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Sample records for hif-prolyl hydroxylase implication

  1. Gingerol prevents prion protein-mediated neuronal toxicity by regulating HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2 and prion protein.

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    Park, Yang-Gyu; Park, Sang-Youel

    2014-11-01

    Prion diseases are a family of progressive neurodegenerative disorders, which are fatal in the majority of cases and affect both humans and domestic animals. Prion protein (PrP) (106-126) retains the neurotoxic properties of the entire pathological PrPsc and it is generally used as a reasonable model to study the mechanisms responsible for prion diseases. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is involved in the gingerol-mediated protection of neuronal cells. HIF mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2) is an oxygen sensor that hydroxylates the HIF-α-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation under normoxic conditions. Thus, in the present study we wished to determine whether gingerol inhibits the catalytic activity of PHD2 and prevents HIF-1α protein proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing the occurrence of PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal apoptosis. We used the pharmacological inhibition of PHD2 by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or deferoxamine (DFO) and the genetic inhibition of HIF-1α by HIF-1α small interfering RNA (siRNA) to block the effects of gingerol against PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that gingerol prevented PrP (106‑126)-induced neuronal apoptosis by upregulating HIF-1α and inhibiting the catalytic activity of PHD2 under normoxic conditions. Moreover, the protective effects of gingerol against PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal apoptosis were associated with the upregulation of the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPc). In conclusion, our results indicate that gingerol has therapeutic potential for use in the treatment or prevention of prion diseases, and its inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity of PHD2 may be of clinical benefit.

  2. Recent Advances in Developing Inhibitors for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylases and Their Therapeutic Implications

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    So Yeon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs are members of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent non-heme iron dioxygenases. Due to their physiological roles in regulation of HIF-1α stability, many efforts have been focused on searching for selective PHD inhibitors to control HIF-1α levels for therapeutic applications. In this review, we first describe the structure of PHD2 as a molecular basis for structure-based drug design (SBDD and various experimental methods developed for measuring PHD activity. We further discuss the current status of the development of PHD inhibitors enabled by combining SBDD approaches with high-throughput screening. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of small molecule PHD inhibitors.

  3. Prolyl hydroxylase 2 inactivation enhances glycogen storage and promotes excessive neutrophilic responses.

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    Sadiku, Pranvera; Willson, Joseph A; Dickinson, Rebecca S; Murphy, Fiona; Harris, Alison J; Lewis, Amy; Sammut, David; Mirchandani, Ananda S; Ryan, Eilise; Watts, Emily R; Thompson, A A Roger; Marriott, Helen M; Dockrell, David H; Taylor, Cormac T; Schneider, Martin; Maxwell, Patrick H; Chilvers, Edwin R; Mazzone, Massimilliano; Moral, Veronica; Pugh, Chris W; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J; Ghesquiere, Bart; Carmeliet, Peter; Whyte, Moira Kb; Walmsley, Sarah R

    2017-09-01

    Fully activated innate immune cells are required for effective responses to infection, but their prompt deactivation and removal are essential for limiting tissue damage. Here, we have identified a critical role for the prolyl hydroxylase enzyme Phd2 in maintaining the balance between appropriate, predominantly neutrophil-mediated pathogen clearance and resolution of the innate immune response. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific loss of Phd2 resulted in an exaggerated inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumonia, with increases in neutrophil motility, functional capacity, and survival. These enhanced neutrophil responses were dependent upon increases in glycolytic flux and glycogen stores. Systemic administration of a HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor replicated the Phd2-deficient phenotype of delayed inflammation resolution. Together, these data identify Phd2 as the dominant HIF-hydroxylase in neutrophils under normoxic conditions and link intrinsic regulation of glycolysis and glycogen stores to the resolution of neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic pathways in the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  4. Induction of erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors without promotion of tumor initiation, progression, or metastasis in a VEGF-sensitive model of spontaneous breast cancer.

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    Seeley, Todd W; Sternlicht, Mark D; Klaus, Stephen J; Neff, Thomas B; Liu, David Y

    2017-01-01

    The effects of pharmacological hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization were investigated in the MMTV-Neu(ndl)-YD5 (NeuYD) mouse model of breast cancer. This study first confirmed the sensitivity of this model to increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), using bigenic NeuYD;MMTV-VEGF-25 mice. Tumor initiation was dramatically accelerated in bigenic animals. Bigenic tumors were also more aggressive, with shortened doubling times and increased lung metastasis as compared to NeuYD controls. In separate studies, NeuYD mice were treated three times weekly from 7 weeks of age until study end with two different HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs), FG-4497 or roxadustat (FG-4592). In NeuYD mice, HIF-PHI treatments elevated erythropoiesis markers, but no differences were detected in tumor onset or the phenotypes of established tumors.

  5. miR-190 Enhances HIF-Dependent Responses to Hypoxia in Drosophila by Inhibiting the Prolyl-4-hydroxylase Fatiga.

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    De Lella Ezcurra, Ana Laura; Bertolin, Agustina Paola; Kim, Kevin; Katz, Maximiliano Javier; Gándara, Lautaro; Misra, Tvisha; Luschnig, Stefan; Perrimon, Norbert; Melani, Mariana; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Cellular and systemic responses to low oxygen levels are principally mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIFs), a family of evolutionary conserved heterodimeric transcription factors, whose alpha- and beta-subunits belong to the bHLH-PAS family. In normoxia, HIFα is hydroxylated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylases, targeting it for proteasomal degradation, while in hypoxia the activity of these hydroxylases decreases due to low oxygen availability, leading to HIFα accumulation and expression of HIF target genes. To identify microRNAs required for maximal HIF activity, we conducted an overexpression screen in Drosophila melanogaster, evaluating the induction of a HIF transcriptional reporter. miR-190 overexpression enhanced HIF-dependent biological responses, including terminal sprouting of the tracheal system, while in miR-190 loss of function embryos the hypoxic response was impaired. In hypoxic conditions, miR-190 expression was upregulated and required for induction of HIF target genes by directly inhibiting the HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylase Fatiga. Thus, miR-190 is a novel regulator of the hypoxia response that represses the oxygen sensor Fatiga, leading to HIFα stabilization and enhancement of hypoxic responses.

  6. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes: important regulators of cancer metabolism

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    Yang M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yang,1 Huizhong Su,1 Tomoyoshi Soga,2 Kamil R Kranc,3 Patrick J Pollard1 1Cancer Biology and Metabolism Group, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Mizukami, Tsuruoka, Yamagata, Japan; 3MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs regulate the stability of HIF protein by post-translational hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues in its α subunit in an oxygen-dependent manner. Trans-4-prolyl hydroxylation of HIFα under normal oxygen (O2 availability enables its association with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor pVHL E3 ligase complex, leading to the degradation of HIFα via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Due to the obligatory requirement of molecular O2 as a co-substrate, the activity of PHDs is inhibited under hypoxic conditions, resulting in stabilized HIFα, which dimerizes with HIFβ and, together with transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, activates the transcription of its target genes. As a key molecular regulator of adaptive response to hypoxia, HIF plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and its overexpression has been detected in various cancers. The HIF1α isoform in particular has a strong impact on cellular metabolism, most notably by promoting anaerobic, whilst inhibiting O2-dependent, metabolism of glucose. The PHD enzymes also seem to have HIF-independent functions and are subject to regulation by factors other than O2, such as by metabolic status, oxidative stress, and abnormal levels of endogenous metabolites (oncometabolites that have been observed in some types of cancers. In this review, we aim to summarize current understandings of the function and regulation of PHDs in cancer with an emphasis on their roles in metabolism. Keywords: prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD

  7. lmplementation of the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) and its main metabolites into routine doping controls.

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    Eichner, Daniel; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Brenner, Mitch; Chou, James; Leigh, Scott; Wright, Lee R; Flippin, Lee A; Martinelli, Michael; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-04-04

    The utility of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors as a therapeutic means of treating patients suffering from anaemia has been demonstrated for various clinical settings. However, besides this intended use, HIF stabilizers can be the subject of misuse in amateur and elite sports due to their erythropoietic properties, as recently proven by several cases of adverse analytical findings in doping control testing. Consequently, to allow for adequate and comprehensive test methods, knowledge of the drug candidates' metabolism and analytical options enabling appropriate detection windows in sports drug testing samples (i.e., blood and urine) is essential to doping control laboratories. In the present study, a novel HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor referred to as Roxadustat (FG-4592) and main plasma- and urine-derived metabolites were investigated in the context of routine doping control analytical approaches. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based test methods were used to study the target analytes' dissociation pathways following electrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation. Diagnostic precursor-product ion pairs were selected to enable the implementation of the intact drug Roxadustat and selected metabolites into multi-analyte initial testing procedures for plasma and urine specimens. The assays were validated in accordance to guidelines of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and results demonstrated the suitability (fitness-for-purpose) of the employed analytical methods with detection limits ranging from 0.05 to 1 ng/mL and 1 to 5 ng/mL for urine and plasma, respectively. Subsequently, elimination study plasma and urine samples collected up to 167 h post-administration were analyzed using the validated methods, which suggested the use of different target analytes for blood and urine analyses with FG-4592 and its glucuronide, respectively, for optimal detection windows. Additionally, a light-induced rearrangement

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors: A Potential New Treatment for Anemia in Patients With CKD.

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    Gupta, Nupur; Wish, Jay B

    2017-06-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) increase hemoglobin levels, reduce transfusion requirements, and have been the standard of treatment for anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) since 1989. Many safety concerns have emerged regarding the use of ESAs, including an increased occurrence of cardiovascular events and vascular access thrombosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase (PH) enzyme inhibitors are a new class of agents for the treatment of anemia in CKD. These agents work by stabilizing the HIF complex and stimulating endogenous erythropoietin production even in patients with end-stage kidney disease. HIF-PH inhibitors improve iron mobilization to the bone marrow. They are administered orally, which may be a more favorable route for patients not undergoing hemodialysis. By inducing considerably lower but more consistent blood erythropoietin levels than ESAs, HIF-PH inhibitors may be associated with fewer adverse cardiovascular effects at comparable hemoglobin levels, although this has yet to be proved in long-term clinical trials. One significant concern regarding the long-term use of these agents is their possible effect on tumor growth. There are 4 such agents undergoing phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in the United States; this report provides a focused review of HIF-PH inhibitors and their potential clinical utility in the management of anemia of CKD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacillus anthracis Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Interacts with and Modifies Elongation Factor Tu

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    Schnicker, Nicholas J. [Department; Razzaghi, Mortezaali [Department; Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta [Department; Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Biophysics; Dey, Mishtu [Department

    2017-10-17

    Prolyl hydroxylation is a very common post-translational modification and plays many roles in eukaryotes such as collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and controlling protein transcription and translation. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that prokaryotes contain prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) homologous to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act on elongation factor Tu (EFTu) and are likely involved in the regulation of bacterial translation. Recent biochemical and structural studies with a PHD from Pseudomonas putida (PPHD) determined that it forms a complex with EFTu and hydroxylates a prolyl residue of EFTu. Moreover, while animal, plant, and viral P4Hs act on peptidyl proline, most prokaryotic P4Hs have been known to target free l-proline; the exceptions include PPHD and a P4H from Bacillus anthracis (BaP4H) that modifies collagen-like proline-rich peptides. Here we use biophysical and mass spectrometric methods to demonstrate that BaP4H recognizes full-length BaEFTu and a BaEFTu 9-mer peptide for site-specific proline hydroxylation. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled small-angle X-ray scattering (SEC–SAXS) and binding studies, we determined that BaP4H forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with BaEFTu. The SEC–SAXS studies reveal dissociation of BaP4H dimeric subunits upon interaction with BaEFTu. While BaP4H is unusual within bacteria in that it is structurally and functionally similar to the animal PHDs and collagen P4Hs, respectively, this work provides further evidence of its promiscuous substrate recognition. It is possible that the enzyme might have evolved to hydroxylate a universally conserved protein in prokaryotes, similar to the PHDs, and implies a functional role in B. anthracis.

  10. Induction of erythropoiesis by hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors without promotion of tumor initiation, progression, or metastasis in a VEGF-sensitive model of spontaneous breast cancer

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    Seeley TW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Todd W Seeley, Mark D Sternlicht, Stephen J Klaus, Thomas B Neff, David Y Liu Therapeutics R&D, FibroGen, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: The effects of pharmacological hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF stabilization were investigated in the MMTV-Neundl-YD5 (NeuYD mouse model of breast cancer. This study first confirmed the sensitivity of this model to increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, using bigenic NeuYD;MMTV-VEGF-25 mice. Tumor initiation was dramatically accelerated in bigenic animals. Bigenic tumors were also more aggressive, with shortened doubling times and increased lung metastasis as compared to NeuYD controls. In separate studies, NeuYD mice were treated three times weekly from 7 weeks of age until study end with two different HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs, FG-4497 or roxadustat (FG-4592. In NeuYD mice, HIF-PHI treatments elevated erythropoiesis markers, but no differences were detected in tumor onset or the phenotypes of established tumors. Keywords: cancer progression, erythropoiesis, hypoxia-inducible factor, hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, vascular endothelial growth factor, MMTV-Neu breast cancer model

  11. Lactoferrin from bovine colostrum regulates prolyl hydroxylase 2 activity and prevents prion protein-mediated neuronal cell damage via cellular prion protein.

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    Park, Y-G; Moon, J-H; Park, S-Y

    2014-08-22

    Prion disorders are associated with the conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) to the abnormal scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPsc). Recent studies have shown that expression of normal PrPc is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and that lactoferrin increases full-length PrPc on the cell surface. Lactoferrin is an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein with various biological activities, including iron-chelating ability. HIF-1α and the associated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are regulated by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases 2 (PHD2). We hypothesized that lactoferrin regulates PHD2 expression and enzymatic activity, and the PHD2 regulation promotes HIF-1α stability and prevention of neuronal cell death mediated by prion protein (PrP) residues (106-126). Lactoferrin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity by the induction of PrPc expression via promoting HIF-1α stability in neuronal cells. Our results demonstrated that lactoferrin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity via the up-regulation of HIF-1α stability determined by PHD2 expression and enzymatic activity. These findings suggest that possible therapies such as PHD2 inhibition, or promotion of lactoferrin secretion, may have clinical benefits in neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxygen Sensing in Drosophila: Multiple Isoforms of the Prolyl Hydroxylase Fatiga Have Different Capacity to Regulate HIFα/Sima

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    Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Background The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases are oxygen sensors that hydroxylate the HIF alpha-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation in normoxia. Three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, encoded by independent genes, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, occur in mammals. PHD2, the longest PHD isoform includes a MYND domain, whose biochemical function is unclear. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are induced in hypoxia to shut down HIF dependent transcription upon reoxygenation, while expression of PHD1 is oxygen-independent. The physiologic significance of the diversity of the PHD oxygen sensors is intriguing. Methodology and Principal Findings We have analyzed the Drosophila PHD locus, fatiga, which encodes 3 isoforms, FgaA, FgaB and FgaC that are originated through a combination of alternative initiation of transcription and alternative splicing. FgaA includes a MYND domain and is homologous to PHD2, while FgaB and FgaC are shorter isoforms most similar to PHD3. Through a combination of genetic experiments in vivo and molecular analyses in cell culture, we show that fgaB but not fgaA is induced in hypoxia, in a Sima-dependent manner, through a HIF-Responsive Element localized in the first intron of fgaA. The regulatory capacity of FgaB is stronger than that of FgaA, as complete reversion of fga loss-of-function phenotypes is observed upon transgenic expression of the former, and only partial rescue occurs after expression of the latter. Conclusions and Significance Diversity of PHD isoforms is a conserved feature in evolution. As in mammals, there are hypoxia-inducible and non-inducible Drosophila PHDs, and a fly isoform including a MYND domain co-exists with isoforms lacking this domain. Our results suggest that the isoform devoid of a MYND domain has stronger regulatory capacity than that including this domain. PMID:20811646

  13. Oxygen sensing in Drosophila: multiple isoforms of the prolyl hydroxylase fatiga have different capacity to regulate HIFalpha/Sima.

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    Acevedo, Julieta M; Centanin, Lazaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2010-08-25

    The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) mediates cellular adaptations to low oxygen. Prolyl-4-hydroxylases are oxygen sensors that hydroxylate the HIF alpha-subunit, promoting its proteasomal degradation in normoxia. Three HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, encoded by independent genes, PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3, occur in mammals. PHD2, the longest PHD isoform includes a MYND domain, whose biochemical function is unclear. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are induced in hypoxia to shut down HIF dependent transcription upon reoxygenation, while expression of PHD1 is oxygen-independent. The physiologic significance of the diversity of the PHD oxygen sensors is intriguing. We have analyzed the Drosophila PHD locus, fatiga, which encodes 3 isoforms, FgaA, FgaB and FgaC that are originated through a combination of alternative initiation of transcription and alternative splicing. FgaA includes a MYND domain and is homologous to PHD2, while FgaB and FgaC are shorter isoforms most similar to PHD3. Through a combination of genetic experiments in vivo and molecular analyses in cell culture, we show that fgaB but not fgaA is induced in hypoxia, in a Sima-dependent manner, through a HIF-Responsive Element localized in the first intron of fgaA. The regulatory capacity of FgaB is stronger than that of FgaA, as complete reversion of fga loss-of-function phenotypes is observed upon transgenic expression of the former, and only partial rescue occurs after expression of the latter. Diversity of PHD isoforms is a conserved feature in evolution. As in mammals, there are hypoxia-inducible and non-inducible Drosophila PHDs, and a fly isoform including a MYND domain co-exists with isoforms lacking this domain. Our results suggest that the isoform devoid of a MYND domain has stronger regulatory capacity than that including this domain.

  14. The Isoquinolone Derived Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor ICA Is a Potent Substrate of the Organic Anion Transporters 1 and 3.

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    Schulz, Kei; Hagos, Yohannes; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Schley, Gunnar; Burzlaff, Nikolai; Willam, Carsten; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by the transcription factor complex hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIF stability is governed by a family of dioxygenases called HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Isoquinolone-derived PHD inhibitors, like 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate (ICA), which stabilize the intracellular HIF-α have been suggested as a potentially beneficial therapeutic strategy for the treatment of disorders associated with ischemia. To stabilize HIF-α, ICA has to be taken up into proximal tubule cells (PCTs) across the basolateral membrane by one of the organic anion transporters 1, 2 or 3 (OAT1, OAT2 or OAT3). The release into the urine across the luminal membrane may be mediated by OAT4. To demonstrate interaction of ICA with human OAT1, OAT2, OAT3 and OAT4, ICA was tested on these transporters stably transfected in HEK293 cells by using p-aminohippurate (PAH), cGMP and estrone-3-sulfate (ES) as reference substrates, respectively. Uptakes of PAH and ES in OAT1- and OAT3-transfected HEK293 cells were inhibited by ICA with half-maximal inhibition values of 0.29 ± 0.05 and 2.58 ± 0.16 µM, respectively. OAT2 was less sensitive to ICA. Efflux experiments identified ICA as an OAT1 and OAT3 substrate. Preloading OAT4-transfected HEK293 cells with ICA stimulated ES uptake by 18.3 ± 3.8%. The uptake of ICA across the basolateral membrane of PCTs occurs mainly by OAT1 and the efflux into the tubular lumen by OAT4. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Intermediary metabolite precursor dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by inhibiting prolyl-4-hydroxylase PHD2.

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    Peifeng Hou

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, a major mediator of tumor physiology, is activated during tumor progression, and its abundance is correlated with therapeutic resistance in a broad range of solid tumors. The accumulation of HIF-1α is mainly caused by hypoxia or through the mutated succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA or fumarate hydratase (FH expression to inhibit its degradation. However, its activation under normoxic conditions, termed pseudohypoxia, in cells without mutated SDHA or FH is not well documented. Here, we show that dimethyl-2-ketoglutarate (DKG, a cell membrane-permeable precursor of a key metabolic intermediate, α-ketoglutarate (α-KG, known for its ability to rescue glutamine deficiency, transiently stabilized HIF-1α by inhibiting activity of the HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein, PHD2. Consequently, prolonged DKG-treatment under normoxia elevated HIF-1α abundance and up-regulated the expression of its downstream target genes, thereby inducing a pseudohypoxic condition. This HIF-1α stabilization phenotype is similar to that from treatment of cells with desferrioxamine (DFO, an iron chelator, or dimethyloxalyglycine (DMOG, an established PHD inhibitor, but was not recapitulated with other α-KG analogues, such as Octyl-2KG, MPTOM001 and MPTOM002. Our study is the first example of an α-KG precursor to increase HIF-1α abundance and activity. We propose that DKG acts as a potent HIF-1α activator, highlighting the potential use of DKG to investigate the contribution of PHD2-HIF-1α pathway to tumor biology.

  16. Phase 2 studies of oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 for treatment of anemia in China.

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    Chen, Nan; Qian, Jiaqi; Chen, Jianghua; Yu, Xueqing; Mei, Changlin; Hao, Chuanming; Jiang, Gengru; Lin, Hongli; Zhang, Xinzhou; Zuo, Li; He, Qiang; Fu, Ping; Li, Xuemei; Ni, Dalvin; Hemmerich, Stefan; Liu, Cameron; Szczech, Lynda; Besarab, Anatole; Neff, Thomas B; Peony Yu, Kin-Hung; Valone, Frank H

    2017-08-01

    FG-4592 (roxadustat) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) promoting coordinated erythropoiesis through the transcription factor HIF. Two Phase 2 studies were conducted in China to explore the safety and efficacy of FG-4592 (USAN name: roxadustat, CDAN name: ), a HIF-PHI, in patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), both patients who were dialysis-dependent (DD) and patients who were not dialysis-dependent (NDD). In the NDD study, 91 participants were randomized to low (1.1-1.75 mg/kg) or high (1.50-2.25 mg/kg) FG-4592 starting doses or to placebo. In the DD study, 87 were enrolled to low (1.1-1.8 mg/kg), medium (1.5-2.3 mg/kg) and high (1.7-2.3 mg/kg) starting FG-4592 doses or to continuation of epoetin alfa. In both studies, only oral iron supplementation was allowed. In the NDD study, hemoglobin (Hb) increase ≥1 g/dL from baseline was achieved in 80.0% of subjects in the low-dose cohort and 87.1% in the high-dose cohort, versus 23.3% in the placebo arm (P < 0.0001, both). In the DD study, 59.1%, 88.9% (P = 0.008) and 100% (P = 0.0003) of the low-, medium- and high-dose subjects maintained their Hb levels after 5- and 6-weeks versus 50% of the epoetin alfa-treated subjects. In both studies, significant reductions in cholesterol were noted in FG-4592-treated subjects, with stability or increases in serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin (without intravenous iron administration). In the NDD study, hepcidin levels were significantly reduced across all FG-4592-treated arms as compared with no change in the placebo arm. In the DD study, hepcidin levels were also reduced in a statistically significant dose-dependent manner in the highest dose group as compared with the epoetin alfa-treated group. Adverse events were similar for FG-4592-treated and control subjects. FG-4592 may prove an effective alternative for managing anemia of CKD. It is currently being

  17. Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase from rat liver. Protein purification and cDNA cloning with implications for the subcellular localization of phytanic acid alpha-oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G. A.; Ofman, R.; Denis, S.; Ferdinandusse, S.; Hogenhout, E. M.; Jakobs, C.; Wanders, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase (PhyH) catalyzes the conversion of phytanoyl-CoA to 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA, which is the first step in the phytanic acid alpha-oxidation pathway. Recently, several studies have shown that in humans, phytanic acid alpha-oxidation is localized in peroxisomes. In rat, however,

  18. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

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    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  19. Tyrosine hydroxylase is short-term regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats: possible implications in hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A Congo Carbajosa

    Full Text Available Aberrations in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis, is involved in hypertension development. In this study we investigated whether UPS regulated TH turnover in PC12 cells and hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and whether this system was impaired in hypertension. PC12 cells were exposed to proteasome or lysosome inhibitors and TH protein level evaluated by Western blot. Lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, induced an increase of 86 ± 15% in TH levels after 30 min of incubation, then it started to decrease up to 6 h to reach control levels and finally it rose up to 35.2 ± 8.5% after 24 h. Bafilomycin, a lysosome inhibitor, did not alter TH protein levels during short times, but it increased TH by 92 ± 22% above basal after 6 h treatment. Before degradation proteasome substrates are labeled by conjugation with ubiquitin. Efficacy of proteasome inhibition on TH turnover was evidenced by accumulation of ubiquitinylated TH after 30 min. Further, the inhibition of proteasome increased the quantity of TH phosphorylated at Ser40, which is essential for TH activity, by 2.7 ± 0.3 fold above basal. TH protein level was upregulated in neurons from hypothalami and brainstem of SHR when the proteasome was inhibited during 30 min, supporting that neuronal TH is also short-term regulated by the proteasome. Since the increased TH levels reported in hypertension may result from proteasome dysfunction, we evaluate proteasome activity. Proteasome activity was significantly reduced by 67 ± 4% in hypothalamic and brainstem neurons from SHR while its protein levels did not change. Present findings show that TH is regulated by the UPS. The impairment in proteasome activity observed in SHR neurons may be one of the causes of the increased TH protein levels reported in hypertension.

  20. Red clover coumarate 3'-hydroxylase (CYP98A44) is capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate but not p-coumaroyl-malate: implications for the biosynthesis of phaselic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael L; Zarnowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves accumulate several mumol of phaselic acid [2-O-caffeoyl-L-malate] per gram fresh weight. Post-harvest oxidation of such o-diphenols to o-quinones by endogenous polyphenol oxidases (PPO) prevents breakdown of forage protein during storage. Forages like alfalfa (Medicago sativa) lack both foliar PPO activity and o-diphenols. Consequently, breakdown of their protein upon harvest and storage results in economic losses and release of excess nitrogen into the environment. Understanding how red clover synthesizes o-diphenols such as phaselic acid will help in the development of forages utilizing this natural system of protein protection. We have proposed biosynthetic pathways in red clover for phaselic acid that involve a specific hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:malate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase. It is unclear whether the transfer reaction to malate to form phaselic acid involves caffeic acid or p-coumaric acid and subsequent hydroxylation of the resulting p-coumaroyl-malate. The latter would require a coumarate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-malate, an activity not previously described. Here, a cytochrome P450 C3'H (CYP98A44) was identified and its gene cloned from red clover. CYP98A44 shares 96 and 79% amino acid identity with Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana C3'H proteins that are capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate and have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis. CYP98A44 mRNA is expressed in stems and flowers and to a lesser extent in leaves. Immune serum raised against CYP98A44 recognizes a membrane-associated protein in red clover stems and leaves and cross-reacts with C3'H proteins from other species. CYP98A44 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is capable of hydroxylating p-coumaroyl-shikimate, but not p-coumaroyl-malate. This finding indicates that in red clover, phaselic acid is likely formed by transfer of a caffeoyl moiety to malic acid, although the existence of a second C

  1. Seventeen Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Lee Wong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen a-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in which defects in the biosynthesis of cortisol and sex steroid result in mineralocorticoid excess, hypokalemic hypertension and sexual abnormalities such as pseudohermaphroditism in males, and sexual infantilism in females. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17, which is the single polypeptide that mediates both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We report the case of a 15-year-old patient with 17OHD who had a female phenotype but male karyotype (46,XY. The diagnosis was made based on classical clinical features, biochemical data and molecular genetic study. Two mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, including a S106P point mutation in exon 2 and a 9-bp (GACTCTTTC deletion from nucleotide position 1519 in exon 8 of CYP17. The first of these mutations was found in the father and the second in the mother, and both have been previously reported in Asia. The patient's hypertension and hypokalemia resolved after glucocorticoid replacement and treatment with potassium-sparing diuretics. Sex hormone replacement was prescribed for induction of sexual development and reduction of the final height. Prophylactic gonadectomy was scheduled. In summary, 17OHD should be suspected in patients with hypokalemic hypertension and lack of secondary sexual development so that appropriate therapy can be implemented.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hyperplasia (PDF) Educational Resources (11 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) in Children Disease InfoSearch: 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Genomics Education Programme (UK) Intersex Society of North America MalaCards: ...

  3. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senard Jean-Michel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DβH deficiency is a very rare form of primary autonomic failure characterized by a complete absence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in plasma together with increased dopamine plasma levels. The prevalence of DβH deficiency is unknown. Only a limited number of cases with this disease have been reported. DβH deficiency is mainly characterized by cardiovascular disorders and severe orthostatic hypotension. First symptoms often start during a complicated perinatal period with hypotension, muscle hypotonia, hypothermia and hypoglycemia. Children with DβH deficiency exhibit reduced ability to exercise because of blood pressure inadaptation with exertion and syncope. Symptoms usually worsen progressively during late adolescence and early adulthood with severe orthostatic hypotension, eyelid ptosis, nasal stuffiness and sexual disorders. Limitation in standing tolerance, limited ability to exercise and traumatic morbidity related to falls and syncope may represent later evolution. The syndrome is caused by heterogeneous molecular alterations of the DBH gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Restoration of plasma noradrenaline to the normal range can be achieved by therapy with the synthetic precursor of noradrenaline, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS. Oral administration of 100 to 500 mg DOPS, twice or three times daily, increases blood pressure and reverses the orthostatic intolerance.

  4. Obesity in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornean, R.; Hindmarsh, P.; Brook, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the natural history and timing of adiposity rebound (nadir of body mass index (BMI)) in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21). 
STUDY DESIGN—A retrospective mixed longitudinal study.
METHODS—Height and changes in body composition (BMI; weight (kg)/height2 (m)), triceps and subscapular skinfolds) were analysed in 22(14 girls, eight boys) prepubertal patients with CYP21 for whom continuous anthropometric data were available for at least seven years. BMI and height SD scores were compared at 1, 5, and 10years of age. Skinfold SD scores were compared at 2.5 and 5.5years. Thirteen children (nine girls, four boys) had records available from birth which allowed the estimation of the age at adiposity "peak" and "rebound".
RESULTS—A significant increase in BMI SD score was found at 5 and 10 years compared with those at 1 year. No significant change in height SD score was observed at these ages. Triceps and skinfold SD score were increased significantly at 5.5 compared with 2.5years. The "rebound" in BMI SD score took place at 1.74 years (range 0.71-4.57 ) compared with 5.5 years (range 3.5-7.0) in the normal UK population.
CONCLUSIONS—Normally growing patients with CYP21 increased their BMI throughout childhood. Adiposity rebound took place on average three years earlier than in the general population. These findings suggest that even when well controlled in terms of their disease process, patients with CYP21 are at risk of obesity, which may have important implications for the evolution of reproductive function (polycystic ovaries), diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease in these subjects.

 PMID:9613359

  5. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A.S.S. Bachega

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We determined the frequency of large rearrangements and point mutations in 130 Brazilian patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and correlated genotype with phenotype. The frequency of CYP21 deletions was lower (4.4% than in most of the previous series described, whereas the frequency of large gene conversions was similar to the frequency reported in the literature (6.6%. The most frequent point mutations were I2 splice (41.8% in salt wasting - SW, I172N (32.6% in simple virilizing - SV and V281L (40.2% in the late onset form - LO. The frequency of the nine most common point mutations was similar to that reported for other countries. The 93 fully genotyped patients were classified into 3 mutation groups based on the degree of enzymatic activity (A@ 2%, C>20%. In group A, 62% of cases presented the SW form; in group B, 96% the SV form, and in group C, 88% the LO form. We diagnosed 80% of the affected alleles after screening for large rearrangements and 15 point mutations. To diagnose these remaining alleles we sequenced the CYP21 gene of one patient with the SV form and identified a heterozygous G->A transition in codon 424. This mutation leads to a substitution of glycine by serine in a conserved region and was also found in a compound heterozygous state in 4 other patients. The mutation G424S presented a linkage disequilibrium with CYP21P and C4A gene deletions and HLA DR17, suggesting a probable founder effect. Search for the G424S mutation in other populations will reveal if it is restricted to the Brazilian patients or if it has a wider ethnic distribution.

  6. Roxadustat (FG-4592): Correction of Anemia in Incident Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Besarab, Anatole; Chernyavskaya, Elena; Motylev, Igor; Shutov, Evgeny; Kumbar, Lalathaksha M.; Gurevich, Konstantin; Chan, Daniel Tak Mao; Leong, Robert; Poole, Lona; Zhong, Ming; Saikali, Khalil G; Franco, Marietta; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns with erythropoietin analogues and intravenous (IV) iron for treatment of anemia in CKD necessitate development of safer therapies. Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally bioavailable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that promotes coordinated erythropoiesis through HIF-mediated transcription. We performed an open-label, randomized hemoglobin (Hb) correction study in anemic (Hb?10.0 g/dl) patients incident to hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). S...

  7. Co-expression of three MEP pathway genes and geraniol 10-hydroxylase in internal phloem parenchyma of Catharanthus roseus implicates multicellular translocation of intermediates during the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids and isoprenoid-derived primary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlat, Vincent; Oudin, Audrey; Courtois, Martine; Rideau, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit

    2004-04-01

    In higher plants, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) is synthesised both from the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) and from the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathways. Primary metabolites, such as phytol group of chlorophylls, carotenoids and the plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) are derived directly from the MEP pathway. Many secondary metabolites, such as monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) in Catharanthus roseus, are also synthesised from this source of IPP. Using Northern blot and in situ hybridisation experiments, we show that three MEP pathway genes (1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 2C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MECS)) and the gene encoding geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase involved in the first committed step in the formation of iridoid monoterpenoids display identical cell-specific expression patterns. The co-localisation of these four transcripts to internal phloem parenchyma of young aerial organs of C. roseus adds a new level of complexity to the multicellular nature of MIA biosynthesis. We predict the translocation of pathway intermediates from the internal phloem parenchyma to the epidermis and, ultimately, to laticifers and idioblasts during MIA biosynthesis. Similarly, the translocation of intermediates from the phloem parenchyma is probably also required during the biosynthesis of hormones and photosynthetic primary metabolites derived from the MEP pathway.

  8. Expression and purification of the metal-containing monooxygenases tryptophan hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Pernille Efferbach

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) are two metal-containing monooxygenases that both function e.g. in the brain where they are involved in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters. TPH catalyse the ratelimiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, namely the conversion...... to abnormal levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine and the regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase. These include depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and attention deficit...... to the family of ascorbate dependent type II Cu monooxygenases. Very little knowledge exist on DβH and most of it comes from investigations of related proteins. Attempts to express human DβH in bacterial systems have been done in the Metalloprotein Chemistry and Engineering Group, but at present no system...

  9. Morphological Features of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to observe the immunoreactive elements in the mouse pancreas. The results indicated the presence of immunoreactive nerve fibers and endocrine cells. The immunopositive nerve fibers appeared as thick and thin bundles; thick ...

  10. morphological features of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    2Department of Cell Biology and Functional Morphology, Iwate Medical University, School of. Medicine,. Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan. ABSTRACT. The current immunohistochemical study used the antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to observe the immunoreactive elements in the mouse pancreas.

