. In addition to the forces of gravity, drag and lift, the cohesive force and the additional static pressure are important for fine particles. The relations between three stages of incipient motion are defined by use of instantaneous velocity. Formulas for initial velocity and critical shear stress are given and overall verified by the author′s and others′ experimental data

  7. Chaotic motion and collective nuclear rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, T.H.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1986-02-20

    The regular and chaotic motion in the classical and quantal versions of a model Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom are investigated. This model contains a parameter which is identified with a conserved quantum number, the total spin. In particular, transition between states differing in spin by one unit are studied. The transition is strongly collective for regular motion, and collectivity is destroyed with increasing stochasticity of the model. (orig.).

  8. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  9. Ground motion: An introduction for accelerator builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1992-02-01

    In this seminar we will review some of the characteristics of the major classes of ground motion in order to determine whether their effects must be considered or place fundamental limits on the sitting and/or design of modern storage rings and linear colliders. The classes discussed range in frequency content from tidal deformation and tectonic motions through earthquakes and microseisms. Countermeasures currently available are briefly discussed.

  10. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eHuberle; Paul eRupek; Markus eLappe; Hans-Otto eKarnath

    2012-01-01

    Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what') and a dorsal ('where') visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non...

  11. On some generalization of fractional Brownian motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liang Xiangqian [Department of Applied Mathematics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510, Shandong (China); Ren Fuyao [Institute of Mathematics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com

    2006-05-15

    The multifractional Brownian motion (mBm) is a continuous Gaussian process that extends the classical fractional Brownian motion (fBm) defined by Barton and Vincent Poor [Barton RJ, Vincent Poor H. IEEE Trans Inform 1988;34(5):943] and Decreusefond and Ustuenel [Decreusefond L, Ustuenel AS. Potential Anal 1999;10:177]. In addition, an innovational representation of fBm is given.

  12. Twisted Radiation by Electrons in Spiral Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Katoh, M; Mirian, N S; Konomi, T; Taira, Y; Kaneyasu, T; Hosaka, M; Yamamoto, N; Mochihashi, A; Takashima, Y; Kuroda, K; Miyamoto, A; Miyamoto, K; Sasaki, S

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically show that a single free electron in circular/spiral motion radiates an electromagnetic wave possessing helical phase structure and carrying orbital angular momentum. We experimentally demonstrate it by double-slit diffraction on radiation from relativistic electrons in spiral motion. We show that twisted photons should be created naturally by cyclotron/synchrotron radiations or Compton scatterings in various situations in astrophysics. We propose promising laboratory vortex photon sources in various wavelengths ranging from radio wave to gamma-rays.

  13. Force, motion & simple machines big book

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Our Combined resource includes all the required fundamentals for teaching Force, Motion & Simple Machines. Give your students a kick start on learning with our resource that has simplified language and vocabulary. We begin with a look at force, motion and work, with examples of simple machines in daily life. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance.

  14. A nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunchun; Guo, Zhengrong; Zhang, Hongwei; Chang, Tienchong

    2016-08-14

    Motion conversion plays an irreplaceable role in a variety of machinery. Although many macroscopic motion converters have been widely used, it remains a challenge to convert motion at the nanoscale. Here we propose a nanoscale linear-to-linear motion converter, made of a flake-substrate system of graphene, which can convert the out-of-plane motion of the substrate into the in-plane motion of the flake. The curvature gradient induced van der Waals potential gradient between the flake and the substrate provides the driving force to achieve motion conversion. The proposed motion converter may have general implications for the design of nanomachinery and nanosensors.

  15. Haptically Induced Illusory Self-motion and the Influence of Context of Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Nordahl, Rolf; Sikström, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    The ability of haptic stimuli to augment visually and auditorily induced self-motion illusions has in part been investigated. However, haptically induced illusory self-motion in environments deprived of explicit motion cues remain unexplored. In this paper we present an experiment performed...... of the feet. The experiment was based on the a within-subjects design and included four conditions, each representing one context of motion: an elevator, a train compartment, a bathroom, and a completely dark environment. The audiohaptic stimuli was identical across all conditions. The participants’ sensation...... of movement was assessed by means of existing measures of illusory self-motion, namely, reported self-motion illusion per stimulus type, illusion compellingness, intensity and onset time. Finally the participants were also asked to estimate the experienced direction of movement. While the data obtained from...

  16. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  17. A Variational Framework for Simultaneous Motion Estimation and Restoration of Motion-Blurred Video (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    A VARIATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SIMULTANEOUS MOTION ESTIMATION AND RESTORATION OF MOTION-BLURRED VIDEO By Leah Bar Benjamin Berkels Martin Rumpf and...Numerical Simulation University of Bonn, Germany benjamin.berkels@ins.uni-bonn.de Martin Rumpf Institute for Numerical Simulation University of Bonn...Image Processing, 10, no. 2:266 – 277, 2001. 6, 7 [6]D. Cremers and S. Soatto. Motion competition: A variotional approach to piecewiese parametric

  18. Motion parallax contribution to perception of self-motion and depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Douglas A; Keller, Julia; McCollum, Gin

    2008-04-01

    The object of this study is to mathematically specify important characteristics of visual flow during translation of the eye for the perception of depth and self-motion. We address various strategies by which the central nervous system may estimate self-motion and depth from motion parallax, using equations for the visual velocity field generated by translation of the eye through space. Our results focus on information provided by the movement and deformation of three-dimensional objects and on local flow behavior around a fixated point. All of these issues are addressed mathematically in terms of definite equations for the optic flow. This formal characterization of the visual information presented to the observer is then considered in parallel with other sensory cues to self-motion in order to see how these contribute to the effective use of visual motion parallax, and how parallactic flow can, conversely, contribute to the sense of self-motion. This article will focus on a central case, for understanding of motion parallax in spacious real-world environments, of monocular visual cues observable during pure horizontal translation of the eye through a stationary environment. We suggest that the global optokinetic stimulus associated with visual motion parallax must converge in significant fashion with vestibular and proprioceptive pathways that carry signals related to self-motion. Suggestions of experiments to test some of the predictions of this study are made.

