WorldWideScience

Sample records for hig energy solar

  1. Final Technical Report Project: Low-Energy Photonuclear Studies at HIGS and Lund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Gerald [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This report summarizes a program of low-energy photonuclear studies at MAX-Lab in Lund (Sweden) and at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) at Duke University. A major emphasis has been on Compton scattering from deuterium in order to determine the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the neutron. The studies at Lund utilized unpolarized photons at Egamma = 62-115 MeV to measure differential cross sections. The studies at HIGS utilized polarized and unpolarized photon beams (both linear and circular) at Egamma < 90 MeV. Polarization observables will be exploited to improve our understanding of the electric and magnetic polarizabilities, and in particular, double-polarization observables (using polarized targets) will be measured in the future to provide new information about the spin polarizabilities of the nucleon. The MAX-Lab experiments (using unpolarized photons) focused on an approved PAC proposal for Compton scattering on the deuteron aimed at making a precise determination of the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the neutron. At MAX-Lab we had three of the largest NaI detectors in the world, each capable of ~2% energy resolution. We have completed our measurements in two separate tagged photon energy ranges which overlap each other (62-97 MeV and 90-115 MeV) and the results of these experiments have been published. The photon beam at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) has several distinct advantages that make it unique: (1) ultra-high photon flux, ultimately reaching 100 MHz, (2) 100% linearly polarized photon beam, as well as circular polarization, (3) monoenergetic beam, with ~2% energy resolution, and (4) extremely low-background beam environment. Exploiting the high flux and polarization capabilities of the HIGS photon beam is central in the series of experiments being performed at this facility. Very little data exist on Compton scattering using polarized photons. We will exploit clear sensitivities in the polarization observables to the

  2. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  3. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  4. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  5. The High Intensity g-ray Source (HIgS) based on the OK-5/Duke storage ring FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Vladimir

    2001-10-01

    We report on the progress with the High Intensity g-ray Source (HIgS) facility and the plans. The OK-5/Duke electron storage ring free electron laser (FEL) is in operation since 1996 and generates coherent radiation in 193-730 nm (1.7 6.4 eV). The OK-4 FEL generates intense beams of g-ray via intra-cavity Compton back-scattering of FEL photons on ultra-relativistic electrons [1]. The HIgS facility, based on this source, provides the g-ray beams with tunable energy from 1.8 MeV to 58 MeV and total flux up to 5 108 g-rays per second for the extensive user program. A dedicated 100 m2 shielded g-ray vault for nuclear physics experiments and a 35-m long the g-ray beam-line were commissioned two years ago. A special shielded collimator hut is located at the end of the g-ray beam-line for reduction of the background in the g-ray vault. The generated g-ray beams are 100polarized. The high quality of the electron and FEL beam provides for high degree of correlation between the angle and the energy of g-rays. It allows monochromatizing the g-rays using simple on-axis collimators. The energy spread as low as 0.2Up-to-date, more than 2,000 hours of the beam time from the HIgS facility was provided for nuclear physics experiments. Within next four years, the HIgS facility will undergo major up-grades which will extend the available g-ray energy range to about 200 MeV and will We report on the present performance of the HIgS facility, its experimental program for next two years and the plans for HIgS facility up-grades. [1] V.N.Litvinenko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. V. 78, N. 24 (1997) 4569. V.N. Litvinenko and J.M.J.Madey, SPIE vol. 2521 (1995) 55 [2] S.H.Park, Thesis, Duke University, January 2000

  6. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  7. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  8. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  9. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  10. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  11. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  12. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  13. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  14. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  15. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  16. Solar energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of solar energy as a national resource is discussed. Research and development programs for the development of eleven concepts are described to show the proposed funding for each year over a fifteen year period. The estimated energy contributions by period for each of the solar concepts are analyzed. The estimated impact of the solar concepts to the year 2020 are tabulated.

  17. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  18. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  19. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  20. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  1. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  2. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  3. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  4. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  5. Fixed solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, A.J.; Knasel, T.M.

    1981-01-20

    An apparatus for the concentration of solar energy upon a fixed array of solar cells is disclosed. A transparent material is overlayed upon the cell array, and a diffuse reflective coating is applied to the surface area of the transparent medium in between cells. Radiant light, which reflects through the transparent layer and does not fall directly incident to a cell surface is reflected by the coating layer in an approximate cosine pattern. Thereafter, such light undergoes internal reflection and rediffusion until subsequently it either strikes a solar cell surface or is lost through the upper surface of the transparent material.

  6. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  7. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  8. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  9. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue

    2014-01-21

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  10. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  11. Fundamentals of solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. E.

    This textbook strives to strengthen a student's knowledge of the basic sciences as well as to provide a practical background in solar energy conversion. Particular consideration is given to solar geometry, the availability of solar energy, solar concentrators, elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in solar systems, flat-plate collectors, and thermal storage of solar energy. The use of solar energy for specific types of loads is then discussed. The application of active solar systems to space and hot-water heating is considered, and a description is given of the empirical f-chart method for thermal-performance analysis. The economics of solar systems is examined along with the application of solar energy to cooling and dehumidification loads as well as the application of solar energy to industrial and other thermal loads. The concept of passive systems is explained, and the evaluation of thermal performance on the basis of the empirical load/collector ratio method is described. Appendixes are presented with such information as solar-position charts, tables of solar radiation and climatic data, and programs for hand-held calculators.

  12. Solar eclipse monitoring for solar energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy applications has increased, and the focus to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations has strengthened. This article includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm to calculate the Moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of ±0.001° and azimuth angle with uncertainty of ±0.003°. In conjunction with Solar Position Algorithm, the angular distance between the Sun and the Moon is used to develop a method to instantaneously monitor the partial or total solar eclipse occurrence for solar energy applications. This method can be used in many other applications for observers of the Sun and the Moon positions for applications limited to the stated uncertainty.

  13. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  14. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  15. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing...

  16. Support for solar energy collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  17. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  18. Solar energy technical training directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1979-06-01

    Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse information. An alphabetical index of institutions in included. (MHR)

  19. Solar energy - new photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommr-Larsen, P.

    2009-09-15

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission's Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics to photovoltaics with a special focus on the new photovoltaic technologies that promises ultra low cost solar cells. Unlike many other renewable energy technologies, a pipeline of new technologies is established and forms a road towards low cost energy production directly from the sun. (au)

  20. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  1. First book on solar energy in Urdu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, M.

    1979-01-01

    This document introduces the field of solar energy and its applications. A history of work in the field of solar energy, both in Pakistan and abroad, is included. Various solar energy systems are included with special chapters on greenhouses, solar water heaters, solar cells, solar desalination, solar dryers, solar furnaces and a solar powered radio receiver. A list of solar energy scientists and engineers and a list of publications and reports on solar energy produced by the Atomic Energy Commission Laboratories at Lahore, Pakistan, complete the document.

  2. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  3. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  4. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  5. Solar energy activities in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen T.; Kristensen, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Danish solar energy group has about 70 members, and there are about 6 professional manufacturers of solar energy equipment in Denmark. In these years the Danish government subsidizes solar energy installations with 30% of the total expenses. High efficiency hot water systems of 4 m/sup 2/ collector size has been developed and are now available on the Danish market. These systems are tested as the very best in the European Community, and they are competetive to other energy sources in Denmark except for district heating connected to heat and power generation plants. Presently much effort is put in developing Danish solar heating components for use in third world countries, such as solar driven freezers, high efficiency collectors and solar water heating systems especially suited for trophical conditions. On the domestic market, the local communities can now require free expert assistance in order to identify public buildings especially suited for solar water heating systems. Several grants have been given for projects concerned with using large solar collector areas for industrial proposes and for district heating.

  6. The Geography of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHart, David E.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1984-01-01

    After learning about two promising techniques for generating electricity--photovoltaic cells and wind energy conversion systems--secondary students analyze two maps of the United States showing solar radiation and available wind power to determine which U.S. regions have potential for these solar electric systems. (RM)

  7. Biological applications of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanam, A.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Kahn, J.S. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Articles presented and discussed during the symposium held at Madurai Kamaraj University in December 1978 are included. The theme of the symposium was to look into the solar option as an alternate source of energy to the traditional commercial forms through photosynthetic means for biomass and biofuel production. The articles are grouped into eight parts: global and regional aspects of solar energy; photosynthesis and productivity; field; nitrogen fixation; biomass; extreme environment; model systems; and biofuels and chemicals. (DC)

  8. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  9. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities.

  10. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  11. Crystallization of the HigBA2 toxin-antitoxin complex from Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadǽi, San; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. Here, the TA complex of the second module, higBA2, as well as the C-terminal domain of the corresponding HigA2 antitoxin, have been purified and crystallized. The HigBA2 complex...

  12. SOLAR ENERGY: A NECESSARY INVESTMENT IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    with a high-value service [10]. Solar energy can also be applied in vehicular road transportation system. As noted by Fagbenle [4], three options are open in applying solar energy to vehicular road transport namely: (a) Solar energy to provide 100% motive power of the vehicle. (b) Solar energy to provide only electric power.

  13. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  14. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  15. Thin film solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  16. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  17. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzberger, Adolf; Hoffmann, Volker U.

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems.

  18. Solar energy, its conversion and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

  19. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  20. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  1. Solar Energy and Reference Skills. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Marie Ann

    This language arts learning module offers a structure to teachers for leading junior high school class activities to investigate solar energy, its origin, and effect. The module furnishes a pre-post test, a schedule for library and research work, a basic vocabulary list, and a bibliography. (CP)

  2. Solar energy and substainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Maria Carmen; Nalin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, the world population doesn't stop rising. More than ever, energy and environment problems remain at the heart of our society concerns. What will we leave to the future generations ? Therefore, a twenty pupil class of 4e (13 and 14 year old pupils) has made a specific work about this topic, called "solar power and sustainable development". Initially, the pupils participated to the settlement of a meteorological station on the school grounds. This station, which provides readings about temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, sun radiations, wind power and wind heading is fed by photovoltaic cells and thus works independently. The pupils have then come to realize the ecological and practical interests of such a functioning (e.g. : for the latter : neither batteries nor electrical wires are needed). These past few years, in Provence (a highly sunny region), many solar panel installations have been created and many private house roofs have been equipped with photovoltaic cells. Indeed, this energy presents some significant assets : it is free, clean and will never run out. The village of Vinon sur Verdon, where stands our college, is partly fed by a solar panel park, located a few kilometers away. Strongly sensitive to the assets of this energy source, the pupils have made a poster asserting the benefits of solar power. Another side of solar energy has been asserted : the output of hot sanitary water. They have built a miniature on this topic. In order to be thorough, some elements remain in shadow, such as environment impacts done by the making, the transport and the recycling of solar panels that will be brought up in a collaboration with research establishments.

  3. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  4. Food dehydration by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, H R; Salunkhe, D K

    1982-01-01

    Solar driers that are currently being investigated for drying of agricultural products can be divided into two major divisions, depending upon how they transfer the incident solar energy to the product to be dried. These two divisions are direct and indirect drying, with some work also being done on combination drying procedures. In direct solar driers, the product to be dried is usually either inside a tent, greenhouse, or a glass-topped box, where the product to be dried is heated by the direct rays from the sun and the moist air is removed by ambient wind movement. These dryers do accelerate moisture loss rate and the product is usually safe from inclement weather. These dryers usually do not require fans for forced air circulation. With indirect drying, the opposite is true, where most require powered fans for forced air circulation. With this type of dryer, both flatplate and inflated tube solar heat absorbers are used, with each offering certain advantages. Also, combination dryers have been built that utilize both direct and indirect principles. Product evaluation of solar dried foods indicate that in most cases the physical properties, flavor, and vitamin A and C retention were as good as, or better than, conventional dried foods. The economics of the solar systems indicate that most drying procedures are economically feasible for use in small-scale operations only, with the exception of grain drying.

  5. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  6. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  7. Non-tracking solar energy collector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector system is described characterized by an improved concentrator for directing incident rays of solar energy on parallel strip-like segments of a flatplate receiver. Individually mounted reflector modules of a common asymmetrical triangular cross-sectional configuration supported for independent orientation are asymmetric included with vee-trough concentrators for deflecting incident solar energy toward the receiver.

  8. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  9. Electrolysers Powered with Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Y. Nedelchev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast fossil fuel consumption and decreasing oil reserves and natural resources, enforce much more need of finding decision for renewable energies and development of constructions for using the so called green resources. One solution of this problem is combination ofalready established solar based sources and brown gas cell construction. Brown gas cell production is based on electrolysis of pure water and as a result generating a real gas fuel. This production can find large utility in different usages.

  10. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  11. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A.; Nueesch, P.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A. [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  12. Energy Efficient Solar Milk Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Bin Muzzamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Life stock is the major sector of agriculture which is of great importance for Pakistan. It has a major contribution towards the economy of Pakistan with a 55.9 participation in agriculture sector. Pakistan is fourth largest country in milk production with 50.9 Billion tons per annum out of which only 5 is processed and pasteurized hardly and remaining milk is handled by milk men under non-hygienic conditions which causes milk borne diseases. Milk is perishable food having shelf life of few hours therefore milk processing is done to deactivate the microorganisms in the milk and increase its shelf life for future use. It is an energy intensive process and mostly conventional form of energy is used for this purpose. Solar power is the sustainable source of energy and there is an average solar global radiation of 5.3kWhm2day persist in the country with more than 300 sunny days in a year. The objective of the study was to design and develop a solar assisted milk pasteurizer and to evaluate its performance. The developed solar assisted milk pasteurizer consisted of heating and cooling unit. Heating unit made of shell and tube type coil to heat up the milk up-to 730C for 15 seconds. Cooling unit has a chiller for sudden cool down the milk from 350C to 40C within 2 hours. Solar milk chiller had capacity of 200 liters chiller semicircular pug mill type SS-304 a 2kWp PV system having eight PV modules each of 250Wp a hybrid inverter 3kVA that convert 24V DC current into 220V AC current and two batteries 150Ah each as a backup source to meet weather fluctuations. One ton of vapor compression refrigeration system was filled with R410a refrigerant with inlet pressure of 118psi and the outlet pressure of 300psi was coupled with the chiller through coils at bottom side of the vessel. An agitator was installed with a lid on the tank to stir the milk continuously inside the chiller to make sure that homogeneous milk cooling to avoid freezing of the milk in the

  13. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  14. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available -plate solar energy collectors. A brief description of solar collectors and discussion of some of the fundamental aspects of solar energy utilization are included. An example is given to show the design curves may be used to determine the surface area of a...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  16. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  17. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    This fact sheet series highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics. This one focus on solar energy technologies.

  18. Biomimetic utilization of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, Aleksandr E.

    2012-12-01

    The most interesting recent publications dealing with so-called artificial photosynthesis, i.e., the development of photocatalytic converters of solar energy to the chemical bond energy using the fundamental principles of natural oxygenic photosynthesis, are discussed. The key stages of photosynthesis that should be reproduced in the artificial converters include light harvesting and transport of the light quantum to reaction centres where photoinduced charge separation occurs to give elementary reducing agents and oxidants (electrons and holes). The dark catalytic reactions involving the elementary reducing agents and oxidants give stable end products, namely, dioxygen and carbohydrates in the natural photosynthesis or dioxygen and hydrogen in the artificial photosynthesis. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  19. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  20. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  1. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  2. Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar

  3. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  4. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  6. The necessity of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1996-09-01

    The idea of limits to growth has, understandably, achieved notoriety since the days of Malthus and, more recently, the Club of Rome. However, there must be some limits to the ability of the Earth to sustain a growing population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world`s population will probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next hundred years. The question is whether the Earth`s resources are sufficient to sustain that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy. It is clear that present trends in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Regardless of this, however, prudence demands a drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, in view of the possibility of global warming. It can be shown that, combined with greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to a solar (renewable) energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world economy, is possible, but the constraints are extremely tight. (Author)

  7. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  8. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  9. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  10. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  11. The HigB/HigA toxin/antitoxin system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa influences the virulence factors pyochelin, pyocyanin, and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thammajun L; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-06-01

    Toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems are prevalent in most bacterial and archaeal genomes, and one of the emerging physiological roles of TA systems is to help regulate pathogenicity. Although TA systems have been studied in several model organisms, few studies have investigated the role of TA systems in pseudomonads. Here, we demonstrate that the previously uncharacterized proteins HigB (unannotated) and HigA (PA4674) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 form a type II TA system in which antitoxin HigA masks the RNase activity of toxin HigB through direct binding. Furthermore, toxin HigB reduces production of the virulence factors pyochelin, pyocyanin, swarming, and biofilm formation; hence, this system affects the pathogencity of this strain in a manner that has not been demonstrated previously for TA systems. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  13. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...... to photovoltaics with a special focus on the new photovoltaic technologies that promises ultra low cost solar cells. Unlike many other renewable energy technologies, a pipeline of new technologies is established and forms a road towards low cost energy production directly from the sun....

  14. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  16. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  17. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  18. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  19. Solar energy in Norway; Solstroem i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern; Nordal, Siv Helen; Bugge, Lars; Authen, Mari L.; Bernhard, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Enova SF produced in 2010/11 a report that described the potential of solar energy until 2020. Developments in the market for the production of electricity from solar energy happens so fast that it is prepared a new report describing the market and technology per 2012. (eb)

  20. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  1. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  2. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  3. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  4. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  5. Solar energy: its technologies and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auh, P.C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  6. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  7. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  8. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast...... the power output from PV and solar thermal collector systems. The first approach is based on a developed statistical clear-sky model, which is used for estimating the clear-sky output solely based on observations of the output. This enables local effects such as shading from trees to be taken into account....... The second approach to solar power forecasting is based on conditional parametric modelling. It is well suited for forecasting of solar thermal power, since is it can be make non-linear in the inputs. The approach is also extended to a probabilistic solar power forecasting model. The statistical clear...

  9. Space solar power - An available energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, S.; Kline, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The development of satellite solar power stations is described with attention given to station design and assembly in space. Problems associated with conversion of solar energy into microwaves and with getting the station into orbit are considered. The use of a solar propulsion system for pushing the station to high orbit is discussed along with questions of station lifetime (estimated to be about thirty years). The paper is copiously illustrated with drawings projecting various aspects of station design and utilization.

  10. Antisoiling Coatings for Solar-Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorocarbons resist formation of adherent deposits. Promising coating materials reduce soiling of solar photovoltaic modules and possibly solar thermal collectors. Contaminating layers of various degrees of adherence form on surfaces of devices, partially blocking incident solar energy, reducing output power. Loose soil deposits during dry periods but washed off by rain. New coatings help prevent formation of more-adherent, chemically and physically bonded layers rain alone cannot wash away.

  11. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  12. Solar energy - a chance for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorwerk, Verena

    2008-07-01

    The country at the southern tip of the African continent offers, thanks to its high solar radiation, outstanding conditions for establishing photovoltaics and solar thermal energy. Particularly with regard to the FIFA World Cup 2010, having a sufficient and secure electricity supply is becoming all the more important. (orig.)

  13. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  14. Community impediments to implementation of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M. D.; Armstrong, J. E.