  11. Characterization of five evolutionary conserved regions of the human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter: implications for the engineering of a human TH minimal promoter assembled in a self-inactivating lentiviral vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gaetano; Suon, Sokreine; Jin, Hao; Donaldson, Angela E; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2005-08-01

    A DNA fragment of about 13 kb containing the human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter was previously isolated from a genomic DNA library and sequenced. The 11 kb from the transcription start of the human TH promoter was successively joined to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to generate a transgenic mouse model. High levels of GFP expression could be observed in TH-positive cells of the Substantia nigra of embryonic and adult mice. Intriguingly, the sequence of the human TH promoter showed a low degree of homology with the mouse and rat TH promoters. In fact, comparative analysis of the sequences of human, rat, and mouse TH promoters revealed only five small regions of high homology. These five evolutionarily conserved regions were numbered in numeric progression from the 5' end of human TH promoter. In the present study, a panel of minimal human TH promoters was generated to analyze the transcriptional activity and specificity of gene expression conferred by the five conserved regions (CRs). The series of constructs was termed 250 bp and contained the first -194 bp of the human TH promoter immediately upstream of the transcription start, the first 35 bp the human TH messenger RNA leader, plus one or more of the five CRs. All the constructs were assembled in a self-inactivating form of the latest series of lentiviral vector system based on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer was highly efficient for the in vitro transduction of human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs). Since a subset of hNPCs express TH following in vitro treatment with a mixture of differentiating agents, it was possible to assess specificity of expression for all the minimal human TH promoters. Overall, the successive addition of the five conserved regions produced a greater degree of specificity in induced TH-positive hNPCs, in particular after the addition of CRI (-8,917, -8,876). However, the human TH minimal promoters did not show any

  12. Obesity in 21-hydroxylase deficient patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cornean, R.; Hindmarsh, P; Brook, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the natural history and timing of adiposity rebound (nadir of body mass index (BMI)) in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21). 
STUDY DESIGN—A retrospective mixed longitudinal study.
METHODS—Height and changes in body composition (BMI; weight (kg)/height2 (m)), triceps and subscapular skinfolds) were analysed in 22(14 girls, eight boys) prepubertal patients with CYP21 for whom continuous anthropometric data were ...

  13. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A crystalline form of dopamine β-hydroxylase is provided. X-ray crystallography reveals the space group and cell dimensions, as well as the atomic coordinates. The information can be used for identifying one or more modulators of dopamine β-hydroxylase, which can then be chemically synthesised...... and used in treatment. A process for preparing the crystalline form of human dopamine β-hydroxylase is also provided....

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montersino, S.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the characterization of a new flavoprotein hydroxylase 3 hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase (3HB6H) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. 3HB6H is able to insert exclusively oxygen in para-position and the enzyme has been chosen to study the structural basis of such regioselectivity. As

  15. Antisense-induced suppression of taxoid 14β- hydroxylase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The enzyme taxoid 14β-hydroxylase (14OH) directs a side-route of taxol pathway to 14β-hydroxy taxoids. Suppression of this side-route could increase the production of taxol. To suppress taxoid 14β- hydroxylase gene (14OH) expression in the Taxus × media TM3 cell line, antisense RNA inhibition approach was used in ...

  16. Acetanilide 4-hydroxylase and acetanilide 2-hydroxylase activity in hepatic microsomes from induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, M; Chui, Y C; Levi, P; Hodgson, E

    1991-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the separation of 14C-labelled acetanilide, 4-hydroxyacetanilide, 3-hydroxyacetanilide and 2-hydroxyacetanilide was developed using thin-layer chromatography. This separation is the basis for the assay of acetanilide 4-hydroxylase and acetanilide 2-hydroxylase activity in liver microsomes from DBA2/N male mice that had been treated with phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, isosafrole or n-butylbenzodioxole. Microsomes were incubated with [14C]acetanilide and extracted with benzene and ethyl acetate. The extract was applied to silica gel plates and developed with a hexane/isopropanol/ammonium hydroxide/water solvent system. The radiolabelled phenolic metabolites and the parent compound were detected using a Berthold Automatic TLC Linear Analyzer. Although the 4-hydroxylated metabolite was the primary product detected, this method can be used to detect other phenolic metabolites.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hydroxylase deficiency experience extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance) due to their problems maintaining a normal blood ... Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2017. ...

  18. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  19. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel; Inoue, Taiga; Bahtiyar, Gül; Fenteany, Gabriel; Sacerdote, Alan

    2017-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  20. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Powell; Taiga Inoue; Gül Bahtiyar; Gabriel Fenteany; Alan Sacerdote

    2017-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  1. The human tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Mark A; Yang, Ming; Gollomp, Kandace L; Jin, Hao; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2003-04-10

    13.329 kilobases of the single copy human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene were isolated from a genomic library. The 5' flanking 11 kilobases fused to the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) drove high level expression in TH+ cells of the substantia nigra of embryonic and adult transgenic mice as determined by double label fluorescence microscopy. To provide a basis for future analysis of polymorphisms and structure-function studies, the previously unreported distal 10.5 kilobases of the hTH promoter were sequenced with an average coverage of 20-fold, the remainder with 4-fold coverage. Sequence features identified included four perfect matches to the bicoid binding element (BBE, consensus: BBTAATCYV) all of which exhibited specific binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Comparison to published sequences of mouse and rat TH promoters revealed five areas of exceptional homology shared by these species in the upstream TH promoter region -2 kb to -9 kb relative to the transcription start site. Within these conserved regions (CRs I-V), potential recognition sites for NR4A2 (Nurr1), HNF-3beta, HOXA4, and HOXA5 were shared across human, mouse, and rat TH promoters.

  2. Novel Mutations in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene in the First Czech Patient with Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Szentiványi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency manifests mainly in early childhood and includes two clinical phenotypes: an infantile progressive hypokinetic-rigid syndrome with dystonia (type A and a neonatal complex encephalopathy (type B. The biochemical diagnostics is exclusively based on the quantitative determination of the neurotransmitters or their metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The implementation of neurotransmitter analysis in clinical praxis is necessary for early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Neurotransmitter metabolites in CSF were analyzed in 82 children (at the age 1 month to 17 years with clinical suspicion for neurometabolic disorders using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with electrochemical detection. The CSF level of homovanillic acid (HVA was markedly decreased in three children (64, 79 and 94 nmol/l in comparison to age related controls (lower limit 218–450 nmol/l. Neurological findings including severe psychomotor retardation, quadruspasticity and microcephaly accompanied with marked dystonia, excessive sweating in the first patient was compatible with the diagnosis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH deficiency (type B and subsequent molecular analysis revealed two novel heterozygous mutations c.636A>C and c.1124G>C in the TH gene. The treatment with L-DOPA/carbidopa resulted in the improvement of dystonia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in two other patients with microcephaly revealed postischaemic brain damage, therefore secondary HVA deficit was considered in these children. Diagnostic work-up in patients with neurometabolic disorders should include analysis of neurotransmitter metabolites in CSF.

  3. Molecular characterization and functional expression of flavonol 6-hydroxylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ragaï K

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids, one of the major groups of secondary metabolites, play important roles in the physiology, ecology and defence of plants. Their wide range of activities is the result of their structural diversity that encompasses a variety of functional group substitutions including hydroxylations. The aromatic hydroxylation at position 6 of flavonols is of particular interest, since it is catalyzed by a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (ODD, rather than a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase. ODDs catalyze a variety of enzymatic reactions implicated in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Results A cDNA fragment encoding an ODD involved in the 6-hydroxylation of partially methylated flavonols, flavonol 6-hydroxylase (F6H, was isolated and characterized from Chrysosplenium americanum using internal peptide sequence information obtained from the native plant protein. This novel clone was functionally expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and exhibited ODD activity. The cofactor and cosubstrate requirements of the recombinant proteins are typical for ODDs, and the recombinant enzymes utilize 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetin as the preferred substrate. The genomic region encoding this enzyme possesses two introns at conserved locations for this class of enzymes and is present as a single copy in the C. americanum genome. Conclusions Recombinant F6H has been functionally expressed and characterized at the molecular level. The results demonstrate that its cofactor dependence, physicochemical characteristics and substrate preference compare well with the native enzyme. The N-terminal region of this protein is believed to play a significant role in catalysis and may explain the difference in the position specificity of the 6-hydroxylation reaction.

  4. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Andersen, Claus B.; Nielsen, John E

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 are expressed in the human kidney, but the segmental expression of the 25-hydroxylases is unknown. A comprehensive analysis of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1 expression in normal kidney and renal clear cell cancer (CCc) would reveal...

  5. Functional Identification of Putrescine C- and N-Hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Lowe-Power, Tiffany; Kurihara, Shin; Gonzales, Stephen; Naidoo, Jacinth; MacMillan, John B; Allen, Caitilyn; Michael, Anthony J

    2016-10-21

    The small polyamine putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) is ubiquitously and abundantly found in all three domains of life. It is a precursor, through N-aminopropylation or N-aminobutylation, for biosynthesis of the longer polyamines spermidine, sym-homospermidine, spermine, and thermospermine and longer and branched chain polyamines. Putrescine is also biochemically modified for purposes of metabolic regulation and catabolism, e.g. N-acetylation and N-glutamylation, and for incorporation into specialized metabolites, e.g. N-methylation, N-citrylation, N-palmitoylation, N-hydroxylation, and N-hydroxycinnamoylation. Only one example is known where putrescine is modified on a methylene carbon: the formation of 2-hydroxyputrescine by an unknown C-hydroxylase. Here, we report the functional identification of a previously undescribed putrescine 2-hydroxylase, a Rieske-type nonheme iron sulfur protein from the β-proteobacteria Bordetella bronchiseptica and Ralstonia solanacearum. Identification of the putrescine 2-hydroxylase will facilitate investigation of the physiological functions of 2-hydroxyputrescine. One known role of 2-hydroxyputrescine has direct biomedical relevance: its role in the biosynthesis of the cyclic hydroxamate siderophore alcaligin, a potential virulence factor of the causative agent of whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis. We also report the functional identification of a putrescine N-hydroxylase from the γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis, which is homologous to FAD- and NADPH-dependent ornithine and lysine N-monooxygenases involved in siderophore biosynthesis. Heterologous expression of the putrescine N-hydroxylase in E. coli produced free N-hydroxyputrescine, never detected previously in a biological system. Furthermore, the putrescine C- and N-hydroxylases identified here could contribute new functionality to polyamine structural scaffolds, including C-H bond functionalization in synthetic biology strategies.

  6. Contribution of epithelial innate immunity to systemic protection afforded by prolyl hydroxylase inhibition in murine colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, Simon; Campbell, Eric L.; Baird, Alan W.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Shalwitz, Robert A.; Kotsakis, Anna; McNamee, Eoin N.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) through prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition limits mucosal damage associated with models of murine colitis. However, little is known about how PHD inhibitors (PHDi) influence systemic immune function during mucosal inflammation or the relative importance of immunological changes to mucosal protection. We hypothesized that PHDi enhances systemic innate immune responses to colitis-associated bacteremia. Mice with colitis induced by TNBS were treated with AKB-4924, a new HIF-1 isoform-predominant PHDi and clinical, immunological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Administration of AKB-4924 led to significantly reduced weight loss and disease activity compared to vehicle controls. Treated groups were pyrexic, but did not become subsequently hypothermic. PHDi treatment augmented epithelial barrier function and led to an approximately 50-fold reduction in serum endotoxin during colitis. AKB-4924 also decreased cytokines involved in pyrogenesis and hypothermia, significantly reducing serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, while increasing IL-10. Treatment offered no protection against colitis in epithelial-specific HIF-1α deficient mice, strongly implicating epithelial HIF-1α as the tissue target for AKB-4924-mediated protection. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase with AKB-4924 enhances innate immunity and identifies the epithelium is a central site of inflammatory protection afforded by PHDi in murine colitis. PMID:23695513

  7. Modelling the active site properties of dopamine b-hydroxylase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Modelling the active site properties of dopamine ∙ -hydroxylase. A M Thomas G C Mandal S K Tiwary A R Chakravarty. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 398-398. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in South Africa. Y Ganie, C Aldous, Y Balakrishna, R Wiersma. Abstract. Background. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) caused by deficiency of the 21-hydoxylase (21-OH) enzyme is the most common form of CAH worldwide. Objective. To evaluate the ...

  9. Association between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Polymorphism and Completed Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Sylwia; Ilgen, Mark; Fudalej, Marcin; Kostrzewa, Grazyna; Barry, Kristen; Wojnar, Marcin; Krajewski, Pawel; Blow, Frederic; Ploski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    The association between suicide and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1386483) was examined in the recently identified tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene. Blood samples of 143 suicide victims and 162 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The frequency of the TT genotype in the TPH2 polymorphism was higher in suicide victims than in…

  10. (+)-Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko; Abrams; Loewen; Abrams; Cutler

    1998-11-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase catalyzes the first step in the oxidative degradation of (+)-ABA. The development of a robust in vitro assay has now permitted detailed examination and characterization of this enzyme. Although several factors (buffer, cofactor, and source tissue) were critical in developing the assay, the most important of these was the identification of a tissue displaying high amounts of in vivo enzyme activity (A.J. Cutler, T.M. Squires, M.K. Loewen, J.J. Balsevich [1997] J Exp Bot 48: 1787-1795). (+)-ABA 8'-hydroxylase is an integral membrane protein that is localized to the microsomal fraction in suspension-cultured maize (Zea mays) cells. (+)-ABA metabolism requires both NADPH and molecular oxygen. NADH was not an effective cofactor, although there was substantial stimulation of activity (synergism) when it was included at rate-limiting NADPH concentrations. The metabolism of (+)-ABA was progressively inhibited at O2 concentrations less than 10% (v/v) and was very low (less than 5% of control) under N2. (+)-ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity was inhibited by tetcyclacis (50% inhibition at 10(-6) M), cytochrome c (oxidized form), and CO. The CO inhibition was reversible by light from several regions of the visible spectrum, but most efficiently by blue and amber light. These data strongly support the contention that (+)-ABA 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase.

  11. Current advances in the novel functions of hypoxia-inducible factor and prolyl hydroxylase in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Cui, S; Ma, L; Kong, L; Geng, X

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen is essential for aerobic life, and hypoxia has very severe consequences. Organisms need to overcome low oxygen levels to maintain biological functions during normal development and in disease states. The mechanism underlying the hypoxic response has been widely investigated in model animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a key gene product in the response to oxygen deprivation, is primarily regulated by prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). However, recent findings have uncovered novel HIF-independent functions of PHDs. This review provides an overview of how invertebrates are able to sustain hypoxic damages, and highlights some recent discoveries in the regulation of cellular signalling by PHDs. Given that some core genes and major pathways are evolutionarily conserved, these research findings could provide insight into oxygen-sensitive signalling in mammals, and have biomedical implications for human diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Expression of the vitamin D receptor, 25-hydroxylases, 1alpha-hydroxylase and 24-hydroxylase in the human kidney and renal clear cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Andersen, Claus B.; Nielsen, John E

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR), CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 are expressed in the human kidney, but the segmental expression of the 25-hydroxylases is unknown. A comprehensive analysis of CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1 expression in normal kidney and renal clear cell cancer (CCc) would reveal...... the segmental location of expression, and clarify whether the reported loss of VDR in CCc is coincident with alterations of vitamin D metabolism....

  13. Identification of a Novel Allosteric Inhibitory Site on Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 Enabling Unprecedented Selectivity Over all Related Hydroxylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Petrassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH has demonstrated multi-serotonin receptor dependent pathologies, characterized by increased tone (5-HT1B receptor and complex lesions (SERT, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2B receptors of the pulmonary vasculature together with right ventricular hypertrophy, ischemia and fibrosis (5-HT2B receptor. Selective inhibitors of individual signaling elements – SERT, 5-HT2A, 5HT2B, and combined 5-HT2A/B receptors, have all been tested clinically and failed. Thus, inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, the rate limiting step in 5-HT synthesis, has been suggested as a more broad, and thereby more effective, mode of 5-HT inhibition. However, selectivity over non-pathogenic enzyme family members, TPH2, phenylalanine hydroxylase, and tyrosine hydroxylase has hampered therapeutic development. Here we describe the site/sequence, biochemical, and biophysical characterization of a novel allosteric site on TPH1 through which selectivity over TPH2 and related aromatic amino acid hydroxylases is achieved. We demonstrate the mechanism of action by which novel compounds selectively inhibit TPH1 using surface plasma resonance and enzyme competition assays with both tryptophan ligand and BH4 co-factor. We demonstrate 15-fold greater potency within a human carcinoid cell line versus the most potent known TPH1/2 non-specific inhibitor. Lastly, we detail a novel canine in vivo system utilized to determine effective biologic inhibition of newly synthesized 5-HT. These findings are the first to demonstrate TPH1-selective inhibition and may pave the way to a truly effective means to reduce pathologic 5-HT and thereby treat complex remodeling diseases such as PAH.

  14. Comparison of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds in human and mouse cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, A K; Nebert, D W; Eisen, H W

    1985-08-01

    The human MCF-7 and the mouse Hepa-1 cell culture lines were compared for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and benzo[a]anthracene (BA) and TCDD- and BA-specific binding in the cytosol and nucleus. The effective concentration of BA in the growth medium required to induce either enzyme to 50% of its maximally inducible activity (EC50) was the same (5-11 microM) in both MCF-7 and Hepa-1 cells. On the other hand, the EC50 for TCDD in MCF-7 cells (5-25 nM) was more than 40-fold greater than that in Hepa-1 cells (0.4 to 0.6 nM). P1-450- and P3-450-specific mouse cDNA probes were used to quantitate mRNA induction in the Hepa-1 cell line. P1-450 mRNA was induced markedly by TCDD and benzo[a] anthracene, whereas P3-450 mRNA was induced negligibly. A P1-450-specific human cDNA probe was used to quantitate P1-450 mRNA induction in the MCF-7 cell line. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility by TCDD or BA always paralleled P1-450 mRNA inducibility in either the mouse or human line. Although the cytosolic Ah receptor in Hepa-1 cells was easily detected by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, gel permeation chromatography, and anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, the cytosolic receptor cannot be detected in MCF-7 cells. Following in vivo exposure of cultures to radiolabeled TCDD, the intranuclear concentration of inducer-receptor complex was at least fifty times greater in Hepa-1 than MCF-7 cultures. The complete lack of measurable cytosolic receptor and almost totally absent inducer-receptor complex in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells was, therefore, out of proportion to its capacity for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase inducibility. This MCF-7 line should provide an interesting model for a better understanding of the mechanisms of drug-metabolizing enzyme induction by polycyclic aromatic compounds, including the Ah receptor-mediated mechanism.

  15. Bone substitute materials supplemented with prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decrease osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz, Philipp; Schröckmair, Stefan; Gruber, Reinhard; Agis, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases stimulates bone regeneration. Consequently, bone substitute materials were developed that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. However, the impact of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from these carriers on osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We therefore assessed the effect of bone substitute materials that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors on osteoclastogenesis. Dimethyloxalylglycine, desferrioxamine, and l-mimosine were lyophilized onto bovine bone mineral and hydroxyapatite, and supernatants were generated. Osteoclastogenesis was induced in murine bone marrow cultures in the presence of the supernatants from bone substitute materials. The formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity were determined. To test for possible effects on osteoclast progenitor cells, we measured the effect of the supernatants on proliferation and viability. In addition, experiments were performed where prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors were directly added to the bone marrow cultures. We found that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released within the first hours from bone substitute materials reduce the number and activity of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. In line with this, addition of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors directly to the bone marrow cultures dose-dependently reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the overall resorption activity. Moreover, the released prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decreased proliferation but not viability of osteoclast progenitor cells. Our results show that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from bone substitute materials decrease osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Isoform-Specific Substrate Inhibition Mechanism of Human Tryptophan Hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Kasper Damgaard; Peters, Günther H.J.; Harris, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome. TPH exists in two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 catalyzes the initial step in the synthesis...... of serotonin in the peripheral tissues, while TPH2 catalyzes this step in the brain. In this study, the steady-state kinetic mechanism for the catalytic domain of human TPH1 has been determined. Varying substrate tryptophan (Trp) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) results in a hybrid Ping Pong-ordered mechanism...

  17. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of tryptophan hydroxylase variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Jane

    such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Characterization of TPH and elucidation of the enzymes regulation and catalytic mechanism is therefore vital to our understanding of the serotonin balance. This study concerns variants of both human TPH isoform 1 (hTPH1) and human TPH isoform 2 (h PH2......Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter and hormone serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Serotonin is involved in many physiological functions, such as appetite and sleep rhythm, as well as a wide range of psychiatric disorders...

  18. Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors (AAV Expressing Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Akbay Yarpuzlu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent articles have appeared in the literature reporting use of adeno-associated virus vectors (AAV expressing phenylalanine hydroxylase in animal trials and suggesting its use in treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU as a form of gene therapy However, agents used in gene therapy to deliver genes are not site-specific and DNA is may be put in the wrong place, causing damage to the organism. The adverse immunogenicity of AAVs also needs to be reconsidered. This letter is written to discuss present unreadiness for Phase 1 clinical trials of gene therapy of PKU. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 18-9

  19. Immunochemically identical hydrophilic and amphiphilic forms of the bovine adrenomedullary dopamine beta-hydroxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Helle, K B; Bock, Elisabeth Marianne

    1979-01-01

    By means of a monospecific antibody, dopamine beta-hydroxylase was monitored immunoelectrophoretically in various extracts of chromaffin granules. Approximately one-third of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase present was located in the membrane fraction and could only be liberated with detergent. The ...... with chymotrypsin and thermolysin the amphiphilic form could be convered into its hydrophilic counterpart....

  20. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis in Children with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Ventura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 21-Hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD is the most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, resulting from deletions or mutations of the P450 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2. Children with 21-OHD need chronic glucocorticoid (cGC therapy, both to replace congenital deficit in cortisol synthesis and to reduce androgen secretion by adrenal cortex. GC-induced osteoporosis (GIO is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis that results in an early, transient increase in bone resorption accompanied by a decrease in bone formation, maintained for the duration of GC therapy. Despite the conflicting results in the literature about the bone status on GC-treated patients with 21-OHD, many reports consider these subjects to be at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. In bone cells, at the molecular level, GCs regulate various functions including osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this paper, we focus on the physiology and biosynthesis of endogenous steroid hormones as well as on the effects of GCs on bone cells, highlighting the pathogenetic mechanism of GIO in children with 21-OHD.

  1. Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase: Brain cholesterol metabolism and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Miguel; Nunes, Maria João; Rodrigues, Elsa

    2016-12-01

    Dysfunctions in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been extensively related to brain disorders. The major elimination pathway of brain cholesterol is its hydroxylation into 24 (S)-hydroxycholesterol by the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). Interestingly, there seems to be an association between CYP46A1 and high-order brain functions, in a sense that increased expression of this hydroxylase improves cognition, while a reduction leads to a poor cognitive performance. Moreover, increasing amount of epidemiological, biochemical and molecular evidence, suggests that CYP46A1 has a role in the pathogenesis or progression of neurodegenerative disorders, in which up-regulation of this enzyme is clearly beneficial. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood, which highlights the importance of studies that further explore the role of CYP46A1 in the central nervous system. In this review we summarize the major findings regarding CYP46A1, and highlight the several recently described pathways modulated by this enzyme from a physiological and pathological perspective, which might account for novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two adults with adrenal myelolipoma and 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermoen, Ingrid; Følling, Ivar; Vegge, Kjetil; Larmo, Arne; Nedrebø, Bjørn Gunnar; Husebye, Eystein Sverre; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We present incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipomas in two adult males with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The patients had simple virilizing form of CAH due to mutations in the CYP21 gene coding for 21-hydroxylase; one was heterozygous for the I172N mutation and the other compound heterozygous for the I172N and I2splice mutations. The masses were not removed since myelolipomas are considered benign tumors, and the tumor size did not increase during four- and nine-year observation periods. An adrenal myelolipoma is an important exception to the rule that large tumours should be removed. Untreated CAH with prolonged excessive ACTH stimulation might contribute to the growth of adrenal masses. CAH should be considered as a differential diagnosis of patients with adrenal masses or adrenal myelolipomas.

  3. Two Adults with Adrenal Myelolipoma and 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Nermoen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present incidentally discovered adrenal myelolipomas in two adult males with untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. The patients had simple virilizing form of CAH due to mutations in the CYP21 gene coding for 21-hydroxylase; one was heterozygous for the I172N mutation and the other compound heterozygous for the I172N and I2splice mutations. The masses were not removed since myelolipomas are considered benign tumors, and the tumor size did not increase during four- and nine-year observation periods. An adrenal myelolipoma is an important exception to the rule that large tumours should be removed. Untreated CAH with prolonged excessive ACTH stimulation might contribute to the growth of adrenal masses. CAH should be considered as a differential diagnosis of patients with adrenal masses or adrenal myelolipomas.

  4. Expression and purification of active, stabilized trimethyllysine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaks, Andris; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Kuka, Janis; Voronkova, Tatyana; Akopjana, Inara; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Tars, Kaspars

    2014-12-01

    Trimethyllysine hydroxylase (TMLH) catalyses the first step in carnitine biosynthesis - the conversion of N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-l-lysine to 3-hydroxy-N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-l-lysine. By changing carnitine availability it is possible to optimise cardiac energy metabolism, that is beneficial under certain ischemic conditions. Previous efforts have been devoted towards the inhibition of gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase, which catalyses the last step in carnitine biosynthesis. However, the effects of TMLH activity regulation are currently unexplored. To facilitate the development of specific ligands of TMLH, large quantities of recombinant protein are necessary for downstream binding and structural studies. Here, we describe an efficient system for expressing and purifying active and stable TMLH as a maltose-binding protein fusion in Escherichiacoli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of biallelic CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase knock-out pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Lee, Kiho; Kang, Man-Jong; Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Chankyu; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alana N; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Samuel, Melissa; Mao, Jiude; Park, Kwang-Wook; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    After the knock-out (KO) of α1,3 galactosyltransfease (Gal-T), the Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen became a major antigen of the "non-Gal antigen" that is implicated in subsequent xenograft rejection. For deletion of non-Gal antigen, we successfully produced zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated monoallelic/biallelic male and female CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) KO miniature pigs: the efficiency of the gene targeting (41.7%) was higher when donor DNA was used with the ZFN than those of ZFN alone (9.1%). Monoallelic KO pigs had no integration of exogenous DNA into their genome, indicating that this technique would provide a new avenue to reduce the risk of antibiotics resistance when organs from genetically modified pigs are transplanted into patients. Until now, both monoallelic and biallelic CMAH KO pigs are healthy and show no sign of abnormality and off-target mutations. Therefore, these CMAH null pigs on the Gal-T KO background could serve as an important model for the xenotransplantation.

  6. Long-Term Behavioral Recovery in Parkinsonian Rats by an HSV Vector Expressing Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Janice R.; O’Malley, Karen L.; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    One therapeutic approach to treating Parkinson’s disease is to convert endogenous striatal cells into levo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa)–producing cells. A defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector expressing human tyrosine hydroxylase was delivered into the partially denervated striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats, used as a model of Parkinson’s disease. Efficient behavioral and biochemical recovery was maintained for 1 year after gene transfer. Biochemical recovery included increases in both striatal tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity and in extracellular dopamine concentrations. Persistence of human tyrosine hydroxylase was revealed by expression of RNA and immunoreactivity. PMID:7669103

  7. Phytoecdysteroid C2-hydroxylase is microsomal in spinach, Spinacia oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrim, Ahmed; Guittard, Emilie; Maria, Annick; De Virville, Jacques Davy; Lafont, René; Takvorian, Najat

    2009-12-01

    An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of phytoecdysteroids, the C2-hydroxylase, has been investigated in spinach, Spinacia oleracea. This enzyme is microsomal and its K(m) has been determined using 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone as substrate (K(m)=3.72 microM). It is much more efficient with 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone than with 2-deoxyecdysone and, conversely, the C20-hydroxylase is more active on 2-deoxyecdysone than on ecdysone. These data support the conclusion that C20-hydroxylation precedes C2-hydroxylation. The C2-hydroxylase is inhibited by high concentrations of 20E. Substrate specificity and subcellular localization of C2-hydroxylase differ between plants and insects, and these data, as well as those previously reported on other biosynthetic steps, show the great difference between plant and insect ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathways and suggest an independent origin for the pathways in both kingdoms. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Production of biallelic CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase knock-out pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Lee, Kiho; Kang, Man-Jong; Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Chankyu; Whyte, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alana N; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Samuel, Melissa; Mao, Jiude; Park, Kwang-Wook; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    .... For deletion of non-Gal antigen, we successfully produced zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated monoallelic/biallelic male and female CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) KO miniature pigs...

  9. Tyrosine hydroxylase polymorphism (C-824T) and hypertension: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren J; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is present in a large proportion of the hypertensive population and precedes the development of established hypertension. Variations in the proximal promoter of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been shown to influence biochemical and physiologi......Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is present in a large proportion of the hypertensive population and precedes the development of established hypertension. Variations in the proximal promoter of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been shown to influence biochemical...

  10. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene and alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Paul; Conner, Tamlin S; Tennen, Howard; Kranzler, Henry R; Covault, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    Genes that regulate serotonin activity are regarded as promising predictors of heavy alcohol use. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2) plays an important role in serotonergic neurotransmission by serving as the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis in the midbrain and serotonergic neurons. Despite the link between TPH2 and serotonergic function, TPH2's role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-use disorders remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine whether a variation in the TPH2 gene is associated with risky alcohol consumption. Specifically, this study examined whether the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism predicted alcohol consumption among college students. In two successive years, 351 undergraduates were asked to record their alcohol use each day for 30 days using an Internet-based electronic diary. Participants' DNA was collected and polymerase chain reaction genotyping was performed. Results show that alcohol consumption was not associated with the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism alone, or the interaction of TPH2 with two other candidate polymorphisms (TPH1 C218A and the SLC6A4 tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR), or negative life events. In conclusion, this study supports recent null findings relating TPH2 to drinking outcomes. It also extends these findings by showing null interactions with the TPH1 C218A polymorphism, the SLC6A4 tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and environmental stressors in predicting sub-clinical alcohol use among Caucasian American young adults.

  11. Updates on the biology of serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Tara; Weber, H Christian

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the most recent findings relevant to the biology of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in human gastrointestinal disease. Serotonin is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract where it is secreted from enteroendocrine cells. Its biosynthesis is regulated by two isoforms of the enzyme TPH of which TPH1 is localized predominantly in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells. Serotonin activates the peristaltic reflexes, regulates gastrointestinal motility, and has a role in intestinal inflammation. Inhibition of TPH with novel molecules represents a new pharmacological tool in the successful management of carcinoid syndrome in patients with gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Certain 5-HT receptor subtype agonists and antagonists are useful in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest storage organ for serotonin where its biosynthesis is regulated by TPH1. It has several important functions in gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and inflammation. Furthermore, TPH represents a target for inhibitory pharmacological therapy of serotonin access states such as the carcinoid syndrome.

  12. Cloning and characterization of Rhodotorula glutinis thymine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidigh, Jonathan W; Darwanto, Agus; Williams, Adides A; Wall, Nathan R; Sowers, Lawrence C

    2009-05-01

    Thymine hydroxylase (TH) is a member of the alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent nonheme iron dioxygenase family that includes a series of DNA repair proteins including alkB. Substantial interest in this family of enzymes derives from their capacity to modify DNA bases and precursors by oxidation. Previously, a sequence has been published for cloned Rhodotorula glutinis TH. However, the minimal reported activity of this enzyme, coupled with inconsistencies with previously published mass spectrometry data, compelled us to reexamine TH. The sequence reported here differs from the previously reported sequence at two amino acid positions and is consistent with previously reported mass spectrometry data. The cloned enzyme characterized in this report displayed substantial activity, indicating that the sequence differences are critical for activity. The substrate selectivity of TH against a series of pyrimidine analogues is consistent with that reported for the wild-type enzyme and, in part, explains the mode of selection of uracil analogues. A preliminary model of the active site has been constructed for the purposes of comparing TH with other members of this family. TH and alkB share in common the capacity to oxidize N-methyl groups. However, TH has the added capacity to oxidize the 5-methyl group of thymine, a property that is potentially important for enzymes that could act on DNA and modify DNA-protein interactions.

  13. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in seasonal affective disorder: underestimated perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Alexander V; Popova, Nina K

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent depression occurring generally in fall/winter. Numerous pieces of evidence indicate the association of SAD with decreased brain neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) system functioning. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the key and rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT synthesis in the brain. This paper concentrates on the relationship between TPH2 activity and mood disturbances, the association between human TPH2 gene expression and the risk of affective disorder, application of tryptophan to SAD treatment and the animal models of SAD. The main conclusions of this review are as follows: (i) the brain 5-HT deficiency contributes to the mechanism underlying SAD, (ii) TPH2 is involved in the regulation of some kinds of genetically defined affective disorders and (iii) the activation of 5-HT synthesis with exogenous l-tryptophan alone or in combination with light therapy could be effective in SAD treatment. The synergic effect of these combined treatments will have several advantages compared to light or tryptophan therapy alone. First, it is effective in the treatment of patients resistant to light therapy. Secondly, l-tryptophan treatment prolongs the antidepressant effect of light therapy.

  14. Prolyl hydroxylase 3 inhibited the tumorigenecity of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lei; Qu, Jianguo; Dang, Shengchun; Mao, Zhengfa; Wang, Xuqing; Fan, Xin; Sun, Kang; Zhang, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it is very urgent to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Although HIF-1α is the most highly characterized target of prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3), PHD3 has been shown to regulate several signal pathways independent of HIF-1α. Here, we found that the expression of PHD3 was decreased in the clinical gastric cancer samples and reversely correlated with tumor size and tumor stage. Over-expression of PHD3 in the gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown the expression of PHD3 promoted the tumorigenecity of gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, it showed that PHD3 downregulated the expression of beta-catenin and inhibited beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) signaling. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PHD3 inhibits gastric cancer by suppressing the beta-catenin/TCF signaling and PHD3 might be an important therapeutic target in gastric cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Expression patterns of neuroligin-3 and tyrosine hydroxylase across the brain in mate choice contexts in female swordtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ryan Y; Cummings, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    Choosing mates is a commonly shared behavior across many organisms, with important fitness consequences. Variations in female preferences can be due in part to differences in neural and cellular activity during mate selection. Initial studies have begun to identify putative brain regions involved in mate preference, yet the understanding of the neural processes regulating these behaviors is still nascent. In this study, we characterized the expression of a gene involved in synaptogenesis and plasticity (neuroligin-3) and one that codes for the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase; TH1) in the female Xiphophorus nigrensis (northern swordtail) brain as related to mate preference behavior. We exposed females to a range of different mate choice contexts including two large courting males (LL), two small coercive males (SS), and a context that paired a large courting male with a small coercive male (LS). Neuroligin-3 expression in a mate preference context (LS) showed significant correlations with female preference in two telencephalic areas (Dm and Dl), a hypothalamic nucleus (HV), and two regions associated with sexual and social behavior (POA and Vv). We did not observe any context- or behavior-specific changes in tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression concomitant with female preference in any of the brain regions examined. Analysis of TH and neuroligin-3 expression across different brain regions showed that expression patterns varied with the male social environment only for neuroligin-3, where the density of correlated expression between brain regions was positively associated with mate choice contexts that involved a greater number of courting male phenotypes (LS and LL). This study identified regions showing presumed high levels of synaptic plasticity using neuroligin-3, implicating and supporting their roles in female mate preference, but we did not detect any relationship between tyrosine hydroxylase and mate preference with 30 min

  16. Product bound structures of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath): protein motion in the alpha-subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Lippard, Stephen J

    2005-04-27

    The soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH) alpha-subunit contains a series of cavities that delineate the route of substrate entrance to and product egress from the buried carboxylate-bridged diiron center. The presence of discrete cavities is a major structural difference between MMOH, which can hydroxylate methane, and toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase (ToMOH), which cannot. To understand better the functions of the cavities and to investigate how an enzyme designed for methane hydroxylation can also accommodate larger substrates such as octane, methylcubane, and trans-1-methyl-2-phenylcyclopropane, MMOH crystals were soaked with an assortment of different alcohols and their X-ray structures were solved to 1.8-2.4 A resolution. The product analogues localize to cavities 1-3 and delineate a path of product exit and/or substrate entrance from the active site to the surface of the protein. The binding of the alcohols to a position bridging the two iron atoms in cavity 1 extends and validates previous crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational work indicating this site to be where substrates are hydroxylated and products form. The presence of these alcohols induces perturbations in the amino acid side-chain gates linking pairs of cavities, allowing for the formation of a channel similar to one observed in ToMOH. Upon binding of 6-bromohexan-1-ol, the pi helix formed by residues 202-211 in helix E of the alpha-subunit is extended through residue 216, changing the orientations of several amino acid residues in the active site cavity. This remarkable secondary structure rearrangement in the four-helix bundle has several mechanistic implications for substrate accommodation and the function of the effector protein, MMOB.