  19. Integration Method of Emphatic Motions and Adverbial Expressions with Scalar Parameters for Robotic Motion Coaching System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Keisuke; Inamura, Tetsunari

    A robotic coaching system can improve humans' learning performance of motions by intelligent usage of emphatic motions and adverbial expressions according to user reactions. In robotics, however, method to control both the motions and the expressions and how to bind them had not been adequately discussed from an engineering point of view. In this paper, we propose a method for controlling and binding emphatic motions and adverbial expressions by using two scalar parameters in a phase space. In the phase space, variety of motion patterns and verbal expressions are connected and can be expressed as static points. We show the feasibility of the proposing method through experiments of actual sport coaching tasks for beginners. From the results of participants' improvements in motion learning, we confirmed the feasibility of the methods to control and bind emphatic motions and adverbial expressions, as well as confirmed contribution of the emphatic motions and positive correlation of adverbial expressions for participants' improvements in motion learning. Based on the results, we introduce a hypothesis that individually optimized method for binding adverbial expression is required.

  20. Objective Motion Cueing Criteria Investigation Based on Three Flight Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Chung, William W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to help establish fidelity criteria to accompany the simulator motion system diagnostic test specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Twelve air- line transport pilots flew three tasks in the NASA Vertical Motion Simulator under four different motion conditions. The experiment used three different hexapod motion configurations, each with a different tradeoff between motion filter gain and break frequency, and one large motion configuration that utilized as much of the simulator's motion space as possible. The motion condition significantly affected: 1) pilot motion fidelity ratings, and sink rate and lateral deviation at touchdown for the approach and landing task, 2) pilot motion fidelity ratings, roll deviations, maximum pitch rate, and number of stick shaker activations in the stall task, and 3) heading deviation after an engine failure in the takeoff task. Significant differences in pilot-vehicle performance were used to define initial objective motion cueing criteria boundaries. These initial fidelity boundaries show promise but need refinement.

  1. STS Motion Control Using Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bazli Bahar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the development of Sit to Stand (STS motion control method. The main challenge in STS is in addressing the lift-off from chair problem. In solving the problem, the main components of the humanoid STS motion system involved are the (1 phase and trajectory planning and (2 motion control. These components should be designed so that the Zero Moment Point (ZMP, Centre of Pressure (CoP and Centre of Mass (CoM is always in the support polygon. Basically, in STS motion control there are two components, 1. Action selector and 2. Tracking controller. The STS motion control should able to operate in real time and continuously able to adapt any change in between the motion. In this way, the accuracy of the controller to rectify the motion error shall increase. The overall proposed method to perform the STS motion is designed to have two main phases. (1 CoM transferring that implements Alexander STS technique and (2 Stabilization Strategy that used IF-THEN rules and proportional velocity controller. This study focuses on the presentation of the development of second phase which are 1. The development of the IF-THEN rules as the action selector that operates in real time to assists the proportional controller in making the best decision and, 2. The development of Proportional Gain Identification for the proportional velocity controller that is capable to change the gain implementation by referring to the define region that represent the motion condition. The validation of the proposed method is done experimentally using NAO robot as the test platform. The coefficient of the gain identification for the proportional controller was tuned using NAO robot that was initially set at sitting position on a wooden chair. The inclination of the body from a frame perpendicular with the ground, angle y is observed. Coefficient that gives the lowest RMSE of angle y trajectory is taken as a constant. Results show the proposed control method has reduce

  2. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  3. The content of the message matters: The differential effects of promotive and prohibitive team voice on team productivity and safety performance gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alex Ning; Liao, Hui; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Firth, Brady M

    2017-08-01

    We propose that it is important to take the content of team voice into account when examining its impact on team processes and outcomes. Drawing on regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), we argue that promotive team voice and prohibitive team voice help teams achieve distinct collective outcomes-that is, team productivity performance gains and team safety performance gains, respectively. Further, we identify mechanisms through which promotive and prohibitive team voices uniquely influence team outcomes as well as boundary conditions for such influences. In data collected from 88 production teams, we found that promotive team voice had a positive association with team productivity performance gains. By contrast, prohibitive team voice had a positive association with team safety performance gains. The relationship between promotive team voice and team productivity performance gains was mediated by team innovation, and the relationship between prohibitive team voice and team safety performance gains was mediated by team monitoring. In addition, the indirect effect of prohibitive team voice on team safety performance gains via team monitoring was stronger when prior team safety performance was lower. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Assi; Noy, Lior; Hart, Yuval; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction. PMID:27711185

  5. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  6. Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David

    2016-09-01

    Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.