    1979-11-01

    The complete array of institutional problems expected to energy when solar technology are implemented on a national scale is assembled. The findings of the study are presented in two formats. First, the results are organized by the time frames of delays in solar implementation caused by the inherent difficulties a national energy policy would encounter in changing the way a given institution responds to specific solar technologies. Delay categories of 10 years or more, 6 to 8 years, and 3 to 5 years were selected; all were assigned under the assumption that a strong national policy promoting adoption of solar technologies would be in effect. The second format constitutes a description of the difficulties at the community level, associated with implementing each solar technology. (MHR)

  15. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  16. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  17. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  18. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  19. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  20. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  1. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  2. [Biological characteristics of CD55(hig); side population in breast cancer cell line MCF-7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Cui, Zhi-chao; Liu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Shi-jie

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether the CD55(hig); expression (CD55(hig);) cells in side population (SP) of the cell line MCF-7 possess characteristics of cancer stem cells. Breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was cultured and the nucleic acid dye Hoechst33342 and Verapami were added. Flow cytometry (FCM) was employed to isolate the cells of SP and mian population (MP), the cells were then labeled with CD55 mAb; mean values of fluorescence intensity of CD55 in SP and MP cells were measured. CD55 mAb was used to mark the unsorted MCF-7 cells, the proportion of CD55(hig); cells was determined, and then CD55(hig); cells were sorted and collected, to observe biological characteristics, such as cell morphology, adherence rate, colony formation and cell cycle distribution as well as nude mice implantation. Mean value of fluorescence intensity of CD55 in SP cells was 100.85±4.57, and mean value of fluorescence intensity of CD55 in MP cells was 50.51±4.75; the proportion of CD55(hig); cell in MCF-7 cells was 2.12%; adherent rate of CD55(hig); cells in 24 h was lower than that in CD55(low); cells and 24 h after inoculation adherent rates of both cells had no significant difference (P>0.05); CD55(hig); cells were mostly spherical and kept in a suspended state at 12 hours after inoculation and culture; CD55(hig); cells had the ability of colony formation, the clone-forming rate of CD55(hig); cells was (20.04±1.07)% when the cells were cultured for one week, it was lower than the rate of (27.14±1.07)% in CD55(low); cells (P<0.01); the ratio of G0/G1 resting cells in CD55(hig); cells was (85.4±3.37)% which was higher than that in CD55(low); cells (58.6±2.55)% and in MCF-7 cells (70.73±4.21)%, which had a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). All nude mice implanted with CD55(hig); cells developed the tumor, and the pathological examination of the transplanted tumor had the properties of malignant cells. A few CD55(hig); cells were found in breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and most of CD55

  3. Groove / Solar energy cataloque; Groove aurinkoenergian yritysluettelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    According to Tekes, renewable energy offer Finnish companies opportunities for renewal and international growth. Especially in the field of solar energy, development is fast and the market is growing rapidly. The purpose of this catalogue is to provide information about organizations active in the field of solar energy so that different players can find each other more easily. Information is provided about organizations active both on the supply side (solar energy solution and service providers) and demand side (cities, construction contractors, real estate owners) as well as research teams at universities and research centers. We hope that this catalogue will help different actors to find each other both nationally and internationally so that good development and demonstration projects in the field of solar energy can get started. Tekes participates for instance in Solar Eranet, a joint effort of several funding organizations in Europe support transnational solar projects. This catalogue is provided by Tekes program Groove - Growth from renewables. Tekes' programmes and initiatives are topical entities targeted at financial and expert service areas. Within the programmes and initiatives, businesses and public research units can develop new know-how, build networks and have an impact on the development of their field. (orig.)

  4. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...

  5. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  6. Solar energy collection by antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R.; Green, M.A.; Puzzer, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics

    2002-12-01

    The idea of collecting solar electromagnetic radiation with antenna-rectifier (rectenna) structures was proposed three decades ago but has not yet been achieved. The idea has been promoted as having potential to achieve efficiency approaching 100% but thermodynamic considerations imply a lower limit of 85.4% for a non-frequency-selective rectenna and 86.8% for one with infinite selectivity, assuming maximal concentration in each case. This paper reviews the history and technical context of solar rectennas and discusses the major issues: thermodynamic efficiency limits, rectifier operation at optical frequencies, harmonics production and electrical noise. (author)

  7. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. Argonne Solar Energy Program annual report. Summary of solar program activities for fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The R and D work done at Argonne National Laboratory on solar energy technologies during the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979 is described. Technical areas included in the ANL solar program are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, satellite power systems, and solar liquid-metal MHD power systems.

  9. The Status of Solar Energy as Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. O.

    1979-01-01

    Discused is the biological conversion of solar energy via photosynthesis into stored energy in the form of biomass. Detailed are the research and development programs on biomass of the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Brazil, Philippines, Sahel, India, and China. (BT)

  10. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  11. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    together account for 51% of the total in the EU-27; the pattern of topics researched in the two countries is very similar; and their international collaboration is more intense than the world average and higher than in countries such as the USA, China or Japan. Collaboration between them is likewise......An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...

  12. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Port of Galveston (POG), Galveston, TX (United States); Cuclis, Alex [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Freundlich, Alex [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  13. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  15. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  16. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  17. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  18. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  19. Introductory guide to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, WN

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primitive man first set fire to a heap of twigs to warm his cave, mankind has been making use of the earth's energy resources. Fortunately, we still have the sun, which offers us an inexhaustible source of non-polluting energy....

  20. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  1. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  2. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  3. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  4. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Edward L. [New York Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Polytechnic Institute

    2012-11-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. The author, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy. (orig.)

  5. Plasmonic Enhancement Mechanisms in Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Scott K.

    Semiconductor photovoltaics (solar-to-electrical) and photocatalysis (solar-to-chemical) requires sunlight to be converted into excited charge carriers with sufficient lifetimes and mobility to drive a current or photoreaction. Thin semiconductor films are necessary to reduce the charge recombination and mobility losses, but thin films also limit light absorption, reducing the solar energy conversion efficiency. Further, in photocatalysis, the band edges of semiconductor must straddle the redox potentials of a photochemical reaction, reducing light absorption to half the solar spectrum in water splitting. Plasmonics transforms metal nanoparticles into antennas with resonances tuneable across the solar spectrum. If energy can be transferred from the plasmon to the semiconductor, light absorption in the semiconductor can be increased in thin films and occur at energies smaller than the band gap. This thesis investigates why, despite this potential, plasmonic solar energy harvesting techniques rarely appear in top performing solar architectures. To accomplish this goal, the possible plasmonic enhancement mechanisms for solar energy conversion were identified, isolated, and optimized by combining systematic sample design with transient absorption spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic testing, and theoretical development. Specifically, metal semiconductor nanostructures were designed to modulate the plasmon's scattering, hot carrier, and near field interactions as well as remove heating and self-catalysis effects. Transient absorption spectroscopy then revealed how the structure design affected energy and charge carrier transfer between metal and semiconductor. Correlating this data with wavelength-dependent photoconversion efficiencies and theoretical developments regarding metal-semiconductor interactions identified the origin of the plasmonic enhancement. Using this methodology, it has first been proven that three plasmonic enhancement routes are

  6. Energy Dissipation Processes in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, J.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  7. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  8. Graphene for thermoelectronic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Dilip K.; Olukunle, Olawole C.

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is a high temperature material which can stand temperature as high as 4600 K in vacuum. Even though its work function is high (4.6 eV) the thermionic emission current density at such temperature is very high. Graphene is a wonderful material whose work function can be engineered as desired. Kwon et al41 reported a chemical approach to reduce work function of graphene using K2CO3, Li2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3. The work functions are reported to be 3.7 eV, 3.8 eV, 3.5 eV and 3.4 eV. Even though they did not report the high temperature tolerance of such alkali metal carbonate doped graphene, their works open a great promise for use of pure graphene and doped graphene as emitter (cathode) and collector (anode) in a solar thermionic energy converter. This paper discusses the dynamics of solar energy conversion to electrical energy using thermionic energy converter with graphene as emitter and collector. We have considered parabolic mirror concentrator to focus solar energy onto the emitter to achieve temperature around 4300 K. Our theoretical calculations and the modelling show that efficiency as high as 55% can easily be achieved if space-charge problem can be reduced and the collector can be cooled to certain proper temperature. We have discussed methods of controlling the associated space-charge problems. Richardson-Dushman equation modified by the authors have been used in this modelling. Such solar energy conversion would reduce the dependence on silicon solar panel and has great potential for future applications.

  9. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  10. A Review of Solar Energy : Markets, Economics and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Kurdgelashvili, Lado; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past...

  11. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  12. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  13. Graphene based materials: Enhancing solar energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gua, Chun Xian; Guai, Guan Hong; Li, Chang Ming [Nanyang Tecnological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). Center for Advanded Bioanaosystems

    2011-05-15

    Due to their excellent electronic and physiochemical properties, graphene based materials have been extensively explored for solar energy harvesting as either electron and hole transport materials, buffer layers, or window and counter electrodes. This research news surveys very recent advances in this emerging field with emphasis on fundamental understanding of their enhancement mechanism, while discussing future challenges.

  14. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  15. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gene C.

    A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

  16. Solar thermal energy. Solar pasteurization of dairy products; Energia solar termica. Pasteurizacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, J.; Chemisana, D.

    2009-07-01

    Nicaragua is one of the south America countries with biggest cattle figures; however, it is at the bottom of the list of milk consumers. The cause which explains this is a twofold trouble. First of all, they have not the adequate milk treatment methods to guarantee a proper hygienic and conservation conditions. By the other side, production is distributed in small production centers to serve local consumers. this article proposal is to get a pasteurization treatment with thermal processes arranged by means of the solar energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Solar Energy Directory: A Directory of Domestic and International Firms Involved in Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centerline Co., Phoenix, AZ.

    This directory is intended to provide a link between suppliers of solar energy technology and information and potential users of these products. Included are over 1400 national and international entries. These listings include architects, associations, education sources, wind power technology and information sources, solar research organizations,…

  18. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  19. Energy transfer processes in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M.D.

    1986-11-01

    By combining picosecond optical experiments and detailed statistical mechanics theory we continue to increase our understanding of the complex interplay of structure and dynamics in important energy transfer situations. A number of different types of problems will be focused on experimentally and theoretically. They are excitation transport among chromophores attached to finite size polymer coils; excitation transport among chromophores in monolayers, bilayers, and finite and infinite stacks of layers; excitation transport in large vesicle systems; and photoinduced electron transfer in glasses and liquids, focusing particularly on the back transfer of the electron from the photogenerated radical anion to the radical cation. 33 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Robert F.

    Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  2. Chalcogenide Perovskites for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Samanthe

    Methylammonium Lead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing high efficient low cost photovoltaic modules. Charge transport properties of the solution processed halide perovskites are comparable to some of the existing absorbers used in the current PV industry which require sophisticated processing techniques. Due to this simple processing required to achieve high efficiencies, halide perovskites have become an active field of research. As a result, perovskite solar cells are rapidly reaching towards theoretical efficiency limit of close to 30%. It's believed that ionicity inherent to perovskite materials is one of the contributing factors for the excellent charge transport properties of perovskites. Despite the growing interest for solar energy harvesting purposes, these halide perovskites have serious limitations such as toxicity and instability that need to be addressed in order to commercialize the solar cells incorporating them. This dissertation focuses on a new class of ionic semiconductors, chalcogenide perovskites for solar energy harvesting purposes. Coming from the family perovskites they are expected to have same excellent charge transport properties inherent to perovskites due to the ionicity. Inspired by few theoretical studies on chalcogenide perovskites, BaZrS3 and its Ti alloys were synthesized by sulfurizing the oxide counterpart. Structural characterizations have confirmed the predicted distorted perovskite phase. Optical characterizations have verified the direct band gap suitable for thin film single junction solar cells. Anion alloying was demonstrated by synthesizing oxysulfides with widely tunable band gap suitable for applications such as solid state lighting and sensing.

  3. Tc-99m HIG Scintigraphy in Detection of Active Inflammation in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özhan Özdoğan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The diagnosis of active inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS is crucial for treatment to delay possible persistent deformities. There are no specific laboratory tests and imaging methods to clarify the active disease. We evaluated the value of Tc-99m human immunoglobulin (HIG scintigraphy in detection of active inflammation. Material and Methods: Twenty-nine patients were included. Tc-99m methylenediphosphonate bone (MDP and HIG scintigraphies were performed within 2-5 day intervals. Two control groups were constituted both for MDP and HIG scintigraphies. Active inflammation was determined clinically and by serologic tests. Both scintigraphies were evaluated visually. Sacroiliac joint index values (SII were calculated. Results: Active inflammation was considered in five (sacroiliitis in 2, sacroiliitis-spinal inflammation in 1, achilles tendinitis in 1, arthritis of coxafemoral joints in 1 patients. HIG scintigraphy demonstrated active disease in all 3 patients with active sacroiliitis. But, it was negative in the rest. The other 2 active cases were HIG negative. Right and left SII obtained from HIG scintigraphy was higher (p<0.05 in clinically active patients than inactive patients. There was not any significant difference between patients with inactive sacroiliitis and normal controls. Right and left SII obtained from bone scintigraphy was higher (p<0.05 in patient group than in control group. Conclusion: Clinically inactive AS patients, behave no differently than normal controls with quantitative sacroiliac joint evaluation on HIG scintigraphy. HIG scintigraphy may be valuable for evaluation of sacroiliac joints in patients with uncertain laboratory and clinical findings. (MIRT 2011;20:52-58

  4. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  5. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  6. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  7. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  8. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, A.V. Jr.; Orlando, A. DeF.; Magnoli, D.

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  9. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  10. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  11. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-TR-8155 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model... Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) by Clayton Walker and Gail Vaucher Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2017 June 28 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 5 (Solar Radiation Flux Model) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ROTC Internship

  12. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  13. Economical solar-heating or cooling system with new solar-energy concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1975-01-01

    Economical solar energy collector, made from array of cylindrical Fresnel lenses, does not require tracking mechanism. As the sun changes position, lenses focus solar energy on different collector elements.

  14. Vehicles using solar energy; Accionamiento de vehiculos mediante energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, F.

    2004-07-01

    The reduction of the fossil fuels reserves and the environmental impact derived from the emission of the conventional engines gases, does necessarily to consider other alternative sources of energy for the vehicles. There are described in this communication the technologies used in the solar and hybrid vehicles, as well as the possibilities of future development. This communication places in the context of the subject {sup E}ngineering vehicle{sup ,} given as subject of free configuration in the Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha from the course 2002-2003. (Author)

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  16. Light harvesting for quantum solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvart, Tomas

    2000-05-01

    Despite wide structural and functional differences, the laws that govern quantum solar energy conversion to chemical energy or electricity share many similarities. In the photosynthetic membrane, in common with semiconductor solar cells, the conversion process proceeds from the creation of electron-hole pairs by a photon of light, followed by charge separation to produce the required high-energy product. In many cases, however, mechanisms are needed to enhance the optical absorption cross-section and extend the spectral range of operation. A common way of achieving this is by light harvesting: light absorption by a specialised unit which transfers the energy to the conversion apparatus. This paper considers two examples of light harvesting - semiconductor solar cells and the photosynthetic apparatus - to illustrate the basic operation and principles that apply. The existence of a light harvesting unit in photosynthesis has been known since the early 1930's but details of the process - relating, in particular, to the relationship between the structure and spectral properties - are still being unravelled. The excitation energy carriers are excitons but the precise nature of the transport - via the solid state Frenkel-Peierls variety or by Förster's resonant energy transfer - is still subject to debate. In semiconductor solar cells, the energy of the absorbed photon is collected by minority carriers but the broad principles remain the same. In both cases it is shown that the rate of energy conversion is described by a law which parallels the Shockley's solar cell equation, and the light harvesting energy collection is subject to reciprocity relations which resemble Onsager's reciprocity relations between coefficients which couple appropriate forces and flows in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Differences in the basic atomic make-up in the two systems lead to different energy transport equations. In both cases, however, similar mathematical techniques based on Green

  17. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  18. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  19. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low

  20. Water Desalination Systems Powered by Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barseghyan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, etc. is a problem of high priority. One of the most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. Advanced water treatment system powered by Solar Energy and based on electrodialysis for water desalination and purification, is suggested. Technological and economic evaluations and the benefits of the suggested system are discussed. The Advanced Water Treatment System proposed clears water not only from different salts, but also from some infections, thus decreasing the count of diseases which are caused by the usage of non-clear water. Using Solar Energy makes the system stand alone which is convenient to use in places where power supply is problem.

  1. GPP Webinar: The Solar Roadmap—Navigating the Evolving Solar Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPP and State & Local Climate and Energy Branch webinar on the Solar Roadmap and the evolving solar energy market. This webinar discussed local and state government’s success stories and opportunities for progress in renewable energy goals using the Solar

  2. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  3. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  4. Combined Solar and Wind Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the new concept of combined solar and wind energy systems for buildings applications. Photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines (WTs) can be install on buildings, in case of sufficient wind potential, providing the building with electricity. PVs can be combined with thermal collectors to form the hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems. The PVs (or the PV/Ts) and WT subsystems can supplement each other to cover building electrical load. In case of using PV/T collectors, the surplus of electricity, if not used or stored in batteries, can increase the temperature of the thermal storage tank of the solar thermal unit. The description of the experimental set-up of the suggested PV/T/WT system and experimental results are presented. In PV/T/WT systems the output from the solar part depends on the sunshine time and the output of the wind turbine part depends on the wind speed and is obtained any time of day or night. The use of the three subsystems can cover a great part of building energy load, contributing to conventional energy saving and environment protection. The PV/T/WT systems are considered suitable in rural and remote areas with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. PV/T/WT systems can also be used in typical grid connected applications.

  5. Electric vehicles powered by space solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nansen, R. [Solar Space Industries, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-11-01

    California recently adopted a zero emissions vehicle legislation, requiring that a certain percentage of each major automaker`s sales in California be zero emissions vehicles. Electric vehicles are the only technological alternative for automakers to meet the zero tailpipe emissions standard. The required percentage is set at two per cent for 1998, rising to 10 per cent by 2003. If the batteries of these vehicles were to be charged by power generated in plants that produce atmospheric emissions, the pollution equation would not change in any significant way. Clearly, a new way of generating electricity must be designed. This paper describes how solar power satellites (SPS) could be used to provide nonpolluting electricity in the future to power zero emissions electric vehicles and to satisfy the growing world demand for energy. The concept of the SPS energy system is to place giant satellites covered with vast arrays of solar cells in geosynchronous orbit, where they would be in sunlight more than 99 per cent of the time. The solar cells would convert sunlight to electricity. The electricity would then be changed to radio-frequency energy by a transmitting antenna on the satellite. This would be beamed to a receiver site on Earth where it would be reconverted to electricity. The power would then be routed into the normal electric distribution networks for use on Earth. 2 figs.

  6. Solar Energy Supported Desalination Processes for Desalting of Sea Water

    OpenAIRE

    , M.E. Argun

    2010-01-01

    This study is a review of solar energy supported desalination processes. Although the sun light captured by earth excessively meets of world’s need, we can use a few amount of this source. Solar energy supported desalination is one of the method developed for desalination. Solar energy usage will also decrease CO2 emission which is responsible of global warming. A lot of studies to improve the efficiency of solar energy systems have been carried out during last years. Solar energy can be used...

  7. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    world has been adopted as a very sustainable source of energy for waste treatment. Its application in both solid waste and waste water treatment as in pyrolysis, solar incineration and gasification for solid wastes treatment and solar pathogenic organic destruction, solar photocatalytic degradation, solar distillation and ...

  8. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  9. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  10. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  11. Calculating the Solar Energy of a Flat Plate Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Rosario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The amount of solar energy that could be obtained by a flat plate solar collector of one square meter dimension is calculated in three different locations: Tampa FL, Fairbanks AL, and Pontianak Indonesia, considering the varying sunset time for each day of the year. The results show that if the collectors are placed near the equator, more total energy could be obtained. In fact, by placing a solar collector in Pontianak, Indonesia 12.42% more solar energy can be obtained than by placing it in Tampa and 96.9% more solar energy than Alaska.

  12. Nanowires for solar energy and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Sutherland, Alexander M.; Guo, Ting

    2007-09-01

    We report here two approaches that we have developed recently to help solve the problem of energy crisis and global warming facing us today. One approach is to use nanoparticles attached to the end of single-walled carbon nanotubes to catalytically convert CO II and CH 4 into hydrogen and carbon fibers, which can then be used in hydrogen fuel cells and as the building material in transportation vehicles and many other structures. The second approach is to use silica nanowires as templates to make nanoscale electrodes to be used in solar cells. The main advantage of this type of solar cells is that it would be easy to incorporate them directly into glass windows on all the buildings.