  17. Copper sulfate prevents tyrosine hydroxylase reduced activity and motor deficits in a Parkinson's disease model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Boll-Woehrlen, Marie Catherine; Montes-López, Sergio; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of motor disturbances, derived from the striatal dopamine depletion. Previously, we reported that CuSO4 pretreatment blocked an oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) and prevented the striatal dopamine depletion induced by the administration of the 1-methyl-4-phenylpiridinium (MPP+), the toxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a model of PD. . To determine if tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting synthetic enzyme of dopamine, is implicated in the neuroprotective effect of CuSO4 pretreatment, and if this neuroprotective effect is able to prevent the hypokinetic state (measured as spontaneous locomotor activity, SLA) induced by the experimental model of PD. C57 Black/6J mice received a single dose of CuSO4 (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) either 16 or 24 h before the administration of MPP+ (18 microg/3 microl, i.c.v.). Twenty four hours later, mice SLA was registered and animals sacrificed. Striatal L-DOPA accumulation derived from the administration of a central dopamine descarboxilase inhibitor was evaluated, a strategy considered as a reliable indirect analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase activity (THA). Administration of, MPP+ decreased SLA (-52%; p = 0.003) as compared to control group values, whereas those mice pretreated with CuSO4 16 h before MPP+, increased SLA by 47% as compared with control group (p = 0.015). Mice pretreated with CuSO4 24 h before MPP+, also showed a statistically significant increase in SLA (71%; p = 0.02), when compared with control group. As a consequence of MPP+ administration, THA was also reduced as compared to control group values (32%; p copper supplementation, a phenomenon that avoid the hypokinetic state induced by the MPP+ experimental model of PD.

  18. Regulation of hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase expression by dietary psyllium in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J D; Cuthbert, J A; Spady, D K

    1994-01-01

    Soluble fiber consistently lowers plasma total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations in humans and various animal models including the hamster; however, the mechanism of this effect remains incompletely defined. We performed studies to determine the activity of dietary psyllium on hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase and LDL receptor expression in the hamster. In animals fed a cholesterol-free semisynthetic diet containing 7.5% cellulose (avicel) as a fiber source, substitution of psyllium for avicel increased hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA levels by 3-4-fold. Comparable effects on 7 alpha-hydroxylase expression were observed with 1% cholestyramine. Psyllium also increased hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and mRNA in animals fed a diet enriched with cholesterol and triglyceride. Activation of 7 alpha-hydroxylase was associated with an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis that was apparently not fully compensatory since the cholesterol content of the liver declined. Although dietary psyllium did not increase hepatic LDL receptor expression in animals fed the cholesterol-free, very-low-fat diet, it did increase (or at least restore) receptor expression that had been downregulated by dietary cholesterol and triglyceride. Thus, 7.5% dietary psyllium produced effects on hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase and LDL metabolism that were similar to those of 1% cholestyramine. Induction of hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity by dietary psyllium may account, in large part, for the hypocholesterolemic effect of this soluble fiber. Images PMID:8182140

  19. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH 2) single nucleotide polymorphisms, suicide, and alcohol-related suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Paska, Alja Videtič

    2013-09-01

    Suicide has been identified as a serious public health problem that is often accompanied by alcohol misuse and dependence. It seems that suicide is a result of an interplay between distal (e.g. genetic loading, family history of suicide) and proximal factors (e.g. existence of psychiatric disorder, events conferring acute stress), as well as their interactions. However, like suicide, alcohol dependence seems to be a multifactorial disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors. Serotonergic dysfunction has been implicated to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behaviour. Studies investigating suicide, alcohol-related suicide and the rate limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), remain to date rather limited. Recent studies of TPH2 showed a range of strong, mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide, depending on a study group and genetic variants tested. Overall, to date the clinical effects seems to be quite modest. Among suicide victims with more impulsive and verbal aggressive behaviour more alcohol misuse or dependency was present. Suicide and alcoholism are often comorbid disorders with a complex nature. They are both strongly linked to serotonin modulation, and therefore association studies of SNPs in genes from the serotonergic system could provide an insight into the genetic background of such disorders. However, based on current results we cannot draw any conclusions, but further research to clarify the interplay between serotonergic system dysfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme is needed.

  20. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 Inhibition Impacts Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Two Rat Models of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Robert J; Bourassa, Patricia-Ann; Zhang, Qing; Dubins, Jeffrey; Goldberg, Daniel R; De Lombaert, Stéphane; Humbert, Marc; Guignabert, Christophe; Cavasin, Maria A; McKinsey, Timothy A; Paralkar, Vishwas

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease defined by a chronic elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure with extensive pulmonary vascular remodeling and perivascular inflammation characterized by an accumulation of macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Although the exact etiology of the disease is unknown, clinical as well as preclinical data strongly implicate a role for serotonin (5-HT) in the process. Here, we investigated the chronic effects of pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral 5-HT biosynthesis, in two preclinical models of pulmonary hypertension (PH), the monocrotaline (MCT) rat and the semaxanib (SUGEN, Medinoah, Suzhou, China)-hypoxia rat. In both PH models, ethyl (S)-8-(2-amino-6-((R)-1-(5-chloro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)-2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-3-carboxylate and ethyl (S)-8-(2-amino-6-((R)-1-(3',4'-dimethyl-3-(3-methyl-1 H-pyrazol-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)-2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-3-carboxylate, novel orally active TPH1 inhibitors with nanomolar in vitro potency, decreased serum, gut, and lung 5-HT levels in a dose-dependent manner and significantly reduced pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary vessel wall thickness and occlusion in male rats. In the MCT rat model, decreases in lung 5-HT significantly correlated with reductions in histamine levels and mast cell number (P pulmonary vascular remodeling and pressures. These data demonstrate that in addition to reducing vascular remodeling, TPH1 inhibition has the added benefit of reducing the perivascular mast cell accumulation associated with PH. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Crystal structure of human gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tars, Kaspars; Rumnieks, Janis; Zeltins, Andris; Kazaks, Andris; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Leonciks, Ainars; Sharipo, Jelena; Viksna, Arturs; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2010-08-06

    Gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (GBBH) is a 2-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of l-carnitine by hydroxylation of gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB). l-carnitine is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for generating metabolic energy. The only known synthetic inhibitor of GBBH is mildronate (3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium) propionate dihydrate), which is a non-hydroxylatable analog of GBB. To aid in the discovery of novel GBBH inhibitors by rational drug design, we have solved the three-dimensional structure of recombinant human GBBH at 2.0A resolution. The GBBH monomer consists of a catalytic double-stranded beta-helix (DBSH) domain, which is found in all 2KG oxygenases, and a smaller N-terminal domain. Extensive interactions between two monomers confirm earlier observations that GBBH is dimeric in its biological state. Although many 2KG oxygenases are multimeric, the dimerization interface of GBBH is very different from that of related enzymes. The N-terminal domain of GBBH has a similar fold to the DUF971 superfamily, which consists of several short bacterial proteins with unknown function. The N-terminal domain has a bound Zn ion, which is coordinated by three cysteines and one histidine. Although several other 2KG oxygenases with known structures have more than one domain, none of them resemble the N-terminal domain of GBBH. The N-terminal domain may facilitate dimer formation, but its precise biological role remains to be discovered. The active site of the catalytic domain of GBBH is similar to that of other 2KG oxygenases, and Fe(II)-binding residues form a conserved His-X-Asp-X(n)-His triad, which is found in all related enzymes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isoform-Specific Substrate Inhibition Mechanism of Human Tryptophan Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidemand, Kasper D; Peters, Günther H; Harris, Pernille; Stensgaard, Eva; Christensen, Hans E M

    2017-11-21

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression and irritable bowel syndrome. TPH exists in two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. TPH1 catalyzes the initial step in the synthesis of serotonin in the peripheral tissues, while TPH2 catalyzes this step in the brain. In this study, the steady-state kinetic mechanism for the catalytic domain of human TPH1 has been determined. Varying substrate tryptophan (Trp) and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) results in a hybrid Ping Pong-ordered mechanism in which the reaction can either occur through a Ping Pong or a sequential mechanism depending on the concentration of tryptophan. The catalytic domain of TPH1 shares a sequence identity of 81% with TPH2. Despite the high sequence identity, differences in the kinetic parameters of the isoforms have been identified; i.e., only TPH1 displays substrate tryptophan inhibition. This study demonstrates that the difference can be traced to an active site loop which displays different properties in the TPH isoforms. Steady-state kinetic results of the isoforms, and variants with point mutations in a loop lining the active site, show that the kinetic parameters of only TPH1 are significantly changed upon mutations. Mutations in the active site loop of TPH1 result in an increase in the substrate inhibition constant, Ki, and therefore turnover rate. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that this substrate inhibition mechanism occurs through a closure of the cosubstrate, BH4, binding pocket, which is induced by Trp binding.

  3. Suppression of sterol 27-hydroxylase mRNA and transcriptional activity by bile acids in cultured rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.; Wit, E.C.M. de; Princen, H.M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In previous work we have demonstrated suppression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase by bile acids at the level of mRNA and transcription, resulting in a similar decline in bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. In view of the substantial contribution of the 'alternative' or '27-hydroxylase'

  4. A steady-state kinetic analysis of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskel, N T; Kuby, S A

    1981-01-01

    Published kinetic data by Kivirikko, et al. on the prolyl-4-hydroxylase reaction have been re-evaluated using the overall steady-state velocity equation in the forward and reverse directions for an ordered ter ter kinetic mechanism. Qualitatively, the published data for prolyl-4-hydroxylase appear to fit the predicted patterns for this kinetic mechanism. More kinetic data are needed to confirm these results and to quantitate the kinetic parameters but, tentatively, the order of substrate addition would appear to be alpha-ketoglutarate, oxygen, and peptide; and the order of product release would be hydroxylated peptide (or collagen), carbon dioxide, and succinate.

  5. Expression, purification and enzymatic characterization of the catalytic domains of human tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Boesen, Jane; Karlsen, Pernille Efferbach

    2009-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase exists in two isoforms: Isoform 1 catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin in the peripheral parts of the body while isoform 2 catalyses this step in the brain. The catalytic domains of human tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 2 have been expressed......, purified and the kinetic properties have been studied and are compared. Substrate inhibition by tryptophan is observed for isoform 1 but not for isoform 2. Large differences are observed in the K m,tetrahydrobiopterin values for the two isoforms, being >10 times larger for isoform 1 compared to isoform 2....

  6. TOPOLOGY OF THE MEMBRANE-BOUND ALKANE HYDROXYLASE OF PSEUDOMONAS-OLEOVORANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, J.B.; PENNINGA, D; Witholt, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane hydroxylase is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein that is expressed and active in both Escherichia coli and P. oleovorans. Its primary sequence contains eight hydrophobic stretches that could span the membrane as alpha-helices. The topology of alkane

  7. Carnitine biosynthesis: identification of the cDNA encoding human gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, F. M.; van Gool, S.; Ofman, R.; IJlst, L.; Wanders, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    gamma-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.1) is the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of L-carnitine and catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, a reaction dependent on alpha-ketoglutarate, Fe2+, and oxygen. We report the purification of the protein from rat liver to

  8. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2011-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 ± 2.6 and 38.8 ± 6.7% (n=16; P≤0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  9. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 +\\/- 2.6 and 38.8 +\\/- 6.7% (n=16; P<\\/=0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  10. Recent advances in biochemical and molecular analysis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in one of the steroidogenic enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol or aldosterone from cholesterol in the adrenal glands. Approximately 95% of all CAH cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency encoded by the CYP21A2 gene. The disorder is categorized into classical forms, including the salt-wasting and the simple virilizing types, and nonclassical forms based on the severity of the disease. The severity of the clinical features varies according to the level of residual 21-hydroxylase activity. Newborn screening for CAH is performed in many countries to prevent salt-wasting crises in the neonatal period, to prevent male sex assignment in affected females, and to reduce long-term morbidities, such as short stature, gender confusion, and psychosexual disturbances. 17α-hydroxyprogesterone is a marker for 21-hydroxylase deficiency and is measured using a radioimmunoassay, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or a fluoroimmunoassay. Recently, liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for rapid, highly specific, and sensitive analysis of multiple analytes. Urinary steroid analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry also provides qualitative and quantitative data on the excretion of steroid hormone metabolites. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 is useful for genetic counseling, confirming diagnosis, and predicting prognoses. In conclusion, early detection using neonatal screening tests and treatment can prevent the worst outcomes of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PMID:27104172

  11. Biochemical and genetic characterization of three molybdenum cofactor hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Tine; Frandsen, Gitte Inselmann; Rocher, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases and xanthine dehydrogenases/oxidases belong to the molybdenum cofactor dependent hydroxylase class of enzymes. Zymograms show that Arabidopsis thaliana has at least three different aldehyde oxidases and one xanthine oxidase. Three different cDNA clones encoding putative aldehyde...

  12. Tyrosine hydroxylase polymorphism (C-824T) and hypertension: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren J; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is present in a large proportion of the hypertensive population and precedes the development of established hypertension. Variations in the proximal promoter of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene have been shown to influence biochemical and physiologi...

  13. Metal Ions-Stimulated Iron Oxidation in Hydroxylases Facilitates Stabilization of HIF-1α Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Monika; Cachau, Raul E.; Topol, Igor A.; Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.; Ghio, Andy; Salnikow, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The exposure of cells to several metal ions stabilizes HIF-1α protein. However, the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. They may involve inhibition of hydroxylation by either substitution of iron by metal ions or by iron oxidation in the hydroxylases. Here we provide evidence supporting the latter mechanism. We show that HIF-1α stabilization in human lung epithelial cells occurred following exposure to various metal and metalloid ions, including those that cannot substitute for iron in the hydroxylases. In each case addition of the reducing agent ascorbic acid (AA)* abolished HIF-1α protein stabilization. To better understand the role of iron oxidation in hydroxylase inhibition and to define the role of AA in the enzyme recovery we applied molecular modeling techniques. Our results indicate that the energy required for iron substitution by Ni(II) in the enzyme is high and unlikely to be achieved in a biological system. Additionally, computer modeling allowed us to identify a tridentate coordination of AA with the enzyme-bound iron, which explains the specific demand for AA as the iron reductant. Thus, the stabilization of HIF-1α by numerous metal ions that cannot substitute for iron in the enzyme, the alleviation of this effect by AA, and our computer modeling data support the hypothesis of iron oxidation in the hydroxylases following exposure to metal ions. PMID:19074761

  14. Novel vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese vitamin-D-dependent rickets type I patient. Lihua Cao Fang Liu Yu Wang Jian Ma Shusen Wang Libo Wang Yang Zhang Chen Chen Yang Luo Hongwei Ma. Research Note Volume 90 Issue 2 August ...

  15. Novel vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese vitamin-D-dependent rickets type I patient. LIHUA CAO1, FANG LIU2, YU WANG1, JIAN MA2, SHUSEN WANG1, LIBO WANG2, YANG ZHANG1,. CHEN CHEN1, YANG LUO1∗ and HONGWEI ...

  16. Carnitine biosynthesis. Purification of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase from rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, F. M.; van Gool, S.; Ofman, R.; IJlst, L.; Wanders, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    gamma-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase catalyse the last step in carnitine biosynthesis, the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, a reaction dependent on Fe2+, alpha-ketoglutarate, ascorbate and oxygen. Initial attempts to purify the protein from rat liver showed that gamma-butyrobetaine

  17. Stabilization of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 by L-Phenylalanine Induced Dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Kasper Damgaard; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Hoeck, Niclas

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Full length TPH2 is poorly characterized due to low purification...

  18. Adsorption and bioactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase on gold surfaces and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halskau, Oyvind; Volden, Sondre; Calvo, Ana C; Martínez, Aurora; Glomm, Wilhelm R

    2010-11-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase is studied in terms of adsorption behaviour on gold surfaces and various passivating layers. Results reveal differences in layer formation, where mercaptoundecanoic acid-coated gold shows the best potential in terms of adsorbed mass. Nanoparticles with this coating are subsequently tested for enzymatic activity, which remains at attenuated levels.

  19. Comparative systems pharmacology of HIF stabilization in the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, George; Yoon, Suzy; Gopalan, Banu; Savage, Alexandria R; Brown, Rebecca; Case, Kelsey; Vasanji, Amit; Chan, E Ricky; Silver, Randi B; Sears, Jonathan E

    2016-05-03

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes 100,000 new cases of childhood blindness each year. ROP is initiated by oxygen supplementation necessary to prevent neonatal death. We used organ systems pharmacology to define the transcriptomes of mice that were cured of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR, ROP model) by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilization via HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibition using the isoquinolone Roxadustat or the 2-oxoglutarate analog dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). Although both molecules conferred a protective phenotype, gene expression analysis by RNA sequencing found that Roxadustat can prevent OIR by two pathways: direct retinal HIF stabilization and induction of aerobic glycolysis or indirect hepatic HIF-1 stabilization and increased serum angiokines. As predicted by pathway analysis, Roxadustat rescued the hepatic HIF-1 knockout mouse from retinal oxygen toxicity, whereas DMOG could not. The simplicity of systemic treatment that targets both the liver and the eye provides a rationale for protecting the severely premature infant from oxygen toxicity.

  20. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha/Sima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-11-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-alpha polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-alpha/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima.

  1. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-α/Sima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-α polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-α/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima. PMID:16179946

  2. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Watt

    Full Text Available Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

  3. Development of a novel anti-human aspartyl-(asparaginyl) β-hydroxylase monoclonal antibody with diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Dong, Dan-Dan; Yang, Hui; Xue, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Qing-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Human aspartyl-(asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase (HAAH) has recently been the subject of several studies, as it was previously observed to be overexpressed in numerous types of carcinoma cells and tissues in patient tumor samples. HAAH has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, indicating that it may be an important target and biomarker for tumor diagnosis and treatment. However, the immunological tools currently available for the study of this protein, including monoclonal antibodies, are limited, as is the present knowledge regarding the role of HAAH in tumor therapy and diagnosis. In the present study, a recombinant C-terminal domain of HAAH was expressed in Pichia pastoris and a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting HAAH (HAAH-C) was constructed. Immunofluorescence and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays were used to demonstrate the specificity and ADCC activity of this antibody. The results demonstrated that this anti-C-terminal HAAH mAB, in combination with an existing anti-N terminal HAAH mAb, exhibited a high response to native HAAH from carcinoma cell culture supernatant, as measured with a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This validated novel mAB-HAAH-C may prompt further studies into the underlying mechanisms of HAAH, and the exploration of its potential in tumor diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Phylogenetic Distribution of CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase (CMAH), the Enzyme Synthetizing the Proinflammatory Human Xenoantigen Neu5Gc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, Sateesh; Kulkarni, Asmita; Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) is responsible for the synthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a sialic acid present on the cell surface proteins of most deuterostomes. The CMAH gene is thought to be present in most deuterostomes, but it has been inactivated in a number of lineages, including humans. The inability of humans to synthesize Neu5Gc has had several evolutionary and biomedical implications. Remarkably, Neu5Gc is a xenoantigen for humans, and consumption of Neu5Gc-containing foods, such as red meats, may promote inflammation, arthritis, and cancer. Likewise, xenotransplantation of organs producing Neu5Gc can result in inflammation and organ rejection. Therefore, knowing what animal species contain a functional CMAH gene, and are thus capable of endogenous Neu5Gc synthesis, has potentially far-reaching implications. In addition to humans, other lineages are known, or suspected, to have lost CMAH; however, to date reports of absent and pseudogenic CMAH genes are restricted to a handful of species. Here, we analyze all available genomic data for nondeuterostomes, and 322 deuterostome genomes, to ascertain the phylogenetic distribution of CMAH. Among nondeuterostomes, we found CMAH homologs in two green algae and a few prokaryotes. Within deuterostomes, putatively functional CMAH homologs are present in 184 of the studied genomes, and a total of 31 independent gene losses/pseudogenization events were inferred. Our work produces a list of animals inferred to be free from endogenous Neu5Gc based on the absence of CMAH homologs and are thus potential candidates for human consumption, xenotransplantation research, and model organisms for investigation of human diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Analysis of Substrate Access to Active Sites in Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenase Hydroxylases: X-ray Crystal Structure of Xenon-Pressurized Phenol Hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Michael S.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    In all structurally characterized bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase (BMM) hydroxylase proteins, a series of hydrophobic cavities in the α-subunit trace a conserved path from the protein exterior to the carboxylate-bridged diiron active site. The present study examines these cavities as a potential route for dioxygen transport to the active site by crystallographic characterization of a xenon-pressurized sample of the hydroxylase component of phenol hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. OX1. Computational analyses of the hydrophobic cavities in the hydroxylase α-subunits of phenol hydroxylase (PHH), toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMOH), and soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMOH) are also presented. The results, together with previous findings from crystallographic studies of xenon-pressurized sMMO hydroxylase, clearly identify the propensity for these cavities to bind hydrophobic gas molecules in the protein interior. This proposed functional role is supported by recent stopped flow kinetic studies of ToMOH variants (Song, et al., 2011). In addition to information about the Xe sites, the structure determination revealed significantly reduced regulatory protein binding to the hydroxylase in comparison to the previously reported structure of PHH, as well as the presence of a newly identified metal binding site in the α-subunit that adopts a linear coordination environment consistent with Cu(I), and a glycerol molecule bound to Fe1 in a fashion that is unique among hydrocarbon-diiron site adducts reported to date in BMM hydroxylase structures. Finally, a comparative analysis of the α-subunit structures of MMOH, ToMOH, and PHH details proposed routes for the other three BMM substrates, the hydrocarbon, electrons, and protons, comprising cavities, channels, hydrogen-bonding networks, and pores in the structures of their α-subunits. PMID:22136180

  6. Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients with CKD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provenzano, Robert; Besarab, Anatole; Sun, Chao H; Diamond, Susan A; Durham, John H; Cangiano, Jose L; Aiello, Joseph R; Novak, James E; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Roberts, Brian K; Saikali, Khalil G; Hemmerich, Stefan; Szczech, Lynda A; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Roxadustat (FG-4592), an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis, regulates iron metabolism, and reduces hepcidin, was evaluated in this phase 2b study for safety...

  7. High frequency of cytolytic 21-Hydroxylase specific CD8+ T cells in autoimmune Addison’s disease patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Dawoodji, Amina; Chen, Ji-Li; Shepherd, Dawn; Dalin, Frida; Tarlton, Andrea; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Penna-Martinez, Marissa; Meyer, Gesine; Mitchell, Anna L.; Gan, Earn H.; Bratland, Eirik; Bensing, Sophie; Husebye, Eystein,; Pearce, Simon H.; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the destruction of the adrenal glands in autoimmune Addison’s disease remain unclear. Autoantibodies against steroid 21-hydroxylase, an intracellular key enzyme of the adrenal cortex, are found in over 90% of patients, but these autoantibodies are not thought to mediate the disease. Here we demonstrate highly frequent 21-hydroxylase specific T cells detectable in 20 patients with Addison’s disease. Using overlapping 18aa peptides spanning the full length of 21-hydroxylas...

  8. Aromatic amino acid hydroxylase inhibitors. 4. 3-Substituted alpha-methyltyrosines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masry, A H; el-Masry, E E; Hare, L E; Counsell, R E

    1975-01-01

    In the present study a series of 3-alkenyl-alpha-methyltyrosines and their corresponding 3-alkyl-and dihydrobenzofuran analogs was synthesized for potential tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) inhibitory activity. The appropriately substituted hydantoins IIIa and IIIb, which were prepared from the corresponding allyloxybenzylhydantoins IIa and IIb through Claisen rearrangement, served as intermediates for the synthesis of these amino acids. TH inhibition was reduced upon either saturation of the double bond in the side chain or cyclization to form the dihydrobenzofuran analogs. Formation of the epoxide had a similar effect. The inhibitory activity of these compounds against aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) was also investigated. Unsaturation, in both cases, decreases the inhibitory activity; however, the presence of a free phenolic group appears to be essential for AACD inhibitory activity.

  9. The brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity in the sleep-like states in frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A V; Karmanova, I G; Kozlachkova, E Y; Voronova, I P; Popova, N K

    1994-10-01

    The activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase, was determined in the brain stem in active awake frogs, and frogs in three sleep-like states: with plastic muscle tone (SLS-1), with rigid muscle tone (SLS-2), and with relaxed muscle tone (SLS-3). Significant decrease in the enzyme activity has been found in frogs in SLS-1 and SLS-2 compared to awake animals. The development in frogs a cataleptic-like immobility after treating the animals with rhythmic lighting was accompanied with a decrease in the brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity. These results provide strong evidence for the involvement of the brain serotonin in frogs in the control of evolutionary ancient sleep-like states, probably by the regulation of muscle tone.

  10. Hydroxylation of steroids with nonpolar side chains with 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakelj-Mavric, M; Kastelic-Suhadolc, T; Gottlieb, H E; Belic, I

    1989-08-01

    Steroids with nonpolar side chains with 2, 4 and 8 C atoms were used as substrates for the 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans. Their bioconversion was compared to that of progesterone, which was found to be far the best substrate giving the highest total bioconversion. 3-keto-4-ene steroids with nonpolar side chains were converted to their hydroxylated products in a small yield or not at all. The absence of an oxygen function in the side chain did not affect the regio-specificity of the hydroxylation, but resulted in a much lower total bioconversion. The strong effect of the oxygen function and of the length of the side chain on hydroxylation with the 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans was demonstrated.

  11. Effects of coumarate 3-hydroxylase down-regulation on lignin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Paul F. Schatz; Jane M. Marita; Sally A. Ralph; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Fang Chen; Richard A. Dixon

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in alfalfa massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to thenormally dominant guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units Stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by traditional degradative...

  12. Mineralocorticoid replacement during infancy for salt wasting congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The protocols for glucocorticoid replacement in children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency are well established; however, the current recommendation for mineralocorticoid replacement is general and suggests individualized dose adjustments. This study aims to retrospectively review the 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose regimen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient children who have been adequately treated during infancy. METHODS: Twenty-three salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients with good anthropometric and hormonal control were followed in our center since diagnosis. The assessments of cortisone acetate and 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical and hormonal levels were rigorously evaluated in pre-determined intervals from diagnosis to two years of age. RESULTS: The 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses decreased over time during the first and second years of life; the median fludrocortisone doses were 200 µg at 0-6 months, 150 µg at 7-18 months and 125 µg at 19-24 months. The cortisone acetate dose per square meter was stable during follow-up (median = 16.8 mg/m²/day. The serum sodium, potassium and plasma rennin activity levels during treatment were normal, except in the first month of life, when periodic 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose adjustments were made. CONCLUSIONS: The mineralocorticoid needs of salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients are greater during early infancy and progressively decrease during the first two years of life, which confirms that a partial aldosterone resistance exists during this time. Our study proposes a safety regiment for mineralocorticoid replacement during this critical developmental period.

  13. Fertility outcome in male and female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Kamoun; Mouna Feki Mnif; Nadia Charfi; Basma Ben Naceur; Fatma Mnif; Nabila Rekik; Zainab Mnif; Mohamed Habib Sfar; Mohamed Tahar Sfar; Mongia Hachicha; Azza Ben Salem; Leila Ammar Keskes; Mohamed Abid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate fertility in a sample of Tunisian patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Design: Tunisian bicentric prospective study. Setting: Endocrinology department, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia and Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Tahar Sfar Hospital, Mahdia, Tunisia. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (11 M; 15 F), aged 16.5–48 years, were enrolled. Clinical, biological, hormonal and ultras...

  14. Effect of halogenated benzenes on acetanilide esterase, acetanilide hydroxylase and procaine esterase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, G P; Dziezak, J D; Johnson, K M

    1979-07-01

    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, 1,2,4-tribromobenzene, 1,3,5-tribromobenzene and hexabromobenzene were compared for their abilities to induce acetanilide esterase, acentailide hydroxylase and procaine esterase. Except for hexabromobenzene all induced acetanilide esterase whereas the hydroxylation of acetanilide was seen only with the fully halogenated benzenes and with 1,3,5-tribromobenzene. Hepatic procaine esterase activity was increased by the three chlorinated benzenes and 1,2,4-tribromobenzene.

  15. Human prolyl hydroxylase expression in uterine leiomyoma during the menstrual cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Iwahashi, Masaaki; Muragaki, Yasuteru; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the role of prolyl hydroxylase (PH), a key enzyme of collagen synthesis, in human uterine leiomyoma, PH expression was determined in the normal uterine myometrium and the leiomyoma tissues during the menstrual cycle. Methods The tissues were obtained from 40 regularly cycling women (aged 29 to 53 yr) who were undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. Immunohistochemistry for human PH with specific monoclonal antibody was used for a...

  16. 24-Hydroxylase in Cancer: Impact on Vitamin D-based Anticancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    The active vitamin D hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) plays a major role in regulating calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization. 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates cellular proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme which converts 1,25(OH)2D3 to less active calcitroic acid. Nearly all cell types express 24-hydroxylase, the highest activity being observed in the kidney. There is increasing evidence linking the incidence and prognosis of certain cancers to low serum 25 (OH)D3 levels and high expression of vitamin D 24-hydroxylase supporting the idea that elevated CYP24A1 expression may stimulate degradation of vitamin D metabolites including 25-(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. The over expression of CYP24A1 in cancer cells may be a factor affecting 1,25(OH)2D3 bioavailability and anti-proliferative activity pre-clinically and clinically. The combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 with CYP24A1 inhibitors enhances 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated signaling and anti-proliferative effects and may be useful in overcoming effects of aberrant CYP24 expression. PMID:23059474

  17. Stringency of the 2-His-1-Asp active-site motif in prolyl 4-hydroxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Gorres

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The non-heme iron(II dioxygenase family of enzymes contain a common 2-His-1-carboxylate iron-binding motif. These enzymes catalyze a wide variety of oxidative reactions, such as the hydroxylation of aliphatic C-H bonds. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent iron(II dioxygenase that catalyzes the post-translational hydroxylation of proline residues in protocollagen strands, stabilizing the ensuing triple helix. Human P4H residues His412, Asp414, and His483 have been identified as an iron-coordinating 2-His-1-carboxylate motif. Enzymes that catalyze oxidative halogenation do so by a mechanism similar to that of P4H. These halogenases retain the active-site histidine residues, but the carboxylate ligand is replaced with a halide ion. We replaced Asp414 of P4H with alanine (to mimic the active site of a halogenase and with glycine. These substitutions do not, however, convert P4H into a halogenase. Moreover, the hydroxylase activity of D414A P4H cannot be rescued with small molecules. In addition, rearranging the two His and one Asp residues in the active site eliminates hydroxylase activity. Our results demonstrate a high stringency for the iron-binding residues in the P4H active site. We conclude that P4H, which catalyzes an especially demanding chemical transformation, is recalcitrant to change.

  18. The activities of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3 regulate the amount and oligomerization status of adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Ruotsalainen

    Full Text Available Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3 has lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase activities, which are sequentially required for the formation of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysines in collagens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that LH3 also modifies the lysine residues in the collagenous domain of adiponectin, which has important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Hydroxylation and, especially, glycosylation of the lysine residues of adiponectin have been shown to be essential for the formation of the more active high molecular weight adiponectin oligomers and thus for its function. In cells that totally lack LH3 enzyme, the galactosylhydroxylysine residues of adiponectin were not glucosylated to glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine residues and the formation of high and middle molecular weight adiponectin oligomers was impaired. Circulating adiponectin levels in mutant mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 were significantly reduced, which indicates that LH3 is required for complete modification of lysine residues in adiponectin and the loss of some of the glycosylated hydroxylysine residues severely affects the secretion of adiponectin. LH mutant mice with reduced adiponectin level showed a high fat diet-induced increase in glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol levels, hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in humans. Our results reveal the first indication that LH3 is an important regulator of adiponectin biosynthesis, secretion and activity and thus might be a potential candidate for therapeutic applications in diseases associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  19. CYP17A1 intron mutation causing cryptic splicing in 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daw-Yang Hwang

    Full Text Available 17α-Hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency (17OHD is an autosomal recessive disease causing congenital adrenal hyperplasia and a rare cause of hypertension with hypokalemia. The CYP17A1 gene mutation leads to 17OHD and its clinical features. We described an 18 y/o female with clinical features of 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase deficiency and characterized the functional consequences of an intronic CYP17A1 mutation. The coding regions and flanking intronic bases of the CYP17A1 gene were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The patient is a compound heterozygote for the previously described p.R358X and IVS1 +2T>C mutations. A first intron splice donor site mutation was re-created in minigene and full-length expression vectors. Pre-mRNA splicing of the variant CYP17A1 intron was studied in transfected cells and in a transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. When the full-length CYP17A1 gene and minigene containing the intronic mutation was expressed in transfected cells, the majority (>90% of mRNA transcripts were incorrectly spliced. Only the p.R358X transcript was detected in the EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line. The IVS1 +2T>C mutation abolished most 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase enzyme activity by aberrant mRNA splicing to an intronic pseudo-exon, causing a frame shift and early termination.

  20. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF Hydroxylases as Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier FunctionSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario C. Manresa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human health is dependent on the ability of the body to extract nutrients, fluids, and oxygen from the external environment while at the same time maintaining a state of internal sterility. Therefore, the cell layers that cover the surface areas of the body such as the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal mucosa provide vital semipermeable barriers that allow the transport of essential nutrients, fluid, and waste products, while at the same time keeping the internal compartments free of microbial organisms. These epithelial surfaces are highly specialized and differ in their anatomic structure depending on their location to provide appropriate and effective site-specific barrier function. Given this important role, it is not surprising that significant disease often is associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function. Examples of such diseases include inflammatory bowel disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atopic dermatitis. These chronic inflammatory disorders often are characterized by diminished tissue oxygen levels (hypoxia. Hypoxia triggers an adaptive transcriptional response governed by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs, which are repressed by a family of oxygen-sensing HIF hydroxylases. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition may be of therapeutic benefit in inflammatory bowel disease through the promotion of intestinal epithelial barrier function through both HIF-dependent and HIF-independent mechanisms. Keywords: Epithelial Barrier, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Hypoxia, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF Hydroxylases

  1. Inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase reduces scar hypertrophy in a rabbit model of cutaneous scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Injoong; Mogford, Jon E; Witschi, Claudia; Nafissi, Mehdi; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars result from excessive collagen deposition at sights of healing dermal wounds and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic. Pharmacological regulation of collagen synthesis and deposition is a direct approach to the control of scar tissue formation. We tested the ability of the phenanthrolinone derivative FG-1648 (in 0.5% Carbopol 971 PNF gel, pH 6.5), a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, to reduce hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two treatment groups (n = 12 wounds per group with an equal number of controls): low-dose group: 0.5% FG-1648; high-dose group: 1% FG-1648. Left ears were used for treatment and right ear for control. Four 7-mm dermal ulcer wounds were made on each ear. The inhibitor was topically applied to the wound at the time of wounding and once daily up to postoperative day 7. Wounds were harvested at postoperative day 28 and scar hypertrophy quantified by measurement of the scar elevation index. All wounds showed complete healing. Treatment of wounds with 1% prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor decreased the scar elevation index by 26% compared to control wounds (p < 0.01). Wounds treated with 0.5% FG-1648 inhibitor showed no difference in scar elevation compared to control wounds. These results suggest that inhibition of prolyl 4-hydroxylase may be a suitable agent for topical treatment for the prevention of hypertrophic scar tissue.