  7. Engineering applications of strong ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Paul

    1993-02-01

    The formulation, validation and application of a procedure for simulating strong ground motions for use in engineering practice are described. The procedure uses empirical source functions (derived from near-source strong motion recordings of small earthquakes) to provide a realistic representation of effects such as source radiation that are difficult to model at high frequencies due to their partly stochastic behavior. Wave propagation effects are modeled using simplified Green's functions that are designed to transfer empirical source functions from their recording sites to those required for use in simulations at a specific site. The procedure has been validated against strong motion recordings of both crustal and subduction earthquakes. For the validation process we choose earthquakes whose source models (including a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the slip of the fault) are independently known and which have abundant strong motion recordings. A quantitative measurement of the fit between the simulated and recorded motion in this validation process is used to estimate the modeling and random uncertainty associated with the simulation procedure. This modeling and random uncertainty is one part of the overall uncertainty in estimates of ground motions of future earthquakes at a specific site derived using the simulation procedure. The other contribution to uncertainty is that due to uncertainty in the source parameters of future earthquakes that affect the site, which is estimated from a suite of simulations generated by varying the source parameters over their ranges of uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the validation of the simulation procedure for crustal earthquakes against strong motion recordings of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, and for subduction earthquakes against the 1985 Michoacán, Mexico, and Valparaiso, Chile, earthquakes. We then show examples of the application of the simulation procedure to the estimatation of the

  8. Quantized equations of motion in non-commutative theories

    CERN Document Server

    Heslop, P; Heslop, Paul; Sibold, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Quantum field theories based on interactions which contain the Moyal star product suffer, in the general case when time does not commute with space, from several diseases: quantum equation of motions contain unusual terms, conserved currents can not be defined and the residual spacetime symmetry is not maintained. All these problems have the same origin: time ordering does not commute with taking the star product. Here we show that these difficulties can be circumvented by a new definition of time ordering: namely with respect to a light-cone variable. In particular the original spacetime symmetries SO(1,1) x SO(2) and translation invariance turn out to be respected. Unitarity is guaranteed as well.

  9. No priming for global motion in crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Gall, Martin G; Manassi, Mauro; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does not survive crowding. Crowding persisted despite variations in the direction of the flankers with respect to the prime's direction. Motion priming was still absent under crowding when 85% of the flankers moved in the same direction as the prime. Crowding also persisted despite variations in the speed of the flankers relative to the prime even when the flankers' speed was four times slower than the speed of the prime. However, a priming effect was evident when the prime's spatial location was precued and its distance to the flankers increased, suggesting a release from crowding. These results suggest that transient attention induced by precueing the spatial location of the prime may improve subjects' ability to discriminate its direction. Spatial cueing could act to decrease the integration field, thereby diminishing the influence of nearby distracters. In an additional experiment in which we used fewer flankers, we found a priming effect under conditions in which the interelement distance varied between flankers and prime. Overall, the results suggest that motion priming is strongly affected by crowding, but transient attention can partially retrieve such facilitation.

  10. Directional motion of liquid under mechanical vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalonga, Maxime; Brunet, Philippe; Peerhossaini, Hassan

    2014-11-01

    When a liquid is submitted to mechanical vibrations, steady flows or motion can be generated by non-linear effects. One example is the steady acoustic streaming one can observe when an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid. At the scale of a droplet, steady motion of the whole amount of liquid can arise from zero-mean periodic forcing. As It has been observed by Brunet et al. (PRL 2007), a drop can climb an inclined surface when submitted to vertical vibrations above a threshold in acceleration. Later, Noblin et al. (PRL 2009) showed the velocity and the direction of motion of a sessile drop submitted to both horizontal and vertical vibrations can be tuned by the phase shift between these two excitations. Here we present an experimental study of the mean motion of a sessile drop under slanted vibrations, focusing on the effects of drop properties, as well as the inclination angle of the axis of vibrations. It is shown that the volume and viscosity strongly affect the drop mean velocity, and can even change the direction of its motion. In the case of a low viscous drop, gravity can become significant and be modulated by the inclination of the axis of vibrations. Contact line dynamic during the drop oscillations is also investigated.

  11. Neuromorphic Configurable Architecture for Robust Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Botella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the human visual system recovering motion estimation in almost any visual situation is enviable, performing enormous calculation tasks continuously, robustly, efficiently, and effortlessly. There is obviously a great deal we can learn from our own visual system. Currently, there are several optical flow algorithms, although none of them deals efficiently with noise, illumination changes, second-order motion, occlusions, and so on. The main contribution of this work is the efficient implementation of a biologically inspired motion algorithm that borrows nature templates as inspiration in the design of architectures and makes use of a specific model of human visual motion perception: Multichannel Gradient Model (McGM. This novel customizable architecture of a neuromorphic robust optical flow can be constructed with FPGA or ASIC device using properties of the cortical motion pathway, constituting a useful framework for building future complex bioinspired systems running in real time with high computational complexity. This work includes the resource usage and performance data, and the comparison with actual systems. This hardware has many application fields like object recognition, navigation, or tracking in difficult environments due to its bioinspired and robustness properties.