  13. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saye, A.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this

  14. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  15. Evaluation of the Measured Energy Performance of Four Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    exception occurred because a building occupant manually operated the system. Although the manual operacion of this one system prevented damage to the solar...Specification 13985, Solar Equipment and the Army Technical Manual 5-804-2, Solar Energy Systems. -....... .. . .. . 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE SOLAR...standard built-up roof. *Metric Conversion Table is on p 81. 3C. Knapp, T. Stoffel, and S. Whitaker, Insolation Data Manual , SERI/SP-755- 789 (Solar

  16. Solar energy market penetration models - Science or number mysticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The forecast market potential of a solar technology is an important factor determining its R&D funding. Since solar energy market penetration models are the method used to forecast market potential, they have a pivotal role in a solar technology's development. This paper critiques the applicability of the most common solar energy market penetration models. It is argued that the assumptions underlying the foundations of rigorously developed models, or the absence of a reasonable foundation for the remaining models, restrict their applicability.

  17. Solar-powered electrochemical energy storage: an alternative to solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D.; Huang, Zhongjie; Trang, Brittany B.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    Because of the intermittent nature of solar radiation, being able to simultaneously convert and store solar energy is a significant advance for efficiently harnessing solar energy. Solar fuels have already been recognized as a promising method towards this goal and have attracted tremendous research interest recently. Alternatively, this goal can also be achieved by using the solar-powered electrochemical energy storage (SPEES) strategy, which integrates a photoelectrochemical cell and an electrochemical cell into a single device. The integrated device is able to harvest solar energy and store it in situ within the device via a photocharging process and also distribute the energy as electric power when needed. This essay reviews the past SPEES research and analyzes its future prospects with a special emphasis on chemical design and material choices. We hope that the article will help draw more research attention to this field and stimulate additional exciting investigations toward more efficient solar energy utilization.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of solar energy programmes in Bhutan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthan, B.; Monga, P. [UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Giri, S. [UNDP, United Nation Building, Thimphu (Bhutan); Adhikari, R.N. [Norlha Associates, Thimphu (Bhutan)

    2004-07-01

    The paper reports on the renewable energy and solar electrification programmes in Bhutan. Findings from a field survey of PV systems have been presented and lessons identified. A discussion of the key results from the assessments are also presented and conclusions drawn. The paper provides direct feedback on the performance of PV systems in difficult geographical conditions such as those prevailing in Bhutan. The results and findings of this paper are relevant to PV industry targeting rural electrification markets and policy makers and aid-planners involved in PV rural electrification initiatives. (authors)

  20. Defect Tolerant Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakutayev, Andriy; Caskey, Christopher M; Fioretti, Angela N; Ginley, David S; Vidal, Julien; Stevanovic, Vladan; Tea, Eric; Lany, Stephan

    2014-04-03

    Defect tolerance is the tendency of a semiconductor to keep its properties despite the presence of crystallographic defects. Scientific understanding of the origin of defect tolerance is currently missing. Here we show that semiconductors with antibonding states at the top of the valence band are likely to be tolerant to defects. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that Cu3N with antibonding valence band maximum has shallow intrinsic defects and no surface states, in contrast to GaN with bonding valence band maximum. Experimental measurements indicate shallow native donors and acceptors in Cu3N thin films, leading to 10(16)-10(17) cm(-3) doping with either electrons or holes depending on the growth conditions. The experimentally measured bipolar doping and the solar-matched optical absorption onset (1.4 eV) make Cu3N a promising candidate absorber for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, despite the calculated indirect fundamental band gap (1.0 eV). These conclusions can be extended to other materials with antibonding character of the valence band, defining a class of defect-tolerant semiconductors for solar energy conversion applications.

  1. Off-farm applications of solar energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Food processing applications make up almost all present off-farm studies of solar energy in agriculture. Research, development and demonstration projects on solar food processing have shown significant progress over the past 3 years. Projects have included computer simulation and mathematical models, hardware and process development for removing moisture from horticultural or animal products, integration of energy conservation with solar energy augmentation in conventional processes, and commercial scale demonstrations. The demonstration projects include solar heated air for drying prunes and raisins, soy beans and onions/garlic; and solar generated steam for orange juice pasteurization. Several new and planned projects hold considerable promise for commerical exploitation in future food processes.

  2. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  3. Nuclear energy + solar energy, why not?; Energia nuclear + energia solar, por que no?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, I.; Nelson E, P., E-mail: ihernandezc91@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Clean energies such as nuclear and solar are part of the solution to the energy dependence that we face today and also help us to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, thus avoiding a global average temperature increase that is irreversible and harmful to all living beings on the planet. Independently the nuclear and solar energies have had a great development in recent years, so in this work we set ourselves the task of creating a synergy between them. First, we conducted a survey of different people involved in the area of energy (energy efficiency, clean energy and renewable sources) in order to know if the area of which they are part influences with respect to the impression that they have of safety in terms of supply, return on investment and safety to the health and environment of another energy source for which we use a correlation analysis. With the results obtained we propose to use photo thermic solar energy as a support to reduce the frequency of accidents by station blackout and we perform the analysis of the combination using the methodology of Probabilistic Analysis of Security with the help of SAPHIRE 7 software to realize the event trees by station blackout of a nuclear power plant and faults for a photo-thermal solar plant. Finally, the decrease in the probability of station blackout from the proposed combination is quantified. The results were favorable to indicate that the probability of station blackout is reduced in half and that is why is suggested to continue studying the combination. (Author)

  4. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  5. Optical analysis of solar energy tubular absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltiel, C; Sokolov, M

    1982-11-15

    The energy absorbed by a solar energy tubular receiver element for a single incident ray is derived. Two types of receiver elements were analyzed: (1) an inner tube with an absorbing coating surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube, and (2) a semitransparent inner tube filled with an absorbing fluid surrounded by a semitransparent cover tube. The formation of ray cascades in the semitransparent tubes is considered. A numerical simulation to investigate the influence of the angle of incidence, sizing, thickness, and coefficient of extinction of the tubes was performed. A comparison was made between receiver elements with and without cover tubes. Ray tracing analyses in which rays were followed within the tubular receiver element as well as throughout the rest of the collector were performed for parabolic and circular trough concentrating collectors.

  6. Black metallurgical silicon for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Lee, Jung-Ho; Sprafke, Alexander N.; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2016-01-01

    Metal impurities are known to create deep traps in the silicon (Si) bandgap, significantly reducing the minority carrier lifetime and consequently deteriorating the efficiency of a Si-based solar conversion system. Traditional purification methods via ‘Siemens’ and metallurgical routes involve complex and energy-intensive processes. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop novel Si treatment technologies. With the radical evolution of nanotechnology in the past decades, new nano-approaches are offering opportunities to diminish the detrimental impacts of metal impurities or upgrade low quality Si in a cost-effective and energy-saving way. Here we review various recently developed dry and wet chemical etching methods including reactive ion etching, electrochemical etching, stain etching and metal assisted chemical etching. The current progress and the application prospects of those methods in nanostructure creation and Si upgrading are given and discussed in detail.

  7. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar...

  8. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  9. Modular assembly of a photovoltaic solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Robert M.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.; Graae, Johan E. A.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a modular assembly of a solar energy concentrator having a photovoltaic energy receiver with passive cooling. Solar cell means are fixedly coupled to a radiant energy concentrator. Tension means bias a large area heat sink against the cell thereby allowing the cell to expand or contract with respect to the heat sink due to differential heat expansion.

  10. SOLAR ENERGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN NIGERIA: Short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is the energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which requires no medium for its transmission. The earth receives about one – half of one billionth of the total solar output. The sun is largely responsible for almost all of our conventional energy sources. For example, photosynthesis ...

  11. Policy, Institutional and Programme Readiness for Solar Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response, policies and institutions have emerged to promote solar energy. This study investigates policy, institutional and programme readiness to embrace solar energy uptake in the country. The study reveals that South Africa has put in place numerous initiatives, like the Renewable Energy Independent Power ...

  12. Steric effect studies on solar energy storage of norbornadiene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to determine the possible solar energy storage in the norbornadiene (1) / quadricyclane (2) system, through involving steric effects on various position of carbon C1, C2 or C7 for 1 and 2; calculating the corresponding energies at B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. The extent of the solar energy ...

  13. Evaluation of the photochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppert, J. A.

    1977-08-09

    The potential for utilizing solar energy through photochemical storage were investigated. Both water and nitrosyl chloride systems are examined. A comprehensive review of the literature led to the conclusion that many major questions must be answered before photochemical energy storage becomes a viable alternate means of exploiting solar energy.

  14. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  15. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  16. The solar energy in Israel; L'energie solaire en Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, L

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  17. Large solar energy systems within IEA task 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, A.C. de; Isakson, P.; Bokhoven, T.P.; Vanoli, K.; Tepe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design and construction of advanced large solar systems.

  18. Employment from Solar Energy: A Bright but Partly Cloudy Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, K. K.; Santini, D. J.

    A comparison of quantitative and qualitative employment effects of solar and conventional systems can prove the increased employment postulated as one of the significant secondary benefits of a shift from conventional to solar energy use. Current quantitative employment estimates show solar technology-induced employment to be generally greater…

  19. Electrifying Greece with solar and wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentis Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring energy security, reducing GHG emissions and boosting the competitiveness of a country’s economy by attracting investments and technical knowhow are of paramount importance considering the targets of “20-20-20” set by the European community. Being the cradle of civilization, Greece appears today as a country caught in a prolonged hard economic and social crisis, the way out of which its citizens are looking forward as well as the entire European Union. Establishment of the leading renewable energy sources like solar and wind in Greece will not only increase the independence of its own electrification but will also provide with a foundation for developing the market of international trade of “green” energy. This paper initially highlights the current status of photovoltaics and wind turbines in Greece. Furthermore, this study evaluates whether a higher penetration of the above mentioned green energy sources would have positive impact in the economy of the country or not and in what extent they could decline the CO2 emissions until 2020, comparing to the corresponding levels in 2010.

  20. Role of the Atmospheric Sciences for Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleissl, J. P.; Lave, M.; Urquhart, B. G.; Mathiesen, P. J.; Bosch, J. L.; Chow, C. W.; Luoma, J. K.; Jamaly, M.; Nottrott, A. A.; Wegener, J.

    2011-12-01

    Solar energy is the fastest growing renewable energy source. Public interest, practically unlimited solar resources, and dramatic cost reductions have fueled the hopes for grid parity of solar energy production and dramatic growth of the industry. However, the variability of the solar fuel presents perceived and real challenges that can increase grid-integration costs of solar energy. Variability in global irradiance at the surface is dominated by solar geometry and atmospheric transmissivity effects with clouds explaining the majority of the non-geometry variance. Atmospheric scientists can play a major role in quantifying resource variability and improving solar forecasting models. I will start by presenting the state of the solar energy industry. Various studies of scaling of solar variability in space and time will be reviewed. Solar forecasting tools such as satellites, sky imagery, and numerical weather prediction will be introduced and state-of-the-art applications in the solar forecasting industry will be reviewed. Directions for RD&D in the atmospheric sciences will be presented.

  1. Solar radiation practical modeling for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Daryl Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Written by a leading scientist with over 35 years of experience working at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Solar Radiation: Practical Modeling for Renewable Energy Applications brings together the most widely used, easily implemented concepts and models for estimating broadband and spectral solar radiation data. The author addresses various technical and practical questions about the accuracy of solar radiation measurements and modeling. While the focus is on engineering models and results, the book does review the fundamentals of solar radiation modeling and solar radiation m

  2. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  3. Combined heat and power and solar energy; BHKW und solare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, M.; Schmidt, A.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at a new apartment complex in Buelach, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie' low energy-consumption standard and also features solar-thermal heat generation. This solar installation provides heat for the provision of domestic hot water and, also, heat for the space-heating system of the building complex. The solar collectors cover an area of 153 m{sup 2}; their power is rated at 96 kW. Further elements of the building's technical services include a combined heat and power plant, a heat-pump and a gas-fired boiler. The article discusses ecological and social aspects of the design and construction of the building complex and briefly describes the installations, which also include a 'Minergie' fan-assisted balanced ventilation system.

  4. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  5. Prediction of energy balance and utilization for solar electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Guo, L. M.; Wang, Y. K.; Zafar, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    Solar irradiation and ambient temperature are characterized by region, season and time-domain, which directly affects the performance of solar energy based car system. In this paper, the model of solar electric cars used was based in Xi’an. Firstly, the meteorological data are modelled to simulate the change of solar irradiation and ambient temperature, and then the temperature change of solar cell is calculated using the thermal equilibrium relation. The above work is based on the driving resistance and solar cell power generation model, which is simulated under the varying radiation conditions in a day. The daily power generation and solar electric car cruise mileage can be predicted by calculating solar cell efficiency and power. The above theoretical approach and research results can be used in the future for solar electric car program design and optimization for the future developments.

  6. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  7. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Susan Tyler

    This companion document updates an April 1998 volume on designing schools to use solar energy as a power source. Volume 2 presents numerous case studies of solar installations in new and existing schools across the United States and Europe, updates and presents new examples of solar education programs, and offers an updated resource listing of…

  8. National solar energy education directory. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Cronin, S; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1980-01-01

    The information contained in this directory is derived from responses to a national survey of educational institutions and organizations involved in solar energy educational activities beyond the secondary school level. Phone calls and follow-up mail requests were used to gather additional information when necessary. Every survey instrument was read, coded, and edited before entry into the data base from which this directory was produced. The Directory is organized alphabetically by state. Institutions and organizations within each state are categorized according to type (Colleges and Universities, Junior/Community Colleges, Vocational/Technical Schools, and Other Educational Institutions and Organizations) and listed alphabetically within these categories. Within each institutional listing the amount of information provided will vary according to the completeness of the survey response received from that institution. (MHR)

  9. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  10. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  11. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Energy and Electricity Security on ECOWAS Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmanuel Agnidé Lawin; Serge Dimitri Bazyomo; Abdoulaye Ouedraogo

    2017-01-01

    ... of energy, and the coefficient of variation of solar irradiation. The results show that 31.76% of the total area of each ECOWAS country has the potential to shelter photovoltaic energy system generators...

  13. Process and device for using solar energy for vehicles. Verfahren und Anordnung zur Nutzung solarer Energie fuer Kraftfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, V.; Winterling, G.

    1987-05-21

    This is a process for using solar energy for vehicles, where solar cells situated in or below the surface of the bodywork or superstructure produce electrical DC from the effect of light, by which either a fan for supplying fresh air to the passenger compartment or to the load space is driven, or the batteries of the vehicle are charged. The solar cells form a solar cell panel, which consists of two adjacent solar cell areas of the same photoelectric output. The solar cell areas can be connected in parallel or in series electrically and each solar cell area generates a DC voltage at average solar irradiation, which is about half the voltage supplied by the battery or batteries and the solar cell areas are connected in parallel to drive the fan or in series to charge the battery (or batteries).

  14. Solar Power Plants: Dark Horse in the Energy Stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Richard S.

    1977-01-01

    Twelfth in a series of reports on solar energy, this article provides information relating to the following questions: (1) economic cost of solar-thermal-electric central power plants; (2) cost comparison with nuclear or coal plants; (3) locations of this energy source; and (4) its use and social costs. (CS)

  15. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  16. Wind loads on solar energy systems, mounted on flat roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads on solar energy systems, which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  17. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  18. The role of Solar thermal in Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Hansen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This report deals with solar thermal technologies and investigates possible roles for solar thermal in future energy systems for four national energy systems; Germany, Austria, Italy and Denmark. The project period started in January 2014 and finished by October 2017. This report is based...

  19. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: FY 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2004 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2004. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  20. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program?s national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  1. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2007 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program from October 2006 to September 2007. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  2. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2006 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for Fiscal Year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program's national laboratories (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Brookhaven National Laboratory) and university and industry partners.

  3. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  4. Spectral light management for solar energy conversion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Cameron

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inherent broadband nature of the solar radiation, combined with the narrow spectral sensitivity range of direct solar to electricity devices, there is a massive opportunity to manipulate the solar spectrum to increase the functionality and efficiency of solar energy conversion devices. Spectral splitting or manipulation facilitates the efficient combination of both high-temperature solar thermal systems, which can absorb over the entire solar spectrum to create heat, and photovoltaic cells, which only convert a range of wavelengths to electricity. It has only recently been possible, with the development of nanofabrication techniques, to integrate micro- and nano-photonic structures as spectrum splitters/manipulators into solar energy conversion devices. In this paper, we summarize the recent developments in beam splitting techniques, and highlight some relevant applications including combined PV-thermal collectors and efficient algae production, and suggest paths for future development in this field.

  5. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  6. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-07-01

    This quarterly newsletter is intended for participants and stakeholders in the DOE Solar Program. The content includes features on technology development, market transformation, and policy analysis for solar. Highlights include solar industry updates, DOE funding opportunity announcements and awards, and national laboratory technology developments.

  7. Energy efficiency analysis of a trapezoidal solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, HongSheng; Jiang, Linsong; Wang, Jiansheng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an investigation of the energy performance of a mini trapezoidal solar pond (with surface of 2.4m×2.4m and depth of 1.5 m) which was built in Dalian, China. The pond was filled with salty water to form the upper convective zone (UCZ), the non-convective zone (UCZ), and the lower convective zone (LCZ). Energy efficiency, the ratio of available energy to the total energy, was defined basing on the first law of thermodynamics at each zone of the solar pond. The energy efficiency of the three layers were analyzed separately accounting to the simulation results of the temperature distribution in the trapezoidal solar pond. It shows that the energy efficiency of the solar pond is relatively high at the beginning of the operation, and the energy efficiency of the UCZ is the lowest while the LCZ is the highest.

  8. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  9. Solar energy in the United States; L'energie solaire aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, D. [Attache scientifique a San Francisco (United States); Slaoui, A. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InEss, CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France); Soler, R. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Bermudez, V. [IRDEP, EDF, 78 - Chatou (France)

    2009-07-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  10. Schools Going Solar: A Guide to Schools Enjoying the Power of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bob; Mayotte, Jenna; Cochran, Jacquie

    Schools today are hosting the solar energy systems that will become commonplace tomorrow in public buildings, homes, and businesses. This publication serves as a guide to how schools are using solar energy, listing scores of schools currently using the sun for lighting, heating, and cooling as well as highlights of innovative programs to expand…

  11. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  12. 78 FR 31997 - Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Greatmat Technology Corp., Kentucky USA Energy, Inc., Solar Energy Ltd., and Visiphor Corp., Order... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Solar Energy Ltd. because it has... concerning the securities of Kentucky USA Energy, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  13. Solar energy related applications, education, and building retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yunhua

    Solar energy technologies have been well development for a wide range of applications. However, research on solar photovoltaics is still being conducted to improve performance and lower installation costs. For example, the power generation potential is not only determined by the intensity or location of solar radiation, but also related to the incident angle of the light. Chapter one explores the effect of angle-dependent characteristic on overall power output for different fixed orientations and configurations by hourly modeling, and the results show substantial improvements are possible. Michigan State University (MSU) has been promoting building retrofits combining renewable energy, and the Students Planning Advanced Retrofit Technology Applications (SPARTA) is a group that helps MSU address energy initiatives on campus. Chapter two summarizes the overall successes of building retrofit projects including solar rooftop, LED lighting, and window film conducted by the SPARTA group. The last chapter describes the development of paintable luminescent solar concentrator modules for renewable energy education. The activity is designed for middle school students to understand how energy is generated from solar energy in an inexpensive alternative, which also generates both excitement in solar energy and motivates students to become creative participants in the energy problems.

  14. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  15. Simulation of Solar Energy Use in Livelihood of Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvocich, I. Ya; Preobrazhenskiy, A. P.; Choporov, O. N.