  2. The crystal structure of tryptophan hydroxylase with bound amino acid substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte Rode; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction between tryptophan, O2, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) to produce 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin. This is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmi......Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme, which catalyzes the reaction between tryptophan, O2, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) to produce 5-hydroxytryptophan and 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin. This is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis...... of the neurotransmitter and hormone serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). We have determined the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain (Δ1−100/Δ415−445) of chicken TPH isoform 1 (TPH1) in complex with the tryptophan substrate and an iron-bound imidazole. This is the first structure of any aromatic amino...... acid hydroxylase with bound natural amino acid substrate. The iron coordination can be described as distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination with His273, His278, and Glu318 (partially bidentate) and one imidazole as ligands. The tryptophan stacks against Pro269 with a distance of 3.9 Å between...

  3. Dopaminergic Receptors and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Distinct Pattern in Central Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fernanda; Lima, Margarida; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco; Ribeiro, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) may be involved in central obesity (CO), an inflammatory condition, through its role in the central nervous system and in periphery, where it may affect immune cell function through five different DA receptors (DR). Whether dopaminergic pathways in peripheral immune cells are implicated in the inflammatory condition linked to CO is however unknown. In a cohort of blood donors with and without CO, categorized by waist circumference (WC) (CO: WC ≥ 0.80 m in women and ≥ 0.94 m in men), we studied the expression of DR and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of DA, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and their relation with anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine and inflammatory parameters. DR D1-5 and TH expression was assessed by semi quantitative real-time PCR. As inflammatory markers we investigated the immunophenotype of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry, staining for CD14, CD16, CD11b and CD36. CO individuals showed higher plasma levels of leptin and higher inflammatory pattern of monocytes compared with non-CO. PBMC expression of DR D2, DR D4 and DR D5 as well as of TH were lower in CO in comparison with non-CO. DR D2, and DR D5 expression correlated with lower WC and weight, and with lower inflammatory pattern of monocytes, and TH expression correlated with lower WC. DR D4 expression correlated with lower plasma levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, and DR D2 expression correlated with lower CO. Results show that CO is associated with peripheral inflammation and downregulation of dopaminergic pathways in PBMCs, possibly suggesting DR expressed on immune cells as pharmacological targets in obesity for better metabolic outcome.

  4. Dopaminergic Receptors and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Distinct Pattern in Central Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Leite

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA may be involved in central obesity (CO, an inflammatory condition, through its role in the central nervous system and in periphery, where it may affect immune cell function through five different DA receptors (DR. Whether dopaminergic pathways in peripheral immune cells are implicated in the inflammatory condition linked to CO is however unknown.In a cohort of blood donors with and without CO, categorized by waist circumference (WC (CO: WC ≥ 0.80 m in women and ≥ 0.94 m in men, we studied the expression of DR and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of DA, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and their relation with anthropometric and metabolic/endocrine and inflammatory parameters. DR D1-5 and TH expression was assessed by semi quantitative real-time PCR. As inflammatory markers we investigated the immunophenotype of monocyte subsets by flow cytometry, staining for CD14, CD16, CD11b and CD36.CO individuals showed higher plasma levels of leptin and higher inflammatory pattern of monocytes compared with non-CO. PBMC expression of DR D2, DR D4 and DR D5 as well as of TH were lower in CO in comparison with non-CO. DR D2, and DR D5 expression correlated with lower WC and weight, and with lower inflammatory pattern of monocytes, and TH expression correlated with lower WC. DR D4 expression correlated with lower plasma levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, and DR D2 expression correlated with lower CO.Results show that CO is associated with peripheral inflammation and downregulation of dopaminergic pathways in PBMCs, possibly suggesting DR expressed on immune cells as pharmacological targets in obesity for better metabolic outcome.

  5. Therapeutic treatment with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase inhibitor (TRC160334 ameliorates murine colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ram Gupta,1 Anita R Chaudhary,2 Binita N Shah,1 Avinash V Jadhav,3 Shitalkumar P Zambad,1 Ramesh Chandra Gupta,4 Shailesh Deshpande,4 Vijay Chauthaiwale,4 Chaitanya Dutt4 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Cellular and Molecular Biology, 3Preclinical Safety Evaluation, 4Discovery, Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Background and aim: Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD can be achieved by improvement of intestinal barrier protection. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF has been identified as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult and is linked with improvement in symptoms of colitis. Although prophylactic efficacy of HIF hydroxylase inhibitors in murine colitis have been established, its therapeutic efficacy in clinically relevant therapeutic settings have not been established. In the present study we aim to establish therapeutic efficacy of TRC160334, a novel HIF hydroxylase inhibitor, in animal models of colitis. Methods: The efficacy of TRC160334 was evaluated in two different mouse models of colitis by oral route. A prophylactic efficacy study was performed in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced mouse model of colitis representing human Crohn's disease pathology. Additionally, a therapeutic efficacy study was performed in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of colitis, a model simulating human ulcerative colitis. Results: TRC160334 treatment resulted in significant improvement in disease end points in both models of colitis. TRC160334 treatment resulted into cytoprotective heatshock protein 70 induction in inflamed colon. TRC160334 successfully attenuated the rate of fall in body weight, disease activity index, and macroscopic and microscopic scores of colonic damage leading to overall improvement in study outcome. Conclusion: Our findings are the first to demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with a HIF hydroxylase inhibitor

  6. Mutational characterization of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balraj, P; Lim, P G; Sidek, H; Wu, L L; Khoo, A S B

    2013-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. Our objective was to identify the 21-hydroxylase active gene, CYP21A2 mutations in Malaysian 21-OHD patients using different techniques. Blood samples were obtained from 97 Malaysian 21-OHD patients, which included 40 siblings from 19 families. We used various techniques which include restriction enzyme digestion, Southern blot, multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and sequencing to elucidate CYP21A2 mutations. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations were identified in 95 of the 97 patients (98%). Deletions of CYP21A2 were found in 43 patients (44.3%). Deletions identified in CYP21A2 gene were the usual 30-kb deletion comprising 3'UTR CYP21A1P, C4B and 5'CYP21A2, complete deletion of CYP21A2 gene, deletion in exons 1-3, exons 1-6 and exons 1-8 of CYP21A2. The common mutations identified in CYP21A2 gene were deletion/conversion (22.6%), p.R356W (22%), IVS2-13A/C>G (21.3%), p.I172N (5.3%), p.Q318X (5.3%), and p.P30L (1.03%). This is the first report of the mutation frequency in CYP21A2 gene among the Malay ethnic group. Two novel mutations, c.Y97insT and p.L345P were identified in our patients. Our results show good phenotype-genotype correlation in most of the cases, although clinical variations were identified in some patients. The study has found various mutations including deletions in CYP21A2 gene in Malaysian patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency using the MLPA technique that is being widely used in present laboratory settings.

  7. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorder in kashmiri population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-06-01

    The gene of tryptophan hydroxylase is widely recognized as a major candidate gene in many psychiatric disorders. However, no study has been done which investigates tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders in Kashmiri population (India). To study tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) C 11993 A gene polymorphism in anxiety and depressive disorders. Sixty patients of depression disorder, 60 patients of anxiety disorder and 40 unrelated healthy volunteers (control) were studied in a case control design. Polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis after digestion with HAP II enzyme. Genotypes and allele frequencies were compared using Chi-square tests, Fischer's exact test, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (C.I) and p-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistical significant. The mean age ± SD of anxiety, depression and control group was 32.73±10.99, 32.20±10 and 29.75±10.12 respectively and the difference was found to be statistically non significant (p=0.349).The mean HAM-A (Hamilton rating scale for anxiety) score and HAM-D (Hamilton rating scale for depression) score was high in both groups (anxiety and depression) and found to be statistically significant (p=0.001).Depression group had AA genotype (55.2%) than control (37.5%) and was found to be statistically non significant (p=0.890).Comparison of allelic frequency revealed no association of A allele in anxiety group (76.67%) compared with control (75.5%) and was found to be statistically non significant (p= 0.866), OR 1.09 (0.56-2.11). TPH2C 11993 A gene was not found to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorder in Kashmiri population.

  8. Prolyl hydroxylase-1 regulates hepatocyte apoptosis in an NF-κB-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Susan F.; Fábián, Zsolt; Schaible, Bettina; Lenihan, Colin R.; Schwarzl, Thomas [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Rodriguez, Javier [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Zongwei [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tambuwala, Murtaza M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Higgins, Desmond G.; O' Meara, Yvonne [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Slattery, Craig [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Manresa, Mario C. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); Fraisl, Peter; Bruning, Ulrike [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Baes, Myriam [Laboratory for Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven (Belgium); Carmeliet, Peter; Doherty, Glen [Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 (Belgium); Kriegsheim, Alex von [Systems Biology Ireland, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cummins, Eoin P. [School of Medicine and Medical Science, The Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 Ireland (Ireland); and others

    2016-06-03

    Hepatocyte death is an important contributing factor in a number of diseases of the liver. PHD1 confers hypoxic sensitivity upon transcription factors including the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Reduced PHD1 activity is linked to decreased apoptosis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism(s) in hepatocytes. Basal NF-κB activity was elevated in PHD1{sup −/−} hepatocytes compared to wild type controls. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed enhanced binding of NF-κB to chromatin in regions proximal to the promoters of genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB (but not knock-out of HIF-1 or HIF-2) reversed the anti-apoptotic effects of pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition. We hypothesize that PHD1 inhibition leads to altered expression of NF-κB-dependent genes resulting in reduced apoptosis. This study provides new information relating to the possible mechanism of therapeutic action of hydroxylase inhibitors that has been reported in pre-clinical models of intestinal and hepatic disease. -- Highlights: •Genetic ablation of PHD1 upregulates NF-kappaB (NF-κB) in hepatocytes. •Activation of NF-κB leads to differential DNA-binding of p50/p65 and results in differential regulation of apoptotic genes. •We identified proline 191 in the beta subunit of the I-kappaB kinase as a target for PHD1-mediated hydroxylation. •Blockade of prolyl-4-hydroxylases has been found cytoprotective in liver cells.

  9. 17-α-Hydroxylase deficiency: An unusual case with primary amenorrhea and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with acute onset quadriparesis and newly detected hypertension. Parental consanguinity, delayed puberty with normal stature form the additional information. Hypokalemia with metabolic alkalosis, low cortisol, high ACTH and FSH pointed to the possibility of CAH with 17α hydroxylase deficiency. 46XX karyotype and high progesterone supported this. Normalization of hypokalemia and hypertension with glucocorticoid treatment confirmed the diagnosis. In summary, the possibility of 17 OHD should be suspected in patients with hypokalemic myopathy, Hypertension and hypogonadism so that appropriate therapy can be implemented.

  10. The crystal structure of human dopamine  β-hydroxylase at 2.9 Å resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Trine Vammen; Harris, Pernille; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The norepinephrine pathway is believed to modulate behavioral and physiological processes, such as mood, overall arousal, and attention. Furthermore, abnormalities in the pathway have been linked to numerous diseases, for example hypertension, depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia......, Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and cocaine dependence. We report the crystal structure of human dopamine β-hydroxylase, which is the enzyme converting dopamine to norepinephrine. The structure of the DOMON (dopamine β-monooxygenase N-terminal) domain, also found in >1600...

  11. Self-hydroxylation of the splicing factor lysyl hydroxylase, JMJD6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantri, M.; Webby, C.J.; Loik, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    The lysyl 5S-hydroxylase, JMJD6 acts on proteins involved in RNA splicing. We find that in the absence of substrate JMJD6 catalyses turnover of 2OG to succinate. H-NMR analyses demonstrate that consumption of 2OG is coupled to succinate formation. MS analyses reveal that JMJD6 undergoes self......-hydroxylation in the presence of Fe(ii) and 2OG resulting in production of 5S-hydroxylysine residues. JMJD6 in human cells is also found to be hydroxylated. Self-hydroxylation of JMJD6 may play a regulatory role in modulating the hydroxylation status of proteins involved in RNA splicing. This journal is...

  12. Hydroxylation of steroids with 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakelj-Mavric, M; Belic, I

    1987-08-01

    Three groups of 3-keto-4-ene steroids with different side chains were used as substrates for the induced 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans. The highest total bioconversion as well as the highest yield of 11 alpha-hydroxylated product is found using progesterone as substrate. By changing the polarity of the side chain, much higher yields of 6 beta- and 7 beta-hydroxylated products relative to 11 alpha-hydroxylated product are obtained. Our results thus provide evidence for the importance of the side chain in steroid-enzyme interactions.

  13. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases by citric acid cycle intermediates: possible links between cell metabolism and stabilization of HIF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koivunen, Peppi; Hirsilä, Maija; Remes, Anne M; Hassinen, Ilmo E; Kivirikko, Kari I; Myllyharju, Johanna

    ... (HIF-P4Hs) and one HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have studied possible links between metabolic pathways and HIF hydroxylases by analyzing the abilities of citric acid cycle intermediates to inhibit purified human HIF-P4Hs and FIH...

  14. Changes associated with early weaning in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the caudate nucleus of the piglet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S P; Sharman, D F

    1983-01-01

    1. Early weaning in piglets is associated with changes in dopamine metabolism in the caudate nucleus. In particular, a decrease in the amount of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase was observed. 2. An analysis of the kinetic properties of tyrosine hydroxylase from the caudate nucleus of early-weaned piglets shows that there is a relative increase in the activity of the enzyme which may indicate a mechanism compensating for the decreased amount of enzyme. 3. The increase in activity is mediated through a decrease in the Km for tetrahydrobiopterin and is reversed, in vitro, when the tissue is homogenized at pH values greater than 8.0.

  15. [Purification and properties of membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Tumanova, L V

    2008-01-01

    Membrane fraction of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M) were treated with [14C]acetylene, an affinity label binding to the active center of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase (MMO). High-purity particulate form of methane hydroxylase (pMH) was obtained by ion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. According to SDS-PAGE data, the enzyme contained three polypeptides with molecular weights of 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 (gamma) kDa in the ratio 1:1:1. The radiolabel was contained in the beta-subunit of pMH. The protein contained 1 or 2 atoms of nonheme iron and 2-4 atoms of copper per a minimum molecular weight of 99 kDa. This protein did not oxidize methane or propylene in the presence of NADH but was able to oxidize low quantities of methane in the presence of duroquinol. It was established that methanol dehydrogenase (MD) and NADH oxidoreductase (NADH-OR) are peripheral membrane proteins. Possible causes of low activity of high-purity methane hydroxylase are discussed.

  16. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu; Berman, Judit; Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity.

  17. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L. Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    Full Text Available The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73 and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1 gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity.

  18. Tyrosine hydroxylase positive nerves and mast cells in the porcine gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stefanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the localisation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH positive nerve fibres (THN and distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase positive mast cells (THMC in the wall of porcine gallbladder. THN were observed as single fibres, nerve fibres forming perivascular plexuses and nerve fibres grouped within the nerve fascicles. In the gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck, the TH+ fibres formed mucosal, muscular and serosal nonganglionated nerve plexuses. Toluidine blue (TB staining was used to confirm that the TH positive cells were mast cells. The number of THMC in the propria of gallbladder`s fundus, body and neck was significantly higher than in the muscular and serosal layers in both genders. The number of mast cells in the musculature was higher than in the serosa. The density and location of the THMC were similar to the TB positive (with gamma meta-chromasia mast cells in both males and females, and statistically significant difference was not established. In conclusion, original data concerning the existence and localisation of catecholaminergic nerves and THMC distribution in the porcine gallbladder’s wall are presented. The results could con-tribute to the body of knowledge of functional communication between autonomic nerves and mast cells in the gallbladder.

  19. Constitutive and inducible hydroxylase activities involved in the degradation of naphthalene by Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, B W; Schonewille, A B; van Gorcom, R F; Duine, J A

    2001-05-01

    The non-ligninolytic fungus Cunninghamella elegans was investigated for its ability to produce naphthalene hydroxylase (NAH) and naphthol hydroxylase (NOH) activities under various conditions. When the organism was cultivated on a rich growth medium, the mycelia exhibited significant constitutive NAH activity in the late exponential growth phase, but not in the early-exponential-growth-phase. On incubating the early-exponential-growth-phase mycelia with naphthalene, NAH activity was increased five-fold; however, this increase did not occur in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Since incubation of the late-phase mycelia with naphthalene did not lead to a higher degradation rate of naphthalene, mycelia in this physiological state have apparently lost the ability to induce synthesis of the enzyme exhibiting NAH activity. This is not due to an overall inability to perform de novo protein synthesis, since NOH activity, non-constitutive at all growth phases, could be induced by incubating late-phase mycelia with naphthalene. Whether inducible and constitutive NAH activity originate from one and the same enzyme remains to be elucidated. It is suggested that naphthalene oxidizing enzyme(s) may also oxidize pyrene, but not anthracene or benzo[a]pyrene, although the latter are degradable by C. elegans.

  20. The effects of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract on aniline 4-hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Tevfik; Korkmaz, Halil

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol-20% water) extract of Urtica dioica L. on microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H) were investigated in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8- 10-weeks-old) treated with two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 14 days ). The activities of A4H showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract treatment. The hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica induced the activities of A4H that had been increased by treatment of metal ions (Mg2+ and Ca2+) and the mixture of cofactors (NADH and NADPH). At saturated concentration of cofactor, microsomal A4H exhibited significantly even higher activities in the presence of the mixture of cofactors than NADPH and NADH. Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions acted as stimulants in vitro. The present results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica may have modalatory effect on aniline hydroxylase at least in part and enhance the activity of A4H adding metals ions and cofactors.

  1. Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yanmin; Wang, Yingdian; Capell, Teresa; Shi, Lianxuan; Ni, Xiuzhen; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2015-01-01

    The assignment of functions to genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway is necessary to understand how the pathway is regulated and to obtain the basic information required for metabolic engineering. Few carotenoid ε-hydroxylases have been functionally characterized in plants although this would provide insight into the hydroxylation steps in the pathway. We therefore isolated mRNA from the endosperm of maize (Zea mays L., inbred line B73) and cloned a full-length cDNA encoding CYP97C19, a putative heme-containing carotenoid ε hydroxylase and member of the cytochrome P450 family. The corresponding CYP97C19 genomic locus on chromosome 1 was found to comprise a single-copy gene with nine introns. We expressed CYP97C19 cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut1 knockout mutant, which lacks a functional CYP97C1 (LUT1) gene. The analysis of carotenoid levels and composition showed that lutein accumulated to high levels in the rosette leaves of the transgenic lines but not in the untransformed lut1 mutants. These results allowed the unambiguous functional annotation of maize CYP97C19 as an enzyme with strong zeinoxanthin ε-ring hydroxylation activity. PMID:26030746

  2. Cloning and characterization of the rat HIF-1 alpha prolyl-4-hydroxylase-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ronald R; McClary, John; Manzana, Warren; Finster, Silke; Larsen, Brent; Blasko, Eric; Pearson, Jennifer; Biancalana, Sara; Kauser, Katalin; Bringmann, Peter; Light, David R; Schirm, Sabine

    2005-08-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) mediate the oxygen-dependent regulation of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Under normoxic conditions, one of the subunits of HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, is hydroxylated on specific proline residues to target HIF-1alpha for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation by the PHDs is attenuated by lack of the oxygen substrate, allowing HIF-1 to accumulate, translocate to the nucleus, and mediate HIF-mediated gene transcription. In several mammalian species including humans, three PHDs have been identified. We report here the cloning of a full-length rat cDNA that is highly homologous to the human and murine PHD-1 enzymes and encodes a protein that is 416 amino acids long. Both cDNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and cell types. We demonstrate that purified and crude baculovirus-expressed rat PHD-1 exhibits HIF-1alpha specific prolyl hydroxylase activity with similar substrate affinities and is comparable to human PHD-1 protein.

  3. Allele-specific marker development and selection efficiencies for both flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes in soybean subgenus soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Color is one of the phenotypic markers mostly used to study soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genetic, molecular and biochemical processes. Two P450-dependent mono-oxygenases, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H; EC1.14.3.21) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H, EC1.14.13.88), both catalyzing the hydroxylation of the B-ring in flavonoids, play an important role in coloration. Previous studies showed that the T locus was a gene encoding F3'H and the W1 locus co-segregated with a gene encoding F3'5'H in soybean. These two genetic loci have identified to control seed coat, flower and pubescence colors. However, the allelic distributions of both F3'H and F3'5'H genes in soybean were unknown. In this study, three novel alleles were identified (two of four alleles for GmF3'H and one of three alleles for GmF3'5'H). A set of gene-tagged markers was developed and verified based on the sequence diversity of all seven alleles. Furthermore, the markers were used to analyze soybean accessions including 170 cultivated soybeans (G. max) from a mini core collection and 102 wild soybeans (G. soja). For both F3'H and F3'5'H, the marker selection efficiencies for pubescence color and flower color were determined. The results showed that one GmF3'H allele explained 92.2 % of the variation in tawny and two gmf3'h alleles explained 63.8 % of the variation in gray pubescence colors. In addition, two GmF3'5'H alleles and one gmF3'5'h allele explained 94.0 % of the variation in purple and 75.3 % in white flowers, respectively. By the combination of the two loci, seed coat color was determined. In total, 90.9 % of accessions possessing both the gmf3'h-b and gmf3'5'h alleles had yellow seed coats. Therefore, seed coat colors are controlled by more than two loci.

  4. Obesity among children and adolescents with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkl, Thomas M K; Simm, Diemud; Beier, Christoph; Dörr, Helmuth G

    2006-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of adrenal steroid biosynthesis. Patients with the classic form of CAH show androgen excess, with or without salt wasting. There are few studies reporting on higher rates of overweight and obesity among children with CAH. In addition to its role in the regulation of energy balance, leptin is involved in various endocrine and metabolic pathways. In this context, elevated serum leptin levels were reported recently for patients with CAH and were thought to be involved in the development of obesity among these patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze BMI values, compared with population-based references, for children and adolescents with CAH. Possible contributing factors, such as glucocorticoid therapy, skeletal maturation, birth weight and length, and parental BMI, were correlated with current BMI SD scores (SDS). In addition, the implications of serum leptin levels, corrected for BMI, gender, and Tanner stage, were investigated. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective study of 89 children and adolescents with cah (48 female and 41 male subjects; age: 0.2-17.9 years) who presented in our outpatient department during 1 year. All individuals had classic cah, confirmed with molecular genetic analyses, and received substitution therapy (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, if necessary). The quality of therapy was monitored in follow-up visits every 3 to 6 months, on the basis of clinical presentation and laboratory measurement findings according to current guidelines. We grouped the patients into salt wasting and simple virilizing groups, as well as according to current metabolic control. Leptin levels were measured with a commercial radioimmunoassay and calculated as sds. For statistical analyses, standard parametric and nonparametric methods were used. The chronologic ages of the children with CAH were between 0.20 and 17.9 years (mean

  5. Biosynthesis of caffeic acid in Escherichia coli using its endogenous hydroxylase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid is a natural phenolic compound derived from the plant phenylpropanoid pathway. Caffeic acid and its phenethyl ester (CAPE have attracted increasing attention for their various pharmaceutical properties and health-promoting effects. Nowadays, large-scale production of drugs or drug precursors via microbial approaches provides a promising alternative to chemical synthesis and extraction from plant sources. Results We first identified that an Escherichia coli native hydroxylase complex previously characterized as the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (4HPA3H was able to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid efficiently. This critical enzymatic step catalyzed in plants by a membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzyme, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H, is difficult to be functionally expressed in prokaryotic systems. Moreover, the performances of two tyrosine ammonia lyases (TALs from Rhodobacter species were compared after overexpression in E. coli. The results indicated that the TAL from R. capsulatus (Rc possesses higher activity towards both tyrosine and L-dopa. Based on these findings, we further designed a dual pathway leading from tyrosine to caffeic acid consisting of the enzymes 4HPA3H and RcTAL. This heterologous pathway extended E. coli native tyrosine biosynthesis machinery and was able to produce caffeic acid (12.1 mg/L in minimal salt medium. Further improvement in production was accomplished by boosting tyrosine biosynthesis in E. coli, which involved the alleviation of tyrosine-induced feedback inhibition and carbon flux redirection. Finally, the titer of caffeic acid reached 50.2 mg/L in shake flasks after 48-hour cultivation. Conclusion We have successfully established a novel pathway and constructed an E. coli strain for the production of caffeic acid. This work forms a basis for further improvement in production, as well as opens the possibility of microbial synthesis

  6. Biochemical properties of ectoine hydroxylases from extremophiles and their wider taxonomic distribution among microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Widderich

    Full Text Available Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are well-recognized members of the compatible solutes and are widely employed by microorganisms as osmostress protectants. The EctABC enzymes catalyze the synthesis of ectoine from the precursor L-aspartate-β-semialdehyde. A subgroup of the ectoine producers can convert ectoine into 5-hydroxyectoine through a region-selective and stereospecific hydroxylation reaction. This compatible solute possesses stress-protective and function-preserving properties different from those of ectoine. Hydroxylation of ectoine is carried out by the EctD protein, a member of the non-heme-containing iron (II and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. We used the signature enzymes for ectoine (EctC and hydroxyectoine (EctD synthesis in database searches to assess the taxonomic distribution of potential ectoine and hydroxyectoine producers. Among 6428 microbial genomes inspected, 440 species are predicted to produce ectoine and of these, 272 are predicted to synthesize hydroxyectoine as well. Ectoine and hydroxyectoine genes are found almost exclusively in Bacteria. The genome context of the ect genes was explored to identify proteins that are functionally associated with the synthesis of ectoines; the specialized aspartokinase Ask_Ect and the regulatory protein EctR. This comprehensive in silico analysis was coupled with the biochemical characterization of ectoine hydroxylases from microorganisms that can colonize habitats with extremes in salinity (Halomonas elongata, pH (Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, Acidiphilium cryptum, or temperature (Sphingopyxis alaskensis, Paenibacillus lautus or that produce hydroxyectoine very efficiently over ectoine (Pseudomonas stutzeri. These six ectoine hydroxylases all possess similar kinetic parameters for their substrates but exhibit different temperature stabilities and differ in their tolerance to salts. We also report the crystal structure of the Virgibacillus salexigens EctD protein in its

  7. Improvement of semen quality in an infertile man with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, suppressed serum gonadotropins and testicular adrenal rest tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report improvement of semen quality in a 30-year-old man with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) because of 21-hydroxylase deficiency, bilateral testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) and a 1.5-year infertility history. His adrenal substitution therapy was changed from hydrocortisone 10...

  8. Untreated Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with 17-α Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency Presenting as Massive Adrenocortical Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Song, Je Eun; Hwang, Sena; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Hye-Sun; Han, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is usually characterized by hypertension and primary amenorrhea, sexual infantilism in women, and pseudohermaphroditism in men. hypertension, and sexual infantilism in women and pseudohermaphroditism in men. In rare cases, a huge adrenal gland tumor can present as a clinical manifestation in untreated CAH. Adrenal cortical adenoma is an even more rare phenotype in CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. A 36-year-old female presented with hypertension and abdominal pain caused by a huge adrenal mass. Due to mass size and symptoms, left adrenalectomy was performed. After adrenalectomy, blood pressure remained high. Based on hormonal and genetic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The possibility of a tumorous change in the adrenal gland due to untreated CAH should be considered. It is important that untreated CAH not be misdiagnosed as primary adrenal tumor as these conditions require different treatments. Adequate suppression of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in CAH is also important to treat and to prevent the tumorous changes in the adrenal gland. Herein, we report a case of untreated CAH with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency presenting with large adrenal cortical adenoma and discuss the progression of adrenal gland hyperplasia due to inappropriate suppression of ACTH secretion. PMID:26248854

  9. The aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes AAH1 and AAH2 in Toxoplasma gondii contribute to transmission in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxoplasma gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes, AAH1 and AAH2, which encode proteins that produce L-DOPA, which can serve as a precursor of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that this pathway elevates host dopamine levels thus making infected rod...

  10. Phenol hydroxylase from Bacillus thermoglucosidasius A7: a two-protein component monooxygenase with a dual role for FAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, U.; Muller, R.; Westphal, A.H.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    A novel phenol hydroxylase (PheA) that catalyzes the first step in the degradation of phenol in Bacillus thermoglucosidasius A7 is described. The two-protein system, encoded by the pheA1 and pheA2 genes, consists of an oxygenase (PheA1) and a flavin reductase (PheA2) and is optimally active at 55

  11. 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase enzymes : Rieske non-heme monooxygenases essential for bacterial steroid degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusma, Mirjan; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    Various micro-organisms are able to use sterols/steroids as carbon- and energy sources for growth. 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH), a two component Rieske non-heme monooxygenase comprised of the oxygenase KshA and the reductase KshB, is a key-enzyme in bacterial steroid degradation. It

  12. Structure-Guided Reprogramming of a Hydroxylase To Halogenate Its Small Molecule Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Bergman, Jonathan A; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Qin; Chang, Wei-Chen; Liu, Xinyu; Boal, Amie K

    2017-01-24

    Enzymatic installation of chlorine/bromine into unactivated carbon centers provides a versatile, selective, and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical halogenation. Iron(II) and 2-(oxo)-glutarate (Fe(II)/2OG)-dependent halogenases are powerful biocatalysts that are capable of cleaving aliphatic C-H bonds to introduce useful functional groups, including halogens. Using the structure of the Fe/2OG halogenase, WelO5, in complex with its small molecule substrate, we identified a similar N-acyl amino acid hydroxylase, SadA, and reprogrammed it to halogenate its substrate, thereby generating a new chiral haloalkyl center. The work highlights the potential of Fe(II)/2OG enzymes as platforms for development of novel stereospecific catalysts for late-stage C-H functionalization.

  13. Chronic stress effects on working memory: association with prefrontal cortical tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic stress causes deficits in cognitive function including working memory, for which transmission of such catecholamines as dopamine and noradrenaline transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are crucial. Since catecholamine synthesis depends on the rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), TH is thought to play an important role in PFC function. In this study, we found that two distinct population existed in Sprague-Dawley rats in terms of working memory capacity, one with higher working memory capacity, and the other with low capacity. This distinction of working memory capacity became apparent after rats were exposed to chronic stress. In addition, such working memory capacity and alterations of working memory function by chronic stress were associated with TH expression in the PFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of dopamine synthesis on methamphetamine-induced changes in striatal and adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, J W; Kogan, F J

    1979-12-01

    Methamphetamine in large doses decreases striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity. This effect is prevented by neuroleptic agents such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol which would suggest that released dopamine may be involved in the response. To test this hypothesis, we have altered dopamine synthesis with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and L-Dopa and found that dopamine synthesis is necessary for the observed depression of striatal TH activity by methamphetamine. In the adrenal gland, however, the increase in TH activity by methamphetamine is not prevented by inhibition of catecholamine synthesis. It is possible that released dopamine may be inhibiting TH activity by activation of pre- or postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the neostriatum resulting in activation of the neuronal feedback pathway or released dopamine may act on dendrodendritic autoreceptors in the substantia nigra.

  15. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Reproductive outcomes of female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase defi ciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Feki Mnif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD appears to be reduced, especially in women with the classic salt-wasting type. Several factors have been suggested to contribute to this subfertility such as androgen excess, adrenal progesterone hypersecretion, consequences of genital reconstructive surgery, secondary polycystic ovaries syndrome, and psychosexual factors. In contrast to this subfertility, pregnancies are commonly normal and uneventful. Adequate glucocorticoid therapy and improvement of surgical and psychological management could contribute to optimize fertility in CAH female patients, even among women with the classic variant. This review provides current information regarding the reproductive outcomes of women with CAH due to 21-OHD and the fertility and pregnancy issues in this population.

  17. Targeting carnitine biosynthesis: discovery of new inhibitors against γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tars, Kaspars; Leitans, Janis; Kazaks, Andris; Zelencova, Diana; Liepinsh, Edgars; Kuka, Janis; Makrecka, Marina; Lola, Daina; Andrianovs, Viktors; Gustina, Daina; Grinberga, Solveiga; Liepinsh, Edvards; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija; Loza, Einars; Pugovics, Osvalds

    2014-03-27

    γ-Butyrobetaine hydroxylase (BBOX) catalyzes the conversion of gamma butyrobetaine (GBB) to l-carnitine, which is involved in the generation of metabolic energy from long-chain fatty acids. BBOX inhibitor 3-(1,1,1-trimethylhydrazin-1-ium-2-yl)propanoate (mildronate), which is an approved, clinically used cardioprotective drug, is a relatively poor BBOX inhibitor and requires high daily doses. In this paper we describe the design, synthesis, and properties of 51 compounds, which include both GBB and mildronate analogues. We have discovered novel BBOX inhibitors with improved IC50 values; the best examples are in the nanomolar range and about 2 orders of magnitude better when compared to mildronate. For six inhibitors, crystal structures in complex with BBOX have been solved to explain their activities and pave the way for further inhibitor design.

  18. To cheat or not to cheat: Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 SNP variants contribute to dishonest behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang eShen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although lying (bear false witness is explicitly prohibited in the Decalogue and a focus of interest in philosophy and theology, more recently the behavioral and neural mechanisms of deception are gaining increasing attention from diverse fields especially economics, psychology and neuroscience. Despite the considerable role of heredity in explaining individual differences in deceptive behavior, few studies have investigated which specific genes contribute to the heterogeneity of lying behavior across individuals. Also, little is known concerning which specific neurotransmitter pathways underlie deception. Towards addressing these two key questions, we implemented a neurogenetic strategy and modeled deception by an incentivized die-under-cup task in a laboratory setting. The results of this exploratory study provide provisional evidence that SNP variants across the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 gene, that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of brain serotonin, contribute to individual differences in deceptive behavior.

  19.   A rationally designed tyrosine hydroxylase DNA vaccine induces specific antineuroblastoma immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebener, Nicole; Fest, Stefan; Strandsby, Anne Bystrup

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against tumor antigens without induction of autoimmunity remains a major challenge in cancer immunotherapy. Here, we show for the first time effective therapeutic vaccination followed by suppression of established spontaneous neuroblastoma metastases using a tyrosine...... hydroxylase (TH) DNA minigene vaccine. We identified three novel mouse TH (mTH3) derived peptides with high predicted binding affinity to MHC class I antigen H2-K(k) according to the prediction program SYFPEITHI and computer modeling of epitopes into the MHC class I antigen binding groove. Subsequently, a DNA...... minigene vaccine was generated based on the expression vector pCMV-F3Ub encoding mutated ubiquitin (Gly(76) to Ala(76)) and mTH3. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of this vaccine were established following oral delivery with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207. Only mice immunized with mTH3...

  20. 2 Novel deletions of the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene in a Chinese Family with Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Di

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. We investigated the clinic manifestation, histopathology and sterol 27-hydroxylase gene (CYP27A1 in a Chinese family with Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX. Case Presentation A 36-year-old female with typical CTX clinical manifestation had Spindle-shaped lipid crystal clefts in xanthomas and "onion-like demyelination" in sural nerve. The patient was compound heterozygote carrying two deletions in exon 1 (c.73delG and exon 2 (c.369_375delGTACCCA. The family memebers were carriers. Conclusions A Chinese family with Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis had typical clinical manifestation. CYP27A1 mutations were found in the proband and all other family members.

  1. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in newly differentiated neurons from a human cell line (hNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Stull, N D

    1997-04-14

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a number of co-activator molecules (dopamine, TPA, IBMX/forskolin) can induce the novel expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in non-TH-expressing neurons. To date, TH gene induction has been achieved only in cultures of primary brain neurons. In the present study, we investigated whether TH expression could similarly be induced in a cell line derived from human teratocarcinoma cells. Treatment with aFGF and its co-activators resulted in the prolonged expression of TH in newly differentiating human neurons (hNT) but not in their undifferentiated precursors (NT2). These findings suggest that hNTs may serve as a continual source of TH-expressing neurons for cell transplantation and developmental studies.