  12. Rotational motion of Foton M-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrashkin, V. I.; Voronov, K. E.; Piyakov, I. V.; Puzin, Yu. Ya.; Sazonov, V. V.; Semkin, N. D.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The actual controlled rotational motion of the Foton M-4 satellite is reconstructed for the mode of single-axis solar orientation. The reconstruction was carried out using data of onboard measurements of vectors of angular velocity and the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. The reconstruction method is based on the reconstruction of the kinematic equations of the rotational motion of a solid body. According to the method, measurement data of both types collected at a certain time interval are processed together. Measurements of the angular velocity are interpolated by piecewise-linear functions, which are substituted in kinematic differential equations for a quaternion that defines the transition from the satellite instrument coordinate system to the inertial coordinate system. The obtained equations represent the kinematic model of the satellite rotational motion. A solution of these equations that approximates the actual motion is derived from the condition of the best (in the sense of the least squares method) match between the measurement data of the strength vector of the Earth's magnetic field and its calculated values. The described method makes it possible to reconstruct the actual rotational satellite motion using one solution of kinematic equations over time intervals longer than 10 h. The found reconstructions have been used to calculate the residual microaccelerations.

  13. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  14. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  15. Recording ground motions where people live

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranswick, E.; Gardner, B.; Hammond, S.; Banfill, R.

    The 1989 Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake caused spectacular damage to structures up to 100 km away in the San Francisco Bay sedimentary basin, including the Cypress Street viaduct overpass, the Bay Bridge, and buildings in the San Francisco Marina district. Although the few mainshock ground motions recorded in the northern San Francisco Bay area were “significantly larger … than would be expected from the pre-existing data set,” none were recorded at the sites of these damaged structures [Hanks and Krawinkler, 1991].Loma Prieta aftershocks produced order-of-magnitude variations of ground motions related to sedimentary basin response over distances of 1-2 km and less [Cranswick et al., 1990]. In densely populated neighborhoods, these distances can encompass the residences of thousands of people, but it is very unlikely that these neighborhoods are monitored by even one seismograph. In the last decade, the complexity of computer models used to simulate high-frequency ground motions has increased by several orders of magnitude [e.g., Frankel and Vidale, 1992], but the number of seismograph stations—hence, the spatial density of the sampling of ground motion data—has remained relatively unchanged. Seismologists must therefore infer the nature of the ground motions in the great unknown regions between observation points.

  16. On a few Aspects of Vortex Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prantik Sinha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intricacies of vortex motion have been drawing the attention of scientists for many years. A number of works both experimental and numerical have been conducted to understand the various features of vortex motion and its effects on drag, etc. In the present experimental work we have made an attempt to visualize the patterns of both Forced and Free vortex motion. Here colored die has been used to understand the profiles and an arrow shaped strip marks the difference between irrotational and rotational flow. In the Forced vortex motion it has been observed that the parabolic profile remains invariant with the flow rate (speed of paddle, height of the lowest point of the profile decreases with the increase in flow rate (paddle speed. In the Free Vortex motion observations, the hyperbolic profile doesn’t change with the change in flow rate. In this case, suction is created towards the centre where as in the case of Force vortex no such suction arises. With the reduction in the size of the orifice diameter, the profile becomes less steep for Free vortex. In this case the velocity profile in the core region is straight, as the radius increases the profile becomes rectangular hyperbola where as in the case of Forced vortex the velocity profile maintains its linear nature for the entire range of radii.

  17. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  18. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  19. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  20. Perception of illusory contours enhanced in motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪睿; 王志宏; 吴新年; 汪云九; 李东光

    2003-01-01

    Investigation on illusory contours is important for understanding the mechanisms un-derlying the object recognition of human visual system. Numerous researches have shown that illusory contours formed in motion and stereopsis are generated by the unmatched features. Here we conduct three psychophysical experiments to test if Kanizsa illusory contours are also caused by unmatched information. Different types of motion (including horizontal translation, radial ex-panding and shrinking) are utilized in the experiments. The results show that no matter under what kind of motion, when figures or background move separately illusory contours are perceived stronger, and there is no significant difference between the perceived strength in these two types of motion. However, no such enhancement of perceived strength is found when figures and background move together. It is found that the strengthened unmatched features generate the enhancement effect of illusory contour perception in motion. Thus the results suggest that the process of unmatched information in visual system is a critical step in the formation of illusory contours.

  1. Developmental Reorganisation of Visual Motion Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wattam-Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In adults, visual form and motion activate independent networks of extrastriate areas which are roughly aligned with the ventral and dorsal streams, respectively. Using high-density steady-state ERPs, we have previously shown that the scalp topographies of infant form and motion responses are markedly different from those in adults, implying a substantial developmental reorganisation of the underlying cortical pathways. However, it is hard to discern the nature of this reorganisation from the ambiguous polarity and timing information available in steady-state ERPs. We have started to address this problem by measuring transient ERPs to motion onset. In adults, the transient ERP topography initially suggests activation of extrastriate cortex, but rapidly switches to a dominant focus over the occipital pole originating in V1 and/or V2. The infant ERP is similar to the initial phase of adult ERP, but lacks the sudden switch to a V1/V2-dominated topography. The implications of these results for the reorganisation of cortical motion pathways will be discussed, with particular focus on the idea that the adult V1/V2 component is mainly driven by feedback from extrastriate motion areas (eg, V5, and that these feedback signals are not present in the infant brain.