    2017-11-01

    Solar energy can be considered as the most technological and economical type of renewable energy. The purpose of the paper is to increase the efficiency of solar energy utilization on the basis of the mathematical simulation of the solar collector. A mathematical model of the radiant heat transfer vacuum solar collector is clarified. The model was based on the process of radiative heat transfer between glass and copper walls with the defined blackness degrees. A mathematical model of the ether phase transition point is developed. The dependence of the reservoir walls temperature change on the ambient temperature over time is obtained. The results of the paper can be useful for the development of prospective sources using solar energy.

  16. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  17. Solar Energy: A Necessary Investment in a Developing Economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Energy is the pivot of all developmental efforts in both the developed and the developing nations. Due to the fact that sources or conventional means of energy generation arc finite and fast depleting, most industrialized countries have started research on solar energy as a renewable sources or energy. This paper ...

  18. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  19. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J. [Deutsche Aerospace AG, Munich (Germany)]|[Technical Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  20. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  1. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model......, various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar...

  2. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  3. Application of Solar Energy to Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Nash J; J, Harstad A

    1976-11-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/ Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  4. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  5. Photoswichable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, Engin; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2012-02-01

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density and short lifetime in the photo-excited state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to design systems for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, and/or the type of linkers.

  6. Personalized energy: the home as a solar power station and solar gas station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Point-of-use solar energy would generate the exact amount of energy any one individual needs, at the location where it is needed. Such a means of energy supply would create a revolution in society's approach to energy use, and allow a more level playing field for all. This Viewpoint considers some of the key enablers for this technology.

  7. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Miroslaw

    2017-11-01

    The solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  8. Energy efficiency of a solar domestic hot water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zukowski Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar domestic hot water (SDHW system located on the campus of Bialystok University of Technology is the object of the research described in the current paper. The solar thermal system is composed of 35 flat plate collectors, 21 evacuated tube collectors and eight hot water tanks with the capacity of 1 m3 of each. Solar facility is equipped with hardware for automatic data collection. Additionally, the weather station located on the roof of the building provides measurements of basic parameters of ambient air and solar radiation. The main objective of Regional Operational Program was the assessment of the effectiveness of this solar energy technology in the climatic conditions of the north-eastern Poland. Energy efficiency of SDHW system was defined in this research as the ratio between the useful heat energy supplied to the domestic hot water system and solar energy incident on the surface of solar panels. Heat loss from water storage tanks, and from the pipe network to the surrounding air, as well as the electrical energy consumed by the pumps have been included in the calculations. The paper presents the detailed results and conclusions obtained from this energy analysis.

  9. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  10. Annual review of solar energy. Period of review: 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    A general review of national solar energy programs is provided. An executive summary and a brief history of the Federal solar energy program are presented. The issues and implications of the National Energy Plan that relate to solar energy development ae discussed. An overview is provided of the present Federal solar energy program, including the activities of several Federal agencies outside the Department of Energy. Some of the non-Federal solar energy programs ae reviewed, including international programs in which the U.S. has some role, programs of state and local governments, college and university programs, the work of private industry, and individual and small scale activities. A synposis of the major categories of solar technology is provided. Each chapter discusses a particular technology area and includes a basic technological description; a summary of the goals and activities of the Federal R and D program for the technology; significant events and development of the past year; and a brief overview of problems, uncertainties, and dissenting views. Three appendices include a synopsis of major energy events of 1977; a glossary of technical terms, abbreviations, and acronyms, and a table of conversion factors. (MHR)

  11. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  12. Seguidor Solar, optimizando el aprovechamiento de la energía solar ; Solar tracker, optimizing ofimprovementof the solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Machado Toranzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó el diseño e implementación de un dispositivo encargado de obtener las coordenadas del Sol en cualquier momento del día, es decir, un seguidor solar a dos ejes por punto luminoso. Este seguidor consta de dos bloques principales: la tarjeta controladora y la parte mecánica. Su diseño se basó en el uso de fotorresistencias, microcontroladores y motores de pasos, el mismo posee altas prestaciones y bajo costo. El prototipo construido es utilizado en las investigaciones de aprovechamiento de la energía solar que se realizan en el Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicadas (GERA de la Universidad de Oriente, particularmente en los paneles fotovoltaicos y los calentadores de agua. Se realizó una prueba experimental en los laboratorios y en el polígono de dicho grupo y se comprobó que el seguidor solar funciona adecuadamente, cumpliendo con las expectativas deseadas.The design and implementation of a device for obtaining the coordinates of the sun at any time during the day, it means, a solar tracker of type two axis by luminous point is developed in this paper. This tracker consists of two main blocks: the controller board and the mechanical part. The design is based on the use of photoresistences, microcontrollers and stepper motors. The prototype is used on investigations about solar energy developed at the GERA (Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicada of Universidad de Oriente, particularly in photovoltaic panels and water heaters. An experimental test was conducted in the laboratories and at the site of the group and it was found that the solar tracker is functioning properly, meeting the desired expectations.

  13. Minutes: ANSI Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-29

    Minutes of the April 29, 1980, meeting of the American National Standards Institute steering committee on solar energy standards development are given. Attachments include correspondence from individuals and organizations which primarily describe the Solar Public Interest Coordination Committee (SPICC) and its recent activities. Also a report on the meeting of the ANSI subcommittee on international activity is attached. (WHK)

  14. Energy management using solar and fuel cell based appliances in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Emission reduction, green house emissions, renewable sources, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal. 1. Introduction. India has already decided to cut the carbon intensity from 20% to 25% by 2050 against a 2005 base line .It can be achieved only when each individual is made aware of the need of energy so that a ...

  15. Experimental Investigation on an Energy Efficient Solar Tunnel Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Seshan Ram

    2012-01-01

    The research determines the effectiveness of the solar tunnel dryer developed and the product dried in the device is superior in quality and also it is compatible with branded products available in the market. The study also determines Acetamide as Phase Key words: Solar Tunnel Dryer, Acetamide as Phase Change Materials, Conversion into Thermal Energy, Thermocouple, and Pyranometer

  16. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  17. Solar Energy Education Packet for Elementary & Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    The arrangement of this packet is essentially evolutionary, with a conscious effort to alternate reading assignments, activities and experiments. It begins with solar energy facts and terminology as background to introduce the reader to basic concepts. It progresses into a discussion of passive solar systems. This is followed by several projects…

  18. Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wermager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from an undergraduate research project concerning the energy efficiency, consumption, and generation of a 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2 solar house. The results were compared to a home of similar size and layout, built using traditional construction methods. The solar house was modeled after the Chameleon House: Missouri University of Science and Technology’s 2013 entry in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The efficiency of the design was analyzed using Energy-10 Version 1.8 software. For this comparison, a fictional American couple was created and a breakdown of their energy-use habits was recorded to accurately depict the magnitude of energy consumption. A 71% energy savings was forecasted using the Energy-10 software through the incorporation of various energy-conserving strategies in the home’s design. In addition, if a 9.1 kW photovoltaic array is also installed on a home of this size, it is possible to fully offset the energy consumption of the home. The forecasted energy usage and production detailed in this report shall be used for analyzing the integrity of the design of the Chameleon House as well as future solar houses constructed by the Missouri S&T Solar House Team.

  19. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi-Year Technical Plan 2003-2007 and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This publication charts a 5-year planning cycle for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program. The document includes anticipated technical plans for the next 5 years for photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, solar water and space heating, solar hybrid lighting, and other new concepts that can take advantage of the solar resource. Solar energy is described as a clean, abundant, renewable energy resource that can benefit the nation by diversifying our energy supply.

  20. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  1. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  2. Solar Energy as a Form Giver for Future Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Curreli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy is considered as a main influence on urban configurations. However, there is a difficulty on translating the city models based on theoretical renewable energy concepts into practical applications. This study considers the possibility of understanding this future model as a transformation of the existing urban centres. With this objective, a methodology to intervene in existing cities based on the study of solar access is developed. Therefore, an analysis of solar potential in relation with urban morphology is carried on through a simulation software in l’Eixample, a neighbourhood of Barcelona. The distribution of the sun factor in the different areas of the building blocks envelope displays possible morphological modifications that would facilitate solar energy collection. Consequently, the analytical method presented could be applied to regulate urban interventions with the aim of obtaining more solar energy based cities.

  3. Solar Energy Technologies Program Newsletter - First Quarter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-22

    The first quarter 2010 edition of the Solar Energy Technologies Program newsletter summarizes the activities for the past three months, funding opportunities, highlights from the national labs, and upcoming events.

  4. Solar Power Augmented Electrolysis Module for Energy Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Regenerative fuel cell systems often include a dedicated electrolysis module with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels packaged as a subsystem of the larger energy storage...

  5. Solar breeder: Energy payback time for silicon photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy expenditures of the prevailing manufacturing technology of terrestrial photovoltaic cells and panels were evaluated, including silicon reduction, silicon refinement, crystal growth, cell processing and panel building. Energy expenditures include direct energy, indirect energy, and energy in the form of equipment and overhead expenses. Payback times were development using a conventional solar cell as a test vehicle which allows for the comparison of its energy generating capability with the energies expended during the production process. It was found that the energy payback time for a typical solar panel produced by the prevailing technology is 6.4 years. Furthermore, this value drops to 3.8 years under more favorable conditions. Moreover, since the major energy use reductions in terrestrial manufacturing have occurred in cell processing, this payback time directly illustrates the areas where major future energy reductions can be made -- silicon refinement, crystal growth, and panel building.

  6. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...... showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...

  7. Photovoltaic engineering services pertinent to solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R O; Ho, J C.T.; Kurth, W; Surek, T

    1975-06-01

    The application of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) for use with solar cells has been investigated. Experiments with state-of-the-art Si cells in a CPC and under solar concentration were performed. A theoretical model for calculating the behavior of Si solar cells with concentration was developed. Detailed calculations of the energy distribution in the CPC were made. Finally a cost effectiveness analysis shows that the CPC system will produce power at very much lower cost than will flat panel solar cell arrays. (auth)

  8. Solar Decathlon 2002: Energy We Can Live With (Program Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-09-01

    This program brochure will be handed out to the teams, sponsors, and some attendees to provide a brief overview of the competition and the fourteen entries. The brochure also outlines the sponsors reasons for participating in the Solar Decathlon. The U.S. Department of Energy is proud to sponsor the first-ever Solar Decathlon, a college and university competition that brings together our nation's brightest minds to demonstrate practical ways of producing and using energy efficiently in the home. The Solar Decathlon consists of 10 contests that encompass all the ways in which we use energy in our daily lives--from livability and comfort to daily chores and home-based work to getting around town. Sunlight is the only source of energy that can be used to generate the thermal, electrical, and mechanical power needed to compete in the 10 contests. The best looking house that can produce the most energy and use that energy the most efficiently will win. Energy efficiency and solar technologies are available for the home today, and they are affordable. At the same time, the designs of these homes are attractive and livable. The Solar Decathlon will prove that investment in renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil, improve human health, conserve natural resources, and create markets for American products around the world.

  9. Handbook on solar energy and energy conservation for Arizona local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D.E.; Pfister, S.; Harper, D.; English, T.; Biddle, W.; Smith, D.

    Three Guidebooks comprise the Handbook. Guidebook 1 provides information for local leaders on how to initiate and develop a local energy program. Guidebook 2, Planning and Zoning for Solar Access, provides assistance to people involved in the development and operation of planning and zoning methods to provide local solar access protection. Guidebook 3, Incorporating Solar Energy Conservation into Local Codes, provides assistance to the key people involved in the development and operation of local building codes. The paths that 15 communities took in Arizona took in designing their energy plan are summarized. A case study of Tucson, Arizona emphasizing land use regulations and the use of solar energy is presented in two parts: Potential Barriers to the Use of Solar Energy in Tucson and Solar Planning Options for the City of Tuscon. (MCW)

  10. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Grupp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  11. Transient analytical solution of a solar still integrated with a tubular solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Y.P. [L.N. Mithila Univ., Physics Dept., Bihar (India); Yadav, B.P. [R.J. Coll., Physics Dept., Chapra, Bihar (India)

    1998-12-01

    A transient analytical solution has been obtained of a solar still integrated with a tubular solar energy collector. Explicit expressions were derived for the temperatures of various components of the system as a function of time and space coordinates and in terms of geometrical, operational and meteorological parameters. This facilitates evolving the optimum design of the system. (Author)

  12. Solar energy in buildings; L'energie solaire dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the presentations given at the first French national meetings of solar energy for the development of solar systems in buildings. The meeting was organized over two days. The first day comprises 4 workshops about: urbanism and planning, cultural acceptability of solar energy in buildings (the OPAC 38 housing association, point of view on an energy information point, the Freiburg (Germany) solar region and marketing examples), technical integration to the structure (Clipsol solutions), and economical criteria (compared impacts of R and D public photovoltaic programs (USA, Japan, Germany, France, Italy), financing of rehabilitation projects, global approach of solar photovoltaic energy, technical solutions and strategy of products development, why and how to make an economical analysis of solar energy applications in the building industry). The second day comprises a plenary session and a round table: global status of solar energy development in Europe, status of French programs, renewable energies in Europe, the experience of Alsace region (Eastern France), the success of German solar markets, and the tools for the launching of solar energy. Two syntheses for these two days of meetings complete the document. (J.S.)

  13. Passive and Hybrid Solar Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The background and scope of the program is presented in general terms. The Program Plan is summarized describing how individual projects are categorized into mission-oriented tasks according to market sector categories. The individual projects funded by DOE are presented as follows: residential buildings, commercial buildings, solar products, solar cities and towns, and agricultural buildings. A summary list of projects by institution (contractors) and indexed by market application area is included. (MHR)

  14. High-energy particles associated with solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Klimas, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    High-energy particles, the so-called solar cosmic rays, are often generated in association with solar flares, and then emitted into interplanetary space. These particles, consisting of electrons, protons, and other heavier nuclei, including the iron-group, are accelerated in the vicinity of the flare. By studying the temporal and spatial varation of these particles near the earth's orbit, their storage and release mechanisms in the solar corona and their propagation mechanism can be understood. The details of the nuclear composition and the rigidity spectrum for each nuclear component of the solar cosmic rays are important for investigating the acceleration mechanism in solar flares. The timing and efficiency of the acceleration process can also be investigated by using this information. These problems are described in some detail by using observational results on solar cosmic rays and associated phenomena.

  15. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  16. Lanthanum hexaboride for solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Elisa; Mercatelli, Luca; Meucci, Marco; Zoli, Luca; Sciti, Diletta

    2017-04-06

    We investigate the optical properties of LaB6 - based materials, as possible candidates for solid absorbers in Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems. Bulk LaB6 materials were thermally consolidated by hot pressing starting from commercial powders. To assess the solar absorbance and spectral selectivity properties, room-temperature hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, considering different compositions, porosities and surface roughnesses. Thermal emittance at around 1100 K has been measured. Experimental results showed that LaB6 can have a solar absorbance comparable to that of the most advanced solar absorber material in actual plants such as Silicon Carbide, with a higher spectral selectivity. Moreover, LaB6 has also the appealing characteristics to be a thermionic material, so that it could act at the same time both as direct high-temperature solar absorber and as electron source, significantly reducing system complexity in future concentrating solar thermionic systems and bringing a real innovation in this field.

  17. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  18. Solar Energy Generation Model for High Altitude Long Endurance Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Brizon, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    For designing and evaluating new concepts for HALE platforms, the energy provided by solar cells is a key factor. The purpose of this thesis is to model the electrical power which can be harnessed by such a platform along any flight trajectory for different aircraft designs. At first, a model of the solar irradiance received at high altitude will be performed using the solar irradiance models already existing for ground level applications as a basis. A calculation of the efficiency of the energy g...

  19. Solar energy for district heating and group centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlman, E.; Zinko, H.; Hultmark, G.; Isakson, P.; Karlsson, B.; Margen, P.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the technique and the state of the art concerning solar energy in a district heating system by the turn of the year 1983/84. The market potential and the cost accounting and the development are discussed. An estimate of the energy production of solar collector systems is presented. 11 different pilot and demonstration plants for solar district heating are described, particularly the plants at Tumba, Knivsta, Studsvik, Torvalla, Ingelstad and Lyckebo. The experience and the general trend is expressed as a change towards large units and a reduction of cost. Continued research and development is recommended.

  20. Adjudication accessibility of the solar energy with GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Rybár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Constantly increase prise of oil and natural gas at the world market, increase consumption of electric power forces people to look for new energy sources. Concentration to renewable energy is an attention of specialist and non-professional public. The solar energy is one of the renewable energy. A lot of different factors influence as possibilities using the solar energy. For adjudication possibilities using solar energy is needed to know and calculate quantity accessibility of radiation and its energy for potential locality. This calculation is determined by geographic location, critical time, climatic and meteorological conditions, and position study plain. GIS tools can be very useful for this calculation. Created digital terrain model of Košice fold is used for the adjudication accessibility solar energy. The basic attribute of digital terrain model is used, such as possibilities deduce more parameters like slope and aspect. Basic location parameter of adjudication plain by determine accessibility of the solar radiation is a slope β and an azimuth plain normale An.

  1. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  2. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... related to its proposal to provide up to $737 million in a loan guarantee to support the financing of the... Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for $737 million to support construction and startup of the Project as selected...

  3. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  4. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael; Carlini, E. Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Flynn, Damian; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Holttinen, Hannele; Menemenlis, Nickie; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Smith, J. Charles; Soder, Lennart; Sorensen, Poul; Altiparmakis, Argyrios; Yasuda, Yoh; Miller, John

    2016-11-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases. This paper reviews international experience with curtailment of wind and solar energy on bulk power systems in recent years, with a focus on eleven countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. It examines levels of curtailment, the causes of curtailment, curtailment methods and use of market-based dispatch, as well as operational, institutional, and other changes that are being made to reduce renewable energy curtailment.

  5. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  6. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Thermal utilisation of solar energy: Croatian National Energy Program SUNEN, 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard; Jedrisko, Claudia [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Hrastnik, Branimir [Energy Inst. `Hrvoje Pozar`, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, thermal use of solar energy as well as prospects and problems of its utilisation in Croatia have been given. The National Solar Energy Program, SUNEN, has been established to stimulate the usage of solar energy. The main goals of the program are the assessment of technical and economically viable solar potential in order to define real objectives and tasks to provide use of exploitable indigenous clean and renewable energy potential. The Program addresses benefits, the most promising solar applications and solar potential. Much attention has been given to identification of obstacles and barriers in the process of solar technology dissemination. SUNEN is an initiative to increase solar energy use and to become more compatible with the present renewable energy sources policy in EU and Mediterranean countries. The program proposes twelve different types of thermal solar energy systems, which could be multiplied up to 28 000 installations until the year 2010 with annual heat recovery of approximately 1,5 TWh (5,4 PJ). (Author)

  8. Solar energy information and education project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, M.

    1985-09-01

    The New Mexico Solar Energy Institute conducted a vigorous information and education program Fiscal Year 73. NNSEI conducted workshops, educational fiestas, and seminars. Media packets were distributed to all New Mexico media entities while NNSEI's radio programs were distributed to many stations. Many callers received valuable unbiased information from the SUN DIAL LINE, a tollfree energy information line. Teachers received the ''Solar Energy Educator'' newsletter. Computer assisted analysis of space heating needs, passive solar homes, and active solar hot water systems was performed by the Information and Educated project staff for builders, designers, and architects. This report summarizes NNSEI's Fiscal Year 73 Information and Education project activities. It includes detailed description of project costs and concise recommendations for similar programs.