  2. Oligodeoxynucleotide decoy therapy blocks type 1 procollagen transcription and the prolyl hydroxylase beta subunit translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Chun-Nam; Ehrlich, H Paul; White, Sheryl L; Buttolph, Thomas R; Cutroneo, Kenneth R; Chiu, Jen-Fu

    2008-03-01

    Persistent transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) exposure to lungs increases type 1 collagen synthesis and deposition resulting in excess fibrosis which leads to morbidity and possibly death. We now report using human embryonic lung fibroblasts in the presence of TGF-beta1, a novel double-stranded (ds) DNA decoy with phosphorothioate (PT) linkages, containing the TGF-beta cis-element found in the distal promoter region of the COL1A1 gene which silences COL1A1 gene expression. In a cell-free protein translation system, we have previously reported that collagen synthesis was inhibited by disulfide isomerase, the prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P-4-H) beta subunit. By comparative proteomics dsdecoy therapy increased the levels of disulfide isomerase, the P-4-H beta subunit. These findings taken together support the notion that the dsdecoy inhibits type 1 collagen synthesis at both the transcriptional and translational levels.

  3. Alkane Hydroxylase Gene (alkB Phylotype Composition and Diversity in Northern Gulf of Mexico Bacterioplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Blake Smith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic activities introduce alkanes into marine systems where they are degraded by alkane hydroxylases expressed by phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Partial sequences for alkB, one of the structural genes of alkane hydroxylase, have been used to assess the composition of alkane-degrading communities, and to determine their responses to hydrocarbon inputs. We present here the first spatially extensive analysis of alkB in bacterioplankton of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM, a region that experiences numerous hydrocarbon inputs. We have analyzed 401 partial alkB gene sequences amplified from genomic extracts collected during March 2010 from 17 water column samples that included surface waters and bathypelagic depths. Previous analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences for these and related samples have shown that nGoM bacterial community composition and structure stratify strongly with depth, with distinctly different communities above and below 100 m. Although we hypothesized that alkB gene sequences would exhibit a similar pattern, PCA analyses of operational protein units (OPU indicated that community composition did not vary consistently with depth or other major physical-chemical variables. We observed 22 distinct OPUs, one of which was ubiquitous and accounted for 57% of all sequences. This OPU clustered with alkB sequences from known hydrocarbon oxidizers (e.g., Alcanivorax and Marinobacter. Some OPUs could not be associated with known alkane degraders, however, and perhaps represent novel hydrocarbon-oxidizing populations or genes. These results indicate that the capacity for alkane hydrolysis occurs widely in the nGoM, but that alkane degrader diversity varies substantially among sites and responds differently than bulk communities to physical-chemical variables.

  4. Impact of total cumulative glucocorticoid dose on bone mineral density in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhtoura, Zeina; Bachelot, Anne; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Ruiz, Jean-Charles; Donadille, Bruno; Dulon, Jérôme; Christin-Maître, Sophie; Bouvattier, Claire; Raux-Demay, Marie-Charles; Bouchard, Philippe; Carel, Jean-Claude; Leger, Juliane; Kuttenn, Frédérique; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    It remains controversial whether long-term glucocorticoids are charged of bone demineralization in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The aim of this study was to know whether cumulative glucocorticoid dose from the diagnosis in childhood to adulthood in patients with CAH had a negative impact on bone mineral density (BMD). This was a retrospective study. Thirty-eight adult patients with classical and non-classical CAH were included. BMD was measured in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Total cumulative glucocorticoid (TCG) and total average glucocorticoid (TAG) doses were calculated from pediatric and adult files. We showed a difference between final and target heights (-0.82+/-0.92 s.d. for women and -1.31+/-0.84 s.d. for men; P<0.001). Seventeen patients (44.7%) had bone demineralization (35.7% of women and 70% of men). The 28 women had higher BMD than the 10 men for lumbar (-0.26+/-1.20 vs -1.25+/-1.33 s.d.; P=0.02) and femoral T-scores (0.21+/-1.30 s.d. versus -1.08+/-1.10 s.d.; P=0.007). In the salt-wasting group, women were almost significantly endowed with a better BMD than men (P=0.053). We found negative effects of TCG, TAG on lumbar (P<0.001, P=0.002) and femoral T-scores (P=0.006, P<0.001), predominantly during puberty. BMI was protective on BMD (P=0.006). The TCG is an important factor especially during puberty for a bone demineralization in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The glucocorticoid treatment should be adapted particularly at this life period and preventive measures should be discussed in order to limit this effect.

  5. Seed dormancy and ABA metabolism in Arabidopsis and barley: the role of ABA 8'-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Anthony A; Jacobsen, John V; Ross, John J; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Scofield, Graham; Reid, James B; Gubler, Frank

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated the relationship between seed dormancy and abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism in the monocot barley and the dicot Arabidopsis. Whether dormant (D) or non-dormant (ND), dry seed of Arabidopsis and embryos of dry barley grains all had similarly high levels of ABA. ABA levels decreased rapidly upon imbibition, although they fell further in ND than in D. Gene expression profiles were determined in Arabidopsis for key ABA biosynthetic [the 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenasegene family] and ABA catabolic [the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene family (CYP707A)] genes. Of these, only the AtCYP707A2 gene was differentially expressed between D and ND seeds, being expressed to a much higher level in ND seeds. Similarly, a barley CYP707 homologue, (HvABA8'OH-1) was expressed to a much higher level in embryos from ND grains than from D grains. Consistent with this, in situ hybridization studies showed HvABA8'OH-1 mRNA expression was stronger in embryos from ND grains. Surprisingly, the signal was confined in the coleorhiza, suggesting that this tissue plays a key role in dormancy release. Constitutive expression of a CYP707A gene in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in decreased ABA content in mature dry seeds and a much shorter after-ripening period to overcome dormancy. Conversely, mutating the CYP707A2 gene resulted in seeds that required longer after-ripening to break dormancy. Our results point to a pivotal role for the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene in controlling dormancy and that the action of this enzyme may be confined to a particular organ as in the coleorhiza of cereals.

  6. Deregulation of the lysyl hydroxylase matrix cross-linking system in experimental and clinical bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsch, Thilo J; Turowski, Pawel; Sakkas, Elpidoforos; Niess, Gero; Becker, Simone; Herold, Susanne; Mayer, Konstantin; Vadász, István; Roberts, Jesse D; Seeger, Werner; Morty, Rory E

    2014-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common and serious complication of premature birth, characterized by a pronounced arrest of alveolar development. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood although perturbations to the maturation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are emerging as candidate disease pathomechanisms. In this study, the expression and regulation of three members of the lysyl hydroxylase family of ECM remodeling enzymes (Plod1, Plod2, and Plod3) in clinical BPD, as well as in an experimental animal model of BPD, were addressed. All three enzymes were localized to the septal walls in developing mouse lungs, with Plod1 also expressed in the vessel walls of the developing lung and Plod3 expressed uniquely at the base of developing septa. The expression of plod1, plod2, and plod3 was upregulated in the lungs of mouse pups exposed to 85% O2, an experimental animal model of BPD. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased plod2 mRNA levels and activated the plod2 promoter in vitro in lung epithelial cells and in lung fibroblasts. Using in vivo neutralization of TGF-β signaling in the experimental animal model of BPD, TGF-β was identified as the regulator of aberrant plod2 expression. PLOD2 mRNA expression was also elevated in human neonates who died with BPD or at risk for BPD, compared with neonates matched for gestational age at birth or chronological age at death. These data point to potential roles for lysyl hydroxylases in normal lung development, as well as in perturbed late lung development associated with BPD.

  7. Hydroxylase inhibition regulates inflammation-induced intestinal fibrosis through the suppression of ERK-mediated TGF-β1 signaling. [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manresa, Mario C; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Radhakrishnan, Praveen; Harnoss, Jonathan M; Brown, Eric; Cavadas, Miguel A; Keogh, Ciara E; Cheong, Alex; Barrett, Kim E; Cummins, Eoin P; Schneider, Martin; Taylor, Cormac T

    2016-12-01

    Fibrosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, a condition which has limited therapeutic options and often requires surgical intervention. Pharmacologic inhibition of oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases, which confer oxygen sensitivity upon the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, has recently been shown to have therapeutic potential in colitis, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of hydroxylase inhibition on inflammation-driven fibrosis in a murine colitis model. Mice exposed to dextran sodium sulfate, followed by a period of recovery, developed intestinal fibrosis characterized by alterations in the pattern of collagen deposition and infiltration of activated fibroblasts. Treatment with the hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine ameliorated fibrosis. TGF-β1 is a key regulator of fibrosis that acts through the activation of fibroblasts. Hydroxylase inhibition reduced TGF-β1-induced expression of fibrotic markers in cultured fibroblasts, suggesting a direct role for hydroxylases in TGF-β1 signaling. This was at least in part due to inhibition of noncanonical activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. In summary, pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition ameliorates intestinal fibrosis through suppression of TGF-β1-dependent ERK activation in fibroblasts. We hypothesize that in addition to previously reported immunosupressive effects, hydroxylase inhibitors independently suppress profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Generation of Two Noradrenergic-Specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase-FLPo Knock-In Mice Using CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Targeting in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny J Sun

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 mediated DNA double strand cutting is emerging as a powerful approach to increase rates of homologous recombination of large targeting vectors, but the optimization of parameters, equipment and expertise required remain barriers to successful mouse generation by single-step zygote injection. Here, we sought to apply CRISPR/Cas9 methods to traditional embryonic stem (ES cell targeting followed by blastocyst injection to overcome the common issues of difficult vector construction and low targeting efficiency. To facilitate the study of noradrenergic function, which is implicated in myriad behavioral and physiological processes, we generated two different mouse lines that express FLPo recombinase under control of the noradrenergic-specific Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase (DBH gene. We found that by co-electroporating a circular vector expressing Cas9 and a locus-specific sgRNA, we could target FLPo to the DBH locus in ES cells with shortened 1 kb homology arms. Two different sites in the DBH gene were targeted; the translational start codon with 6-8% targeting efficiency, and the translational stop codon with 75% targeting efficiency. Using this approach, we established two mouse lines with DBH-specific expression of FLPo in brainstem catecholaminergic populations that are publically available on MMRRC (MMRRC_041575-UCD and MMRRC_041577-UCD. Altogether, this study supports simplified, high-efficiency Cas9/CRISPR-mediated targeting in embryonic stem cells for production of knock-in mouse lines in a wider variety of contexts than zygote injection alone.

  9. A common microdeletion affecting a hippocampus- and amygdala-specific isoform of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 is not associated with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Christian; Degenhardt, Franziska; Priebe, Lutz; Stütz, Adrian M; Heilmann, Stefanie; Waszak, Sebastian M; Schlattl, Andreas; Mangold, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Rappold, Gudrun; Korbel, Jan; Cichon, Sven; Niesler, Beate

    2014-11-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to affect susceptibility for neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, studies implicating the serotonergic system in complex conditions have just focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We therefore sought to identify novel common genetic copy number polymorphisms affecting genes of the serotonergic system, and to assess their putative role in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). A selection of 41 genes of the serotonergic system encoding receptors, the serotonin transporter, metabolic enzymes and chaperones were investigated using a paired-end mapping (PEM) approach on next-generation sequencing data from the pilot project of the 1000 Genomes Project. For association testing, 593 patients with MDD, 1,145 patients with BPAD, and 1,738 healthy controls were included in the study. PEM led to the identification of a microdeletion in the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), affecting an amygdala- and hippocampus-specific isoform. It was not associated with BPAD or MDD using a case-control association approach. We did not find evidence for a role of the TPH2 microdeletion in the pathoetiology of affective disorders. Further studies examining its putative role in behavioral traits regulated by the limbic system are warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. CYP94A1, a plant cytochrome P450-catalyzing fatty acid omega-hydroxylase, is selectively induced by chemical stress in Vicia sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Irène; Bronner, Roberte; Wang, Yong; Compagnon, Vincent; Michler, Pierre; Schreiber, Lukas; Salaün, Jean-Pierre; Durst, Francis; Pinot, Franck

    2005-08-01

    CYP94A1 is a cytochrome P450 (P450) catalyzing fatty acid (FA) omega-hydroxylation in Vicia sativa seedlings. To study the physiological role of this FA monooxygenase, we report here on its regulation at the transcriptional level (Northern blot). Transcripts of CYP94A1, as those of two other P450-dependent FA hydroxylases (CYP94A2 and CYP94A3) from V. sativa, are barely detectable during the early development of the seedlings. CYP94A1 transcripts, in contrast to those of the two other isoforms, are rapidly (less than 20 min) and strongly (more than 100 times) enhanced after treatment by clofibrate, an hypolipidemic drug in animals and an antiauxin (p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid) in plants, by auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid), by an inactive auxin analog (2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and also by salicylic acid. All these compounds activate CYP94A1 transcription only at high concentrations (50-500 microM range). In parallel, these high levels of clofibrate and auxins modify seedling growth and development. Therefore, the expression of CYP94A1 under these conditions and the concomitant morphological and cytological modifications would suggest the implication of this P450 in a process of plant defense against chemical injury.

  11. 2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are sensors of energy metabolism, oxygen availability, and iron homeostasis: potential role in the regulation of aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the members of an ancient family of nonheme Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDO) are involved in the functions associated with the aging process. 2-Oxoglutarate and O2 are the obligatory substrates and Fe(2+) a cofactor in the activation of 2-OGDO enzymes, which can induce the hydroxylation of distinct proteins and the demethylation of DNA and histones. For instance, ten-eleven translocation 1-3 (TET1-3) are the demethylases of DNA, whereas Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylases (KDM2-7) are the major epigenetic regulators of chromatin landscape, known to be altered with aging. The functions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) as well as those of collagen hydroxylases are associated with age-related degeneration. Moreover, the ribosomal hydroxylase OGFOD1 controls mRNA translation, which is known to decline with aging. 2-OGDO enzymes are the sensors of energy metabolism, since the Krebs cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate is an activator whereas succinate and fumarate are the potent inhibitors of 2-OGDO enzymes. In addition, O2 availability and iron redox homeostasis control the activities of 2-OGDO enzymes in tissues. We will briefly elucidate the catalytic mechanisms of 2-OGDO enzymes and then review the potential functions of the above-mentioned 2-OGDO enzymes in the control of the aging process.

  12. Crystal structures of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) demonstrating geometrical variability at the dinuclear iron active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, D A; Lippard, S J

    2001-02-07

    The oxidation of methane to methanol is performed at carboxylate-bridged dinuclear iron centers in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). Previous structural studies of MMOH, and the related R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, have demonstrated the occurrence of carboxylate shifts involving glutamate residues that ligate the catalytic iron atoms. These shifts are thought to have important mechanistic implications. Recent kinetic and theoretical studies have also emphasized the importance of hydrogen bonding and pH effects at the active site. We report here crystal structures of MMOH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) in the diiron(II), diiron(III), and mixed-valent Fe(II)Fe(III) oxidation states, and at pH values of 6.2, 7.0, and 8.5. These structures were investigated in an effort to delineate the range of possible motions at the MMOH active site and to identify hydrogen-bonding interactions that may be important in understanding catalysis by the enzyme. Our results present the first view of the diiron center in the mixed-valent state, and they indicate an increased lability for ferrous ions in the enzyme. Alternate conformations of Asn214 near the active site according to redox state and a distortion in one of the alpha-helices adjacent to the metal center in the diiron(II) state have also been identified. These changes alter the surface of the protein in the vicinity of the catalytic core and may have implications for small-molecule accessibility to the active site and for protein component interactions in the methane monooxygenase system. Collectively, these results help to explain previous spectroscopic observations and provide new insight into catalysis by the enzyme.

  13. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine...

  14. Structural and Kinetic Studies of Novel Cytochrome P450 Small-Alkane Hydroxylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-02-27

    The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these engineered P450s, and (3) the changes in redox control resulting from protein engineering. To reach these goals, we have established new methods for determining the kinetics and stabilities of multicomponent P450s such as CYP153A6. Using these, we were able to determine that CYP153A6 is proficient for hydroxylation of alkanes as small as ethane, an activity that has never been observed previously in any natural P450. To elucidate the structures of the engineered P450s, we obtained x-ray diffraction data for two variants in the P450PMO (propane monooxygenase) lineage and a preliminary structure for the most evolved variant. This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. We also constructed semi-rational designed libraries mutating only residues in the enzyme active site that in one round of mutagenesis and screening produced variants that achieved nearly half of the activity of the most evolved enzymes of the P450PMO lineage. Finally, we found that changes in redox properties of the laboratory-evolved P450 alkane hydroxylases did not reflect the improvement in their electron transfer efficiency. The heme redox potential remained constant throughout evolution, while activity increased and coupling efficiency improved from 10% to 90%. The lack of correlation between heme redox potential and enzyme activity and coupling efficiency led us to search for other enzyme properties that could be better predictors for activity towards small alkanes, specifically methane. We investigated the oxidation potential of the radical

  15. Rare and severe complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency who presented with unusual anatomical and biochemical features, namely massively enlarged adrenal glands, adrenogenital rest tissue and an unexpected endocrine profile. The contribution of the adrenocortical cells in the adrenals and testicles was determined by a cosyntropin stimulation test before and after adrenalectomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of such a case in the literature. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the emergency room with an Addisonian crisis. He had been diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the neonatal period. He acknowledged poor adherence to treatment and irregular medical assistance. Physical examination revealed marked cutaneous and gingival hyperpigmentation, hypotension, and hard nodules in the upper pole of both testicles. Blood analysis showed mild anemia and hyponatremia and no evidence of acute infection. Endocrine evaluation showed very low cortisol levels, low dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and elevated corticotropin, 11-deoxycortisol and delta-4-androstenedione. The concentration of 17-hydroxyprogesterone was 20,400ng/dL. After the cosyntropin stimulation test the pattern was similar and there was no significant increase in cortisol or 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The abdominal computed tomography scan revealed grossly enlarged and heterogeneous adrenal glands (left, 12cm; and right, six cm). A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed and pathologic examination revealed adrenal myelolipomas with nodular cortical hyperplasia. The sonogram showed bilateral heterogeneous masses on the upper pole of both testes which corresponded to the nodular hyperplasia of adrenal rest tissues. The genetic study revealed compound heterozigoty (mutations R124H and R356W), suggestive of a phenotypically moderate disease. We performed a cosyntropin stimulation test after

  16. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase-Dependent Stimulation of Renal Klotho Expression by Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klotho, a transmembrane protein, protease and hormone mainly expressed in kidney, is required for the suppression of 1,25(OH2D3-generating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1 by FGF23. Conversely, 1,25(OH2D3 stimulates, by activating the vitamin D3 receptor (Vdr, the expression of klotho, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. Klotho protects against renal and vascular injury. Klotho deficiency accelerates aging and early death, effects at least partially due to excessive formation of 1,25(OH2D3 and subsequent hyperphosphatemia. Klotho expression is inhibited by aldosterone. The present study explored the interaction of aldosterone and DOCA as well as the moderately selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on klotho expression. Methods: mRNA levels were determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 or in renal tissues from mice without or with prior mineralocorticoid (aldosterone or DOCA and/or spironolactone treatment. In HEK293 cells, protein levels were determined by western blotting. The experiments in HEK293 cells were performed without or with silencing of CYP27B1, of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR or of mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2. Results: In HEK293 cells aldosterone and in mice DOCA significantly decreased KLOTHO gene expression, effects opposed by spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone treatment alone significantly increased KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in HEK293 cells (24 hours and mice (8 hours or 5 days. Moreover, spironolactone significantly increased klotho and CYP27B1 protein levels in HEK293 cells (48 hours. Reduced NR3C2 expression following silencing did not significantly affect KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in presence or absence of spironolactone. Silencing of CYP27B1 and VDR significantly blunted the stimulating effect of spironolactone on KLOTHO mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Besides blocking the effects of

  17. Lignification in transgenics deficient in 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)or the associated hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Ralph; Takuya Akiyama; Hoon Kim; Fachuang Lu; Sally A. Ralph; Clint Chapple; Ramesh B. Nair; Armin Wagner; Fang Chen; M.S. Srinivasa Reddy; Richard A Dixon; Heather D. Coleman; Shawn D. Mansfield

    2006-01-01

    Down-regulation of the gene encoding 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) in angiosperms massively but predictably increased the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl (P) units relative to the normally dominant syringyl (S) and guaiacyl (G) units. Alfalfa stem levels of up to ~65% P (from wild-type (WT) levels of ~1%) resulting from down-regulation of C3H were measured by...

  18. Pharmacogenetics of glucocorticoid replacement could optimize the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo P. P. Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes glucocorticoid deficiency and increased androgen production. Treatment is based on glucocorticoid replacement; however, interindividual variability in the glucocorticoid dose required to achieve adequate hormonal control has been observed. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between polymorphic variants involved inglucocorticoid action and/or metabolism and the mean daily glucocorticoid dose in 21-hydroxylase deficiency patients. METHODS: We evaluated 53 patients with classical forms of 21-hydroxylase deficiency who were receiving cortisone acetate. All patients were between four and six years of age and had normal androgen levels. RESULTS: The P450 oxidoreductase A503V, HSD11B1 rs12086634, and CYP3A7*1C variants were found in 19%, 11.3% and 3.8% of the patients, respectively. The mean ± SD glucocorticoid dose in patients with the CYP3A7*1C and wild-type alleles was 13.9 ± 0.8 and 19.5 ± 3.2 mg/m²/d, respectively. We did not identify an association between the P450 oxidoreductase or HSD11B1 allelic variants and the mean glucocorticoid dose. CONCLUSION: Patients carrying the CYP3A7*1C variant required a significantly lower mean glucocorticoid dose. Indeed, the CYP3A7*1C allele accounted for 20% of the variability in the cortisone acetate dose. The analysis of genes involved in glucocorticoid metabolism may be useful in the optimization of treatment of 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  19. 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine hydroxylase catalyzes a central step of nicotine degradation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Xie, Kebo; Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Shuning

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is a main alkaloid in tobacco and is also the primary toxic compound in tobacco wastes. It can be degraded by bacteria via either pyridine pathway or pyrrolidine pathway. Previously, a fused pathway of the pyridine pathway and the pyrrolidine pathway was proposed for nicotine degradation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33, in which 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) is a key intermediate connecting the two pathways. We report here the purification and properties of an NADH-dependent HSP hydroxylase from A. tumefaciens S33. The 90-kDa homodimeric flavoprotein catalyzed the oxidative decarboxylation of HSP to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine (2,5-DHP) in the presence of NADH and FAD at pH 8.0 at a specific rate of about 18.8 ± 1.85 µmol min-1 mg protein-1. Its gene was identified by searching the N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified protein against the genome draft of the bacterium. It encodes a protein composed of 391 amino acids with 62% identity to HSP hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida S16, which degrades nicotine via the pyrrolidine pathway. Considering the application potential of 2,5-DHP in agriculture and medicine, we developed a route to transform HSP into 2,5-DHP with recombinant HSP hydroxylase and an NADH-regenerating system (formate, NAD+ and formate dehydrogenase), via which around 0.53 ± 0.03 mM 2,5-DHP was produced from 0.76 ± 0.01 mM HSP with a molar conversion as 69.7%. This study presents the biochemical properties of the key enzyme HSP hydroxylase which is involved in the fused nicotine degradation pathway of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways and a new green route to biochemically synthesize functionalized 2,5-DHP.

  20. Resveratrol prevents akinesia and restores neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla Bagatini, Pamela; Xavier, Léder Leal; Neves, LauraTartari; Saur, Lisiani; Barbosa, Sílvia; Baptista, Pedro Porto Alegre; Augustin, Otávio Américo; Nunes de Senna, Priscylla; Mestriner, Régis Gemerasca; Souto, André Arigony; Achaval, Matilde

    2014-12-10

    This study evaluated the effects of resveratrol on locomotor behaviors, neuronal and glial densities, and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Animals were divided into four groups: non-diabetic rats treated with saline (SAL), non-diabetic rats treated with resveratrol (RSV), diabetic rats treated with saline (DM) and diabetic rats treated with resveratrol (DM+RSV). The animals received oral gavage with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) for 35 days. The open field test and the bar test were performed to evaluate bradykinesia and akinesia, respectively. The Nissl-stained neuronal and glial densities and the dopaminergic neuronal density were estimated using planar morphometry. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was evaluated using regional and cellular optical densitometry. In relation to the locomotor behaviors, it was observed that the DM group developed akinesia, which was attenuated by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group, while the DM and DM+RSV groups showed bradykinesia. Our main morpho-physiological results demonstrated: a decrease in the cellular tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the DM group, which was attenuated by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group; a higher neuronal density in the RSV group, when compared to the DM and DM+RSV groups; an increase in the glial density in the DM group, which was also reversed by resveratrol in the DM+RSV group. Resveratrol treatment prevents akinesia development and restores neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity and glial density in the substantia nigra pars compacta of diabetic rats, suggesting that this polyphenol could be a potential therapeutic option against diabetes-induced nigrostriatal dysfunctions.

  1. Restricted expression of Neuroglobin in the mouse retina and co-localization with Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundahl, C.A., E-mail: c.hundahl@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fahrenkrug, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luuk, H. [Centre of Excellence for Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physiology, University of Tartu, Tartu (Estonia); Hay-Schmidt, A. [Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hannibal, J. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restricted Neuroglobin expression in the mouse retina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody validation using Neuroglobin-null mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-expression of Neuroglobin with Melanopsin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No effect of Neuroglobin deficiency on neuronal survival. -- Abstract: Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuronal specific oxygen binding heme-globin, reported to be expressed at high levels in most layers of the murine retina. Ngb's function is presently unknown, but based on its high expression level and oxygen binding capabilities Ngb was proposed to function as an oxygen reservoir facilitating oxygen metabolism in highly active neurons or to function as a neuroprotectant. In the present study, we re-examined the expression pattern of Ngb in the retina using a highly validated antibody. Furthermore, intactness of retino-hypothalamic projections and the retinal expression level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase were investigated in Ngb-null mice. Ngb-immunoreactivity was found in a few neurons of the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers co-expressing Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase, respectively. Ngb deficiency neither affected the level of Melanopsin and Tyrosine Hydroxylase proteins nor the intactness of PACAP-positive retinohypothalamic projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Based on the present results, it seems unlikely that Ngb could have a major role in retinal oxygen homeostasis and neuronal survival under normal conditions. The present study suggests that a number of previously published reports have relied on antibodies with dubious specificity.

  2. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8?-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8?-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (?)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic ...

  3. Mutation R96W in cytochrome P450c17 gene causes combined 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17-20-lyase deficiency in two french canadian patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFlamme, N.; Leblanc, J.F.; Mailloux, J. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1996-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the most frequent cause of adrenal insufficiency and ambiguous genitalia in newborn children. In contrast to CAH caused by 21{alpha}-hydroxylase and 11{beta}-hydroxylase deficiencies, which impairs steroid formation in the adrenal exclusively, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency impairs steroid biosynthesis in the adrenals and gonads. The sequence of CYP17 gene was determined by direct sequencing of asymmetric PCR products in two French-Canadian 46,XY pseudohermaphrodite siblings suffering from combined 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. The two patients are homozygous for the novel missense mutation R96W caused by a C to T transition converting codon Arg{sup 96} (CGG) into a Trp (TGG) in exon 1. Both parents are heterozygous for this missense mutation. We assessed the effect of the R96W mutation on 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase activity by analysis of mutant enzyme, generated by site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in COS-1 cells. The presence of R96W substitution almost completely abolished the activity of the mutant protein. The present findings provide a molecular explanation for the signs and symptoms of combined 17 {alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency in these two patients and provide useful information on the structure-activity relationships of the P450c17 enzyme. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin: Two separate enzymes or a bifunctional hydroxylase-ketolase protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudiña Eduardo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll of great interest in animal nutrition and human health. The market prospect in the nutraceutics industries for this health-protective molecule is very promising. Astaxanthin is synthesized by several bacteria, algae and plants from β-carotene by the sequential action of two enzymes: a β-carotene, 3,3'-hydroxylase that introduces an hydroxyl group at the 3 (and 3' positions of each of the two β-ionone rings of β-carotene, and a β-carotene ketolase that introduces keto groups at carbons 4 and 4' of the β-ionone rings. Astaxanthin is also produced by the yeast-like basidiomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. A gene crtS involved in the conversion of β-carotene to astaxanthin has been cloned simultaneously by two research groups. Complementation studies of X. dendrorhous mutants and expression analysis in Mucor circinelloides reveals that the CrtS enzyme is a β-carotene hydroxylase of the P-450 monooxygenase family that converts β-carotene to the hydroxylated derivatives β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, but it does not form astaxanthin or the ketolated intermediates in this fungus. A bifunctional β-carotene hydroxylase-ketolase activity has been proposed for the CrtS protein. The evidence for and against this hypothesis is analyzed in detail in this review.

  5. Iron binding effects on the kinetic stability and unfolding energetics of a thermophilic phenylalanine hydroxylase from Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Angel Luis; Martinez, Aurora

    2009-05-01

    The effects of non-heme iron binding on the function, structure, and stability of a monomeric phenylalanine hydroxylase from the thermophile Chloroflexus aurantiacus (caPAH) were investigated. Comparative studies on holo (iron-bound) and apo (iron-depleted) caPAH indicated that iron(II) binding does not significantly affect the overall structure of the enzyme. Thermal denaturation studies performed using differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unfolding reaction was kinetically controlled and that holo-caPAH displayed a large increase in thermal stability (approximately 15 degrees C upshift in the T (m) value) compared with the apoenzyme. Analysis using a simple irreversible two-state model also showed a higher kinetic stability for holo-caPAH at optimal growth temperature (denaturing approximately 8 times more slowly than the apo form at 55 degrees C). Experiments performed in the presence of urea in combination with structure-energetics calculations suggest that iron binding reduces the change in accessible surface area exposed in the unfolding transition state (from approximately 36% to approximately 5% of the total change in accessible surface area) and also the surface involved in water-unsatisfied broken internal contacts (solvation barriers). Additional comparative analyses using phenylalanine hydroxylase from mesophilic and psychrophilic organisms suggest that, in addition to its catalytic role, the non-heme iron serves to enhance the kinetic stability of phenylalanine hydroxylase at the optimal growth temperature of the organism.

  6. Identification and Expression Analysis of Tryptophan Hydroxylase in the Brain and Ventral Nerve Cord of Ragworm Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Dong, Zhe; Li, Shen; Yin, Haotian; Zhao, Zhifu; Gao, Dongmei; Ren, Guimin; Bao, Xuexiang

    2017-02-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues. The co-localization of TPH and 5-HT indicated that the specific TPH was responsible for the central serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system of annelida, TPH and 5-HT not only could be as the novel mutual corroboration marker to detect serotonergic neurons, but also provides the evidences for the evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes. Anat Rec, 300:415-424, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Targeting Oxygen-Sensing Prolyl Hydroxylase for Metformin-Associated Lactic Acidosis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaizu-Toramaru, Tomoko; Suhara, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Noriyo; Nakamura, Takashi; Kubo, Akiko; Minamishima, Shizuka; Yamaguchi, Kyoji; Hishiki, Takako; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Minamishima, Yoji Andrew

    2017-08-15

    Metformin is one of the most widely used therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus and also has anticancer and antiaging properties. However, it is known to induce metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA), a severe medical condition with poor prognosis, especially in individuals with renal dysfunction. Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) is known to activate the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that increases lactate efflux as a result of enhanced glycolysis, but it also enhances gluconeogenesis from lactate in the liver that contributes to reducing circulating lactate levels. Here, we investigated the outcome of pharmaceutical inhibition of PHD in mice with MALA induced through the administration of metformin per os and an intraperitoneal injection of lactic acid. We found that the PHD inhibitors significantly increased the expression levels of genes involved in gluconeogenesis in the liver and the kidney and significantly improved the survival of mice with MALA. Furthermore, the PHD inhibitor also improved the rate of survival of MALA induced in mice with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, PHD represents a new therapeutic target for MALA, which is a critical complication of metformin therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in elongating internodes Zea mays (maize): The 3. beta. -hydroxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J. (Univ. of Bristol (England))

    1989-04-01

    The early-13-hydroxylation pathway for GA biosynthesis in maize leads to GA{sub 1}, the main GA responsible for shoot elongation. Growth response data, double-labeled feeding studies and endogenous GA levels suggest that the dwarf-1 mutant blocks the step GA{sub 20}to GA{sub 1}. We are screening for a system from maize from which we can purify the 3{beta}-hydroxylase and study its physical and biological properties. We find that diced internodal tissues will metabolize ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 20} to ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 1} and ({sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-GA{sub 29} with metabolism as high as 80%. A cell free system from this material will give 5% metabolism. In a typical experiment 1g of internodal tissue is frozen in liquid nitrogen and macerated in 0.1M Tris plus cofactors. The homogenate is centrifuged at 15000 x g for 30 min at 4{degrees}C and the supernatant used for metabolic studies.

  9. Visualizing the Reaction Cycle in an Iron(II)- and 2-(Oxo)-glutarate-Dependent Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew J; Dunham, Noah P; Martinie, Ryan J; Bergman, Jonathan A; Pollock, Christopher J; Hu, Kai; Allen, Benjamin D; Chang, Wei-Chen; Silakov, Alexey; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Boal, Amie K

    2017-10-04

    Iron(II)- and 2-(oxo)-glutarate-dependent oxygenases catalyze diverse oxidative transformations that are often initiated by abstraction of hydrogen from carbon by iron(IV)-oxo (ferryl) complexes. Control of the relative orientation of the substrate C-H and ferryl Fe-O bonds, primarily by direction of the oxo group into one of two cis-related coordination sites (termed inline and offline), may be generally important for control of the reaction outcome. Neither the ferryl complexes nor their fleeting precursors have been crystallographically characterized, hindering direct experimental validation of the offline hypothesis and elucidation of the means by which the protein might dictate an alternative oxo position. Comparison of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the substrate complex, an Fe(II)-peroxysuccinate ferryl precursor, and a vanadium(IV)-oxo mimic of the ferryl intermediate in the l-arginine 3-hydroxylase, VioC, reveals coordinated motions of active site residues that appear to control the intermediate geometries to determine reaction outcome.

  10. Compartment-specific tyrosine hydroxylase-positive innervation to AII amacrine cells in the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, B; Debertin, G; Balogh, M; Popovich, E; Kovács-Öller, T

    2014-06-13

    Tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) amacrine cells release dopamine in a paracrine manner and also form GABA-ergic contact sites with inner retinal neurons. The best known sites are formed by TH(+) fibrous rings and AII amacrine cell somata in stratum 1 of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). An AII amacrine cell is a highly compartmentalized neuron with relatively large soma, a stout dendritic stalk and two sets of processes, one showing lobular appearance and extending horizontally in stratum 1 and a second transversally elongated group of fibers in strata 4 and 5. Although, all of these compartments have been reported as tic sites, it is uncertain if TH(+) amacrine cell inputs are homogeneously distributed or they rather target specific AII cell compartments. In this study we investigated the TH(+)/AII cell system by immunohistochemistry to map the potential synaptic contacts in the rabbit retina. We found numerous intimate contacts between the two amacrine cell populations throughout the IPL. However, TH(+) fibers favored the soma/main stalk region of AII amacrine cells and only contacted lobular appendages and transversal processes sporadically. In addition to the well-studied contacts between AII cell somata and TH(+) rings in stratum 1 we found that the main stalk region in stratum 3 serves as a secondary major target for TH(+) axons. These data thus clearly show that TH(+) contacts to AII amacrine cells are highly compartment specific. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Normal levels of tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the dorsal raphe of depressed suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkale, Willy L; Murdock, Shayna; Janosky, Janine E; Austin, Mark C

    2004-02-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that serotonin neurotransmission is altered in the brain of suicide victims and depressed patients. While numerous post-mortem studies have investigated serotonin transporters and receptors, few studies have examined the biosynthetic integrity of the rate-limiting enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), in post-mortem specimens of depressed suicide subjects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the levels of TPH immunoreactivity (IR) are altered in specific subnuclei of the dorsal raphe (DR) in depressed suicide victims. Suicide victims with a confirmed diagnosis of major depression were matched with non-psychiatric controls based on age, gender and post-mortem interval. Frozen tissue sections containing the DR were selected from two anatomical levels and processed for TPH radioimmunocytochemistry. The optical density corresponding to the regional levels of TPH-IR was quantified in specific subnuclei of the DR from the film autoradiographic images. No significant differences in the levels of TPH-IR were found in any DR subnuclei between depressed suicide victims and control subjects. The lack of change in TPH-IR levels does not necessarily imply that serotonin synthesis or neurotransmission is not altered in the brain of depressed subjects. Many factors influence and regulate serotonin synthesis, and it is conceivable that alterations exist at other levels of regulation of serotonin biosynthesis in depression. Our findings indicate that TPH biosynthesis, at least at the protein level, is not significantly altered in the DR of depressed suicide victims.