  2. Modeling human perceptual thresholds in self-motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente Pais, A.R.; Mulder, M.; Paassen, M.M. van; Wentink, M.; Groen, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of thresholds for perception of inertial motion is needed for the design of simulator motion filters. Experiments have generally been done to measure these thresholds in isolation, one motion at the time. In vehicle simulation however, several motions occur concurrently. In a flight

  3. Apparatus for Teaching Physics: A Versatile Projectile Motion Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigo, Robert B.; Korda, Anthony

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and use of a projectile motion apparatus to illustrate a variety of projective motion results typically discussed in an introductory course. They include independence of horizontal (constant speed) and vertical (constant acceleration) motions, parabolic path shape, and other types of motion. (JN)

  4. Déjà vu: Motion Prediction in Static Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pintea, S.L.; van Gemert, J.C.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes motion prediction in single still images by learning it from a set of videos. The building assumption is that similar motion is characterized by similar appearance. The proposed method learns local motion patterns given a specific appearance and adds the predicted motion in a num

  5. 17 CFR 10.26 - Motions and other papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions and other papers. 10... PRACTICE Institution of Adjudica- tory Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions § 10.26 Motions and other papers. (a...) the authority relied upon. If a motion is supported by briefs, affidavits or other papers, they...

  6. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...

  7. Motion scaling for high-performance driving simulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berthoz, A.; Bles, W.; Bülthoff, H.H.; Correia Grácio, B.J.; Feenstra, P.; Filliard, N.; Hühne, R.; Kemeny, A.; Mayrhofer, M.; Mulder, M.; Nusseck, H.G.; Pretto, P.; Reymond, G.; Schlüsselberger, R.; Schwandtner, J.; Teufel, H.; Vailleau, B.; Paassen, M.M.R. van; Vidal, M.; Wentink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced driving simulators aim at rendering the motion of a vehicle with maximum fidelity, which requires increased mechanical travel, size, and cost of the system. Motion cueing algorithms reduce the motion envelope by taking advantage of limitations in human motion perception, and the most common

  8. Motion feature extraction scheme for content-based video retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; He, Yuwen; Zhao, Li; Zhong, Yuzhuo

    2001-12-01

    This paper proposes the extraction scheme of global motion and object trajectory in a video shot for content-based video retrieval. Motion is the key feature representing temporal information of videos. And it is more objective and consistent compared to other features such as color, texture, etc. Efficient motion feature extraction is an important step for content-based video retrieval. Some approaches have been taken to extract camera motion and motion activity in video sequences. When dealing with the problem of object tracking, algorithms are always proposed on the basis of known object region in the frames. In this paper, a whole picture of the motion information in the video shot has been achieved through analyzing motion of background and foreground respectively and automatically. 6-parameter affine model is utilized as the motion model of background motion, and a fast and robust global motion estimation algorithm is developed to estimate the parameters of the motion model. The object region is obtained by means of global motion compensation between two consecutive frames. Then the center of object region is calculated and tracked to get the object motion trajectory in the video sequence. Global motion and object trajectory are described with MPEG-7 parametric motion and motion trajectory descriptors and valid similar measures are defined for the two descriptors. Experimental results indicate that our proposed scheme is reliable and efficient.

  9. Parent-Child Talk about Motion: Links to Children's Development of Motion Event Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the motion event language children and their parents engaged in while playing a board game. Children are sensitive to differences in manner and path at infancy, yet adult-like motion event expression appears relatively late in development. While multiple studies have examined how exposure to parent speech generally relates…

  10. A Pursuit Theory Account for the Perception of Common Motion in Motion Parallax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Michael; Nawrot, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The visual system uses an extraretinal pursuit eye movement signal to disambiguate the perception of depth from motion parallax. Visual motion in the same direction as the pursuit is perceived nearer in depth while visual motion in the opposite direction as pursuit is perceived farther in depth. This explanation of depth sign applies to either an allocentric frame of reference centered on the fixation point or an egocentric frame of reference centered on the observer. A related problem is that of depth order when two stimuli have a common direction of motion. The first psychophysical study determined whether perception of egocentric depth order is adequately explained by a model employing an allocentric framework, especially when the motion parallax stimuli have common rather than divergent motion. A second study determined whether a reversal in perceived depth order, produced by a reduction in pursuit velocity, is also explained by this model employing this allocentric framework. The results show than an allocentric model can explain both the egocentric perception of depth order with common motion and the perceptual depth order reversal created by a reduction in pursuit velocity. We conclude that an egocentric model is not the only explanation for perceived depth order in these common motion conditions.

  11. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hsin-Te

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  12. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Yuan Lin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  13. Bipolar electrochemistry: from materials science to motion and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Zigah, Dodzi; Bouffier, Laurent; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-19

    Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity on the surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems. Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape. In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the

  14. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  15. Proper motion of the Draco dwarf galaxy from Subaru Suprime-Cam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motion of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy using Subaru Suprime-Cam images taken at three epochs, with time baselines of 4.4 and 7 yr. The magnitude limit of the proper-motion study is i = 25, thus allowing for thousands of background galaxies and Draco stars to be used to perform extensive astrometric tests and to derive the correction to an inertial reference frame. The derived proper motion is (μα, μδ) = (-0.284 ± 0.047, -0.289 ± 0.041) mas yr-1. This motion implies an orbit that takes Draco to a pericentre of ˜20 kpc; a somewhat disruptive orbit suggesting that tides might account for the rising velocity-dispersion profile of Draco seen in line-of-sight velocity studies. The orbit is only marginally consistent with Draco's membership to the vast polar structure of Galactic satellites, in contrast to a recent Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurement that finds alignment very likely. Our study is a test case to demonstrate that deep imaging with mosaic cameras of appropriate resolution can be used for high-accuracy, ground-based proper-motion measurement. As a useful by-product of the study, we also identify two faint brown-dwarf candidates in the foreground field.