  9. Flexible wearable sensor nodes with solar energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiyang Wu; Arefin, Md Shamsul; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2017-07-01

    Wearable sensor nodes have gained a lot of attention during the past few years as they can monitor and record people's physical parameters in real time. Wearable sensor nodes can promote healthy lifestyles and prevent the occurrence of potential illness or injuries. This paper presents a flexible wearable sensor system powered by an efficient solar energy harvesting technique. It can measure the subject's heartbeats using a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor and perform activity monitoring using an accelerometer. The solar energy harvester adopts an output current based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, which controls the solar panel to operate within its high output power range. The power consumption of the flexible sensor nodes has been investigated under different operation conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that wearable sensor nodes can work for more than 12 hours when they are powered by the solar energy harvester for 3 hours in the bright sunlight.

  10. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...... to use low backup energy prices during the day if electricity is used. The storage function and both stratified charging and extraction of heat, are very important, to separate different temperature zones in the storage. This paper describes a step towards forecast control for electricity based auxiliary...

  11. Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.S.

    1979-12-01

    The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

  12. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  13. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 287 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

  14. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  15. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV...) has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project... news releases, and/or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments on the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

  16. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  17. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  18. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  19. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  20. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion. Vol. 653

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion V. Topics covered include: electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control; high contrast electrochromic tungsten oxide layers; transparent thermal insulation with infrared-absorbing gases; and a modified luminescent solar concentrator.

  1. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  2. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  3. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  4. Energy analysis of holographic lenses for solar concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, M. Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús

    2017-05-01

    The use of volume and phase holographic elements in the design of photovoltaic solar concentrators has become very popular as an alternative solution to refractive systems, due to their high efficiency, low cost and possibilities of building integration. Angular and chromatic selectivity of volume holograms can affect their behavior as solar concentrators. In holographic lenses, angular and chromatic selectivity varies along the lens plane. Besides, considering that the holographic materials are not sensitive to the wavelengths for which the solar cells are most efficient, the reconstruction wavelength is usually different from the recording one. As a consequence, not all points of the lens work at Bragg condition for a defined incident direction or wavelength. A software tool that calculates the direction and efficiency of solar rays at the output of a volume holographic element has been developed in this study. It allows the analysis of the total energy that reaches the solar cell, taking into account the sun movement, the solar spectrum and the sensitivity of the solar cell. The dependence of the recording wavelength on the collected energy is studied with this software. As the recording angle is different along a holographic lens, some zones of the lens could not act as a volume hologram. The efficiency at the transition zones between volume and thin behavior in lenses recorded in Bayfol HX is experimentally analyzed in order to decide if the energy of generated higher diffraction orders has to be included in the simulation.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation energy arrangement. [coatings for solar energy absorption and infrared reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkis, R. R.; Vehrencamp, J. E. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A solar energy collector and infrared energy reflector is described which comprises a vacuum deposited layer of aluminum of approximately 200 to 400 Angstroms thick on one side of a substrate. An adherent layer of titanium with a thickness of between 800 and 1000 Angstroms is vacuum deposited on the aluminum substrate and is substantially opaque to solar energy and substantially transparent to infrared energy.

  6. False Dawn of a Solar Age: A History of Solar Heating and Power During the Energy Crisis, 1973-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavo, Jordan Michael

    The unfolding of the energy crisis in the early 1970s brought solar to the fore as a topic for national discussion. National dialogues about solar power and national energy policy were one way that Americans interpreted their present and envisioned their nation's future. Yet, policy makers and the general public considered alternative energies, including solar, largely based on the economic conditions of their eras, considerations that, at least until the Reagan era, often transcended political ideologies and parties. Energy prices and the emerging political expediency of replacing fossil fuels were the primary drivers in shaping federal energy policies and public interest during this era. Enthusiasm for solar power often corresponded to the market price of petroleum. By the late 1970s, a lot of people believed the same. Amid growing public enthusiasm, President Carter eventually came out strongly in favor of solar energy, mounting solar panels on the White House and unveiling a plan to procure 20% of the nation's energy from the sun by the year 2000. During the 1960s and 1970s, Americans changed their energy values in response to concerns over environmentalism and the antinuclear movement. Pollution, environmental disasters, and energy crises during the 1960s and 1970s brought terms like "clean energy" and "renewable energy" into the national lexicon, and solar often served as the most prominent symbol of those ideas. At the same time, advocates presented solar as a stark contrast to nuclear: solar energy made life on earth possible; nuclear energy made it perilous. Science fiction and futurism shaped the American popular imagination through its presentation of solar technology. Each genre suffused the other and ingrained in the American national consciousness a sense of grandiose wonderment about the potential for solar energy, a potential that often did not match the contemporary applications for solar technology. The emergence of solar industries alarmed oil

  7. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  8. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gene C.

    This second volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. The guide is comprised of ten units of instruction within three…

  9. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Book I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gene C.

    This first volume of a comprehensive curriculum guide for the heating-ventilation-air conditioning-refrigeration-solar student is designed to assist high school area vocational centers or community college instructors in the implementation and operation of comfort training programs. Following an introductory section, the guide provides job…

  10. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  11. Use of Solar Energy in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Mehmet Sait; Mamiş, Mehmet Salih

    2015-01-01

    In today’s World, energy has a crucial importance for all countries. The countries search for both new energy resources and how they can use them.  Energy resource is an important problem in our country, too. It is the sign of how it is important that we are mostly foreign dependent on energy. The most important energy problem is energy efficiency. When changing and developing automotive industry is handled, an important part of energy consumption consists of automobiles. So, it is clear that...

  12. Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoberidze, G. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Ilia State University, 3/5 Cholokashvili Ave., 0162 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfven waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

  13. Generation of residual energy in the turbulent solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoberidze, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2012-10-01

    In situ observations of the fluctuating solar wind flow show that the energy of magnetic field fluctuations always exceeds that of the kinetic energy, and therefore the difference between the kinetic and magnetic energies, known as the residual energy, is always negative. The same behaviour is found in numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We study the dynamics of the residual energy for strong, anisotropic, critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using the eddy damped quasi-normal Markovian approximation. Our analysis shows that for stationary critically balanced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, negative residual energy will always be generated by nonlinear interacting Alfvén waves. This offers a general explanation for the observation of negative residual energy in solar wind turbulence and in the numerical simulations.

  14. An Integrative STEM Aproach to Teaching Solar Energy Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bill; Mona, Lynn; Stout, Heath; Bierly, Mike; McAninch, Steve

    2015-01-01

    "Against the backdrop of the daunting carbon-neutral energy needs of our global future, the largest gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a compelling imperative for science and technology in the 21st century" (Lewis & Norcera 2006). Concurrently, the United States educational…

  15. Design and construction of a solar energy tracking device | Ndinechi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in producing a complete computer system necessary for achieving the objective of the study. The design was tasted and found to be working within the design limits. The total output was compared with the fixed equivalent and found to yield better result. Keywords: Solar energy, renewable energy, sunlight, tacking device, ...

  16. Wind and solar energy curtailment: A review of international experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, Lori; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Greater penetrations of variable renewable generation on some electric grids have resulted in increased levels of curtailment in recent years. Studies of renewable energy grid integration have found that curtailment levels may grow as the penetration of wind and solar energy generation increases....

  17. Single/Dual-Polarized Infrared Rectenna for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zainud-Deen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Single and dual linearly-polarized receiving mode nanoantennas are designed for solar energy harvesting at 28.3 THz. The infrared rectennas are used to harvest the solar energy and converting it to electrical energy.  The proposed infrared rectenna is a thin dipole made of gold and printed on a silicon dioxide substrate. Different shapes of the dipole arms have been investigated for maximum collected energy. The two poles of the dipole have been determined in a rectangular, circular and rhombus shapes. The rectenna dipole is used to concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a small localized area at the inner tips of the gap between the dipole arms. The dimensions of the different dipole shapes are optimized for maximum near electric field intensity at a frequency of 28.3 THz. A Metal Insulator Metal (MIM diode is incorporated with the nanoantenna dipole to rectify the received energy. The receiving efficiency of the solar energy collector with integrated MIM diode has been investigated. A dual-polarized, four arms, rhombus shaped nanoantenna dipole for solar energy harvesting has been designed and optimized for 28.3 THz applications.

  18. Solar Energy Education Bibliography: Books, Films & Slides. Expanded Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Renewable Resources, Washington, DC.

    This directory offers a comprehensive listing of resources, including films, for energy education. The document is divided into three sections: (1) Publications according to elementary, secondary, and college level; (2) Audiovisuals; and (3) Periodicals. Specific energy topics covered include solar, wind, and biomass technologies. (RE)

  19. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  20. Potential of Using Solar Energy for Drinking Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, S. S.; Batista, J.; Ahmad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Where water is essential to energy generation, energy usage is integral to life cycle processes of water extraction, treatment, distribution and disposal. Increasing population, climate change and greenhouse gas production challenges the water industry for energy conservation of the various water-related operations as well as limiting the associated carbon emissions. One of the ways to accomplish this is by incorporating renewable energy into the water sector. Treatment of drinking water, an important part of water life cycle processes, is vital for the health of any community. This study explores the feasibility of using solar energy for a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with the long-term goal of energy independence and sustainability. A 10 MGD groundwater DWTP in southwestern US was selected, using the treatment processes of coagulation, filtration and chlorination. Energy consumption in units of kWh/day and kWh/MG for each unit process was separately determined using industry accepted design criteria. Associated carbon emissions were evaluated in units of CO2 eq/MG. Based on the energy consumption and the existing real estate holdings, the DWTP was sized for distributed solar. Results showed that overall the motors used to operate the pumps including the groundwater intake pumps were the largest consumers of energy. Enough land was available around DWTP to deploy distributed solar. Results also showed that solar photovoltaics could potentially be used to meet the energy demands of the selected DWTP, but warrant the use of a large storage capacity, and thus increased costs. Carbon emissions related to solar based design were negligible compared to the original case. For future, this study can be used to analyze unit processes of other DWTP based on energy consumption, as well as for incorporating sustainability into the DWTP design.

  1. Thinnest two-dimensional nanomaterial-graphene for solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun Hang; Wang, Hui; Hu, Bo

    2010-07-19

    Graphene is a rapidly rising star in materials science. This two-dimensional material exhibits unique properties, such as low resistance, excellent optical transmittance, and high mechanical and chemical stabilities. These exceptional advantages possess great promise for its potential applications in photovoltaic devices. In this Review, we present the status of graphene research for solar energy with emphasis on solar cells. Firstly, the preparation and properties of graphene are described. Secondly, applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes and counter electrodes are presented. Thirdly, graphene-based electron- (or hole) accepting materials for solar energy conversion are evaluated. Fourthly, the promoting effect of graphene on photovoltaic devices and the photocatalytic property of graphene-semiconductor composites are discussed. Finally, the challenges to increase the power conversion efficiency of graphene-based solar cells are explored.

  2. Apollo 2: Solar energy meets the new global challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, R. B [Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Humanity faces imminent and serious global oil shortages. It is urgent that the solar energy community respond aggressively to fulfill its central role in the transition from a transitory fossil-fuel economy to a sustainable solar future. The intention here is to explain and quantify the oil shortfall, to validate the renewable option, and to calculate the rate at which the capacity of the renewable energy industry must accelerate to counteract the predictable oil deficit. [Spanish] La humanidad se enfrenta a una seria e inminente escasez mundial de petroleo. Es urgente que la comunidad de energia solar responda agresivamente para satisfacer su rol central en la transicion de una economia transitoria de combustibles fosiles a un futuro solar sustentable. La intencion aqui es la de explicar y cuantificar el deficit de petroleo para validar esta opcion renovable y para calcular la velocidad a la que la industria de la energia renovable debe acelerar para contrarrestar el predecible deficit del petroleo.

  3. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  4. Integrated solar thermal facade component for building energy retrofit

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanardi, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    In the perspective of the "Net Zero Energy Buildings" as specified in the EPBP 2010/31/EU, herein a modular unglazed solar thermal facade component for facilitating the installation of active solar thermal facades has been conceived and designed to answer three considerations: (1) easily installable elements, offering high modularity to be sized for the specific needs of the buildings considered, (2) low-price unglazed technology, given by the industrial process already developed for the frid...

  5. Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar-Hydrogen Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jinsheng; Guan, Xuehua

    The system of solar thermoelectric-photovoltaic hybrid generation for hydrogen production is designed in this paper. The mathematical model of the hybrid system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is carried out. And the logic control system is designed. The current of the various sub-systems and the energy of the hydrogen storage tank are simulated and analyzed, this paper proves the solar hybrid system can be reliable and effective.

  6. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  7. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  8. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  9. Solar Energy Prediction for Malaysia Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solar energy prediction method using artificial neural networks (ANNs. An ANN predicts a clearness index that is used to calculate global and diffuse solar irradiations. The ANN model is based on the feed forward multilayer perception model with four inputs and one output. The inputs are latitude, longitude, day number, and sunshine ratio; the output is the clearness index. Data from 28 weather stations were used in this research, and 23 stations were used to train the network, while 5 stations were used to test the network. In addition, the measured solar irradiations from the sites were used to derive an equation to calculate the diffused solar irradiation, a function of the global solar irradiation and the clearness index. The proposed equation has reduced the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in estimating the diffused solar irradiation compared with the conventional equation. Based on the results, the average MAPE, mean bias error and root mean square error for the predicted global solar irradiation are 5.92%, 1.46%, and 7.96%. The MAPE in estimating the diffused solar irradiation is 9.8%. A comparison with previous work was done, and the proposed approach was found to be more efficient and accurate than previous methods.

  10. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  11. Coherent dynamics in solar energy transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenmayer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the transfer of energy from light to matter. Over a century ago it was established that light consists of packets of energy [1], now known as photons. Not much later the energy levels of matter at the atomic scale were found to be discrete [2]. These phenomena required

  12. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  13. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  14. Design of Novel Metal Nanostructures for Broadband Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine A. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power holds great potential as an alternative energy source, but current photovoltaic cells have much room for improvement in cost and efficiency. Our objective was to develop metal nanostructures whose surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectra closely match the solar spectrum to enhance light absorption and scattering. We employed the finite-difference time-domain simulation method to evaluate the effect of varying key parameters. A novel nanostructure with SPR absorption matching a region of the solar spectrum (300 to 1500 nm that contains 90% of solar energy was successfully designed. This structure consists of a large gold-silica core-shell structure with smaller gold nanoparticles and nanorods on its surface. Such complex nanostructures are promising for broad and tunable absorption spectra. In addition, we investigated the SPR of silver nanoparticle arrays, which can achieve scattering close to the solar spectrum. We demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of over 30% with optimal nanoparticle radius and periods of 75 nm and 325 nm, respectively. In combination, our studies enable high-efficiency, tunable, and cost-effective enhancement of both light absorption and scattering, which has potential applications in solar energy conversion as well as biomedical imaging.

  15. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida solar energy center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. The system was designed to supply approximately 70 percent of the annual cooling and 100 percent of the heating load. The project provides unique high temperature, nonimaging, nontracking, evacuated tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection. Information is provided on the system's acceptance test results operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings.

  16. Effective combination of solar and wind energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, T. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics; Chemisana, D. [Lleida Univ. (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy collectors (PV/T) and small wind turbines (WT) are renewable energy systems that can supplement each other to adapt energy demand and to achieve optimal use of solar and wind energy. The PV/T/WT systems are suitable in rural and remote areas, with electricity supply from stand-alone units or mini-grid connection. The use of these subsystems can cover a great part of energy load in electricity and heat of buildings, contributing to conventional energy saving and to the protection of the environment by reducing CO{sub 2} emission. In this paper we present the experimental set-up of a suggested PV/T/WT system and the obtained results from the tested system. The results are analysed and discussed, regarding the effectiveness of system for practical application. (orig.)

  17. the viability of solar energy for domestic water heating in etidopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inexhaustible and freely available solar radiation. The conversion of solar energy in efficient :way to thermal energy incuts intial cost. If solar energy has to be used for this purpose, it has to bring economic benefit to the potential user by reducing the cost of water h~ting. The viability of solar water heating system to.

  18. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  19. Passive solar energy in the Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands; Passieve zonne-energie in de Haarlemmermeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemrood, J.C.; Bos, P.; Giskes, F.C.; Peels-Van Woerden, A.J.N. [OD 205, Delft (Netherlands); De Langen, M.; Korbee, H.; La Mark, Th.; Sweep, M.; Oscam, A. [Stichting Woon Energie, Gouda (Netherlands); Trijssenaar, A.W. [Provinciaal Bureau Energiebesparing, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    1982-12-01

    Possibilities and consequences of large scale application of solar energy in the newly built areas in the Dutch municipality Haarlemmermeer are discussed. Attention is paid to costs and benefits, living quality, policy tools, planning procedures, urban development and energy efficient design, architectural design, financing and living expenses, judicial aspects, and calculation of several aspects of passive solar energy. 47 figs., ills., 24 tabs., 18 refs., 11 appendices

  20. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  2. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  3. Solar neutrino flux at keV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Edoardo; Redondo, Javier; Raffelt, Georg

    2017-12-01

    We calculate the solar neutrino and antineutrino flux in the keV energy range. The dominant thermal source processes are photo production (γ e→ e νbar nu), bremsstrahlung (e+Ze→ Ze+e+νbar nu), plasmon decay (γ→νbar nu), and νbar nu emission in free-bound and bound-bound transitions of partially ionized elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. These latter processes dominate in the energy range of a few keV and thus carry information about the solar metallicity. To calculate their rate we use libraries of monochromatic photon radiative opacities in analogy to a previous calculation of solar axion emission. Our overall flux spectrum and many details differ significantly from previous works. While this low-energy flux is not measurable with present-day technology, it could become a significant background for future direct searches for keV-mass sterile neutrino dark matter.

  4. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion is used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, is the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allows the control system to counter wide tolerances that will be specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and perform within a small tracking error.

  5. Artificial photosynthesis: biomimetic approaches to solar energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundaram, K; Graetzel, M

    2010-06-01

    Using sun as the energy source, natural photosynthesis carries out a number of useful reactions such as oxidation of water to molecular oxygen and fixation of CO(2) in the form of sugars. These are achieved through a series of light-induced multi-electron-transfer reactions involving chlorophylls in a special arrangement and several other species including specific enzymes. Artificial photosynthesis attempts to reconstruct these key processes in simpler model systems such that solar energy and abundant natural resources can be used to generate high energy fuels and restrict the amount of CO(2) in the atmosphere. Details of few model catalytic systems that lead to clean oxidation of water to H(2) and O(2), photoelectrochemical solar cells for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, solar cells for total decomposition of water and catalytic systems for fixation of CO(2) to fuels such as methanol and methane are reviewed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  7. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  8. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  9. Role of Concentrating Solar Power in Integrating Solar and Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2015-06-03

    As wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) increase in penetration it is increasingly important to examine enabling technologies that can help integrate these resources at large scale. Concentrating solar power (CSP) when deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) can provide multiple services that can help integrate variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and PV. CSP with TES can provide firm, highly flexible capacity, reducing minimum generation constraints which limit penetration and results in curtailment. By acting as an enabling technology, CSP can complement PV and wind, substantially increasing their penetration in locations with adequate solar resource.

  10. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  11. Ecological and economical aspects of solar energy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Wiktoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is devastated by the industry and by households, which use fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas for heating water and buildings as well as for generating electricity. One of the ways to limit the degradation of the environment and the usage of natural resources is to use unconventional and renewable resources and to implement energy-saving technologies in construction, industry and households. A dynamic development of systems based on renewable energy sources such as biomass, water, wind, heat from inside the Earth and sunbeams has recently occurred in the whole world. This thesis is related to the purest and the least onerous for environment source of energy which is undoubtedly the energy that comes directly from the solar radiation. In this article the solar energy application is presented, taking into account its impact on the environment and financial costs of developing solar techniques. The installation of alternative energy sources are entitled to grants and credits, which reduces the investment costs. Ecological effects, although immeasurable, are significant and definitely testify in favor of the solar system.