  12. Gene conversion-like events cause steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F.; Kimura, A.; Iwanaga, T.; Shimozawa, K.; Yata, J.; Sasazuki,T.

    1987-11-01

    Genomic DNAs from twelve Japanese patients with steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization. A 3.7-kilobase (kb) Taq I and a 1.7-kb Pvu II restriction endonuclease fragment that correspond to a 21-OHase B gene were absent from the DNA of two unrelated patients with the salt-wasting form of the disease. However, a 10.5-kb Bgl II fragment corresponding to the region encompassing the 21-OHase B gene was still present in these two patients. The genes encoding 21-OHase were cloned from one of these two patients, who was homozygous by descent for HLA-A26;B39;C4A3;C4B1;DR4. Restriction endonuclease mapping as well as partial nucleotide sequencing analysis revealed that the 21-OHase B gene of the patient has been converted to the pseudogene, 21-OHase A, as far as the critical 0.5-kb sequence was concerned. Thus, the defect was due to both chromosomes each carrying two copies of 21-OHase A pseudogene and lacking functional 21-OHase B gene.

  13. Association between tryptophan hydroxylase 2 polymorphism and anger-related personality traits among young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Lee, So-Hee; Lee, Boung-Chul; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2010-08-01

    It has been suggested that the serotonergic systems are associated with anger and aggressive behaviors. We investigated the association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the serotonergic genes and anger-related personality traits. A total of 228 healthy female Korean women participated in this study. All subjects were assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) and were genotyped for 3 polymorphisms: serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) A218C, and TPH2 G-703T. The Anger Expression-Out (AX-Out) subscale scores of the STAXI differed significantly between the genotypes for the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism (F = 4.825, p = 0.009). G/G homozygous subjects scored significantly higher on the AX-Out subscale than those with the G/T genotype. However, no significant differences were observed in the relationships between the STAXI subscale scores of subjects with other polymorphisms. This study suggests that the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism might contribute to anger-related traits, especially to the expression of anger. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 variants modulate severity and outcome of addictive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, Roberto; Benfante, Roberta; Asselta, Rosanna; Marabini, Laura; Cereda, Emanuele; Siri, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Goldwurm, Stefano; Fornasari, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Impulse control disorders and compulsive medication intake may occur in a minority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms associated with addiction in the general population may increase the risk for addictive behaviors also in PD. Sixteen polymorphisms in candidate genes belonging to five neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, opioidergic) and the BDNF were screened in 154 PD patients with addictive behaviors and 288 PD control subjects. Multivariate analysis investigated clinical and genetic predictors of outcome (remission vs. persistence/relapse) after 1 year and at the last follow-up (5.1 ± 2.5 years). Addictive behaviors were associated with tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (TPH2) and dopamine transporter gene variants. A subsequent analysis within the group of cases showed a robust association between TPH2 genotype and the severity of addictive behaviors, which survived Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. At multivariate analysis, TPH2 genotype resulted the strongest predictor of no remission at the last follow-up (OR[95%CI], 7.4[3.27-16.78] and 13.2[3.89-44.98] in heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively, p system is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors in PD, modulating the severity of symptoms and the rate of remission at follow-up. If confirmed in larger independent cohorts, TPH2 genotype may become a useful biomarker for the identification of at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tryptophan hydroxylase Is Required for Eye Melanogenesis in the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramwell G Lambrus

    Full Text Available Melanins are ubiquitous and biologically important pigments, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and biochemical composition are not fully understood. Here we present a study that supports a role for serotonin in melanin synthesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We characterize the tryptophan hydroxylase (tph gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and demonstrate by RNA interference that tph is essential for melanin production in the pigment cups of the planarian photoreceptors. We exploit this phenotype to investigate the biological function of pigment cups using a quantitative light-avoidance behavioral assay. Planarians lacking eye pigment remain phototactic, indicating that eye pigmentation is not essential for light avoidance in S. mediterranea, though it improves the efficiency of the photophobic response. Finally, we show that the eye pigmentation defect observed in tph knockdown animals can be rescued by injection of either the product of TPH, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, or serotonin. Together, these results highlight a role for serotonin in melanogenesis, perhaps as a regulatory signal or as a pigment substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of this relationship to be reported outside of mammalian systems.

  16. CYP260B1 acts as 9α-hydroxylase for 11-deoxycorticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzenburger, Martin; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-11-01

    Steroids and their oxyfunctionalized counterparts are valuable compounds for the pharmaceutical industry; however, the regio- and stereoselective introduction of oxygen is a challenging task for the synthetic chemistry. Thus, cytochromes P450 play an important role for the functionalization of steroidal compounds. In this study, we elucidated the main product of 11-deoxycorticosterone conversion formed by CYP260B1 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 as 9α-OH 11-deoxycorticosterone by NMR spectroscopy. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first identification of a 9α-hydroxylase for this substrate. In addition, the major side product was identified as 21-OH pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione. Studies using 1α-OH 11-deoxycorticosterone as substrate suggested that the major side product is formed via dehydrogenation reaction. This side reaction was considerably decreased by employing the CYP260B1-T224A mutant, which showed an increased selectivity of about 75% compared to the 60% of the wild type for the 9α-hydroxylation. To scale up the production, an E. coli based whole-cell system harboring the CYP260B1-T224A variant as well as two heterologous redox partners was used. Employing growing cells in minimal medium led to a productivity of about 0.25g/l/d at a 50ml scale showing the biotechnological potential of this system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In-crystal reaction cycle of a toluene-bound diiron hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Justin F; Bailey, Lucas J; Brunold, Thomas C; Fox, Brian G

    2017-04-13

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution is one of the most important and recognizable classes of organic chemical transformation. Enzymes create the strong electrophiles that are needed for these highly energetic reactions by using O 2 , electrons, and metals or other cofactors. Although the nature of the oxidants that carry out electrophilic aromatic substitution has been deduced from many approaches, it has been difficult to determine their structures. Here we show the structure of a diiron hydroxylase intermediate formed during a reaction with toluene. Density functional theory geometry optimizations of an active site model reveal that the intermediate is an arylperoxo Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ species with delocalized aryl radical character. The structure suggests that a carboxylate ligand of the diiron centre may trigger homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond by transferring a proton from a metal-bound water. Our work provides the spatial and electronic constraints needed to propose a comprehensive mechanism for diiron enzyme arene hydroxylation that accounts for many prior experimental results.

  18. Classical forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Chakthoura, Zeina; Rouxel, Agnès; Dulon, Jérome; Touraine, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    During childhood, the main aims of the medical treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) secondary to 21-hydroxylase are to prevent salt loss and virilization and to attain normal stature and normal puberty. As such, there is a narrow therapeutic window through which the intended results can be achieved. In adulthood, the clinical management has received little attention, but recent studies have shown the relevance of long-term follow-up of these patients. The aims here are to review the multiple clinical, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities that could be found in adult CAH patients as such a decrease in bone mineral density, overweight and disturbed reproductive functions. In women with classic CAH, a low fertility rate is reported, and is probably the consequence of multiple factors including neuroendocrine and hormonal factors, feminizing surgery, and psychological factors. Men with CAH may present hypogonadism either through the effect of adrenal rests or from suppression of gonadotropins resulting in infertility. Therefore a multidisciplinary team with knowledge of CAH should carefully follow up these patients, from childhood through to adulthood, to avoid these complications and to ensure treatment compliance and tight control of the adrenal androgens. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Yang, Yanan; Sun, Li; Ahn, Young-Ho; Pankova, Daniela; Puperi, Daniel S; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kim, Min P; Blackmon, Shanda H; Rodriguez, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid; Pati, Debananda; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Burns, Alan R; Creighton, Chad J; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Zal, Tomasz; Grande-Allen, K Jane; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M

    2015-03-02

    Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma.

  20. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

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    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  1. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity is common in the enteric nervous system in teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Catharina

    2016-05-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines and TH immunoreactivity is indicative of cells synthesising either adrenaline/noradrenaline or dopamine. In this study, the distribution of TH immunoreactivity was examined in two distantly related teleost species, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). In both species, TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicose nerve fibres were common in the myenteric plexus of the intestine. However, no TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were seen in the sculpin stomach. The TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies seemed to constitute a larger proportion of the total enteric population in shorthorn sculpin (50 ± 5 %, n = 3067 cells) compared with zebrafish (14 ± 2 %, n = 10,163 cells). In contrast, in sculpin, the TH-immunoreactive cells were smaller than the average enteric nerve cell bodies, whereas in zebrafish, the relationship was the opposite. In developing zebrafish larvae, TH-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies were common (approx. 75 % of the total population) at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf), but decreased in numbers between 3 and 7 dpf. In conclusion, in contrast to previous studies, TH-immunoreactive intrinsic neurons are common in the fish gut. Their role and function need to be further characterized in order to understand the potential importance of this enteric subpopulation in controlling various gut functions.

  2. Putaminal mosaic visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry in the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, the putamen plays a critical role in the ‘motor’ circuits that control voluntary movements and motor learning. The human neostriatum comprises two functional subdivisions known as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. Accumulating evidence suggests that compartment-specific dysregulations of dopamine activity might be involved in the disease-specific pathology and symptoms of human striatal diseases including movement disorders. This study was undertaken to examine whether or how striatal dopaminergic innervations are organized into the compartmentalized architecture found in the putamen of adult human brains. For this purpose, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to identify tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, EC 1.14.16.2, a marker for striatal dopaminergic axons and terminals, in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from autopsied human brains. Herein, we report that discrete compartmentalization of TH-labeled innervations occurs in the putamen, as in the caudate nucleus, with a higher density of TH labeling in the matrix compared to the striosomes. Our results provide anatomical evidence to support the hypothesis that compartment-specific dysfunction of the striosome-matrix dopaminergic systems might contribute to the genesis of movement disorders.

  3. A Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Honey Bee Brain

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    Stevanus R. Tedjakumala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US. Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity (ir to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously. We found three main dopaminergic clusters, C1–C3, which had been previously described; the C1 cluster is located in a small region adjacent to the esophagus (ES and the antennal lobe (AL; the C2 cluster is situated above the C1 cluster, between the AL and the vertical lobe (VL of the mushroom body (MB; the C3 cluster is located below the calyces (CA of the MB. In addition, we found a novel dopaminergic cluster, C4, located above the dorsomedial border of the lobula, which innervates the visual neuropils of the bee brain. Additional smaller processes and clusters were found and are described. The profuse dopaminergic innervation of the entire bee brain and the specific connectivity of DA neurons, with visual, olfactory and gustatory circuits, provide a foundation for a deeper understanding of how these sensory modules are modulated by DA, and the DA-dependent value-based associations that occur during associative learning.

  4. Silencing tyrosine hydroxylase retards depression of immunocompetence of Litopenaeus vannamei under hypothermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanao, Ratchaneegorn; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton; Liu, Kuan-Fu

    2018-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines, is required in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network against stress in shrimp. The immunocompetence, catecholamine biosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolites were evaluated in Litopenaeus vannamei received L. vannamei TH (LvTH) double-stranded (ds)RNA, diethyl pyrocarbonate-water, or non-targeted dsRNA for 3 days then transferred from 28 to 20 or 28 °C. The immunocompetence of LvTH-depleted shrimp held at 28 °C was promoted, and those were downregulated under hypothermal stress and revealed higher level than the other two dsRNA treatments. Meanwhile, the decrease of catecholamine biosynthesis was observed in LvTH-depleted shrimp held at 28 °C, and those were elevated under hypothermal stress and revealed lower levels, compared to two dsRNA treatments. The reduced carbohydrate metabolites was observed in LvTH-depleted shrimp held at 28 °C, and those were upregulated under hypothermal stress and showed lower levels than the other two dsRNA treatments. It was therefore concluded that LvTH-depleted shrimp revealed enhanced immunocompetence and reduced carbohydrate metabolites when exposed to a hypothermal stress condition, and in the meantime, even though catecholamine biosynthesis was downregulated, no significant difference was observed in DA or NE levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of LPS treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase expression and Parkinson-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Joyal, Olivier; Ismail, Nafissa

    2017-03-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the brain undergoes reorganizing and remodeling. Exposure to stress during this period is thought to interfere with normal brain development and increase susceptibility to mental illnesses. In female mice, pubertal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, has been shown to alter sexual, anxiety-like, and depression-like behaviors and cognition in an enduring manner. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. The present study examined age and sex difference in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine-dependent and Parkinson-like behaviors following LPS treatment. The results show that LPS treatment during adulthood causes an enduring increase in TH expression in many of the brain regions examined. In contrast, there is no change in TH expression following LPS treatment during puberty. However, pubertal LPS treatment induces enduring behavioral deficits in tests of Parkinson-like behaviors, more so in male than in female mice. These results suggest that the low levels of TH following exposure to pubertal immune challenge may predispose mice to Parkinson-like behavior. These findings add to our understanding of stress and immune responses during puberty and their impact on mental health later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutations in the dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene are associated with human norepinephrine deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Hyung; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Cubells, Joseph F.; Cho, Sonhae; Biaggioni, Italo; Cohen, Bruce M.; Robertson, David; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2002-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), a key neurotransmitter of the central and peripheral nervous systems, is synthesized by dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) that catalyzes oxidation of dopamine (DA) to NE. NE deficiency is a congenital disorder of unknown etiology, in which affected patients suffer profound autonomic failure. Biochemical features of the syndrome include undetectable tissue and circulating levels of NE and epinephrine, elevated levels of DA, and undetectable levels of DBH. Here, we report identification of seven novel variants including four potentially pathogenic mutations in the human DBH gene (OMIM 223360) from analysis of two unrelated patients and their families. Both patients are compound heterozygotes for variants affecting expression of DBH protein. Each carries one copy of a T-->C transversion in the splice donor site of DBH intron 1, creating a premature stop codon. In patient 1, there is a missense mutation in DBH exon 2. Patient 2 carries missense mutations in exons 1 and 6 residing in cis. We propose that NE deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from heterogeneous molecular lesions at DBH. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

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    Kwon, Soo-Young [Beamline Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Beom Sik [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghyung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: kkj@postech.ac.kr [Beamline Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-01

    PHBH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline. p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) is an FAD-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxybenzoate (pOHB) to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate in an NADPH-dependent reaction and plays an important role in the biodegradation of aromatic compounds. PHBH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as precipitants. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 94.72, c = 359.68 Å, γ = 120°. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules, corresponding to a packing density of 2.65 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Structure refinement is in progress.

  8. A single human gene encoding multiple tyrosine hydroxylases with different predicted functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, B; Lamouroux, A; Boni, C; Julien, J F; Javoy-Agid, F; Mallet, J

    Catecholaminergic systems in discrete regions of the brain are thought to be important in affective psychoses, learning and memory, reinforcement and sleep-wake cycle regulation. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the first enzyme in the pathway of catecholamine synthesis. Its importance is reflected in the diversity of the mechanisms that have been described which control its activity; TH levels vary both during development and as a function of the activity of the nervous system. Recently, we deduced the complete amino-acid sequence of rat TH from a complementary DNA clone encoding a functional enzyme. Here we demonstrate that, in man, TH molecules are encoded by at least three distinct messenger RNAs. The expression of these mRNAs varies in different parts of the nervous system. The sequence differences observed are confined to the 5' termini of the messengers and involve alternative splicing events. This variation has clear functional consequences for each putative form of the enzyme and could represent a novel means of regulating catecholamine levels in normal and pathological neurons.

  9. Hepatic Cholesterol-25-Hydroxylase Overexpression Improves Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Noebauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for several diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer and due to its rapidly increasing prevalence it has become one of the biggest problems medicine is facing today. All the more surprising, a substantial percentage of obese patients are metabolically healthy when classified based on insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Oxysterols are naturally occurring molecules that play important role in various metabolic and inflammatory processes and their levels are elevated in patients suffering from obesity and diabetes. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC is produced in cells from cholesterol by the enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (Ch25h and is involved in lipid metabolism, inflammatory processes, and cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of hepatic Ch25h in the transition from metabolically healthy obesity to insulin resistance and diabetes. Using several different experimental approaches, we demonstrated the significance of Ch25h on the border of “healthy” and “diseased” states of obesity. Adenovirus-mediated Ch25h overexpression in mice improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and lowered HOMA-IR. Our data suggest that low hepatic Ch25h levels could be considered a risk marker for unhealthy obesity.

  10. Tryptophan hydroxylase Is Required for Eye Melanogenesis in the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrus, Bramwell G; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Gao, Jiarong; Newmark, Phillip A; Collins, Eva-Maria S; Collins, James J

    2015-01-01

    Melanins are ubiquitous and biologically important pigments, yet the molecular mechanisms that regulate their synthesis and biochemical composition are not fully understood. Here we present a study that supports a role for serotonin in melanin synthesis in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We characterize the tryptophan hydroxylase (tph) gene, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and demonstrate by RNA interference that tph is essential for melanin production in the pigment cups of the planarian photoreceptors. We exploit this phenotype to investigate the biological function of pigment cups using a quantitative light-avoidance behavioral assay. Planarians lacking eye pigment remain phototactic, indicating that eye pigmentation is not essential for light avoidance in S. mediterranea, though it improves the efficiency of the photophobic response. Finally, we show that the eye pigmentation defect observed in tph knockdown animals can be rescued by injection of either the product of TPH, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), or serotonin. Together, these results highlight a role for serotonin in melanogenesis, perhaps as a regulatory signal or as a pigment substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of this relationship to be reported outside of mammalian systems.

  11. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  12. Effect of Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 rs7305115 SNP on suicide attempts risk in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuqi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide and major depressive disorders (MDD are strongly associated, and genetic factors are responsible for at least part of the variability in suicide risk. We investigated whether variation at the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 gene rs7305115 SNP may predispose to suicide attempts in MDD. Methods We genotyped TPH2 gene rs7305115 SNP in 215 MDD patients with suicide and matched MDD patients without suicide. Differences in behavioral and personality traits according to genotypic variation were investigated by logistic regression analysis. Results There were no significant differences between MDD patients with suicide and controls in genotypic (AG and GG frequencies for rs7305115 SNP, but the distribution of AA genotype differed significantly (14.4% vs. 29.3%, p p p Conclusions The study suggested that hopelessness, negative life events and family history of suicide were risk factors of attempted suicide in MDD while the TPH2 rs7305115A remained a significant protective predictor of suicide attempts.

  13. Examination and expansion of the substrate range of m-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Kuang; Zylstra, Gerben J

    2008-06-20

    The gene encoding m-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (mobA) was cloned from Comamonas testosteroni GZ39. MobA converts m-hydroxybenzoate and to a lesser extent p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. To explore the structural and functional relationships in phenolic acid monooxygenases, MobA was subjected to in vitro mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and the mutant MobAs were screened for their ability to oxidize phenol or 3-aminophenol. A mutant MobA with a single V257A substitution was able to transform phenol to catechol, providing the first example of monooxygenase acting on phenolic acids that can also hydroxylate phenol. The mutant MobA also has enhanced ability to transform resorcinol, hydroquinone, p-hydroxybenzoate, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-chlororesorcinol, and 4-nitrophenol. Several MobA mutants were obtained for their ability to transform 3-aminophenol to a related substituted catechol. Mutant MobAs with single amino acid substitutions (H135P, A400G, or D416A) were derived from these mutants and verified for their ability to transform 3-aminophenol.

  14. Maternal and infantile hypercalcemia caused by vitamin-D-hydroxylase mutations and vitamin D intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Aviner, Shraga; Ganon, Liat; Michael, Leonid; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Vered, Iris; Bibi, Haim; Frishberg, Yaacov; Holtzman, Eli J

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is caused by many different conditions and may lead to severe complications. Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, encoding vitamin D-24-hydroxylase, have recently been identified in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia and in adult kidney stone disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetics and clinical features of both infantile and maternal hypercalcemia. We studied members of four unrelated Israeli families with hypercalcemia, namely, one woman during pregnancy and after delivery and three infants. Clinical and biochemical data were obtained from probands' medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and CYP24A1 was sequenced. Typical symptoms of hypercalcemia associated with the intake of recommended doses of vitamin D developed in the infants and pregnant woman. Four different loss-of-function CYP24A1 mutations were identified, two of which are reported here for the first time (p.Trp134Gly and p.Glu315*). The infants from families 1 and 2, respectively, were found to be compound heterozygotes, and the infant from family 3 and the pregnant woman were found to be homozygous. This is the first report of maternal hypercalcemia caused by a CYP24A1 mutation, showing that not only infants are at risk for this complication. Our findings emphasize the importance of recognition, genetic diagnosis and proper treatment of this recently identified hypercalcemic disorder in this era of widespread vitamin D supplements.

  15. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in adolescent rats endures until adulthood: lack of association with GluR1 and NR1 glutamate receptor subunits and tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fábio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2008-11-01

    Exposure to repeated cocaine induces enduring behavioral sensitization, which has been implicated in the psychostimulant-induced craving and psychosis. Adaptations in dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seem to mediate psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. The abuse of drugs often begins during adolescence; however few studies have been devoted to study the effects of drugs of abuse at this age. The aim of our study was to examine whether repeated cocaine during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization that endures into adulthood. Moreover, the protein levels of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) and the glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and NR1 in the NAc and mPFC were measured following the behavioral tests. Adolescent rats were treated with cocaine from postnatal day (PND) 30 to PND34 and behavioral sensitization was verified recording locomotor activity after cocaine challenge injection to adolescent (PND37) or adult (PND64 or 94) rats in separate groups at each time point. TH, GluR1, and NR1 protein levels were measured by Western blotting. Rats exposed to cocaine during adolescence expressed behavioral sensitization when tested on PND37 and PND64. In cocaine sensitized rats GluR1 protein was increased in the mPFC on PND37 but not in other ages. Thus, cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization during adolescence endures into early adulthood. However, cocaine pretreatment during adolescence induced a transient increase of GluR1 in the mPFC only when animals were challenged in the same age.

  16. Antipsychotic drugs up-regulate tryptophan hydroxylase in ADF neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans: role of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and transient receptor potential vanilloid channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Dallas R; Phan, Thang; Weeks, Kathrine; Aamodt, Eric J; Dwyer, Donard S

    2008-08-15

    Antipsychotic drugs produce acute behavioral effects through antagonism of dopamine and serotonin receptors, and long-term adaptive responses that are not well understood. The goal of the study presented here was to use Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the molecular mechanism or mechanisms that contribute to adaptive responses produced by antipsychotic drugs. First-generation antipsychotics, trifluoperazine and fluphenazine, and second-generation drugs, clozapine and olanzapine, increased the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-1::green fluorescent protein (TPH-1::GFP) and serotonin in the ADF neurons of C. elegans. This response was absent or diminished in mutant strains lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel (TRPV; osm-9) or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; unc-43). The role of calcium signaling was further implicated by the finding that a selective antagonist of calmodulin and a calcineurin inhibitor also enhanced TPH-1::GFP expression. The ADF neurons modulate foraging behavior (turns/reversals off food) through serotonin production. We found that short-term exposure to the antipsychotic drugs altered the frequency of turns/reversals off food. This response was mediated through dopamine and serotonin receptors and was abolished in serotonin-deficient mutants (tph-1) and strains lacking the SER-1 and MOD-1 serotonin receptors. Consistent with the increase in serotonin in the ADF neurons induced by the drugs, drug withdrawal after 24-hr treatment was accompanied by a rebound in the number of turns/reversals, which demonstrates behavioral adaptation in serotonergic systems. Characterization of the cellular, molecular, and behavioral adaptations to continuous exposure to antipsychotic drugs may provide insight into the long-term clinical effects of these medications.

  17. Retinoic Acid 4-Hydroxylase Inducibility and Clinical Response to Isotretinoin in Acne Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Frank; Kwak, Heh Shin R.; Elbuluk, Nada; Kaczmarek, Anya L.; Hamilton, Ted; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.; Kang, Sewon

    2011-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP26 (retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase) initiates the catabolism of all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) and limits the effects of tRA. The CYP26 enzyme acts on tRA, but not 13-cis RA (isotretinoin), a retinoid used to treat severe acne. However, 13-cis RA can isomerize to tRA, which can then be metabolized by CYP26. Objective In healthy subjects, we assessed the variability of CYP26 enzymatic activity. We then investigated whether response to oral 13-cis RA among acne patients correlates with variability in CYP26 expression. Methods In healthy subjects, we isolated microsomal fractions from the epidermis of keratome biopsies and measured CYP26 enzymatic activity in untreated skin and skin treated with tRA. Enzymatic activity was determined based on rate of formation of 4-hydroxy RA (pg/min) per mg microsomal protein. Using real-time PCR we quantified CYP26 mRNA induction after tRA application in acne patients who responded or did not respond to one course of 13-cis RA. Results In normal skin (N=118), CYP26 enzymatic activity was widely variable (1–180 pg/min per mg microsomal fraction; mean 42.7 ± 3.5). Furthermore, CYP26 enzymatic activity was inducible in a dose-dependent manner in normal skin following tRA application, but not correlated with age or sex (N=29). In acne patients, CYP26 mRNA induction following 0.1% tRA application did not differ (P>0.05) between subjects who responded (N=8, 587±325 fold) or did not respond (N=8, 657±227 fold) to one course of 13-cis RA. Limitations The small number of acne patients treated with 13-cis RA was a major limitation. Conclusion Factors other than CYP26 activity may determine response to isotretinoin in acne. PMID:19525031

  18. Functional polymorphism (C-824T) of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene affects IQ in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Mieko; Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hao, Qinyu; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Ichinose, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Progressive cognitive decline has been an important issue in the treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of catecholamine, including dopamine and noradrenaline. In this report, we examined a possible association of a genetic variant in the TH promoter region. Association of a genetic variant in the TH promoter region, C-824T (rs10770141), with intellectual ability in 132 patients with schizophrenia and 282 healthy subjects was examined. The transcriptional activity of the plasmids harboring the TH promoter region with either C or T nucleotide at -824 was assayed using a luciferase gene as a reporter. We found significant effects of the genotype on the full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ, in patients with schizophrenia. IQ was lower in individuals with the C/C genotype than those with T carriers. The plasmid with the T allele at -824 showed higher transcriptional activity than that with the C allele in a transient transfection experiment using a luciferase gene as a reporter, implying that the T carriers may have higher TH activities and retain higher levels of catecholamines in the brain. The present data suggest that the biosynthesis of catecholamine by the action of TH should be deeply involved in decreased intellectual ability in patients with schizophrenia. This is the first report, as far as we know, showing a correlation between TH expression and IQ in humans. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. Serotonin Transporter and Tryptophan Hydroxylase Gene Variations Mediate Working Memory Deficits of Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havranek, Michael M; Vonmoos, Matthias; Müller, Christian P; Büetiger, Jessica R; Tasiudi, Eve; Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Mössner, Rainald; Grünblatt, Edna; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Cocaine users consistently develop working memory (WM) impairments but the mediating molecular mechanisms are unknown so far. Recent evidence suggests that the serotonin (5-HT) system is altered by chronic cocaine use, while also being involved in WM processing. Thus, we investigated the effects of genetic variations impacting 5-HT activity and of peripheral 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) mRNA expression on WM performance in cocaine users and stimulant naive controls. Two hundred twenty participants (126 cocaine users, 94 controls) were assessed with visuospatial, spatial, and verbal WM tasks, genotyped for the length polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HTT (5-HTTLPR), the variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron of the 5-HTT (VNTR In2), two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4570625 and rs1386497) in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) gene and quantified for peripheral 5-HTT mRNA expression in whole-blood samples. Several significant gene × environment interactions between 5-HT genotypes and cocaine use on WM emerged: in cocaine users, the long/long (5-HTTLPR), 9+10/9+10 (VNTR In2) and C/C (TPH2 rs1386497) genotypes were risk alleles for WM impairments, whereas in healthy controls these polymorphisms were associated with improved WM performance. Analogously, high 5-HTT mRNA levels were associated with worse executive WM performance in cocaine users but with increased performance in controls. These gene × environment interactions suggest that the 5-HT system has an important role in the development of cognitive deficits in chronic cocaine users. Hence, pharmacological compounds targeting 5-HT neurotransmission might be promising for the treatment of cognitive deficits in cocaine dependence.

  20. Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the link to tyrosine hydroxylase and probable nutritional strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Shahida, Khan; Gan, Siew Hua; Firoz, Ck; Khan, Aziz; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Kamal, Warda; Kamal, Mohammad A; Tan, Yi; Qu, Xianqin; Reale, Marcella

    2014-04-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are chronic health disorders that affect millions of people around the world. According to recent studies, there are molecular similarities in the inflammatory pathways involved in both AD and T2DM, which opens a new avenue for researchers with different perspectives to target the cause of these diseases rather than their obvious symptoms. Several links between inflammation, cardiovascular disease, T2DM and central nervous system disorders such as AD and Parkinson's disease have been elucidated. Mutations in the hippocampal-β-amyloid precursor protein gene in genetically high-risk individuals have been shown to cause the early onset of AD symptoms. The overexpression of β-amyloid protein in the hippocampal region and the synaptotoxicity that occurs as a result have been considered a typical feature of AD and leads to neuronal loss and cognitive decline. However, the identity of the cellular components that cause the late onset of the disease seen in the majority of the cases is still unknown. Synaptic insults associated with neuronal dysfunction may involve several cascades and molecules, one of which has been hypothesized to be tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The axons of the noradrenergic cells that project to the hippocampus appear to be affected by the β-amyloid protein, which subsequently contributes to TH loss in Alzheimer brain cells. In this review, we attempt to shed light on the important mechanisms involved in AD as well as T2DM such as inflammatory factors, abnormalities in the insulin signaling system and the possible role of the endocrine enzyme TH.

  1. [The binuclear iron site of the membrane-bound methane hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, L V; Tukhvatullin, I A; Burbaev, T Sh; Gvozdev, R I; Andersson, K K

    2008-01-01

    The particulate membrane-bound methane hydroxylase (pMMOH) was isolated from methane-oxidizing cells of Methylococcus capsulatus (strain M). At SDS PAGE, pMMOH displays three bands: 47 (alpha), 27 (beta), and 25 kDa (gamma). The ESR spectrum of pMMOH incubated with hydrogen peroxide (final concentration 20 mM) at 4 degrees C exhibited, along with the copper signal of type I with g = 2.05, signals of cytochrome with g = 3.0 and of high-spin ferriheme with g = 6.00. After incubation at -30 degrees C, additional signals with g 8.5 and 13.5 were observed. These signals, which have not been recorded previously in pMMOH preparations, are due to an intermediate of the pMMOH active site, which arises in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with pMMOH at -30 degrees C. It was established that this intermediate is a high-spin dimer [Fe(IlI)-Fe(IV)] with S = 9/2 and different degree of rhombic distortion of structure (it is responsible for both signals). Presumably, the signal with g = 8.5 also arises from the same dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(IV)], but with S = 7/2. The presence of the intermediate [Fe(lII)-Fe(IV)] in pMMOH preparations suggests that the original state of the pMMOH active site is the dimer [Fe(III)-Fe(III)] which is located in the beta-subunit and cannot be detected by ESR. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 34, no. 2; see also http:// www.maik.ru.

  2. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.

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    Anne Klomp

    Full Text Available The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+ cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+, revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.

  3. Dynamic modulation of Cyp21a1 (21-hydroxylase) expression sites in the mouse developing lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Catherine; Provost, Pierre R; Tremblay, Yves

    2017-04-01

    21-hydroxylase is expressed in the developing lung where it is proposed as a local source of glucocorticoids playing important roles in lung development. We have studied the precise sites of Cyp21a1 expression in the developing mouse lung from the pseudoglandular stage (gestation day (GD) 15.5) to the alveolar stage (postnatal day (PND) 15) by in situ hybridization. Cyp21a1-mRNA was found mainly in epithelial cells from GD 15.5 to PND 5, but the precise site of expression shifted from the distal epithelium during the pseudoglandular and the canalicular stages including the distal epithelium without lumina, to the proximal epithelium and the wall of developing saccules during the perinatal period (GD 19.5 and PND 0), and to the wall of developing saccules and septa, most probably in type I pneumonocytes (PTI), on PND 5. Cyp21a1 expression changed from PTI cells to capillary endothelial cells of the same distal structures during alveolarization. The mesenchyme was generally negative. Endothelial cells forming large vessels were negative. However the tunica adventitia surrounding arteries was Cyp21a1-positive, while several veins were surrounded by a Cyp21a1-positive layer. In conclusion, Cyp21a1 remains expressed in the most distal structure of the developing lung even though these structures are changing, but its expression is not restricted to these areas. Taken together, our data show the highly dynamic modulation of Cyp21a1 expression sites, consistent with the evolving structures of the developing lung. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 haplodeficiency on liver progenitor cell characteristics in early mouse hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Eliene; Paridaens, Annelies; Verhelst, Xavier; Carmeliet, Peter; Geerts, Anja; Van Vlierberghe, Hans; Devisscher, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induces therapy resistant tumours, characterized by increased liver progenitor cell (LPCs) characteristics and poor prognosis. We previously reported corresponding results in mice with HCC in which hypoxia was mimicked by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibition. Here, we aimed at investigating whether induction of LPC characteristics occurs during the onset of hepatocarcinogenesis and if this is associated with activation of Notch signalling. Dietheylnitrosamine (DEN) was used to induce hepatic tumours in PHD2 haplodeficient (PHD2+/-) mice which were euthanized at 5, 10, 15 and 17 weeks following DEN during neoplastic transformation, before tumour formation. Neoplasia and mRNA expression of LPC and Notch markers were evaluated by histology and qPCR on isolated livers. PHD2 haplodeficiency resulted in enhanced expression of HIF target genes after 17 weeks of DEN compared to wild type (WT) littermates but had no effect on the onset of neoplastic transformation. The mRNA expression of Afp and Epcam was increased at all time points following DEN whereas CK19, Prom1 and Notch3 were increased after 17 weeks of DEN, without difference between PHD2+/- and WT mice. MDR1 mRNA expression was increased in all DEN treated mice compared to saline control with increased expression in PHD2+/- compared to WT from 15 weeks. These results indicate that the effects of PHD2 haplodeficiency on the expression of LPC and Notch markers manifest during tumour nodule formation and not early on during neoplastic transformation. PMID:28337100

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone 3-Hydroxylase gene from Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuo; Tian, Na; Long, Jinhua; Chen, Yuhong; Qin, Yu; Feng, Jinyu; Xiao, Wenjun; Liu, Shuoqian

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoids were found to synergize anti-malaria and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, a very important economic crop in China. In order to discover the regulation mechanism of flavonoids in Artemisia annua, the full length cDNA of flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) were isolated from Artemisia annua for the first time by using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The completed open read frame of AaF3H was 1095 bp and it encoded a 364-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 41.18 kDa and a pI of 5.67. The recombinant protein of AaF3H was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein, purified by Ni-NTA agrose affinity chromatography, and functionally characterized in vitro. The results showed that the His-tagged protein (AaF3H) catalyzed naringenin to dihydrokaempferol in the present of Fe(2+). The Km for naringenin was 218.03 μM. The optimum pH for AaF3H reaction was determined to be pH 8.5, and the optimum temperature was determined to be 35 °C. The AaF3H transcripts were found to be accumulated in the cultivar with higher level of flavonoids than that with lower level of flavonoids, which implied that AaF3H was a potential target for regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis in Artemisia annua through metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Inhibition of Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Facilitates Behavioral Responses to Cocaine in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaval-Cruz, Meriem; Liles, Larry Cameron; Iuvone, Paul Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2012-01-01

    The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse), decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/−) and Dbh −/− mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh −/− mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/− mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/− mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh −/− mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor) enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors. PMID:23209785

  7. Diversity shift in bacterial phenol hydroxylases driven by alkyl-phenols in oil refinery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, Besma; Bousseboua, Hacène; Jouanneau, Yves

    2017-06-01

    Phenol hydroxylases (PHs) play a primary role in the bacterial degradation of phenol and alkylphenols. They are divided into two main classes, single-component and multi-component PHs, having distinctive catalytic subunits designated as PheA1 and LmPH, respectively. The diversity of these enzymes is still largely unexplored. Here, both LmPH and pheA1 gene sequences were examined in activated sludge from oil refinery wastewaters. Phenol, p-cresol, or 3,4-dimethylphenol (3,4-DMP) supplied as extra carbon sources were rapidly mineralized by the microbial community. Analysis of LmPH genes revealed a wide range of sequences, most of which exhibited moderate similarity with homologs found in Proteobacteria. Moreover, the LmPH diversity profiles showed a dramatic shift upon sludge treatment with p-cresol or 3,4-DMP amendment. This resulted in an enrichment in sequences similar to LmPHs from Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. RT-PCR analysis of RNA extracted from wastewater sludge highlighted LmPH genes best expressed in situ. A PCR approach was implemented to analyze the pheA1 gene diversity in the same microbial community. Retrieved sequences fell into four clusters and appeared to be distantly related to pheA1 genes from Actinobacteria. Altogether, our results provide evidence that phenol degraders carrying LmPH are more diverse than PheA1 carrying bacteria and suggest that PHs with best adapted substrate specificity are recruited in response to (methyl)phenol availability.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Yeast Expression of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker

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    Jian-Qiang Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OSW-1, isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker, is a steroidal saponin endowed with considerable antitumor properties. Biosynthesis of the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1 is known to take place biochemically via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, but molecular biological characterization of the related genes has been insufficient. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11, catalyzing the hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, plays a key role in the ability of phenylpropanoid metabolism to channel carbon to produce the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1. Molecular isolation and functional characterization of the C4H genes, therefore, is an important step for pathway characterization of 4-methoxybenzoyl group biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for C4H, designated as OsaC4H, was isolated according to the transcriptome sequencing results of Ornithogalum saundersiae. The full-length OsaC4H cDNA is 1,608-bp long, with a 1,518-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 505 amino acids, a 55-bp 5′ non-coding region and a 35-bp 3'-untranslated region. OsaC4H was functionally characterized by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shown to catalyze the oxidation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, which was identified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD, HPLC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The identification of the OsaC4H gene was expected to open the way to clarification of the biosynthetic pathway of OSW-1.