  16. El Patronato en Chile de Carrera a O’Higgins (1812-1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enríquez, Lucrecia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles studies the exercise of patronage regarding it within Chilean constitutions between 1810-1824. The Chilean ‘junta gubernativa’ created in 1810, differently from other places in America, did not exercise ecclesiastical patronage, but «Vicepatronato» in recognizing the peninsular authorities of the Monarchy. It will be only after the declaration of the independence in 1818 when the Supreme Director assumes the national patronage and sends a diplomatic mission to the Holy See asking to grant the patronage to the president of the republic. In this context, the local Church reacted claiming latejansenist episcopalism against state intervention in ecclesiastical mattersSe estudia el ejercicio del Patronato en Chile entre 1810 y 1824, considerándolo en las constituciones chilenas a partir de 1818. A diferencia de lo ocurrido en otros lugares de América, la Junta Gubernativa surgida de1 810 no ejerció el Patronato eclesiástico, sino el Vicepatronato, al reconocer las autoridades peninsulares de la Monarquía. No será sino hasta la declaración de la independencia en 1818 que el Director Supremo asuma el Patronato nacional y envíe una misión diplomática a la Santa Sede para pedir la concesión del Patronato al presidente de la república. En este contexto la Iglesia local reaccionó afirmándose en el episcopalismo tardo jansenista frente a la intromisión estatal en los asuntos eclesiásticos.

  17. A motion retargeting algorithm based on model simplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new motion retargeting algorithm is presented, which adapts the motion capture data to a new character. To make the resulting motion realistic, the physically-based optimization method is adopted. However, the optimization process is difficult to converge to the optimal value because of high complexity of the physical human model. In order to address this problem, an appropriate simplified model automatically determined by a motion analysis technique is utilized, and then motion retargeting with this simplified model as an intermediate agent is implemented. The entire motion retargeting algorithm involves three steps of nonlinearly constrained optimization: forward retargeting, motion scaling and inverse retargeting. Experimental results show the validity of this algorithm.

  18. Exploring the motion advantage: evaluating the contribution of familiarity and differences in facial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Natalie; Lander, Karen

    2017-05-01

    Seeing a face move can improve familiar face recognition, face matching, and learning. More specifically, familiarity with a face may facilitate the learning of an individual's "dynamic facial signature". In the outlined research we examine the relationship between participant ratings of familiarity, the distinctiveness of motion, the amount of facial motion, and the recognition of familiar moving faces (Experiment 1) as well as the magnitude of the motion advantage (Experiment 2). Significant positive correlations were found between all factors. Findings suggest that faces rated as moving a lot and in a distinctive manner benefited the most from being seen in motion. Additionally findings indicate that facial motion information becomes a more important cue to recognition the more familiar a face is, suggesting that "dynamic facial signatures" continue to be learnt over time and integrated within the face representation. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations of the moving face advantage.

  19. Motion transparency arises from perceptual grouping: evidence from luminance and contrast modulation motion displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwan, P W; Johnston, A

    1996-10-01

    What circumstance lead to the perception of global motion transparency? it has been shown that, in paired random dot displays, motion transparency can be abolished if the separation of the dot pairs is sufficiently small. Motion transparency has also been shown to be influenced by high level cognitive cues. Here, we report that the combination of two moving dot stimuli, which separately invoke a percept of transparent motion, gives rise to a non-transparent percept of local rotation. These stimuli were constructed using various different pattern elements, including luminance defined elements and contrast modulations. The results extend and support the view that high-level grouping of local measures of the velocity field can determine whether a motion transparency is perceived or not.

  20. Fractional Brownian motion and motion governed by the fractional Langevin equation in confined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Motivated by subdiffusive motion of biomolecules observed in living cells, we study the stochastic properties of a non-Brownian particle whose motion is governed by either fractional Brownian motion or the fractional Langevin equation and restricted to a finite domain. We investigate by analytic calculations and simulations how time-averaged observables (e.g., the time-averaged mean-squared displacement and displacement correlation) are affected by spatial confinement and dimensionality. In particular, we study the degree of weak ergodicity breaking and scatter between different single trajectories for this confined motion in the subdiffusive domain. The general trend is that deviations from ergodicity are decreased with decreasing size of the movement volume and with increasing dimensionality. We define the displacement correlation function and find that this quantity shows distinct features for fractional Brownian motion, fractional Langevin equation, and continuous time subdiffusion, such that it appears an efficient measure to distinguish these different processes based on single-particle trajectory data.

  1. Restoration of nonlinear motion-distorted composite frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Stern, Adrian; Kopeika, Norman S.

    2000-12-01

    A composite frame image is an interlaced composition of two sub-image odd and even fields. Such image type is common in many imaging systems that produce video sequences. When relative motion between the camera and the scene occurs during the imaging process, two types of distortion degrade the image: the edge 'staircase effect' due to the shifted appearances of the objects in successive fields, and blur due to the scene motion during each field exposure. This paper deals with restoration of composite frame images degraded by motion. In contrast to other previous works that dealt with only uniform velocity motion, here we consider a more general case of nonlinear motion. Since conventional motion identification techniques used in other works can not be employed in the case of nonlinear motion, a new method for identification of the motion from each field is used. Results of motion identification and image restoration for various motion types are presented.