  12. Evaluating Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihang; Udmark, Jonas; Börjesson, Karl; Rodrigues, Rita; Roffey, Anna; Abrahamsson, Maria; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2017-08-10

    Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving toward a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, for so-called molecular solar thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Energy storage by photoconversion of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photothermal couple has been evaluated. The robust nature of this system is determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents. In a nonpolar solvent such as toluene, the DHA/VHF system can be cycled more than 70 times with less than 0.01 % degradation per cycle. Moreover, the [Cu(CH3 CN)4 ]PF6 -catalyzed conversion of VHF into DHA was demonstrated in a flow reactor. The performance of the DHA/VHF couple was also evaluated in prototype photoconversion devices, both in the laboratory by using a flow chip under simulated sunlight and under outdoor conditions by using a parabolic mirror. Device experiments demonstrated a solar energy storage efficiency of up to 0.13 % in the chip device and up to 0.02 % in the parabolic collector. Avenues for future improvements and optimization of the system are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Opportunities of solar thermal energy in the industry; Oportunidades de la energia solar termica en la industria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perches salokangas, J.

    2004-07-01

    The industrial sector means a clear opportunity for the introduction of the solar thermal energy, as the economics, energy and CO2 avoided emissions savings potential is huge. Up to now, the use of solar thermal energy in the industrial sector has not yet been developed because of different technological and economical reasons have interfered in it development. The new solar thermal technologies developed by SOLEL for pure industrial applications, the new flat high efficiency collector SUNPRO, and the solar trough collector IND 300, allow the development of this promising and potential market for the solar thermal energy. (Author)

  14. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  15. Sustainable business models for wind and solar energy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichifor Maria Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become a crucial element for the business environment as the need for new energy resources and the degree of climate change are increasing. As developed economies strive towards greater progress, sustainable business models are of the essence in order to maintain a balance between the triple bottom line: people, planet and profit. In recent years, European Union countries have installed important capacities of renewable energy, especially wind and solar energy to achieve this purpose. The objective of this article is to make a comparative study between the current sustainable business models implemented in companies that are active in the wind and solar energy sector in Romania. Both sectors underwent tremendous changes in the last two years due to changing support schemes which have had a significant influence on the mechanism of the renewable energy market, as well as on its development. Using the classical Delphi method, based on questionnaires and interviews with experts in the fields of wind and solar energy, this paper offers an overview of the sustainable business models of wind and solar energy companies, both sectors opting for the alternative of selling electricity to trading companies as a main source of revenue until 2013 and as the main future trend until 2020. Furthermore, the participating wind energy companies noted a pessimistic outlook of future investments due to legal instability that made them to reduce their projects in comparison to PV investments, which are expected to continue. The subject of the article is of interest to scientific literature because sustainable business models in wind and photovoltaic energy have been scarcely researched in previous articles and are essential in understanding the activity of the companies in these two fields of renewable energy.

  16. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  17. High temperature solar energy absorbing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Schmitt, C.R.; Abbatiello, L.A.

    A solar collector having an improved coating is provided. The coating is a plasma-sprayed coating comprising a material having a melting point above 500/sup 0/C at which it is stable and selected from the group of boron carbide, boron nitride, metals and metal oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, and silicates. The coatings preferably have a porosity of about 15 to 25% and a thickness of less than 200 micrometers. The coatings can be provided by plasma-spraying particles having a mean diameter of about 10 to 200 micrometers.

  18. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  19. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  20. Solar energy resources at South region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicius Fiorin, Daniel; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Ramos Martins, Fernando; Bueno Pereira, Enio; Ceconi, Marcio; Brackmann, Rodrigo; Guarnieri, Ricardo André

    The Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science and Technology - CPTEC/INP-MCT, have installed throughout Brazilian territory several sites to acquired solar irradiation data used to assess the renewable energy potential of Brazil as part of SONDA project (www.cptec.inpe.br/sonda/). One of ground sites is located at the Southern Space Observatory-SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE-MCT, (29o S; 53o W), in São Martinho da Serra, RS, South of Brazil, where diffuse and global solar a irradiation are measured by CM 22 and CM21 Pyrhanometers), direct solar radiation are measured by Pyrheliometer NIP and opaque and thin cloudiness fractions were esteemed by a Total Sky Imager TSI-440 (YES, Inc). Our concern is with the fact that the current world energy scenery, characterized by petroleum sources exhaustion and environmental concerns, point out to the use of clean and renewable energy sources such as the solar energy. This work aims to the evaluation of the solar energy resource by using stochastic models relating the cloud cover fraction and solar radiation parameters such as diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio (DDB), diffuse-toglobal solar irradiation ratio (K), diffuse-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KD ), and global-to-TOA irradiation ratio (KT ), measured with the SONDA Project, where TOA is the total irradiation that reach the atmosphere. Only data collected for zenithal solar angle (SZA) lesser than 75 deg for the period between September/2005 to September/2007 were used. The ground data were averaged for fifteen minutes intervals in order to reduce the influence of high frequency variability of cloud cover. It was observed low correlation (around 0.55) among the diffuse to TOA irradiation ratio and cloud cover. Better correlation (about 0.94) were obtained for K parameter. The statistic deviations RMSE (23-28%) and MBE (0.3-5%) were calculated to validate and compare the models performance. The results showed more

  1. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  2. SOLAR ENERGY: A NECESSARY INVESTMENT IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    these however, the development of hydro-electric power system and gas-fired system have taken precedence over all other sources of energy systems in Nigeria. This, however, is because of the readiness with which they can be harnessed and operated at a minimal cost. The energy production and consumption pattern in ...

  3. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  4. Application of liquid metals for solar energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetzel Th.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metals have excellent properties to be used as heat transport fluids due to the high thermal conductivity and their wide applicable temperature range. The latter opens the gate utilizing more efficient power conversion options beyond the limitations of current thermal solar energy systems. By utilizing them as thermal storage medium, an improved coupling of state-of-the art power conversion systems (PCS to solar plants seems promising. To avoid adverse effects of highly reactive fluid a compact design is envisaged, which fits best to concentrating solar power (CSP. In this context a solar storage system is proposed and will be qualified for fast reaction to compensate solar flux fluctuations and to optimize PCS. The paper will provide an outlook based on a concept study for a 100 MWth plant with a comparison to existing thermal solar plants. The vision also includes the capability for base load applications, including a day-wide storage system. Combining both systems, a fast response of the plant to compensate short term fluctuations from other renewable sources or from energy consumption is feasible.

  5. Energy efficient and solar construction. Themes 2008; Energieeffizientes und solares Bauen. Themen 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Gerd (ed.)

    2009-04-15

    Within the annual meeting of the Renewable Energy Research Association (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 29th to 30th September, 2008, the lectures were held to the following themes: (a) Energy efficient and solar construction - a change of paradigm; (b) Revolution in construction technology; (c) Energetic sanitation of old buildings; (d) Innovative technologies of energy supply; (e) Integrated facility management; (f) Demonstration and practice of new technologies; (g) Market, politics, and sustainability.

  6. Determining the Optimum Tilt Angle and Orientation for Solar Energy Collection Based on Measured Solar Radiance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Danny H. W. Li; Tony N. T. Lam

    2007-01-01

    A prior requirement to the design of any solar-based conversion systems is the knowledge of optimum orientation and tilt surface at which peak solar energy can be collected. In many parts of the world, however, the solar radiation data for the surfaces of interest are not always available. This paper presents a numerical approach to calculate the solar radiation on sloped planes by integrating the measured sky radiance distributions. The annual total solar yield at different sloped surfaces ...

  7. Solar energy demand (SED) of commodity life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Benedetto; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mutel, Christopher; Bastianoni, Simone; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2011-06-15

    The solar energy demand (SED) of the extraction of 232 atmospheric, biotic, fossil, land, metal, mineral, nuclear, and water resources was quantified and compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators. SED represents the direct and indirect solar energy required by a product or service during its life cycle. SED scores were calculated for 3865 processes, as implemented in the Ecoinvent database, version 2.1. The results showed that nonrenewable resources, and in particular minerals, formed the dominant contribution to SED. This large share is due to the indirect solar energy required to produce these resource inputs. Compared with other energy- and exergy-based indicators, SED assigns higher impact factors to minerals and metals and smaller impact factors to fossil energetic resources, land use, and nuclear energy. The highest differences were observed for biobased and renewable energy generation processes, whose relative contribution of renewable resources such as water, biomass, and land occupation was much lower in SED than in energy- and exergy-based indicators.

  8. Solar energy system case study: Telex Communications, Blue Earth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, M.G.

    1984-09-01

    A study is made of a solar energy system for space heating a 97,000-square-foot office, factory, and warehouse building owned by Telex Communications, Inc. in Blue Earth, Minnesota. The solar system has 11,520 square feet of ground-oriented flat-plate collectors and a 20,000-gallon storage tank inside the building. Freeze protection is by drainback. Solar heated water from the storage tank circulates around the clock throughout the heating season to heating coils in the ducts. The system achieves its design solar fraction, is efficient, and generally reliable, but not cost-effective. Performance data for the solar system was collected by the National Solar Data Network for three heating seasons from 1978 to 1981. Because of a freeze-up of the collector array in December 1978, the solar system was only partially operational in the 1978 to 1979 heating season. The data in this report were collected in the 1979 to 1980 and 1980 to 1981 heating seasons.

  9. Solar heating and cooling demonstration project at the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankins, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    The retrofitted solar heating and cooling system installed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described. Information is provided on the system's test, operation, controls, hardware and installation, including detailed drawings. The Center's office building, approximately 5000 square feet of space, with solar air conditioning and heating as a demonstration of the technical feasibility is located just north of Port Canaveral, Florida. The system was designed to supply approximately 70% of the annual cooling and 100% of the heating load. The project provides unique high-temperature, non-imaging, non-tracking, evacuated-tube collectors. The design of the system was kept simple and employs five hydronic loops. They are energy collection, chilled water production, space cooling, space heating and energy rejection.

  10. Solar energy utilization by a greenhouse: General relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Ghany, A.M.; Al-Helal, I.M. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, PO box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    Most of solar radiation incident on a greenhouse is absorbed by greenhouse components (i.e., the cover, humid air, plants and soil) and the remaining portion is lost to outside the greenhouse. It is essential to know the absorbed and lost energy terms for any thermal analysis of greenhouses. Existing greenhouse thermal models use the radiative properties of the greenhouse components to directly determine the absorbed energy terms. However, these models neglect the lost energy term and neglect the effects of the multiple reflections of solar radiation between the greenhouse components. The present study describes the general relations for estimating the amounts of solar energy absorbed by the greenhouse components and lost to outside the greenhouse. The relations take into consideration the interrelations as well as the multiple reflections of solar radiation between these components. Thus, the greenhouse system was treated as a solar collector having an absorber plate (i.e., the greenhouse soil) and a cover system consisting of three semi-transparent parallel layers (i.e., the greenhouse cover, the humid air, and the plants). Superposition theory and ray tracing technique were used for the analysis. The presented relations were applied to an experimental plastic-covered greenhouse with a floor area of 34 m{sup 2}. The greenhouse, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was planted with tomatoes with a leaf area index (LAI) of 3.0 and was cooled by a wet pad and fan system. Results of the presented relations were accurate and more realistic comparing to results of other relations reported in the literatures. Absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in the greenhouse was negligible. The presented relations can estimate the absorbed and lost energy terms for a greenhouse precisely with a max possible error of +1.8% on each term if the LAI was less than 1.5. The error is significantly decreased to less than +0.7% if the LAI in the greenhouse is increased to 5. (author)

  11. Solar energy conversion by photocatalytic overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-04

    Summary: Solar energy is abundant and renewable energy: however, extensive conversion of the solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting (OWS) by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces H2 as a chemical energy in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. To achieve the OWS efficiently, the development of efficient photocatalysts is mandatory. The OWS hotocatalysis involves the electrocatalys is for both water reduction and oxidation on the surafce of photocatalysts, which is driven by particular semiconductors that absorb photons to generate excited carriers. Such photocatalysts must be designed to maximize the charge separation efficiency at the catalyst-semiconductor and semiconductor-electrolyte interface. In addition the low-overpotential electrocatalyts towards water redox reactions should be insensitive to the back-reaction of the produced H2 and O2 that produces H2O. In this presentation, some recent progress on the topic of the OWS in our group will be discussed.

  12. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2017-12-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  13. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  14. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  15. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W.; Song, J.; Son, J. H.; Gutierrez, M. P.; Kang, T.; Kim, D.; Lee, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems. PMID:27822328

  16. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  17. National Solar Energy Education Directory. First edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O& #x27; Connor, K; Corcoleotes, G; Silversmith, J A; Kramer, K A

    1979-01-01

    The directory lists institutions alphabetically by institution type within a state. A complete alphabetical index of institutions is found in the back of the Directory along with a cross reference to program and curriculum titles. Within each institution, programs and curricula offered, if any, are listed following the institution name, ID number (found in parentheses to the right of the institution name), address and phone number. All solar-related courses are then listed alphabetically by course title. If a course is offered within a program or curriculum, the program or curriculum name with which it is associated is printed. The Directory contains entries for nearly 700 post-secondary education institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico.

  18. Lightweight, low-cost solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Costen, Michael K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A lightweight solar concentrator of the reflecting parabolic or trough type is realized via a thin reflecting film, an inflatable structural housing and tensioned fibers. The reflector element itself is a thin, flexible, specularly-reflecting sheet or film. The film is maintained in the parabolic trough shape by means of a plurality of identical tensioned fibers arranged to be parallel to the longitudinal axis of the parabola. Fiber ends are terminated in two identical spaced anchorplates, each containing a plurality of holes which lie on the desired parabolic contour. In a preferred embodiment, these fibers are arrayed in pairs with one fiber contacting the front side of the reflecting film and the other contacting the back side of the reflecting film. The reflective surface is thereby slidably captured between arrays of fibers which control the shape and position of the reflective film. Gas pressure in the inflatable housing generates fiber tension to achieve a truer parabolic shape.

  19. Directory of Solar Energy Research Activities in the United States: First Edition, May 1980. [1220 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Information covering 1220, FY 1978 and FY 1979 solar energy research projects is included. In addition to the title and text of project summaries, the directory contains the following indexes: subject index, investigator index, performing organization index, and supporting organization index. This information was registered with the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange by Federal, State, and other supporting organizations. The project summaries are categorized in the following areas: biomass, ocean energy, wind energy,photovoltaics, photochemical energy conversion, photobiological energy conversion, solar heating and cooling, solar process heat, solar collectors and concentrators, solar thermal electric generation, and other solar energy conversion. (WHK)

  20. An accessibility solution of cloud computing by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Priščáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a modern innovative technology of solution of a problem with data storage, data processing, company infrastructure building and so on. Many companies worry over the changes by the implementation of this solution because these changes could have a negative impact on the company, or, in the case of establishment of new companies, this worry results from an unfamiliar environment. Data accessibility, integrity and security belong among basic problems of cloud computing. The aim of this paper is to offer and scientifically confirm a proposal of an accessibility solution of cloud by implementing of solar energy as a primary source. Problems with accessibility rise from power failures when data may be stolen or lost. Since cloud is often started from a server, the server dependence on power is strong. Modern conditions offer us a new, more innovative solution regarding the ecological as well as an economical company solution. The Sun as a steady source of energy offers us a possibility to produce necessary energy by a solar technique – solar panels. The connection of a solar panel as a primary source of energy for a server would remove its power dependence as well as possible failures. The power dependence would stay as a secondary source. Such an ecological solution would influence the economical side of company because the energy consumption would be lower. Besides a proposal of an accessibility solution, this paper involves a physical and mathematical solution to a calculation of solar energy showered on the Earth, a calculation of the panel size by cosines method and a simulation of these calculations in MATLAB conditions.

  1. Challenges in the Quest for Clean Energies: 2. Solar Energy Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramasesha, Sheela K

    2013-01-01

    The global warming issues were discussed in Part 1 of this series of articles. This part describes the different solar energy technologies that are available for generating electricity to meet our daily power requirement...

  2. Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbell, R.; Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2012-09-01

    This report is a summary of the finance trends for small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects (PV <1 MW), large-scale PV projects (PV greater than or equal to 1 MW), and concentrated solar power projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The report presents REFTI data during the five quarterly periods from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first half of 2011. The REFTI project relies exclusively on the voluntary participation of industry stakeholders for its data; therefore, it does not offer a comprehensive view of the technologies it tracks. Despite this limitation, REFTI is the only publicly available resource for renewable energy project financial terms. REFTI analysis offers usable inputs into the project economic evaluations of developers and investors, as well as the policy assessments of public utility commissions and others in the renewable energy industry.

  3. Thermodynamical research of using solar energy for desalination of seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsović Marjan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the problem of saline water. Water desalination processes, which require significant energy consumption, are a common solution to produce drinking water. This study evaluated the influence of the following process operational parameters on the energy consumption of seawater RO systems: water salinity, permeate recovery ratio, membrane performance and feed water temperature. Optimal operational conditions for the theoretical minimum energy consumption were determined with experiments by varying water qualities and operational parameters. In order to further reduce energy consumption a RO system was integrated with a PV solar system and a pilot PVRO system was built and tested. The results obtained from this study indicated that even though a Solar PV system incurs a huge initial capital investment, it will yield significant benefits in the long run of the RO operational period.

  4. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    An instructional aid is provided for home economics teachers who wish to integrate the subject of solar energy into their classroom activities. This teacher's guide was produced along with the student activities book for home economics by the US Department of Energy Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  5. Mass and energy flow in the solar chromosphere and corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withbroe, G. L.; Noyes, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The work reviews some investigations into the mass and energy flow in the solar chromosphere and corona; the objective of these investigations is the development of a physical model that will not only account for the physical conditions in the outer atmosphere of the sun, but can also be applied to the study of the outer atmospheres of other stars. Particular attention is given to mass and energy flow in regions with weak and strong magnetic fields, to observational evidence for wave heating and systematic mass flows, and to heating mechanisms. Consideration is given throughout to mechanisms of energy input and energy loss.

  6. Solar Flares Observed with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2004-01-01

    Solar flares are impressive examples of explosive energy release in unconfined, magnetized plasma. It is generally believed that the flare energy is derived from the coronal magnetic field. However, we have not been able to establish the specific energy release mechanism(s) or the relative partitioning of the released energy between heating, particle acceleration (electrons and ions), and mass motions. NASA's RHESSI Mission was designed to study the acceleration and evolution of electrons and ions in flares by observing the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions these energetic particles produce. This is accomplished through the combination of high-resolution spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, including the first images of flares in gamma rays. RHESSI has observed over 12,000 solar flares since its launch on February 5, 2002. I will demonstrate how we use the RHESSI spectra to deduce physical properties of accelerated electrons and hot plasma in flares. Using images to estimate volumes, w e typically find that the total energy in accelerated electrons is comparable to that in the thermal plasma. I will also present flare observations that provide strong support for the presence of magnetic reconnection in a large-scale, vertical current sheet in the solar corona. RHESSI observations such as these are allowing us to probe more deeply into the physics of solar flares.

  7. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  8. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most

  9. International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. J.

    This trip was undertaken to participate in and represent the United States Industry at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Program (SHCP) Task 14 Workshop. The meeting took place at the A1 Bani Hotel in Rome Italy.

  10. Manifestations of dark energy in the solar system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2015), s. 59-72 ISSN 0202-2893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : dark energy * solar system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS0202289315010090

  11. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutula, Raymond A. [DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program FY 2005 Annual Report chronicles the R&D results of the program for fiscal year 2005. In particular, the report describes R&D performed by the Program’s national laboratories and university and industry partners.

  12. Solar energy for self-contained power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobov Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy relevance in self-contained utility system as well as economic feasibility for each class of consumers considered. The article will outline utilising features of self-contained photovoltaic stations in Middle East and Northern Africa.