  9. Ethnic disparity in 21-hydroxylase gene mutations identified in Pakistani congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients

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    Jabbar Abdul

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by defects in the steroid 21 hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2. We studied the spectrum of mutations in CYP21A2 gene in a multi-ethnic population in Pakistan to explore the genetics of CAH. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for the identification of mutations CYP21A2 and their phenotypic associations in CAH using ARMS-PCR assay. Results Overall, 29 patients were analyzed for nine different mutations. The group consisted of two major forms of CAH including 17 salt wasters and 12 simple virilizers. There were 14 phenotypic males and 15 females representing all the major ethnic groups of Pakistan. Parental consanguinity was reported in 65% cases and was equally distributed in the major ethnic groups. Among 58 chromosomes analyzed, mutations were identified in 45 (78.6% chromosomes. The most frequent mutation was I2 splice (27% followed by Ile173Asn (26%, Arg 357 Trp (19%, Gln319stop, 16% and Leu308InsT (12%, whereas Val282Leu was not observed in this study. Homozygosity was seen in 44% and heterozygosity in 34% cases. I2 splice mutation was found to be associated with SW in the homozygous. The Ile173Asn mutation was identified in both SW and SV forms. Moreover, Arg357Trp manifested SW in compound heterozygous state. Conclusion Our study showed that CAH exists in our population with ethnic difference in the prevalence of mutations examined.

  10. [Health status of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Touraine, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the commonest genetic endocrine disorder. Mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene account for 95 % of cases. CAH is classified according to symptoms and signs and to age of presentation. The clinical phenotype is typically classified as classic, the severe form, or nonclassic (NCF), the mild or late-onset form. Classic CAH is a life-long chronic disorder. In childhood, treatment focuses on genital surgery and optimization of growth and pubertal development. Priorities change with increasing age, typically focusing on fertility in early adult life and prevention of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in middle and older age. Recent studies highlight the importance of long-term follow-up of these patients and of transitional care between childhoods to adult life. In nonclassic CAH women, subfertility is mild compared with the classic form and seems to be mainly due to hormonal imbalance. Menstrual cycle or ovulation disorders observed in these women who consulted for infertility are in most cases corrected by hydrocortisone treatment, which led to simultaneous lowering of plasma androgen levels and rapid occurrence of pregnancy. Hydrocortisone also reduces the incidence of miscarriages. Several studies have reported that near 60 % of nonclassic CAH patients are carriers of a severe mutation. These patients may therefore give birth to a child with the classical form of CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Due to the high frequency of CYP21A2 mutations in the general population, it is essential to genotype the partner of NC-CAH patients with one severe mutation to offer genetic counselling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. First structure of full-length mammalian phenylalanine hydroxylase reveals the architecture of an autoinhibited tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturo, Emilia C; Gupta, Kushol; Héroux, Annie; Stith, Linda; Cross, Penelope J; Parker, Emily J; Loll, Patrick J; Jaffe, Eileen K

    2016-03-01

    Improved understanding of the relationship among structure, dynamics, and function for the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) can lead to needed new therapies for phenylketonuria, the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism. PAH is a multidomain homo-multimeric protein whose conformation and multimerization properties respond to allosteric activation by the substrate phenylalanine (Phe); the allosteric regulation is necessary to maintain Phe below neurotoxic levels. A recently introduced model for allosteric regulation of PAH involves major domain motions and architecturally distinct PAH tetramers [Jaffe EK, Stith L, Lawrence SH, Andrake M, Dunbrack RL, Jr (2013) Arch Biochem Biophys 530(2):73-82]. Herein, we present, to our knowledge, the first X-ray crystal structure for a full-length mammalian (rat) PAH in an autoinhibited conformation. Chromatographic isolation of a monodisperse tetrameric PAH, in the absence of Phe, facilitated determination of the 2.9 Å crystal structure. The structure of full-length PAH supersedes a composite homology model that had been used extensively to rationalize phenylketonuria genotype-phenotype relationships. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms that this tetramer, which dominates in the absence of Phe, is different from a Phe-stabilized allosterically activated PAH tetramer. The lack of structural detail for activated PAH remains a barrier to complete understanding of phenylketonuria genotype-phenotype relationships. Nevertheless, the use of SAXS and X-ray crystallography together to inspect PAH structure provides, to our knowledge, the first complete view of the enzyme in a tetrameric form that was not possible with prior partial crystal structures, and facilitates interpretation of a wealth of biochemical and structural data that was hitherto impossible to evaluate.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis.

  13. Functional Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Poplar (Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides) Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Dae Kyun; Mah, Nancy; Ellis, Brian E.; Douglas, Carl J.

    2001-01-01

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H), a member of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase superfamily, plays a central role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and lignin biosynthesis and possibly anchors a phenylpropanoid enzyme complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A full-length cDNA encoding C4H was isolated from a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) young leaf cDNA library. RNA-blot analysis detected C4H transcripts in all organs tested, but the gene was most highly expressed in developing xylem. C4H expression was also strongly induced by elicitor-treatment in poplar cell cultures. To verify the catalytic activity of the putative C4H cDNA, two constructs, C4H and C4H fused to the FLAG epitope (C4H::FLAG), were expressed in yeast. Immunoblot analysis showed that C4H was present in the microsomal fraction and microsomal preparations from strains expressing both enzymes efficiently converted cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid with high specific activities. To investigate the subcellular localization of C4H in vivo, a chimeric C4H-green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was engineered and stably expressed in Arabidopsis. Confocal laser microscopy analysis clearly showed that in Arabidopsis the C4H::GFP chimeric enzyme was localized to the ER. When expressed in yeast, the C4H::GFP fusion enzyme was also active but displayed significantly lower specific activity than either C4H or C4H::FLAG in in vitro and in vivo enzyme assays. These data definitively show that C4H is localized to the ER in planta. PMID:11351095

  14. Chronic inhibition of dopamine β-hydroxylase facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine in mice.

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    Meriem Gaval-Cruz

    Full Text Available The anti-alcoholism medication, disulfiram (Antabuse, decreases cocaine use in humans regardless of concurrent alcohol consumption and facilitates cocaine sensitization in rats, but the functional targets are unknown. Disulfiram inhibits dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, the enzyme that converts dopamine (DA to norepinephrine (NE in noradrenergic neurons. The goal of this study was to test the effects of chronic genetic or pharmacological DBH inhibition on behavioral responses to cocaine using DBH knockout (Dbh -/- mice, disulfiram, and the selective DBH inhibitor, nepicastat. Locomotor activity was measured in control (Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice during a 5 day regimen of saline+saline, disulfiram+saline, nepicastat+saline, saline+cocaine, disulfiram+cocaine, or nepicastat+cocaine. After a 10 day withdrawal period, all groups were administered cocaine, and locomotor activity and stereotypy were measured. Drug-naïve Dbh -/- mice were hypersensitive to cocaine-induced locomotion and resembled cocaine-sensitized Dbh +/- mice. Chronic disulfiram administration facilitated cocaine-induced locomotion in some mice and induced stereotypy in others during the development of sensitization, while cocaine-induced stereotypy was evident in all nepicastat-treated mice. Cocaine-induced stereotypy was profoundly increased in the disulfiram+cocaine, nepicastat+cocaine, and nepicastat+saline groups upon cocaine challenge after withdrawal in Dbh +/- mice. Disulfiram or nepicastat treatment had no effect on behavioral responses to cocaine in Dbh -/- mice. These results demonstrate that chronic DBH inhibition facilitates behavioral responses to cocaine, although different methods of inhibition (genetic vs. non-selective inhibitor vs. selective inhibitor enhance qualitatively different cocaine-induced behaviors.

  15. Physical weight loading induces expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the brain stem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W Shim

    Full Text Available Sustaining brain serotonin is essential in mental health. Physical activities can attenuate mental problems by enhancing serotonin signaling. However, such activity is not always possible in disabled individuals or patients with dementia. Knee loading, a form of physical activity, has been found to mimic effects of voluntary exercise. Focusing on serotonergic signaling, we addressed a question: Does local mechanical loading to the skeleton elevate expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2 that is a rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin? A 5 min knee loading was applied to mice using 1 N force at 5 Hz for 1,500 cycles. A 5-min treadmill running was used as an exercise (positive control, and a 90-min tail suspension was used as a stress (negative control. Expression of tph2 was determined 30 min - 2 h in three brain regions --frontal cortex (FC, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, and brain stem (BS. We demonstrated for the first time that knee loading and treadmill exercise upregulated the mRNA level of tph2 in the BS, while tail suspension downregulated it. The protein level of tph2 in the BS was also upregulated by knee loading and downregulated by tail suspension. Furthermore, the downregulation of tph2 mRNA by tail suspension can be partially suppressed by pre-application of knee loading. The expression of tph2 in the FC and VMH was not significantly altered with knee loading. In this study we provided evidence that peripheral mechanical loading can activate central tph2 expression, suggesting that physical cues may mediate tph2-cathalyzed serotonergic signaling in the brain.

  16. Evolutionary conservation of an atypical glucocorticoid-responsive element in the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela Rani, C S; Soto-Pina, Alexandra; Iacovitti, Lorraine; Strong, Randy

    2013-07-01

    The human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene has a 42 bp evolutionarily conserved region designated (CR) II at -7.24 kb, which bears 93% homology to the region we earlier identified as containing the glucocorticoid response element, a 7 bp activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like motif in the rat TH gene. We cloned this hTH-CRII region upstream of minimal basal hTH promoter in luciferase (Luc) reporter vector, and tested glucocorticoid responsiveness in human cell lines. Dexamethasone (Dex) stimulated Luc activity of hTH-CRII in HeLa cells, while mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, prevented Dex stimulation. Deletion of the 7 bp 5'-TGACTAA at -7243 bp completely abolished the Dex-stimulated Luc activity of hTH-CRII construct. The AP-1 agonist, tetradeconoyl-12,13-phorbol acetate (TPA), also stimulated hTH promoter activity, and Dex and TPA together further accentuated this response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the presence of both GR and AP-1 proteins, especially Jun family members, at this hTH promoter site. Dex did not stimulate hTH promoter activity in a catecholaminergic cell line, which had low endogenous GR levels, but did activate the response when GR was expressed exogenously. Thus, our studies have clearly identified a glucocorticoid-responsive element in a 7 bp AP-1-like motif in the promoter region at -7.24 kb of the human TH gene. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Novel expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene requires both acidic fibroblast growth factor and an activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1994-12-01

    Substances found in the soluble extract of muscle can alter the differentiative fate of certain brain neurons in culture by triggering novel expression of the gene for the catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Iacovitti et al., 1989; Iacovitt, 1991). In this study, we demonstrate that TH induction in cultured noncatecholamine neurons from the mouse striatum requires the cooperative interaction of at least two substances found in muscle. Purification studies, combined with biological assay, revealed that one necessary component is acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), and the other, an unidentified molecule(s) of < 10 kDa molecular weight that activated aFGF. Thus, muscle-derived aFGF, if incubated in the presence but not the absence of the < 10 kDa fraction of muscle, induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of striatal neurons that novelly express TH. This expression was blocked by prior incubation and protein A precipitation of the factor with polyclonal antibodies to aFGF (1:200-1:1000). Similar to muscle-purified aFGF, commercial preparations of native bovine and human recombinant aFGF (0.1-100 ng/ml) were potent inducers of TH when coincubated with the < 10 kDa activator. In contrast, basic FGF produced little and FGF-7 no induction of TH. Unlike the unidentified activating agent in muscle, heparin (20-500 mU), a known activator of aFGF, did not potentiate the factor's TH-inducing activity. Nonetheless, heparatinase (100 mU) prevented TH induction by aFGF and its activator, indicating that binding of heparan sulfated proteoglycans is necessary for the effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Intermittent exposure to xenon protects against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

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    Ping Jia

    Full Text Available Aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin, are widely used to treat Gram-negative infections due to their efficacy and low cost. Nevertheless the use of gentamicin is limited by its major side effect, nephrotoxicity. Xenon (Xe provided substantial organoprotective effects in acute injury of the brain and the heart and protected against renal ischemic-reperfusion injury. In this study, we investigated whether xenon could protect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intermittently exposed to either 70% xenon or 70% nitrogen (N2 balanced with 30% oxygen before and during gentamicin administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 7 days to model gentamicin-induced kidney injury. We observed that intermittent exposure to Xe provided morphological and functional renoprotection, which was characterized by attenuation of renal tubular damage, apoptosis, and oxidative stress, but not a reduction in inflammation. We also found that Xe pretreatment upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α and its downstream effector vascular endothelial growth factor, but not HIF-1α. With regard to the three HIF prolyl hydroxylases, Xe pretreatment upregulated prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein-2 (PHD2, suppressed PHD1, and had no influence on PHD3 in the rat kidneys. Pretreatment with Xe also increased the expression of miR-21, a microRNA known to have anti-apoptotic effects. These results support Xe renoprotection against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. The function of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum protein OS-9.

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    Ulf Brockmeier

    Full Text Available The protein "amplified in osteosarcoma-9" (OS-9 has been shown previously to interact with the prolyl hydroxylases PHD2 and PHD3. These enzymes initiate oxygen-dependent degradation of the α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, a transcription factor that adapts cells to insufficient oxygen supply (hypoxia. A new model has been proposed where OS-9 triggers PHD dependent degradation of HIF-α. It was the aim of our study to define the molecular mode of action of OS-9 in the regulation of PHD and HIF activity. Although initial co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed physical interaction between OS-9 and PHD2, neither overexpression nor lentiviral inhibition of OS-9 expression affected HIF regulation. Subcellular localization experiments revealed a distinct reticular staining pattern for OS-9 while PHD2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Further cell fractionation experiments and glycosylation tests indicated that OS-9 is a luminal ER protein. In vivo protein interaction analysis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET showed no significant physical interaction of overexpressed PHD2-CFP and OS-9-YFP. We conclude that OS-9 plays no direct functional role in HIF degradation since physical interaction of OS-9 with oxygen sensing HIF prolyl hydroxylases cannot occur in vivo due to their different subcellular localization.

  20. HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, LCAT, ACAT, LDL receptor, and SRB-1 in hereditary analbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaihui; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2003-07-01

    Hereditary analbuminemia is associated with hypercholesterolemia, which has been shown to be primarily caused by increased extrahepatic production of cholesterol. Nagase rats with hereditary analbuminemia (NAR) have been used as a model to dissect the effect of primary hypoalbuminemia from that caused by proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of hereditary analbuminemia on protein expression of the key factors involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hepatic tissue protein abundance of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol catabolism), low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor (SRB-1), acyl-coA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2), and plasma concentration of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), as well as HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and LCAT activities were determined in fasting male NAR and Sprague-Dawley control rats. The NAR group exhibited significant up-regulation of HMG-CoA reductase protein abundance but normal HMG-CoA reductase enzymatic activity. This was coupled with a significant up-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and a mild up-regulation of ACAT protein abundance and activity. However, hepatic LDL receptor and HDL receptor and plasma LCAT protein concentration and activity were normal in NAR. Hypercholesterolemia in NAR is associated with elevated hepatic HMG-CoA reductase protein abundance, but normal HMG-CoA reductase activity. These findings point to post-translational regulation of this enzyme and favor an extrahepatic origin of hypercholesterolemia in NAR. The observed up-regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase represents a compensatory response to the associated hypercholesterolemia. Unlike nephrotic syndrome, which causes severe LDL receptor, HDL receptor, and LCAT deficiencies, hereditary analbuminemia does not affect these proteins.

  1. Purification, characterization, and directed evolution study of a vitamin D{sub 3} hydroxylase from Pseudonocardia autotrophica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu [Bioresource Laboratories, Mercian Corporation, 1808 Nakaizumi, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0078 (Japan); Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Kabumoto, Hiroki; Nishimura, Kenji; Fujii, Tadashi; Yanai, Satoshi [Bioresource Laboratories, Mercian Corporation, 1808 Nakaizumi, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0078 (Japan); Takeda, Koji [BioTechnical Development Center, Mercian Corporation, 1808 Nakaizumi, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0078 (Japan); Tamura, Noriko [Research Institute of Genome-based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2-17-2-1 Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8517 (Japan); Arisawa, Akira, E-mail: arisawa-a@mercian.co.jp [Bioresource Laboratories, Mercian Corporation, 1808 Nakaizumi, Iwata, Shizuoka 438-0078 (Japan); Tamura, Tomohiro, E-mail: t-tamura@aist.go.jp [Research Institute of Genome-based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2-17-2-1 Tsukisamu-Higashi, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8517 (Japan); Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita-9, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2009-07-24

    Vitamin D{sub 3} (VD{sub 3}) is a fat-soluble prohormone that plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, immunity, and control of cell proliferation and cell differentiation in mammals. The actinomycete Pseudonocardia autotrophica is capable of bioconversion of VD{sub 3} into its physiologically active forms, namely, 25(OH)VD{sub 3} or 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}VD{sub 3}. In this study, we isolated and characterized Vdh (vitamin D{sub 3} hydroxylase), which hydroxylates VD{sub 3} from P. autotrophica NBRC 12743. The vdh gene encodes a protein containing 403 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44,368 Da. This hydroxylase was found to be homologous with the P450 belonging to CYP107 family. Vdh had the same ratio of the V{sub max} values for VD{sub 3} 25-hydroxylation and 25(OH)VD{sub 3} 1{alpha}-hydroxylation, while other enzymes showed preferential regio-specific hydroxylation on VD{sub 3}. We characterized a collection of Vdh mutants obtained by random mutagenesis and obtained a Vdh-K1 mutant by the combination of four amino acid substitutions. Vdh-K1 showed one-order higher VD{sub 3} 25-hydroxylase activity than the wild-type enzyme. Biotransformation of VD{sub 3} into 25(OH)VD{sub 3} was successfully accomplished with a Vdh-expressed recombinant strain of actinobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis. Vdh may be a useful enzyme for the production of physiologically active forms of VD{sub 3} by a single cytochrome P450.

  2. Childhood asthma and spirometric indices are associated with polymorphic markers of two vitamin D 25-hydroxylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting Fan; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Tang, Man Fung; Kong, Alice Pik-Shan; Sy, Hing Yee; Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, Juliana Chung-ngor; Wong, Gary Wing-kin

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphic markers of vitamin D pathway genes have been associated with asthma traits in different White populations. This study investigated the relationship between asthma phenotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D binding protein (GC), two 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 and CYP27A1), and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in Hong Kong Chinese children. 23 SNPs of the five vitamin D pathway genes were successfully genotyped in 914 asthmatic children and 1231 non-allergic controls. Genotypic and haplotypic associations with asthma phenotypes (diagnosis, spirometric indices, total IgE, and eosinophil percentage) were analyzed by multivariate regression. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction was used to detect epistatic interactions between SNPs for asthma phenotypes. Several SNPs of CYP27A1, CYP27B1, GC, and CYP2R1 were associated with asthma or spirometric indices, although only the association between FEV1 and CYP2R1 rs7935792 passed Bonferroni correction (p = 2.73 × 10(-4) ). Patients with CC genotype of rs7935792 had higher FEV1 than those with the other two genotypes. Asthma was also associated with TT haplotype of CYP27A1 and AGGATA haplotype of CYP2R1 (p = 0.021 and 0.024, respectively). Besides, strong association was found between FEV1 and GATAG of CYP2R1 (β = 13.37, p = 4.83 × 10(-4) ). GMDR failed to identify any 2-locus to 4-locus interaction that modulated asthma or spirometric indices. Several SNPs and haplotypes of CYP2R1 are associated with asthma diagnosis and FEV1 in children. Asthma is also modestly associated with a CYP27A1 haplotype. These two 25-hydroxylase genes may be genetic determinants for asthma phenotypes in children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. CYP287A1 is a carotenoid 2-β-hydroxylase required for deinoxanthin biosynthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Shiyou; Chen, Ming; Lu, Wei; Lin, Min; Molnár, István; Xu, Yuquan

    2015-12-01

    The carotenoid deinoxanthin is a crucial resistance factor against various stresses in the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Disruption of the gene dr2473 encoding the cytochrome P450 CYP287A1 led to the accumulation of 2-deoxydeinoxanthin in D. radiodurans, demonstrating that CYP287A1 is a novel β-carotene 2-hydroxylase. The dr2473 knockout mutant was shown to be more sensitive to UV radiation and oxidative stress than the wild-type strain D. radiodurans R1, indicating that the C2 alcohol of deinoxanthin is important for antioxidant activity.

  4. An artificial TCA cycle selects for efficient α-ketoglutarate dependent hydroxylase catalysis in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Eleni; Breisch, Marina; Julsing, Mattijs K; Falcioni, Francesco; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Amino acid hydroxylases depend directly on the cellular TCA cycle via their cosubstrate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and are highly useful for the selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of amino acids. This study evaluates TCA cycle engineering strategies to force and increase α-KG flux through proline-4-hydroxylase (P4H). The genes sucA (α-KG dehydrogenase E1 subunit) and sucC (succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit) were alternately deleted together with aceA (isocitrate lyase) in proline degradation-deficient Escherichia coli strains (ΔputA) expressing the p4h gene. Whereas, the ΔsucCΔaceAΔputA strain grew in minimal medium in the absence of P4H, relying on the activity of fumarate reductase, growth of the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strictly depended on P4H activity, thus coupling growth to proline hydroxylation. P4H restored growth, even when proline was not externally added. However, the reduced succinyl-CoA pool caused a 27% decrease of the average cell size compared to the wildtype strain. Medium supplementation partially restored the morphology and, in some cases, enhanced proline hydroxylation activity. The specific proline hydroxylation rate doubled when putP, encoding the Na+ /l-proline transporter, was overexpressed in the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain. This is in contrast to wildtype and ΔputA single-knock out strains, in which α-KG availability obviously limited proline hydroxylation. Such α-KG limitation was relieved in the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain. Furthermore, the ΔsucAΔaceAΔputA strain was used to demonstrate an agar plate-based method for the identification and selection of active α-KG dependent hydroxylases. This together with the possibility to waive selection pressure and overcome α-KG limitation in respective hydroxylation processes based on living cells emphasizes the potential of TCA cycle engineering for the productive application of α-KG dependent hydroxylases. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1511-1520. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Summary of the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines on Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Montori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for about 95% of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Newborns are currently being screened for the classical forms of this disease throughout the United States and in 12 other countries. As such, it seems important to develop the best practice guidelines for treating not only infants and children, but affected adults as well. This report gives a brief overview of the most recent expert opinion and clinical practice guidelines for CAH as formulated by The Endocrine Society Task Force.

  6. Lesions of nigrostriatal pathway reduce expression of tyrosine hydroxylase gene in residual dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirao, T; Evinger, M J; Iacovitti, L; Reis, D J

    1992-07-20

    The effects of unilateral mechanical transection of the nigrostriatal bundle of rat brain on the level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA and on the activity of TH enzyme in the substantia nigra (SN) were examined. Lesions resulted, by 14 days, in reductions of TH mRNA level to 10% of control and of TH enzyme activity to 39% of control in the ipsilateral SN. The percentage of TH mRNA is lower than either the percentage of surviving dopaminergic neurons or the remaining TH enzyme activity. In situ hybridization analyses also demonstrated the reduction of TH mRNA concentration in surviving dopaminergic neurons in the ipsilateral SN.

  7. Monoamine Oxidase and Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Gun Hee; Hwang, Keum Hee

    2012-03-01

    This research was designed to determine what components of Gardenia jasminoides play a major role in inhibiting the enzymes related antidepressant activity of this plant. In our previous research, the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminosides fruits inhibited the activities of both monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B), and oral administration of the ethanolic extract slightly increased serotonin concentrations in the brain tissues of rats and decreased MAO-B activity. In addition, we found through in vitro screening test that the ethyl acetate fraction showed modest inhibitory activity on dopamine-β hydroxylase (DBH). The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of five bio-active compounds, protocatechuic acid (1), geniposide (2), 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (3), 3,5-d-ihydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptanes (4), and ursolic acid (5), from the ethyl acetate fraction of G. jasminoides fruits. The isolated compounds showed different inhibitory potentials against MAO-A, -B, and DBH. Protocatechuic acid showed potent inhibition against MAO-B (IC50 300 μmol/L) and DBH (334 μmol/L), exhibiting weak MAO-A inhibition (2.41 mmol/L). Two iridoid glycosides, geniposide (223 μmol/L) and 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide (127μmol/L), were selective MAO-B inhibitor. Especially, 6'-O-trans-p-coumaroylgeniposide exhibited more selective MAO-B inhibition than deprenyl, well-known MAO-B inhibitor for the treatment of early-stage Parkinson's disease. The inhibitory activity of 3,5-di-hydroxy-1,7-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) heptane was strong for MAO-B (196 μmol/L), modest for MAO-A (400 μmol/L), and weak for DBH (941 μmol/L). Ursolic acid exhibited significant inhibition of DBH (214 μmol/L), weak inhibition of MAO-B (780 μmol/L), and no inhibition against MAO-A. Consequently, G. jasminoides fruits are considerable for development of biofunctional food materials for the combination treatment of depression and neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Expression and effect of proline hydroxylase domain 2 in retina of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the expression of proline hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2 in the retina of diabetic rats and investigate the relationship between PHD2 and relevant intraocular vascular proliferation factors. METHODS: Sixty male specific pathogen free (SPF Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the diabetic group and the control group. The rats in the diabetic group were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg/kg (0.60 mL/100g of streptozotocin to induce a diabetic rat model. The rats in the control group were injected with an equal volume of sodium citrate buffer solution by the same method. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and immumofluorescence (IF method were adopted to observe the pathological changes of retinal tissues and the expression of PHD2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by 8wk. RT-PCR method was applied to detect the expressions of mRNA of PHD2, VEGF and GFAP. The relationship between PHD2 and other vascular proliferation factors was analyzed. RESULTS: HE staining showed that there was the retinal tissue edema in the diabetic group, and the arrangement was in disorder, and proliferation could be seen. IF staining: in the retina of normal rats, PHD2 was not expressed, GFAP and VEGF were mainly expressed in astrocytes; while in the diabetic rats, PHD2, GFAP and VEGF staining showed strong positivity in all retinal layers, mainly in neurogliocytes. PHD2 was co-expressed with VEGF and GFAP. The mRNA expression levels of PHD2, GFAP and VEGF in the diabetic group were obviously higher than that in the control group,respectively 1.83 times, 1.75 times and 2.08 times. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: The high expression of PHD2 in the retina of early-stage diabetic rats might result from secretion of neurogliocytes induced by local high-concentration blood glucose, thus promoting the expression of VEGF and GFAP. PHD2 plays an important role during

  9. Differential regulation of Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms by dopamine binding and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, A; Cigna, M; Toci, R; Birman, S

    1999-06-11

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the first step in dopamine biosynthesis in Drosophila as in vertebrates. We have previously reported that tissue-specific alternative splicing of the TH primary transcript generates two distinct TH isoforms in Drosophila, DTH I and DTH II (Birman, S., Morgan, B., Anzivino, M., and Hirsh, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 26559-26567). Expression of DTH I is restricted to the central nervous system, whereas DTH II is expressed in non-nervous tissues like the epidermis. The two enzymes present a single structural difference; DTH II specifically contains a very acidic segment of 71 amino acids inserted in the regulatory domain. We show here that the enzymatic and regulatory properties of vertebrate TH are generally conserved in insect TH and that the isoform DTH II presents unique characteristics. The two DTH isoforms were expressed as apoenzymes in Escherichia coli and purified by fast protein liquid chromatography. The recombinant DTH isoforms are enzymatically active in the presence of ferrous iron and a tetrahydropteridine co-substrate. However, the two enzymes differ in many of their properties. DTH II has a lower Km value for the co-substrate (6R)-tetrahydrobiopterin and requires a lower level of ferrous ion than DTH I to be activated. The two isoforms also have a different pH profile. As for mammalian TH, enzymatic activity of the Drosophila enzymes is decreased by dopamine binding, and this effect is dependent on ferrous iron levels. However, DTH II appears comparatively less sensitive than DTH I to dopamine inhibition. The central nervous system isoform DTH I is activated through phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the absence of dopamine. In contrast, activation of DTH II by PKA is only manifest in the presence of dopamine. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser32, a serine residue occurring in a PKA site conserved in all known TH proteins, abolishes phosphorylation of both isoforms and activation by PKA. We

  10. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of green algae and higher plants

  11. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Yu, You-Ben; Xiao, Yao; Li, Dong-Hua; Xiao, Bin; Yu, Oliver; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21) is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3′H, designated as CsF3′H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3′H was highly homologous with the characterized F3′Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3′H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3′H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3′H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3′H catalyzed the 3′-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min−1, respectively. Transcription level of CsF3′H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3′,4′-flavan-3-ols, 3′,4′,5′-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3′H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3′H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3′H in the biosynthesis of 3′,4′-catechins, 3′,4′,5′-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves. PMID:26907264

  12. More tryptophan hydroxylase in the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus in depressed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini, Maura; Underwood, Mark D; Mann, J John; Arango, Victoria

    2005-04-11

    Deficient serotonin neurotransmission in suicide is indicated by reduced brainstem serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), fewer 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors and reduced cortical serotonin transporter binding in suicide victims. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of 5-HT, and alterations in TPH could explain some of these findings. We sought to determine the amount of TPH immunoreactivity (TPH-IR) in the dorsal (DRN) and median (MRN) raphe nuclei in suicides and controls. Brainstems of suicide victims and controls (n = 11 pairs) were collected at autopsy, matched for age, sex and postmortem interval, frozen and sectioned (20 microm). Immunoautoradiography, using an antibody to label TPH, was performed, slides exposed to film and autoradiograms quantified by a computer-based image analysis system. We examined sections every 1000 microm throughout the whole length of the nucleus, performing statistical analysis only on those subjects for whom the raphe was complete (n = 8 pairs). TPH-IR (microCi/g) was higher in suicides than controls (S: 300.8 +/- 70.8 vs. C: 259.6 +/- 40.7, t = 2.57, df = 7, P = 0.04) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and not different between suicides and controls (S: 251.3 +/- 44.2 vs. C: 235.9 +/- 27.4, t = 1.49, df = 7, P = 0.18) in the MRN. DRN TPH-IR was higher in male suicide victims (MS) compared to male controls (MC; MS: 318.4 +/- 54.4 vs. MC: 271.9 +/- 22.5, t = 2.66, df = 6, P = 0.03). The analysis of TPH-IR area and density at each DRN rostrocaudal levels showed higher area and density in suicides compared to controls in the rostral DRN and lower area and density in the caudal DRN. TPH-IR, an index of the amount of TPH enzyme, in the DRN is higher in depressed suicides. More TPH may be an upregulatory homeostatic response to impaired serotonin release or less autoreceptor activation. Alternatively, the serotonin impairment in suicide may be due to hypofunctional serotonin

  13. Sandwich ELISA for quantitative detection of human collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase

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    Myllyharju Johanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a method for specific, quantitative and quick detection of human collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (C-P4H, the key enzyme for collagen prolyl-4 hydroxylation, in crude samples based on a sandwich ELISA principle. The method is relevant to active C-P4H level monitoring during recombinant C-P4H and collagen production in different expression systems. The assay proves to be specific for the active C-P4H α2β2 tetramer due to the use of antibodies against its both subunits. Thus in keeping with the method C-P4H is captured by coupled to an anti-α subunit antibody magnetic beads and an anti-β subunit antibody binds to the PDI/β subunit of the protein. Then the following holoenzyme detection is accomplished by a goat anti-rabbit IgG labeled with alkaline phosphatase which AP catalyzes the reaction of a substrate transformation with fluorescent signal generation. Results We applied an experimental design approach for the optimization of the antibody concentrations used in the sandwich ELISA. The assay sensitivity was 0.1 ng of C-P4H. The method was utilized for the analysis of C-P4H accumulation in crude cell extracts of E. coli overexpressing C-P4H. The sandwich ELISA signals obtained demonstrated a very good correlation with the detected protein activity levels measured with the standard radioactive assay. The developed assay was applied to optimize C-P4H production in E. coli Origami in a system where the C-P4H subunits expression acted under control by different promoters. The experiments performed in a shake flask fed-batch system (EnBase® verified earlier observations that cell density and oxygen supply are critical factors for the use of the inducer anhydrotetracycline and thus for the soluble C-P4H yield. Conclusions Here we show an example of sandwich ELISA usage for quantifying multimeric proteins. The method was developed for monitoring the amount of recombinant C-P4H tetramer in crude E. coli extracts. Due

  14. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase participate in the immunoendocrine responses of hypothermal stressed white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Ka, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2016-12-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) plays a critical role in catecholamine (CA) synthesis of neuroendocrine regulatory network, and is suggested to be involved in the immunoendocrine responses of invertebrate against bacterial challenge. DBH has been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on its potential function was conducted after hypothermal stress, pharmaceutical inhibition and gene silencing in the present study. Cloned DBH L. vannamei (LvDBH), belonging to the Copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenases, was characterized by a DOMON domain, a Cu2_monooxygen domain and three glycosylation sites, and its expression was abundant in thoracic ganglia and haemocytes determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The effects of hypothermal stress showed that LvDBH expression in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas as well as the DBH contents in haemocytes and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in haemolymph are obviously up-regulated. L. vannamei receiving disulfiram for 30-120 min revealed the inhibition of DBH and NE contents in haemocytes and haemolymph respectively, but high level of DA in haemolymph was noticed. Besides, a significant decrease of LvDBH expression in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas were also observed. Subsequently, LvDBH expression was successfully silenced in thoracic ganglia, haemocytes and hepatopancreas of shrimp that received LvDBH-dsRNA for 3 days, and meanwhile, a decrease of DBH contents in haemocytes accompanied by decreased levels of NE and DA in haemolymph were also observed. These results indicate that LvDBH possesses the functional domains responsible for CAs synthesis, and therefore, inhibiting DBH contents in haemocytes by disulfiram and by LvDBH-dsRNA resulted in the impaired synthesis of NE from DA in haemolymph. These also suggest that the increased release of DA and NE in haemolymph for potential modulation of physiological or immunological responses

  15. Involvement of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to tic disorder in Chinese Han population

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    Zheng Ping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2 is a potential candidate gene for screening tic disorder (TD. Methods A case–control study was performed to examine the association between the TPH2 gene and TD. The Sequenom® Mass ARRAY iPLEX GOLD System was used to genotype two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the TPH2 gene in 149 TD children and in 125 normal controls. Results For rs4565946, individuals with the TT genotype showed a significantly higher risk of TD than those with TC plus CC genotypes [odds ratio (OR =3.077, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.273–7.437; P = 0.009], as did male TD children with the TT genotype (OR = 3.228, 95% CI: 1.153–9.040; P = 0.020. The G allele of rs4570625 was significantly more frequent in TD children with higher levels of tic symptoms (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, YGTSS than those in controls among the male children (OR = 1.684, 95%: 1.097–2.583; P = 0.017]. TD children with severe tic symptoms had significantly higher frequencies of rs4546946 TT genotype than did normal controls in boys (OR = 3.292, 95% CI: 1.139–9.513; P = 0.022. We also found that genotype distributions of both SNPs were different between the Asian and European populations. Conclusions Our results indicated that the TT genotype of rs4565946 is a potential genetic risk factor for TD, and the allele G of rs4570625 might be associated with the severity of tic symptoms in boys. These polymorphisms might be susceptibility loci for TD in the Chinese Han population. Because of the confounding of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD,these findings need to be confirmed by studies in much larger samples.