  2. Construction of Motion Database Based on Real-World Haptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro

    This paper proposes a motion database based on real-world haptics. In order to treat advanced types of haptic information, the motion database contains not only the name of motion and position trajectory of a human operator but also force information. Moreover, the motion database is constructed and managed by a motion database management system, which performs the tasks of inserting, updating, retrieving, and deleting information pertaining to human motion. The motion database management system consists of a motion-copying system, which stores and reproduces the simple motions of the human operator. In this research, the validity and feasibility of the proposed method are verified. By using the proposed method, the motions of human operators in the industrial and medical fields can be stored, dynamically reproduced, and referred.

  3. Motion Tracking with Fast Adaptive Background Subtraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao; De-Gui; Yu; Sheng-sheng; 等

    2003-01-01

    To extract and track moving objects is usually one of the most important tasks of intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents a fast and adaptive background subtraction algorithm and the motion tracking process using this algorithm. The algorithm uses only luminance components of sampled image sequence pixels and models every pixel in a statistical model.The algorithm is characterized by its ability of real time detecting sudden lighting changes, and extracting and tracking motion objects faster. It is shown that our algorithm can be realized with lower time and space complexity and adjustable object detection error rate with comparison to other background subtraction algorithms. Making use of the algorithm, an indoor monitoring system is also worked out and the motion tracking process is presented in this paper.Experimental results testify the algorithms' good performances when used in an indoor monitoring system.

  4. Secular motion around synchronously orbiting planetary satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Martin; San-Juan, Juan F; Ferrer, Sebastián

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the secular motion of a spacecraft around the natural satellite of a planet. The satellite rotates synchronously with its mean motion around the planet. Our model takes into account the gravitational potential of the satellite up to the second order, and the third-body perturbation in Hill's approximation. Close to the satellite, the ratio of rotation rate of the satellite to mean motion of the orbiter is small. When considering this ratio as a small parameter, the Coriolis effect is a first-order perturbation, while the third-body tidal attraction, the ellipticity effect, and the oblateness perturbation remain at higher orders. Then, we apply perturbation theory and find that a third-order approach is enough to show the influence of the satellite's ellipticity in the pericenter dynamics. Finally, we discuss the averaged system in the three-dimensional parametric space, and provide a global description of the flow.

  5. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.

  6. Gauge and motion in perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pound, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Through second order in perturbative general relativity, a small compact object in an external vacuum spacetime obeys a generalized equivalence principle: although it is accelerated with respect to the external background geometry, it is in free fall with respect to a certain \\emph{effective} vacuum geometry. However, this single principle takes very different mathematical forms, with very different behaviors, depending on how one treats perturbed motion. Furthermore, any description of perturbed motion can be altered by a gauge transformation. In this paper, I clarify the relationship between two treatments of perturbed motion and the gauge freedom in each. I first show explicitly how one common treatment, called the Gralla-Wald approximation, can be derived from a second, called the self-consistent approximation. I next present a general treatment of smooth gauge transformations in both approximations, in which I emphasise that the approximations' governing equations can be formulated in an invariant manner...

  7. Neural coding of naturalistic motion stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Lewen, G D; De van Steveninck, R R

    2001-01-01

    We study a wide field motion sensitive neuron in the visual system of the blowfly {\\em Calliphora vicina}. By rotating the fly on a stepper motor outside in a wooded area, and along an angular motion trajectory representative of natural flight, we stimulate the fly's visual system with input that approaches the natural situation. The neural response is analyzed in the framework of information theory, using methods that are free from assumptions. We demonstrate that information about the motion trajectory increases as the light level increases over a natural range. This indicates that the fly's brain utilizes the increase in photon flux to extract more information from the photoreceptor array, suggesting that imprecision in neural signals is dominated by photon shot noise in the physical input, rather than by noise generated within the nervous system itself.

  8. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  9. Non radial motions in a CDM model

    CERN Document Server

    Gambera, M

    1998-01-01

    We show how non-radial motions, originating in the outskirts of clusters of galaxies, may reduce the discrepancy between the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) predicted X-ray temperature distribution function of clusters of galaxies and the observed one and also the discrepancy between the CDM predicted two-point correlation function of clusters of galaxies and that observed. We compare Edge et al. (1990) and Henry & Arnaud (1991) data with the distribution function of X-ray temperature, calculated using Press- Schechter's (1974 - hereafter PS) theory and Evrard's (1990) prescriptions for the mass-temperature relation and taking account of the non-radial motions originating from the gravitational interaction of the quadrupole moment of the protocluster with the tidal field of the matter of the neighboring protostructures. We find that the model produces a reasonable clusters temperature distribution. We compare the two-point cluster correlation function which takes account of the non-radial motions both with that ob...

  10. On the proper motion of auroral arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerendel, G.; Raaf, B.; Rieger, E. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)); Buchert, S. (EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna (Sweden)); Hoz, C. la (Univ. of Tromso (Norway))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report on a series of measurements of the proper motion of auroral arcs, made using the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar. Radar measurements are correlated with auroral imaging from the ground to observe the arcs and sense their motion. The authors look at one to two broad classes of auroral arcs, namely the slow (approximately 100 m/s) class which are observed to move either poleward or equatorward. The other class is typically much faster, and observed to move poleward, and represents the class of events most studied in the past. They fit their observations to a previous model which provides a potential energy source for these events. The observations are consistent with the model, though no clear explanation for the actual cause of the motion can be reached from these limited measurements.