  13. Silicon Schottky photovoltaic diodes for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Various factors in Schottky barrier solar cell fabrication are evaluated in order to improve understanding of the current flow mechanism and to isolate processing variables that improve efficiency. Results of finger design, substrate resistivity, surface finishing and activation energy studies are detailed. An increased fill factor was obtained by baking of the vacuum system to remove moisture.

  14. Solar Energy Delivering Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Holterman, H.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this investigation is the design and development of a new type of greenhouse with an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high

  15. Phase change material selection for small scale solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on choosing an appropriate phase change material for latent heat storing systems that can store excess energy of a small scale solar thermal power plant suitable for distributed or off grid power supply. Most commercially available thermal storage materials cater for Mega Watt scale power plants ...

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Collectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was confirmed when the transient terms were completely deleted as the maximum values of the output parameters and their times of occurrence remained the same in both cases. The developed output expressions (in closed form) for the dynamic model of flat plate solar energy air heating collectors can easily be used ...

  17. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  18. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  19. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  20. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  1. A novel guideline for wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2014-01-01

    The new Dutch standard NEN 7250 ([1], NEN, 2014) gives rules for the building integration of solar energy systems. A considerable part of thís standard deals with the wind loads on systems, placed on pitched and flat roofs. Wind tunnel tests were carried out in 2003 and 2013 to provide values for

  2. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  3. High energy particle acceleration in solar flares Observational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    The recent gamma ray and neutron observations made by the SMM Gamma Ray Spectrometer are reviewed. The implication these observations hold for understanding particle acceleration in solar flares are discussed. The data require that both electrons and ions must be accelerated together to relativistic energies and interact with matter in a time scale of seconds.

  4. Passive solar energy-efficient architectural building Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper analyses have been done on the climate data for various climatic regions in North Cyprus to obtain physical architectural building design specification with a view to develop passive solar energy-efficient building. It utilizes a computer program, ARCHIPAK, together with climate data (for 25 year period) to get ...

  5. Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Flat Plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical solutions to the dynamic model of an air-heating flat plate solar energy thermal collector were validated by direct measurement from a physical model constructed for that purpose, of the temperatures of the cover and absorber plates, the inlet and outlet fluids, and the ambient air from morning to evening for ...

  6. The Viability of Solar Energy for Domestic Water Heating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the possible use of solar energy for domestic water heating is conducted for seven representative Ethiopian cities. In this study, the transient performance of the system is computed using a numerical heat transfer model of a flat-plate collector from the input of average annual climatic data and collector ...

  7. Free Magnetic Energy in Solar Active Regions above the Minimum-Energy Relaxed State

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, Stephane; Priest, Eric

    2007-01-01

    To understand the physics of solar flares, including the local reorganisation of the magnetic field and the acceleration of energetic particles, we have first to estimate the free magnetic energy available for such phenomena, which can be converted into kinetic and thermal energy. The free magnetic energy is the excess energy of a magnetic configuration compared to the minimum-energy state, which is a linear force-free field if the magnetic helicity of the configuration is conserved. We inves...

  8. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  9. Selection of optimum blowers is higly important for energy conservation in ventilation and air conditioning engineering: High-performance radial blowers without a housing; Auswahl des optimalen Ventilators fuer Energieeinsparung in der Luft- und Klimatechnik von grosser Bedeutung: Hochleistungs-Radialventilatoren ohne Gehaeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexis, J. [Ingenieurbuero Beratung und Planung Luft- und Klimatechnik, Feucht bei Nuernberg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    There isn`t another component in ventilation and air-conditioning whose choice can result in as much energy conservation as the choice of the optimum blower. Awareness of this fact is increasing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit keiner anderen Komponente in der Luft- und Klimatechnik kann so viel Energie gespart werden wie mit der Auswahl des optimalen Ventilators. Deshalb wird der Auswahl des Ventilators immer mehr Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. (orig.)

  10. energy services for the rural poor: a comparative analysis of solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar service centres and multifunctional platforms are innovative concepts for providing energy services in poor rural communities. For some ... A solar service centre is a village shop where solar panels are installed to provide elec- ... regions and 6 were experts who work in Banks,. Ministry of Energy and a solar company ...

  11. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Energy and Electricity Security on ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Agnidé Lawin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper analyzes the role that photovoltaic energy can play in enhancing energy self-sufficiency in each of the fifteen Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS countries. For this purpose, the satellite CM-SAF database, Global Land Cover data and land slope computed from Digital Elevation Model data, was used to compute the area of suitable lands, the potential of energy, and the coefficient of variation of solar irradiation. The results show that 31.76% of the total area of each ECOWAS country has the potential to shelter photovoltaic energy system generators. Except Cape-Verde which lacks data concerning land cover, all the countries of the community dispose of suitable area for photovoltaic systems installation. Using only 1% of these areas at each country scale the amount of the whole community energy production can reach up to 7782.37 TWh·year−1. The result of solar resource repartition shows that the energy could have a low interannual variation. But, in the same year, a significant variation of solar irradiation exits between months.

  13. Energy Decisions: Is Solar Power the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2011-01-01

    People around the world are concerned about affordable energy. It is needed to power the global economy. Petroleum-based transportation and coal-fired power plants are economic prime movers fueling the global economy, but coal and gasoline are also the leading sources of air pollution. Both of these sources produce greenhouse gases and toxins.…

  14. Spinoffs: solar energy and health care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In order to promote diarrhoeal control in developing countries, the World Health Organization is using oral rehydration solutions (ORS) containing glucose and salts of sodium and potassium. A problem with these solutions is their safety when prepared with contaminated water. Noting that sunlight destroyed bacteria, including pathogens, the authors decided to investigate the applicability of this simple, cheap method to the disinfection of the ORS prepared with contaminated water. Two experiments were run on different occasions. Three sets of three bags were exposed to direct sunlight. A zero coliform count/ml, a stringent requirement, was attained in about an hour. The inability of the microorganisms to regrow 24 hours after solar irradiation allows for storage or transport of treated ORS. Additionally, the NaHCO/sub 3/ concentration did not change, and the pH of 8.33 remained constant. This shows that NaHCO/sub 3/ in aqueous solutions, which decomposes on heating into Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, is not significantly affected by this technique.

  15. Solar energy in food processing-a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswara, Amruta R; Ramakrishnarao, M

    2013-04-01

    Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used for various steps in food processing and value addition. Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED) developed Solar Cabinet Dryer with forced circulation which has been used for dehydration and development of value added products from locally grown fruits, vegetables, leafy greens and forest produce. Drying under simulated shade conditions using UV-reducing Blue filter helps retain nutrients better. Its simple design and ease of handling makes SEED Solar Dryer an ideal choice for application of food processing in rural settings, closer to where the harvest is produced, eliminating the need for expensive transportation or storage of fresh produce. It also creates employment opportunities among the rural population, especially women. Other gadgets based on solar collectors and concentrators currently being used at various steps of food processing are reviewed.

  16. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating...... storage parts already melted to cool down to surrounding temperature without solidification in which state that part of the storage will be heat loss free but still will hold the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion. At the time of energy demand the solidification of the super-cooled storage part...... and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let...

  17. Fact Sheet: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications; Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Energy Applications (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration (ESI), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This fact sheet presents highlights from the Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data for Solar Energy Applications, which provides detailed information about solar resource data and the resulting data products needed for planning each stage of large concentrating solar power systems, from initial site selection to system operations.

  18. Economic Possibilities and Management of Solar Energy Use in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela KRSTINIC NIZIC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its geographical position and its climate conditions, Croatia as a tourism destination has numerous and completely untapped potentials in solar energy application. Every tourism coastal and island settlement could resolve their key issues in hotels, private accommodation, and other tourism bearers by applying the district heating/cooling systems. Specific condition along the Adriatic Coast should be indicated, with increase in energy security representing an important tourism factor. Authors' research, undertaken among the management of the Kvarner tourism destination, shows only 36% of hotels apply mostly one form of renewable energy source - solar energy, converting it into thermal energy for domestic hot water and heating systems, and seldom use photovoltaic systems for conversion into electric energy. Analysis of survey results of hotel management shows 64% of hotels use no forms of renewable energy sources, nor plan to apply them. The analysis results clearly indicate Croatian numerous benefits and opportunities for significant increase in use of renewable sources, particularly in camping tourism. Its efficacy depends on overcoming both the perceived and well-known barriers, and particularly on weak but in the future indispensable connection of all relevant policies – energy, industrial, agricultural, tourism, environmental protection, construction and areal planning – in order to ensure conditions for sustainable development, with renewable energy sources forming its essential part.

  19. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    There are two main themes in this thesis. 1) Exergy efficient utilization of solar energy, where the introduction of alternative technologies such as photovoltaic/thermal collectors and phase change energy storage in a low temperature solar system is investigated. 2) The possibility of storing thermal energy in supercooled liquids is investigated. The introductory chapters introduce the concept of exergy, and focus on the use of solar heat as an inherently low quality source for covering low quality demands associated with space heating and hot water. The different stages of solar energy production, storage, and distribution of heat is discussed, with emphasis on exergy relevant issues. With the low temperature solar heating system as background, the introduction of some additional technologies that are investigated. A section of this thesis presents a study of a small scale PV/T collector as a possible component in a low temperature system. In another section the instrumentation that has been built for studies of full-size PV and thermal systems is described, and the possibility of using the PV unit outputs as parameters for controlling the thermal system operation is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the design of the PV/T unit in terms of whether priority should be given to electricity or heat production should be based on how consumption of high quality auxiliary energy is minimized, and not on adding up the combined exergy which is being produced. Solar combisystems require larger heat storage capacities compared to the more common solar hot water systems. Increased volumetric heat storage capacity can be achieved by latent heat storage systems where thermal energy is stored as heat of fusion in phase change materials (PCMs). A section presents a study where spherically encapsulated PCM is incorporated in a solar heat store. Solar combisystems are often complex, and have a relatively large number of interacting components. Another section describes a

  20. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance; L'energie solaire maitrise et performance photovoltaiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  1. The potential of solar energy. Thermal utilisation of solar energy in Munich. Sonnenenergiepotential. Thermische Sonnenenergienutzung in Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgemann, U.; Leuchtner, J. (Oeko-Institut Freiburg (Germany)); Schmalschlaeger, T. (Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Unternehmensplanung)

    1991-04-01

    Over the years the Munich Utility Company accumulated some experience with the utilisation of regenerative energies. Hydropower is used in 6 plants with a total capacity of 52 MW. At present the possibilities of wind energy utilisation on the Muellberg, north of Munich are investigated. Solar energy is to be more widely used for water heating of outdoor pools. Preparatory planing is already finished. A 105 m{sup 2}-collector plant already contributes to the heating of the underground. Energy information and advice is a major concern of the town's utility company. Apart from giving advice to interested people they carry out technical tests within the promotion programmes of the city of Munich which refer to solar space and water heating and photovoltaic plants where 30% of the investments are subsidised. (orig.).

  2. Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

    2005-04-21

    World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Seebeck nanoantennas for solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, E.; Briones, J.; Cuadrado, A.; Martinez-Anton, J. C.; McMurtry, S.; Hehn, M.; Montaigne, F.; Alda, J.; Gonzalez, F. J.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a mid-infrared device based on thermocouple optical antennas for light sensing and energy harvesting applications. We numerically demonstrate that antennas are able to generate low-power dc signals by beneficing of the thermoelectric properties of the metals that constitute them. We theoretically evaluate the optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency for harvesting applications and finally discuss strategies to increase its performance. Thermocouple optical antennas therefore open the route toward the design of photovoltaic devices.

  4. Dehydration of gypsum rock by solar energy: preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Delgado, Aurora; López-Andrés, Sol; Padilla, Isabel; Alvarez, M.; Galindo, R.; Váquez, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The dehydration process of gypsum rock was studied under concentrated solar energy by using a Fresnel lens with power density of 260 Wcm-2. Temperatures higher than 700¿C were attained for 1 min of solar exposure. The effect of grain size of sample and radiation exposure time on the formation of bassanite and anhydrite was studied by XRD. The complete transformation of dihydrate into hemihydrate and/or anhydrate phases is complete for the finer size sample. Plaster composed of 92.7% of anhydr...

  5. Solar energy retrofit for Clarksville Middle School, Clarksville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar energy retrofit heating system installed to provide heating for two gymnasiums at the Clarksville Middle School located in Clarksville, Indiana is described in detail. The system type is hot water using existing chilled water piping and chilled water coils in an air handler system. Flat plate, single-glazed selectively coated solar collectors were installed on the roof of each gymnasium. Total collector area covers 6,520 square feet. The liquid is stored in a 10,000 gallon steel tank installed below grade.

  6. Solar Energy and Other Appropriate Technologies for Small ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Region 2 research demonstration project presentation studied the efficacy of sustainable solar-powered water delivery and monitoring systems to reduce the economic burden of operating and maintaining Non-PRASA drinking water systems and to reduce the impact of climate change resulting from the use of fossil fuels in Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, petroleum (65%), natural gas (18%) and coal (16%) are imported to generate electricity resulting in electrical rates that are more than twice the US average. In 2012, only 1% of electricity came from renewable energy (US Energy Information Administration). One major cost for electricity for small communities in Puerto Rico is the transfer, treatment and distribution of drinking water. These small communities (Non-PRASA communities) are not able to afford electrical costs and many have abandoned their groundwater sources and reverted to unfiltered surface water systems, creating serious public health risks and non-compliance. Many Non-PRASA groundwater systems (141 out of 247) could use solar-powered pumps to extract and deliver groundwater. Solar power would also extend the life of system electrical components by improving the quality of electrical power supply. Solar power as a renewable energy source for Non-PRASA water systems is a viable approach that also reduces the impact of climate change in the Caribbean.

  7. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Beyond Solar Fuels: Renewable Energy-Driven Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Paola; Abate, Salvatare; Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2017-11-23

    The future feasibility of decarbonized industrial chemical production based on the substitution of fossil feedstocks (FFs) with renewable energy (RE) sources is discussed. Indeed, the use of FFs as an energy source has the greatest impact on the greenhouse gas emissions of chemical production. This future scenario is indicated as "solar-driven" or "RE-driven" chemistry. Its possible implementation requires to go beyond the concept of solar fuels, in particular to address two key aspects: i) the use of RE-driven processes for the production of base raw materials, such as olefins, methanol, and ammonia, and ii) the development of novel RE-driven routes that simultaneously realize process and energy intensification, particularly in the direction of a significant reduction of the number of the process steps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Solar-pumped electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using solar-pumped lasers as solar energy converters is examined. The absorbing media considered are halogens or halogen compounds, which are dissociated to yield excited atoms, which then hand over energy to a molecular lasing medium. Estimates of the temperature effects for a Br2-CO2-He system with He as the cooling gas are given. High temperatures can cause the lower energy levels of the CO2 laser transition to be filled. The inverted populations are calculated and lasing should be possible. However, the efficiency is less than 0.001. Examination of other halogen-molecular lasant combinations (where the rate coefficients are known) indicate efficiencies in all cases of less than 0.005.

  10. Solar energy: state of the art, technological bottlenecks; Les energies solaire: etat de l'art, verrous technologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, J.P. [Institut National Energie Solaire, 73 - Le Bourget-du-lac (France)

    2011-05-15

    First Japan then Germany and now most westernized countries have put into effect measures and regulations favoring the development of solar energy and solar industry. Today solar energy is full fledged and is engaged into a race toward lower costs and better performance. The study shows that if the pace of progress is maintained solar energy will be competitive by 2020. This evolution will rely more on a continuous flux of innovations than on a series of abrupt technological breakthroughs. (A.C.)

  11. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Leading to Development of the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn Stewart; Tracey LeBeau

    2008-01-31

    DOE-funded renewable energy feasibility study conducted by Red Mountain Tribal Energy on behalf of the Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium (SWTEC). During the course of the study, SWTEC members considered multiple options for the organization structure, selected a proposed organization structure, and drafted a Memorandum of Understanding for the SWTEC organization. High-level resource assessments for SWTEC members were completed; surveys were developed and completed to determine each member’s interest in multiple participation options, including on-reservation projects. With the survey inputs in mind, multiple energy project options were identified and evaluated on a high-level basis. That process led to a narrowing of the field of technology options to solar generation, specifically, utility-scale Concentrating Solar-Powered Generation projects, with a specific, tentative project location identified at the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation -- the Native Spirit Solar Energy Facility.

  12. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 4. Appendices. Final report. [Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    A methodology has been developed by Atomics International under contract to the Department of Energy to define the applicability of solar total energy systems (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., retail stores, shopping centers, offices, etc.) in the United States. Candidate STES concepts were selected to provide on-site power generation capability, as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. Each concept was evaluated on the basis of its cost effectiveness (i.e., as compared to other concepts) and its ability to ultimately penetrate and capture a significant segment of this market, thereby resulting in a saving of fossil fuel resources. This volume contains the appendices. Topics include deterministic insolation model computer code; building energy usage data; computer simulation programs for building energy demand analysis; model buildings for STES evaluation; Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) computer code; transient simulation of STES concept; solar data tape analysis; program listings and sample output for use with TRNSYS; transient simulation, and financial parameters sensitivities. (WHK)

  13. Bio-inspired constructs for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Solar energy input to the biosphere is about 10^24 joules/year. This makes human needs of even a projected 10^21 joules/year a deceptively achievable goal. One key to global-scale use of solar energy is the synthesis of energy-rich fuel materials such as hydrogen and reduced carbon compounds. The latter have the almost inestimable advantage that the energy infrastructure for distribution and use is in place. The photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes provide paradigms for all of the important energy converting processes humans would need to achieve sustainable energy production and use. These include water oxidation, O2 reduction and oxidation of energy dense organics at room temperature. These processes are carried out by biological catalysts at near thermodynamic efficiency without the use of precious metals. Copper, manganese, iron and nickel are typically used at their active sites. Energy rich organics such as ethanol and larger reduced-carbon compounds offer energy densities comparable to that of fossil fuels yet technology has not produced a low temperature catalyst for breaking carbon-carbon bonds. Biology offers myriad examples of such catalysts. Electroreductive synthesis of organics from CO2 is also templated by Nature's catalysts. The challenge is clear: we must understand the structures and chemical reactivity of these catalytic sites and co-opt their essential features for human use. A number of parameters are involved and will be discussed. Even considering an artificial catalysts comprising only the atoms necessary for catalysis, the footprint is relatively large and, since biological turnover rates are often low, achieving current flows adequate for human needs in industry and transportation is problematic. A detailed understanding of efficiently coupling electromotive force to the active sites of redox enzymes will be one key to designing efficient hybrid catalytic devices. A model system for solar-driven reforming of biomass to H2 will be

  14. The Energy Under Our Feet: A Study of Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, I.

    2016-12-01

    In this experiment I tested if asphalt pavement can produce enough solar heat to produce energy through a system that uses water, solar energy and heat. A setup that can conserve the water and prevent it from evaporating, as well as measuring the energy production is required to run this experiment. I have done a lot of research on this experiment and found that there are several variables that impact the results of this experiment. 1. The surface temperature compared to the air temperature 2. The Geographical location of the pavement 3. The time of the year 4. Cloud coverage for the day Overall there will be many variables I will have to keep out of the experiment such as temperature ranges, season changes and geographical location. My constant will be my location at 33.7086o North and 117.9564o West. Asphalt pavements do not reflect the sunlight and hence heat up faster than a light surface that would reflect the sunlight. This means the Asphalt absorbs the solar radiation, which increases the temperature of the air around the asphalt contributing to what is known as the urban heat island effect. This heating in turn contributes to the formation of smog and ozone products. With the population still growing this would also mean an increase in this temperature and hence an increase in smog and ozone, creating a significant health concern. Cities need to start looking at ways to cool their pavement and find ways to harvest the energy created by their streets. Installing pipes with water can provide that solution and not only reduce the heat reflected from the pavement but also harvest energy from this setup, and decrease the smog production and maintain a balance in ozone levels. As well as the asphalt needed to run the testing, a Stirling engine is required. A Stirling Engine is a highly efficient engine that can run on a variety of heat sources. Because it is highly compatible with alternative energy and renewable energy sources it could become increasingly

  15. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... to support the financing of the GSEP. NEPA Review BLM was the lead Federal agency in the preparation... Genesis Solar, LLC for $800 million to support construction and startup of the GSEP. Accordingly, the DOE...