  11. Proper motions of the HH 1 jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Reipurth, B.; Esquivel, A.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Rechy-García, J. S.; Estrella-Trujillo, D.; Bally, J.; González-Gómez, D.; Riera, A.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new method for determining proper motions of extended objects, and a pipeline developed for the application of this method. We then apply this method to an analysis of four epochs of [S II] HST images of the HH 1 jet (covering a period of ≈20 yr). We determine the proper motions of the knots along the jet, and make a reconstruction of the past ejection velocity time-variability (assuming ballistic knot motions). This reconstruction shows an "acceleration" of the ejection velocities of the jet knots, with higher velocities at more recent times. This acceleration will result in an eventual merging of the knots in ≈450 yr and at a distance of ≈80'' from the outflow source, close to the present-day position of HH 1.

  12. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2009-02-01

    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  13. Annual solar motion and spy satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Margaret; Larson, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    A topic often taught in introductory astronomy courses is the changing position of the Sun in the sky as a function of time of day and season. The relevance and importance of this motion is explained in the context of seasons and the impact it has on human activities such as agriculture. The geometry of the observed motion in the sky is usually reduced to graphical representations and visualizations that can be difficult to render and grasp. Sometimes students are asked to observe the Sun’s changing motion and record their data, but this is a long-term project requiring several months to complete. This poster outlines an activity for introductory astronomy students that takes a modern approach to this topic, namely determining the Sun’s location in the sky on a given date through the analysis of satellite photography of the Earth.

  14. Multiple Face Location Using Motion Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Face location is a difficult problem for face recognition and multiple face location is more challenging. In this paper, two new methods are presented for multiple face location via motion analysis techniques. The first method is based on motion segmentation. The authors introduce a new segmentation method by computing optical flow only on the Motion Zero-Crossing Boundary (MZCB) followed by a simple clustering method to segment each person. Then an intuitive but effective location algorithm is applied to locate each face. The second method is derived from the Hough Transform (HT). After modeling a head outline as a curve consisting of circle segments, a modified HT is used to find the center of each face. Finally, the two methods are compared and the future research directions are given.

  15. Human v6: the medial motion area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, S; Sereno, M I; Committeri, G; Fattori, P; Galati, G; Patria, F; Galletti, C

    2010-02-01

    Cortical-surface-based functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging mapping techniques and wide-field retinotopic stimulation were used to verify the presence of pattern motion sensitivity in human area V6. Area V6 is highly selective for coherently moving fields of dots, both at individual and group levels and even with a visual stimulus of standard size. This stimulus is a functional localizer for V6. The wide retinotopic stimuli used here also revealed a retinotopic map in the middle temporal cortex (area MT/V5) surrounded by several polar-angle maps that resemble the mosaic of small areas found around macaque MT/V5. Our results suggest that the MT complex (MT+) may be specialized for the analysis of motion signals, whereas area V6 may be more involved in distinguishing object and self-motion.

  16. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  17. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  18. Attention alters the appearance of motion coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taosheng; Fuller, Stuart; Carrasco, Marisa

    2006-12-01

    Selective attention enhances visual information processing, as measured by behavioral performance and neural activity. However, little is known about its effects on subjective experience. Here, we investigated the effect of transient (exogenous) attention on the appearance of visual motion, using a psychophysical procedure that directly measures appearance and controls for response bias. Observers viewed pairs of moving dot patterns and reported the motion direction of the more coherent pattern. Directing attention (via a peripheral precue) to a stimulus location increased its perceived coherence level and improved performance on a direction discrimination task. In a control experiment, we ruled out response bias by lengthening the time interval between the cue and the stimuli, so that the effect of transient attention could no longer be exerted. Our results are consistent with those of neurophysiological studies showing that attention modulates motion processing and provide evidence of a subjective perceptual correlate of attention, with a concomitant effect on performance.

  19. Neural Network Approaches to Visual Motion Perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭爱克; 杨先一

    1994-01-01

    This paper concerns certain difficult problems in image processing and perception: neuro-computation of visual motion information. The first part of this paper deals with the spatial physiological integration by the figure-ground discrimination neural network in the visual system of the fly. We have outlined the fundamental organization and algorithms of this neural network, and mainly concentrated on the results of computer simulations of spatial physiological integration. It has been shown that the gain control mechanism , the nonlinearity of synaptic transmission characteristic , the interaction between the two eyes , and the directional selectivity of the pool cells play decisive roles in the spatial physiological integration. In the second part, we have presented a self-organizing neural network for the perception of visual motion by using a retinotopic array of Reichardt’s motion detectors and Kohonen’s self-organizing maps. It .has been demonstrated by computer simulations that the network is abl

  20. Bulk equations of motion from CFT correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Physics Department,City College, City University of New York, New York NY 10031 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics,University of Haifa at Oranim, Kiryat Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2015-09-10

    To O(1/N) we derive, purely from CFT data, the bulk equations of motion for interacting scalar fields and for scalars coupled to gauge fields and gravity. We first uplift CFT operators to mimic local AdS fields by imposing bulk microcausality. This requires adding an infinite tower of smeared higher-dimension double-trace operators to the CFT definition of a bulk field, with coefficients that we explicitly compute. By summing the contribution of the higher-dimension operators we derive the equations of motion satisfied by these uplifted CFT operators and show that we precisely recover the expected bulk equations of motion. We exhibit the freedom in the CFT construction which corresponds to bulk field redefinitions.