  16. F8 haplotype and inhibitor risk: results from the Hemophilia Inhibitor Genetics Study (HIGS) Combined Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, John; Astermark, Jan; Menius, Erika D.; Carrington, Mary; Donfield, Sharyne M.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Nelson, George W.; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pavlova, Anna; Shapiro, Amy D.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Berntorp, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Ancestral background, specifically African descent, confers higher risk for development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) in hemophilia A. It has been suggested that differences in the distribution of factor VIII gene (F8) haplotypes, and mismatch between endogenous F8 haplotypes and those comprising products used for treatment could contribute to risk. Design and Methods Data from the HIGS Combined Cohort were used to determine the association between F8 haplotype 3 (H3) vs. haplotypes 1 and 2 (H1+H2) and inhibitor risk among individuals of genetically-determined African descent. Other variables known to affect inhibitor risk including type of F8 mutation and HLA were included in the analysis. A second research question regarding risk related to mismatch in endogenous F8 haplotype and recombinant FVIII products used for treatment was addressed. Results H3 was associated with higher inhibitor risk among those genetically-identified (N=49) as of African ancestry, but the association did not remain significant after adjustment for F8 mutation type and the HLA variables. Among subjects of all racial ancestries enrolled in HIGS who reported early use of recombinant products (N=223), mismatch in endogenous haplotype and the FVIII proteins constituting the products used did not confer greater risk for inhibitor development. Conclusion H3 was not an independent predictor of inhibitor risk. Further, our findings did not support a higher risk of inhibitors in the presence of a haplotype mismatch between the FVIII molecule infused and that of the individual. PMID:22958194

  17. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Energy Balance of a Solar Flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E P; Perez, J E; Harra, L K; Kuznetsov, A A; Emslie, A G; Jeffrey, N L S; Bian, N H; Dennis, B R

    2017-04-14

    The energy released in solar flares derives from a reconfiguration of magnetic fields to a lower energy state, and is manifested in several forms, including bulk kinetic energy of the coronal mass ejection, acceleration of electrons and ions, and enhanced thermal energy that is ultimately radiated away across the electromagnetic spectrum from optical to x rays. Using an unprecedented set of coordinated observations, from a suite of instruments, we here report on a hitherto largely overlooked energy component-the kinetic energy associated with small-scale turbulent mass motions. We show that the spatial location of, and timing of the peak in, turbulent kinetic energy together provide persuasive evidence that turbulent energy may play a key role in the transfer of energy in solar flares. Although the kinetic energy of turbulent motions accounts, at any given time, for only ∼(0.5-1)% of the energy released, its relatively rapid (∼1-10  s) energization and dissipation causes the associated throughput of energy (i.e., power) to rival that of major components of the released energy in solar flares, and thus presumably in other astrophysical acceleration sites.

  18. 78 FR 34403 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Plan (RMP) for the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (QSEP). The Acting Assistant Secretary for Land and...) at the following Web site: http://www.blm.gov/az/st/en/prog/energy/solar/quartzsite_solar_energy.html...: Quartzsite Solar Energy LLC, a subsidiary of Solar Reserve LLC, proposes to build the QSEP, a 100-megawatt...

  19. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  20. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged

  1. 75 FR 72836 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (BLM) has prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

  2. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Connor, Ben L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tompson, Andrew F.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support the utility-scale solar energy development at the Imperial East Solar Energy Zone (SEZ) as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) solar energy program.

  3. A Groundwater Model to Assess Water Resource Impacts at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greer, Chris [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a groundwater flow model to examine the influence of potential groundwater withdrawal to support utility-scale solar energy development at the Brenda Solar Energy Zone (SEZ), as a part of the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Energy Program.

  4. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  5. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  6. Solar energy system design for a lobster aquaculture facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    In aquaculture, as in most manufacturing processes, the operating cost is greatly dependent upon the cost of energy. The objectives were to: (a) analyze the power requirements for a lobster aquaculture plant, and (b) to evaluate the use of solar energy as a cost reduction measure in plant operation. A flat plate collector system capable of supplying heat alone was compared with a total energy system in which both electrical power and heat were supplied. The flat plate collector was not cost effective because when heat was needed in December, the least amount of heat was available from solar radiation. Therefore, the collector area and cost were prohibitive. However, the total energy system was cost effective when the capital investment was amortized over ten or more years. The optimum solar power plant was designed to provide 100% of the average yearly power demands, or 60% of the December power requirement. This plant would consist of 60,000 square feet of mirror surface (3.5 acres of land for 40% packing density) which would concentrate 1500 to 2000 suns on a receiver mounted on an 85 foot tower. In the tower would be the three storage stoves which would contain the heat required to operate a 343 KWe Brayton gas turbine engine and alternator for 27 hours. Equipment to generate 3 million kw-hr annually will cost an estimated $1.3 million.

  7. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  8. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  9. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dannemand, Mark; Perers, Bengt

    The project “Solar/electric heating systems in the future energy system” was carried out in the period 2008‐2013. The project partners were DTU Byg, DTU Informatics (now DTU Compute), DMI, ENFOR A/S and COWI A/S. The companies Ajva ApS, Ohmatex ApS and Innogie ApS worked together with the project...... partners in two connected projects in order to develop solar/electric heating systems for laboratory tests. The project was financed by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation under the Danish Council for Strategic Research in the program Sustainable Energy and Environment. The DSF number...... of the project is 2104‐07‐0021/09‐063201/DSF. This report is the final report of the project. The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating...

  10. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan [PI, Emory Univ.

    2013-09-20

    The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

  11. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  12. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-04

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Solar Energy Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This solar energy curriculum guide is designed to assist teachers in infusing energy concepts into vocational education programs. It consists of 31 competency-based instructional units organized into 10 sections. Covered in the sections are the following topics: related instructions (history and development; human relations; general safety;…

  14. Solar microclimatology. [tables (data) on insolation for application to solar energy conversion by electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckenney, D. B.; Beauchamp, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    It has become apparent in recent years that solar energy can be used for electric power production by several methods. Because of the diffuse nature of the solar insolation, the area involved in any central power plant design can encompass several square miles. A detailed design of these large area collection systems will require precise knowledge of the local solar insolation. Detailed information will also be needed concerning the temporal nature of the insolation and the local spatial distribution. Therefore, insolation data was collected and analyzed for a network of sensors distributed over an area of several square kilometers in Arizona. The analyses of this data yielded probability distributions of cloud size, velocity, and direction of motion which were compared with data obtained from the National Weather Service. Microclimatological analyses were also performed for suitable modeling parameters pertinent to large scale electric power plant design. Instrumentation used to collect the data is described.

  15. Toward Improved Modeling of Spectral Solar Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This study introduces the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) recent efforts to extend the capability of the Fast All-sky Radiation Model for Solar applications (FARMS) by computing spectral solar irradiances over both horizontal and inclined surfaces. A new model is developed by computing the optical thickness of the atmosphere using a spectral irradiance model for clear-sky conditions, SMARTS2. A comprehensive lookup table (LUT) of cloud bidirectional transmittance distribution functions (BTDFs) is precomputed for 2002 wavelength bands using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, libRadtran. The solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere is given by considering all possible paths of photon transmission and the relevent scattering and absorption attenuation. Our results indicate that this new model has an accuracy that is similar to that of state-of-the-art radiative transfer models, but it is significantly more efficient.

  16. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Ye, Z.; Gao, W.

    2013-12-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m2 per hour. Comparing with the

  17. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingliang; Lv, Mouchao; Deng, Zhong; Zhai, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  18. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  19. Theoretical considerations of soil retention. [dirtying of solar energy devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of solar energy devices is adversely affected by surface soiling, and generally, the loss of performance increases with increases in the quantity of soil retained on their surfaces. To minimize performance losses caused by soiling, solar devices should not only be deployed in low soiling geographical areas, but employ surfaces or surfacing materials having low affinity for soil retention, maximum susceptibility to be naturally cleaned by wind, rain and snow, and to be readily cleanable by simple and inexpensive maintenance cleaning techniques. This article describes known and postulated mechanisms of soil retention on surfaces, and infers from these mechanisms that low soiling and easily cleanable surfaces should have low surface energy, and be hard, smooth, hydrophobic and chemically clean of sticky materials and water soluble salts.

  20. Advances in Photofunctional Dendrimers for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zeng, Yi; Yu, Tianjun; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2014-07-03

    Dendrimers are regularly and hierarchically branched synthetic macromolecules with numerous chain ends all emanating from a single core, which makes them attractive candidates for energy conversion applications. During photosynthesis and photocatalysis, photoinduced electron transfer and energy transfer are the main processes involved. Studies on these processes in dendritic systems are critical for the future applications of dendrimers in photochemical energy conversion and other optoelectronic devices. In this Perspective, the recent advances of photofunctional dendrimers in energy conversion based on light-harvesting systems, solar cells, and photochemical production of hydrogen will be discussed. The electron-transfer and energy-transfer characteristics in light-harvesting photofunctional dendrimers and the regulation of the electron-transfer process and the stabilization of the charge separation state in hydrogen photoproduction are emphasized.

  1. Solar Energy Potential of Silchar, Assam, India—A Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Podder, B.; Biswas, A.

    Solar energy is one of the promising renewable energy resources among all other non-conventional energy sources. Solar radiation data are required for resource assessment, model development, system design and collector testing along with other solar engineering and research. To optimise the solar technology and performances of various solar energy based equipment, solar energy assessment has to done beforehand. In our present work, our main objective is to assess solar intensity level of Silchar, Assam (India) using meteorological tools. The latitude of Silchar is 24.81°N. We have collected the solar radiation data of Silchar, Assam (India) from Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA) station which is installed in NIT Silchar by MNRE (Govt. of India). The data reported is based on the readings taken during the extreme summer in this region. A pyranometer and a Pyrheliometer are installed along with the solar tracker to measure global solar insolation and direct solar insolation respectively. Diffused Radiation is measured with the help of shaded pyranometer. On an average, the daily global and diffused solar radiations are 1024 and 756 W/m2 respectively. The average solar insolation of Silchar is 4.29 kwh/m2/day. It is compared with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) satellite data for Silchar, which shows the same to be 4.66 kwh/m2/day thereby making both the readings quite comparable. Therefore, intensity of solar radiation of this place is in the low range.

  2. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  3. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-06

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  4. Campus Energy Approach, REopt Overview, and Solar for Universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Geet, Otto D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This presentation gives an overview of the climate neutral research campus framework for reducing energy use and meeting net zero electricity on research campuses. It gives an overview of REopt and the REopt Lite web tool, which can be used to evaluate cost optimal sizes of behind the meter PV and storage. It includes solar PV installation trends at universities and case studies for projects implemented on university campuses.

  5. Triplet-triplet annihilation photon-upconversion: towards solar energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Victor; Dzebo, Damir; Abrahamsson, Maria; Albinsson, Bo; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2014-06-14

    Solar power production and solar energy storage are important research areas for development of technologies that can facilitate a transition to a future society independent of fossil fuel based energy sources. Devices for direct conversion of solar photons suffer from poor efficiencies due to spectrum losses, which are caused by energy mismatch between the optical absorption of the devices and the broadband irradiation provided by the sun. In this context, photon-upconversion technologies are becoming increasingly interesting since they might offer an efficient way of converting low energy solar energy photons into higher energy photons, ideal for solar power production and solar energy storage. This perspective discusses recent progress in triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) photon-upconversion systems and devices for solar energy applications. Furthermore, challenges with evaluation of the efficiency of TTA-photon-upconversion systems are discussed and a general approach for evaluation and comparison of existing systems is suggested.

  6. Fluid circulating pump operated by same incident solar energy which heats energy collection fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of using a spacecraft solar powered pump terrestrially to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuel generated electricity for domestic solar hot water systems was investigated. A breadboard prototype model was constructed utilizing bimetals to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion by means of a toggle operated shutter mechanism. Although it did not meet expected thermal efficiency, the prototype model was sufficient to demonstrate the mechanical concept.

  7. Solar energy converters based on multi-junction photoemission solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, O E; Golyashov, V A; Rodionov, A A; Chistokhin, I B; Kislykh, N V; Mironov, A V; Aksenov, V V

    2017-11-23

    Multi-junction solar cells with multiple p-n junctions made of different semiconductor materials have multiple bandgaps that allow reducing the relaxation energy loss and substantially increase the power-conversion efficiency. The choice of materials for each sub-cell is very limited due to the difficulties in extracting the current between the layers caused by the requirements for lattice- and current-matching. We propose a new vacuum multi-junction solar cell with multiple p-n junctions separated by vacuum gaps that allow using different semiconductor materials as cathode and anode, both activated to the state of effective negative electron affinity (NEA). In this work, the compact proximity focused vacuum tube with the GaAs(Cs,O) photocathode and AlGaAs/GaAs-(Cs,O) anode with GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is used as a prototype of a vacuum single-junction solar cell. The photodiode with the p-AlGaAs/GaAs anode showed the spectral power-conversion efficiency of about 1% at V bias  = 0 in transmission and reflection modes, while, at V bias  = 0.5 V, the efficiency increased up to 10%. In terms of energy conservation, we found the condition at which the energy cathode-to-anode transition was close to 1. Considering only the energy conservation part, the NEA-cell power-conversion efficiency can rich a quantum yield value which is measured up to more than 50%.

  8. Solar Energy Development Assistance for Fort Hunter Liggett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Hoffman, Michael G.; Chvala, William D.

    2011-03-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provided assistance to Fort Hunter Liggett to determine the opportunities for solar energy development on the site. Increasing use of renewable energy is mandated by several executive orders and legislation. Fort Hunter Liggett has many attributes that enhance its suitability for renewable energy development. First, the site is located south of San Francisco in a remote portion of the costal foothills. Brush and forest fires are frequent and often result in power outages, which subsequently impacts the site’s training mission. In addition, the site’s blended electric rate during fiscal year (FY) 2010 was high at 12 ¢/kWh. Lastly, the solar resource is moderately high; the site receives nearly 5.7 kWh/m2/day on a south facing, latitude-tilted surface. In light of these factors, the site is a clear candidate for a solar photovoltaic array. Prior to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) involvement, the site secured funding for a 1 megawatt (MW) photovoltaic (PV) array that will also provide shading for site vehicles. To best implement this project, PNNL conducted a site visit and was tasked with providing the site technical guidance and support regarding module selection, array siting, and other ancillary issues.

  9. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  10. Regulated utilities and solar energy: a legal-economic analysis of the major issues affecting the solar commercialization effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitos, J.; Feuerstein, R. J.

    1979-06-01

    The reaction of public utilities to the addition (and competitive) sources of energy supplied by solar technologies will have a significant impact on the commercialization of solar energy. Decentralized applications of solar energy need utility-produced power to back up the energy produced by solar means. The cost and availability of this power will largely determine the acceptance of solar energy. There are three legal issues surrounding the role of utilities in the solar commercialization effort: (1) the extent to which utilities may own, sell, lease, finance, or service solar devices for utility customers; (2) the degree to which solar-powered utilities may be able to compete with existing utilities; and (3) the degree to which various utility rate structures will be allowed to penalize decentralized solar users. The impact of state constitutional and statutory provisions upon these issues is examined, along with relevant federal constitutional doctrines. Finally, the statutes of the National Energy Act, many of which specifically address the above issues, are discussed.

  11. Low-energy ion outflow modulated by the solar wind energy input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wei, Yong; Andre, Mats; Eriksson, Anders; Haaland, Stein; Kronberg, Elena; Nilsson, Hans; Maes, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Due to the spacecraft charging issue, it has been difficult to measure low-energy ions of ionospheric origin in the magnetosphere. A recent study taking advantage of the spacecraft electric potential has found that the previously 'hidden' low-energy ions is dominant in the magnetosphere. This comprehensive dataset of low-energy ions allows us to study the relationship between the ionospheric outflow and energy input from the solar wind (ɛ). In this study, we discuss the ratios of the solar wind energy input to the energy of the ionospheric outflow. We show that the ɛ controls the ionospheric outflow when the ɛ is high, while the ionospheric outflow does not systematically change with the ɛ when the ɛ is low.

  12. Framework for analysis of solar energy systems in the built environment from an exergy perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Torio, H.; Schmidt, D

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis is a more powerful tool than mere energy analysis for showing the improvement potential of energy systems. Direct use of solar radiation instead of degrading other high quality energy resources found in nature is advantageous. Yet, due to physical inconsistencies present in the exergy analysis framework for assessing direct-solar systems commonly found in literature, high exergy losses arise in the conversion process of solar radiation in direct-solar systems. However, these l...

  13. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  14. Assessing temporal complementarity of solar, wind and hydrokinetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES exhibit various characteristics when it comes to their availability in time and space domain. Some are characterised by significant variability and limited predictability. This makes their integration to the power grid a complicated task. Temporal and spatial complementarity of RES is perceived as one of the possible ways to facilitate the process of integration. This paper investigates the concept of temporal complementarity of solar wind and hydrokinetic energy in case of two sites in Poland. Obtained results indicate existence of some beneficial complementarity on inter-annual and annual time scale. Combination of those three RES in one hybrid system makes power source more reliable.

  15. Solar Eclipse Monitoring for Solar Energy Applications Using the Solar and Moon Position Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.

    2010-03-01

    This report includes a procedure for implementing an algorithm (described by Jean Meeus) to calculate the moon's zenith angle with uncertainty of +/-0.001 degrees and azimuth angle with uncertainty of +/-0.003 degrees. The step-by-step format presented here simplifies the complicated steps Meeus describes to calculate the Moon's position, and focuses on the Moon instead of the planets and stars. It also introduces some changes to accommodate for solar radiation applications.

  16. A review of solar energy based heat and power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Bühler, Fabian; Andreasen, Jesper Graa

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy based technologies has attracted increased interest in recent times in order to satisfy the various energy demands of our society. This paper presents a thorough review of the open literature on solar energy based heat and power plants. In order to limit the scope....... The paper also presents a selection of case studies for the evaluation of solar energy based combined heat and power generation possibility in Denmark. The considered technologies for the case studies are (1) solar photovoltaic modules, (2) solar flat plate collectors, (3) a ground source heat pump, (4...... of the review, only fully renewable plants with at least the production of electricity and heat/hot water for end use are considered. These include solar photovoltaic and solar thermal based plants with both concentrating and non-concentrating collectors in both solar-only and solar-hybrid configurations...

  17. 78 FR 63276 - Interim Policy, FAA Review of Solar Energy System Projects on Federally Obligated Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... production or the heating of water, in certain situations the glass surfaces of the solar energy systems can... photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems on airports. While solar PV or SHW systems (henceforth... Alteration. Standard for Measuring Ocular Impact FAA adopts the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Plot shown in...

  18. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    of the storage to cool down below the melting point without solidification preserving the heat of fusion energy. If the supercooled storage reaches the surrounding temperature no heat loss will take place until the supercooled salt is activated. The investigation shows that this concept makes it possible...... to achieve 100% coverage of space heating and domestic hot water in a low energy house in a Danish climate with a solar heating system with 36 m² flat plate solar collector and approximately 10 m³ storage with sodium acetate. A traditional water storage solution aiming at 100% coverage will require a storage......This paper presents the theoretical investigation on a concept for a seasonal thermal storage based on the phase change material sodium acetate trihydrate with active use of supercooling as a measure to achieve a partly heat loss free thermal storage. The effect of supercooling allows a melted part...

  19. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-10-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron-hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  20. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.