  16. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  17. Isolation and antisense suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase modifies flower pigments and colour in cyclamen

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    Patel Deepa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclamen is a popular and economically significant pot plant crop in several countries. Molecular breeding technologies provide opportunities to metabolically engineer the well-characterized flavonoid biosynthetic pathway for altered anthocyanin profile and hence the colour of the flower. Previously we reported on a genetic transformation system for cyclamen. Our aim in this study was to change pigment profiles and flower colours in cyclamen through the suppression of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, an enzyme in the flavonoid pathway that plays a determining role in the colour of anthocyanin pigments. Results A full-length cDNA putatively identified as a F3'5'H (CpF3'5'H was isolated from cyclamen flower tissue. Amino acid and phylogeny analyses indicated the CpF3'5'H encodes a F3'5'H enzyme. Two cultivars of minicyclamen were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an antisense CpF3'5'H construct. Flowers of the transgenic lines showed modified colour and this correlated positively with the loss of endogenous F3'5'H transcript. Changes in observed colour were confirmed by colorimeter measurements, with an overall loss in intensity of colour (C in the transgenic lines and a shift in hue from purple to red/pink in one cultivar. HPLC analysis showed that delphinidin-derived pigment levels were reduced in transgenic lines relative to control lines while the percentage of cyanidin-derived pigments increased. Total anthocyanin concentration was reduced up to 80% in some transgenic lines and a smaller increase in flavonol concentration was recorded. Differences were also seen in the ratio of flavonol types that accumulated. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report of genetic modification of the anthocyanin pathway in the commercially important species cyclamen. The effects of suppressing a key enzyme, F3'5'H, were wide ranging, extending from anthocyanins to other branches of the flavonoid pathway. The results

  18. Cloning and Characterization of a Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase Gene from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Shan; Zhou, Rui; Yu, You-Ben; Xiao, Yao; Li, Dong-Hua; Xiao, Bin; Yu, Oliver; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-02-22

    Tea leaves contain abundant flavan-3-ols, which include dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC 1.14.13.21) is one of the enzymes in the establishment of the hydroxylation pattern. A gene encoding F3'H, designated as CsF3'H, was isolated from Camellia sinensis with a homology-based cloning technique and deposited in the GenBank (GenBank ID: KT180309). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CsF3'H was highly homologous with the characterized F3'Hs from other plant species. Four conserved cytochrome P450-featured motifs and three F3'H-specific conserved motifs were discovered in the protein sequence of CsF3'H. Enzymatic analysis of the heterologously expressed CsF3'H in yeast demonstrated that tea F3'H catalyzed the 3'-hydroxylation of naringenin, dihydrokaempferol and kaempferol. Apparent Km values for these substrates were 17.08, 143.64 and 68.06 μM, and their apparent Vmax values were 0.98, 0.19 and 0.44 pM·min(-1), respectively. Transcription level of CsF3'H in the new shoots, during tea seed germination was measured, along with that of other key genes for flavonoid biosynthesis using real-time PCR technique. The changes in 3',4'-flavan-3-ols, 3',4',5'-flavan-3-ols and flavan-3-ols, were consistent with the expression level of CsF3'H and other related genes in the leaves. In the study of nitrogen supply for the tea plant growth, our results showed the expression level of CsF3'H and all other tested genes increased in response to nitrogen depletion after 12 days of treatment, in agreement with a corresponding increase in 3',4'-catechins, 3',4',5'-catechins and flavan 3-ols content in the leaves. All these results suggest the importance of CsF3'H in the biosynthesis of 3',4'-catechins, 3',4',5'-catechins and flavan 3-ols in tea leaves.

  19. Multiple signaling pathways direct the initiation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in cultured brain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1997-10-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a second co-activator molecule can novelly induce expression of the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in non-TH expressing neurons of the striatum. Several co-activators have been identified, including substances present in L6 muscle cell extract (X. Du et al., J. Neurosci. 14 (1994) 7688-7694) catecholamines, such as dopamine (DA) (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurosci. 15 (1995) 5420-5427; X. Du et al., Brain Res. 680 (1995) 229-233) and activators of protein kinase C (PKC) such as TPA (X. Du and L. Iacovitti, J. Neurochem. 68 (1997) 564-569). In the present study, we investigated whether activators of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway also serve as effective co-activators of aFGF in the induction of TH gene expression. In addition, the combinatorial effects of the various TH-inducing agents were also evaluated. We found that, as with other co-activating molecules, the PKA stimulants IBMX and forskolin had no TH-inducing capacity when administered alone. However, co-treatment of 10 ng/ml aFGF with either (250 microM) IBMX or (10 microM) forskolin resulted in the novel expression of TH in 25% of plated neurons. The number of TH-expressing neurons was increased to 55% in aFGF-treated cultures co-incubated with aFGF and both (250 microM) IBMX and (10 microM) forskolin. Time course studies indicated that TH induction was rapid (peaking within 24 h) and enduring (lasting 4 days in culture). Induction of TH by aFGF and IBMX/forskolin was partially blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase, such as H7, H8 and H89, as well as pretreatment with protein (cyclohexamide) or RNA synthesis (amanitin and actinomycin D) inhibitors. The concomitant addition of combinations of co-activator molecules (DA, TPA and IBMX/forskolin) and aFGF resulted in the additive induction of TH. Maximal expression of TH (80% of striatal neurons) was accomplished when

  20. A simple two step procedure for purification of the catalytic domain of chicken tryptophan hydroxylase 1 in a form suitable for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windahl, Michael Skovbo; Petersen, Charlotte R.; Munch, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1 in Escheri......Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) [EC 1.14.16.4] catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan, which is the first and rate-determining step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin. We have expressed the catalytic domain of chicken (Gallus gallus) TPH isoform 1...

  1. Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside protect cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through upregulating the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase by inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Mao; Liao, Yin-Juan; Hou, Guang-Han; Yang, Zhong-Bao; Zuo, Mei-Ling

    2016-12-01

    To explore the new mechanism of neuroprtection of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside and providing reliable theoretical foundation and experimental evidence for the emergency treatment and rehabilitation of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. A rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was constructed and intervened with monosialotetrahexosylganglioside(5mg/kg) and lipid peroxidation inhibitor U-101033E(40mg/kg). TTC straining and neurobiological function score were used to evaluate brain injury. 4-HNE and MDA content were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. The expression of tyrosine hydroxilase at both mRNA and protein levels and enzyme activity were determined to evaluate the gene disfunction. Tyrosine content in brain and in serum and the DOPA content in plasma were measured to evaluate the metabolism of tyrosine. As the study shown, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion lead to brain infarction and neurobiological function losing accompany with upregulation of 4-HNE and MDA levels and downregulation of TH expression (mRNA and protein) and decreased enzyme activity. The results above mentioned can be reversed obviously by intervening with monosialotetrahexosylganglioside and lipid peroxidation inhibitor U-101033E. Toxic aldehyde accumulation leaded to disfunction of tyrosine hydroxylase and excessive tyrosine and decreased synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitter such as dopamine and accelerated neuron cell injury. Both monosialotetrahexosylganglioside and U-101033E presented neuroprotecion by restoring the tyrosine/dopa pathway through reversing the function of tyrosine hydroxylase by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. In Vivo Evolution of Butane Oxidation by Terminal Alkane Hydroxylases AlkB and CYP153A6▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Chen, Mike M.; van Beilen, Jan B.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the AlkB and CYP153 families catalyze the first step in the catabolism of medium-chain-length alkanes, selective oxidation of the alkane to the 1-alkanol, and enable their host organisms to utilize alkanes as carbon sources. Small, gaseous alkanes, however, are converted to alkanols by evolutionarily unrelated methane monooxygenases. Propane and butane can be oxidized by CYP enzymes engineered in the laboratory, but these produce predominantly the 2-alkanols. Here we report the in vivo-directed evolution of two medium-chain-length terminal alkane hydroxylases, the integral membrane di-iron enzyme AlkB from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 and the class II-type soluble CYP153A6 from Mycobacterium sp. strain HXN-1500, to enhance their activity on small alkanes. We established a P. putida evolution system that enables selection for terminal alkane hydroxylase activity and used it to select propane- and butane-oxidizing enzymes based on enhanced growth complementation of an adapted P. putida GPo12(pGEc47ΔB) strain. The resulting enzymes exhibited higher rates of 1-butanol production from butane and maintained their preference for terminal hydroxylation. This in vivo evolution system could be useful for directed evolution of enzymes that function efficiently to hydroxylate small alkanes in engineered hosts. PMID:19011057

  3. In vivo evolution of butane oxidation by terminal alkane hydroxylases AlkB and CYP153A6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J; Chen, Mike M; van Beilen, Jan B; Arnold, Frances H

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the AlkB and CYP153 families catalyze the first step in the catabolism of medium-chain-length alkanes, selective oxidation of the alkane to the 1-alkanol, and enable their host organisms to utilize alkanes as carbon sources. Small, gaseous alkanes, however, are converted to alkanols by evolutionarily unrelated methane monooxygenases. Propane and butane can be oxidized by CYP enzymes engineered in the laboratory, but these produce predominantly the 2-alkanols. Here we report the in vivo-directed evolution of two medium-chain-length terminal alkane hydroxylases, the integral membrane di-iron enzyme AlkB from Pseudomonas putida GPo1 and the class II-type soluble CYP153A6 from Mycobacterium sp. strain HXN-1500, to enhance their activity on small alkanes. We established a P. putida evolution system that enables selection for terminal alkane hydroxylase activity and used it to select propane- and butane-oxidizing enzymes based on enhanced growth complementation of an adapted P. putida GPo12(pGEc47 Delta B) strain. The resulting enzymes exhibited higher rates of 1-butanol production from butane and maintained their preference for terminal hydroxylation. This in vivo evolution system could be useful for directed evolution of enzymes that function efficiently to hydroxylate small alkanes in engineered hosts.

  4. Ablation of cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 gene attenuates hepatic steatosis and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Sha; Zhou, Yunfeng; Su, Wen; Ruan, Xiongzhong; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Feng; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Guan, Youfei

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by simple hepatic steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hepatic fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Dysregulated fatty acid metabolism in the liver plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Cytochrome P450 omega-hydroxylase 4A14 (CYP4A14) is a homolog of human CYP4A hydroxylase that catalyzes omega-hydroxylation of medium-chain fatty acids and arachidonic acid in mice. The goal of this study was to determine the role of CYP4A14 in the development and the progression of NAFLD. Here, we showed that hepatic CYP4A expression was up-regulated in the livers of patients and three murine models of NAFLD. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of CYP4A14 in the livers of C57BL/6 mice resulted in a fatty liver phenotype with a significant increase in hepatic fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) expression. In contrast, CYP4A14 gene-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet or a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet exhibited attenuated liver lipid accumulation and reduced hepatic FAT/CD36 expression. In addition, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was markedly ameliorated in MCD diet-fed CYP4A14-deficient mice. Collectively, CYP4A14 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both SS and NASH and may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:28270609

  5. Engineering of daidzein 3’-hydroxylase P450 enzyme into catalytically self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, 3’-daidzein hydroxylase, CYP105D7 (3’-DH), responsible for daidzein hydroxylation at the 3’-position, was recently reported. CYP105D7 (3’-DH) is a class I type of CYP that requires electrons provided through electron transfer proteins such as ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Presently, we constructed an artificial CYP in order to develop a reaction host for the production of a hydroxylated product. Fusion-mediated construction with the reductase domain from self-sufficient CYP102D1 was done to increase electron transfer efficiency and coupling with the oxidative process. An artificial self-sufficient daidzein hydroxylase (3’-ASDH) displayed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and CYP. The fusion enzyme catalyzed hydroxylation of daidzein more efficiently, with a kcat/Km value of 16.8 μM-1 min-1, which was about 24-fold higher than that of the 3’-DH-camA/B reconstituted enzyme. Finally, a recombinant Streptomyces avermitilis host for the expression of 3’-ASDH and production of the hydroxylated product was developed. The conversion that was attained (34.6%) was 5.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type. PMID:22697884

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cytochrome P450 taxoid 9á-hydroxylase in Ginkgo biloba cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Han, Zhentai; Sun, Guiling; Hoffman, Angela; Wilson, Iain W; Yang, Yanfang; Gao, Qian; Wu, Jianqiang; Xie, Dan; Dai, Jungui; Qiu, Deyou

    2014-01-17

    Taxol is a well-known effective anticancer compound. Due to the inability to synthesize sufficient quantities of taxol to satisfy commercial demand, a biotechnological approach for a large-scale cell or cell-free system for its production is highly desirable. Several important genes in taxol biosynthesis are currently still unknown and have been shown to be difficult to isolate directly from Taxus, including the gene encoding taxoid 9α-hydroxylase. Ginkgo biloba suspension cells exhibit taxoid hydroxylation activity and provides an alternate means of identifying genes encoding enzymes with taxoid 9α-hydroxylation activity. Through analysis of high throughput RNA sequencing data from G. biloba, we identified two candidate genes with high similarity to Taxus CYP450s. Using in vitro cell-free protein synthesis assays and LC-MS analysis, we show that one candidate that belongs to the CYP716B, a subfamily whose biochemical functions have not been previously studied, possessed 9α-hydroxylation activity. This work will aid future identification of the taxoid 9α-hydroxylase gene from Taxus sp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversifying selection on flavanone 3-hydroxylase and isoflavone synthase genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cheng

    Full Text Available Soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H are two key enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and flavonoids, both of which play diverse roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of these genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide polymorphisms in Isoflavone synthase (IFS1, IFS2 and Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H2 genes from 33 soybean accessions, including 17 cultivars (Glycine max and 16 their wild progenitors (Glycine soja. Our data showed that the target genes shared the levels of nucleotide polymorphism with three reference genes involved in plant-microbe interactions, but possessed a much higher nucleotide polymorphism than other reference genes. Moreover, no significant genetic differentiation was found between cultivated soybean and its wild relatives in three target genes, despite of considering bottleneck and founder effect during domestication. These results indicate that IFS and F3H genes could have experienced gene introgressions or diversifying selection events during domestication process. Especially, F3H2 gene appears to evolve under positive selection and enjoy a faster evolutionary rate than IFS1 and IFS2 genes.

  8. Engineering of daidzein 3’-hydroxylase P450 enzyme into catalytically self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kwon-Young

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme, 3’-daidzein hydroxylase, CYP105D7 (3’-DH, responsible for daidzein hydroxylation at the 3’-position, was recently reported. CYP105D7 (3’-DH is a class I type of CYP that requires electrons provided through electron transfer proteins such as ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Presently, we constructed an artificial CYP in order to develop a reaction host for the production of a hydroxylated product. Fusion-mediated construction with the reductase domain from self-sufficient CYP102D1 was done to increase electron transfer efficiency and coupling with the oxidative process. An artificial self-sufficient daidzein hydroxylase (3’-ASDH displayed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and CYP. The fusion enzyme catalyzed hydroxylation of daidzein more efficiently, with a kcat/Km value of 16.8 μM-1 min-1, which was about 24-fold higher than that of the 3’-DH-camA/B reconstituted enzyme. Finally, a recombinant Streptomyces avermitilis host for the expression of 3’-ASDH and production of the hydroxylated product was developed. The conversion that was attained (34.6% was 5.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type.

  9. Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xijia; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianxin; He, Yi; Pinot, Franck; Grausem, Bernard; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-10-01

    Anther cuticle and pollen exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pollen grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pollen exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pollen exine occurs. Consistently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatically reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pollen exine formation. Collectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E.S. Hermel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life. At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-µm sections at 120-µm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 ± 206, N = 6; 1020 ± 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively, paraventricular (584 ± 85, N = 8; 682 ± 62, N = 9 or periventricular (743 ± 118, N = 7; 990 ± 158, N = 7 nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.

  11. Expression and bioconversion of recombinant m- and p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylases from a novel moderate halophile, Chromohalobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonduck; Park, Yu Ri; Im, Seonghun; Kim, Dockyu; Kim, Si Wouk

    2012-09-01

    p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (pobA) and m-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (mobA) genes, from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. HS-2, were expressed and characterized. Solubilities of overexpressed recombinant MobA and PobA were enhanced by the induction of the heat-shock proteins DnaJ and DnaK. Each MobA and PobA maintained stable activity under high NaCl concentrations. V (max) and K (m) values for MobA with m-hydroxybenzoate were 70 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein and 81 μM, respectively. Similarly, those of PobA with p-hydroxybenzoate as substrate were 5 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein and 129 μM, respectively. The Escherichia coli expression system, including induction of heat shock proteins, was used to convert hydroxybenzoates into protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) and revealed that resting cells harboring mobA converted 15 mM m-hydroxybenzoate to 15 mM protocatechuate while those harboring pobA converted 50 mM p-hydroxybenzoate to 35 mM protocatechuate at 30 °C, respectively.

  12. Premature aging in behavior and immune functions in tyrosine hydroxylase haploinsufficient female mice. A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, A; Cruces, J; Ceprián, N; Hernández-Sánchez, C; De la Fuente, M

    2018-01-16

    Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ). However, other possible alterations in regulatory systems have not been studied in these animals. The aim of the present work was to analyze whether adult TH-HZ female mice presented the impairment of behavioral traits and immunological responses that occurs with aging and whether they had affected their mean lifespan. ICR-CD1 female TH-HZ and wild type (WT) mice were used in a longitudinal study. Behavioral tests were performed on adult and old mice in order to evaluate their sensorimotor abilities and exploratory capacity, as well as anxiety-like behaviors. At the ages of 2 ± 1, 4 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 13 ± 1 and 20 ± 1 months, peritoneal leukocytes were extracted and several immune functions were assessed (phagocytic capacity, Natural Killer (NK) cytotoxicity, and lymphoproliferative response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)). In addition, several oxidative stress parameters (catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as antioxidant compounds as well as xanthine oxidase activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations, and GSSG/GSH ratio as oxidants) were analyzed. As inflammatory stress parameters TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations, and TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratios as inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers, were measured. Animals were maintained in standard conditions until their natural death. The results indicate

  13. Mechanistic studies of the reaction of reduced methane monooxygenase hydroxylase with dioxygen and substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, A.M.; Stahl, S.S.; Lippard, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-04-28

    Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol. Single-turnover reactions of sMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were studied by stopped-flow optical spectroscopy to examine further the activated dioxygen intermediates and their reactions with hydrocarbon substrates. A diiron(III) peroxo species designated H{sub peroxo} is the first intermediate observed in the reaction between the chemically reduced hydroxylase (H{sub red}) and dioxygen. The optical spectrum of this species determined by diode array detection is presented for the first time and exhibits visible absorption bands with {lambda}{sub max} {approx} 420 nm ({epsilon} = 4,000 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}) and {lambda}{sub max} = 725 nm ({epsilon} = 1,800 M{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}). The temperature dependences of the rate constants for formation and decay of H{sub peroxo} and for the subsequent intermediate, Q, were examined in the absence and in the presence of hydrocarbon substrates, and activation parameters for these reactions were determined. For single-turnover reaction kinetics monitored at 420 nm, the {lambda}{sub max} for Q, a nonlinear Eyring plot was obtained when acetylene or methane was present in sufficiently high concentration. This behavior reflects a two-step mechanism, Q formation followed by Q decay, in which the rate-determining step changes depending on the temperature. The rate of H{sub peroxo} formation does not depend on dioxygen concentration, indicating that an effectively irreversible step involving dioxygen precedes formation of the diiron(III) peroxo species. The rate constant observed at 4 C for H{sub peroxo} formation, 1--2 s{sup {minus}1}, is slower than that determined previously by Moessbauer and optical spectroscopy, {approximately}20--25 s{sup {minus}1} (Liu, K. E., et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1995, 117, 4997--4998; 10174--10185). Possible explanations for this discrepancy include the existence of two distinct peroxo

  14. Clinical phenotype and genetic mutation of fatty acid hydroxylase - associated neurodegeneration: analysis of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jun HUANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To report 4 cases of fatty acid hydroxylase - associated neurodegeneration (FAHN and to summarize the clinical and genetic characteristics of FAHN by literatures review.  Methods Four cases of FAHN patients' clinical and family data were collected in detail. The gDNA of patients and their parents were extracted from peripheral blood. FA2H gene was conducted and followed by Sanger sequencing.  Results Among the 4 cases, 3 cases (Case 2, Case 3, Case 4 presented typical manifestations of FAHN while the other (Case 1 was atypical. Genetic sequencing showed FA2H gene mutation in all affected patients. Compound heterozygous mutation c.461G > A (p.Arg154His and c.794T > G (p.Phe265Cys were seen in Case 1. In Case 2, only one documented heterozygous mutation c.703C > T (p.Arg235Cys was found, and dificit mutation was not found in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip test of the patient and her mother. Compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys and insertion mutation c.172_173insGGGCCAGGAC (p.Ile58ArgfsX47 were presented in Case 3. In Case 4, compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys, c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln and c.976G > A (p. Gly326Asp were seen, while his father was the carrier of c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys mutation and his mother was the carrier of c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln and c.976G > A (p.Gly326Asp mutation. According to the standard of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG, c.461G > A (p.Arg154His and c.794T > G (p.Phe265Cys in Case 1, and c.703C > T (p.Arg235Cys in Case 2 were considered as "likely pathogenic", while FA2H gene compound heterozygous mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys, insertion mutation c.172_173insGGGCCAGGAC (p.Ile58ArgfsX47 in Case 3 was as "pathogenic", and in Case 4, the FA2H gene mutation c.688G > A (p.Glu230Lys and c.968C > A (p.Pro323Gln were "pathogenic" and c.976G > A (p.Gly326Asp was "likely pathogenic".  Conclusions FAHN has highly clinical and genetic

  15. D-vitamin-1 alpha-hydroxylase-mangel som årsag til svaer rakitis hos en etårig dreng

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Brock-Jacobsen, Bendt

    2006-01-01

    ,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was undetectable in laboratory tests. Vitamin D1alpha-hydroxylase deficiency was suspected and confirmed by DNA analysis, which revealed a 7 bp duplication in exon 8 of the CYP27B1 gene. The treatment was changed to an activated formula of vitamin D, alphacalcidol, whereupon the clinical...

  16. Acyl-coenzyme A : cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, avasimibe, stimulates bile acid synthesis and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, SM; Zoeteweij, JP; Bos, MHA; de Wit, ECM; Havinga, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors are currently in clinical development as potential lipid-lowering and antiatherosclerotic agents. We investigated the effect of avasimibe (Cl- 1011), a novel ACAT inhibitor, on bile acid synthesis and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in

  17. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  18. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior, cognition, central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yani; Song, Zhuoyi; Ding, Yujuan; Xin, Ye; Wu, Tong; Su, Tao; He, Rongqiao; Tai, Fadao; Lian, Zhenmin

    2016-02-01

    Formaldehyde exposure is toxic to the brains of mammals, but the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of inhaled formaldehyde on anxiety, depression, cognitive capacity and central levels of glucocorticoid receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase in mice. After exposure to 0, 1 or 2 ppm gaseous formaldehyde for one week, we measured anxiety-like behavior using open field and elevated plus-maze tests, depression-like behavior using a forced swimming test, learning and memory using novel object recognition tests, levels of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase in the Arc, MPOA, ZI and VTA using immuhistochemistry. We found that inhalation of 1 ppm formaldehyde reduced levels of anxiety-like behavior. Inhalation of 2 ppm formaldehyde reduced body weight, but increased levels of depression-like behavior, impaired novel object recognition, and lowered the numbers of glucocorticoid receptor immonureactive neurons in the hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase immonureactive neurons in the ventral tegmental area and the zona incerta, medial preoptic area. Different concentrations of gaseous formaldehyde result in different effects on anxiety, depression-like behavior and cognition ability which may be associated with alterations in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and brain tyrosine hydroxylase levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in paraventricular and supraoptic neurons in illnesses with prolonged osmotic or nonosmotic stimulation of vasopressin release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayotacopoulou, Maria T.; Malidelis, Yiannis I.; Fliers, Eric; Bouras, Constantin; Ravid, Rivka; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that in the human para-ventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) - the first and rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis - is localized mainly in magnocellular neurons and that antemortem factors regulate its expression. The

  20. Association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene, harm avoidance and binge eating behavior in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Martiadis, Vassilis; Serino, Ismene; Di Filippo, Carmela; Maj, Mario

    2007-06-21

    Genes involved in serotonin transmission are likely involved in the biological predisposition to bulimia nervosa. We investigated whether the A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 gene was associated to bulimia nervosa and/or to some phenotypic aspects of the disorder. One hundred eighty Caucasian women (91 patients with bulimia nervosa and 89 healthy controls) were enrolled into the study. They underwent a blood sample collection for A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 genotyping and a clinical evaluation assessing comorbidity for Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, harm avoidance personality dimension and bulimic symptoms. The distribution of both tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C genotypes and alleles did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Bulimic women with the AA genotype exhibited a more severe binge eating behavior and higher harm avoidance scores than those with CC genotype. These findings support the idea that tryptophan-hydroxylase-1 A218C polymorphism does not play a part in the genetic susceptibility to bulimia nervosa, but it seems to be involved in predisposing bulimic patients to a more disturbed eating behavior and higher harm avoidance.

  1. Differential feedback regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA and transcriptional activity by rat bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.; Lehmann, E.M.; Princen, H.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    We have used primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes to study the effects of physiological concentrations of various bile acids, commonly found in bile of normal rats, on the mechanism of regulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and bile acid synthesis. Addition of taurocholic acid, the most

  2. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetre, Peter; Lundmark, Per; Wang, August

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) alternations has since long been suspected in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Tryptophan hydroxylase (tryptophan 5-monooxygenase; TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT, and sequence variation in intron 6 of the TPH1 gene has been...

  3. Serotonin and Early Cognitive Development: Variation in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Is Associated with Visual Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Puura, Kaija; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Mononen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho

    2011-01-01

    Background: Allelic variation in the promoter region of a gene that encodes tryptophan hydroxylase isoform 2 (TPH2), a rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system, has been associated with variations in cognitive function and vulnerability to affective spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effects of this gene…

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Key Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase and Flavonoid 3′,5′-Hydroxylase Genes in Affecting the Ratio of Dihydroxylated to Trihydroxylated Catechins in Camellia sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Chengcai; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Zhang, Fen; Cheng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechins (RDTC) is an important indicator of tea quality and biochemical marker for the study of genetic diversity. It is reported to be under genetic control but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) are key enzymes involved in the formation of dihydroxylated and trihydroxylated catechins. The transcriptome and HPLC analysis of tea samples from Longjing43 and Zhonghuang2 under control and shading treatment were performed to assess the F3′H and F3′5′H genes that might affect RDTC. A total of 74.7 million reads of mRNA seq (2×101bp) data were generated. After de novo assembly, 109,909 unigenes were obtained, and 39,982 of them were annotated using 7 public databases. Four key F3′H and F3′5′H genes (including CsF3′5′H1, CsF3′H1, CsF3′H2 and CsF3′H3) were identified to be closely correlated with RDTC. Shading treatment had little effect on RDTC, which was attributed to the stable expression of these key F3′H and F3′5′H genes. The correlation of the coexpression of four key genes and RDTC was further confirmed among 13 tea varieties by real time PCR and HPLC analysis. The coexpression of three F3′H genes and a F3′5′H gene may play a key role in affecting RDTC in Camellia sinensis. The current results may establish valuable foundation for further research about the mechanism controlling catechin composition in tea. PMID:26367395

  5. Is there a link between Depressive Disorders and Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) Gene Polymorphism? - Study from a Distressed Area, Kashmir (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Tarfarosh, Shah Faisal Ahmad; Dar, Mohammad Maqbool; Hussain, Arshad; Shoib, Sheikh; Shah, Tabindah; Shah, Sahil; Manzoor, Mushbiq

    2016-07-06

    The progress that man has made in all domains of life, during all these years of reign over the earth, is utterly remarkable. However, it always came at a price. Each epoch of progress has seen human beings inflicted with trauma and cynical consequences. During the last two decades, Kashmiri (Indian) people have experienced continuous violence, a reign of terror, and political turmoil. Each of these disastrous events has contributed to the increase in psychiatric disorders in this part of the world, especially major depressive disorders. We can observe that besides the environmental influences, gene polymorphism also plays a crucial role in the development of depressive disorders. The role of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene is implicated in various psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, no study has investigated TPH1 A779C gene polymorphism in depressive disorders in a distressed society like Kashmir (India). To study TPH1 A779C single nucleotide polymorphism in depressive disorders in Kashmiri (Indian) population. Two hundred and forty patients diagnosed with depressive disorder, and 160 unrelated healthy volunteers (control), were studied in a case-control study design. Polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis, after digestion with HAP II enzyme. Genotypes and allele frequencies were compared using Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) and a p-value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The mean age ± standard deviation (SD) of depression and control group was 32.02±10.99 and 31.75±9.93, respectively (p= 0.512). It was found that the patients from depression group had AA genotype (51.7%) in comparison to control group (17.5%) and these results were statistically significant (p≤0.0001). Calculation of allelic frequency revealed a stronger association of A allele with depression group (70.83%) than with the control

  6. Sympathetic Hyperactivity, Increased Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Exaggerated Corpus Cavernosum Relaxations Associated with Oxidative Stress Plays a Major Role in the Penis Dysfunction in Townes Sickle Cell Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H Silva

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease patients display priapism that may progress to erectile dysfunction. However, little is known about the pathophysiological alterations of corpus cavernosum in sickle cell disease.Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the functional and molecular alterations of sympathetic machinery and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway in Townes transgenic sickle cell disease mice.Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine and relaxant agents (acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were obtained in corpus cavernosum strips from sickle and C57BL/6 (control mice. Neurogenic contractions and nitrergic relaxations were obtained using electrical-field stimulation. Measurements of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5 and α1A-, α1B- and α1D-adrenoceptor mRNA expressions and reactive-oxygen species were performed. Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser-31 and total tyrosine hydroxylase protein expressions in cavernosal tissues were also measured.The neurogenic contractions were higher in the sickle cell disease group, in association with elevated tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser-31 and total tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression, as well as increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in the sickle mice, whereas α1A-, α1B- and α1D-adrenoceptor mRNA expression remained unchanged. Cavernosal relaxations to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and EFS were higher in sickle mice, accompanied by decreased eNOS and nNOS, along with lower PDE5 mRNA expression. An increase of about 40% in reactive-oxygen species generation in corpus cavernosum from sickle mice was also detected.Our study shows that decreased nitric oxide bioavailability in erectile tissue due to increased oxidative stress leads to both sympathetic hyperactivity and dysregulation of nitric oxide

  7. A large duplication in the gene for lysyl hydroxylase accounts for the type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, T.; Heikkinen, J.; Kivirikko, K.I.; Myllylae, R. (Univ. of Oulu (Finland))

    1993-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a deterogeneous disorder characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, fragility, and other sign of connective tissue involvement. In addition to these, the type VI variant of the disease has some special characteristics such as kyphoscoliosis and ocular abnormalities. The biochemical abnormality in most patients with this autosomal recessively inherited type IV variant is a deficiency in the activity of lysyl hydroxylase (EC 1.14,11.4), the enzyme catalyzing the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens and other proteins with collagen-like amino acid sequences. The type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was first identified in two sisters with a reduced amount of lysyl hydroxylase activity in their skin fibroblasts (S.R. Pinnell, S.M. Krane, J.E. Kenzora, and M.J. Glimcher (1972) N. Engl. J. Med. 286; 1013-1020). Our recent molecular cloning of lysyl hydroxylase has now made it possible to study the mutations leading to the deficiency in lysyl dydroxylase activity in these cells. Our data indicate that the mRNA for lysyl hydroxylase produced in the affected cells is about 4 kb in size, whereas it is 3.2 kb in the control cells. The sequencing of the cDNA for lysyl hydroxylase from the affected cells revealed an apparently homozygous duplication rearrangement of nucleotides 1176 to 1955, corresponding to amino acids 326 to 585 in the normal sequence. From Southern blotting data, the duplicated area in the gene equals about 6-9 kb and corresponds to seven exons. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Sympathetic Hyperactivity, Increased Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Exaggerated Corpus Cavernosum Relaxations Associated with Oxidative Stress Plays a Major Role in the Penis Dysfunction in Townes Sickle Cell Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio H; Claudino, Mário A; Calmasini, Fabiano B; Alexandre, Eduardo C; Franco-Penteado, Carla; Burnett, Arthur L; Antunes, Edson; Costa, Fernando F

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease patients display priapism that may progress to erectile dysfunction. However, little is known about the pathophysiological alterations of corpus cavernosum in sickle cell disease. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the functional and molecular alterations of sympathetic machinery and nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway in Townes transgenic sickle cell disease mice. Concentration-response curves to contractile (phenylephrine) and relaxant agents (acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside) were obtained in corpus cavernosum strips from sickle and C57BL/6 (control) mice. Neurogenic contractions and nitrergic relaxations were obtained using electrical-field stimulation. Measurements of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) and α1A-, α1B- and α1D-adrenoceptor mRNA expressions and reactive-oxygen species were performed. Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser-31 and total tyrosine hydroxylase protein expressions in cavernosal tissues were also measured. The neurogenic contractions were higher in the sickle cell disease group, in association with elevated tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylated at Ser-31 and total tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression, as well as increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression. Likewise, phenylephrine-induced contractions were greater in the sickle mice, whereas α1A-, α1B- and α1D-adrenoceptor mRNA expression remained unchanged. Cavernosal relaxations to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and EFS were higher in sickle mice, accompanied by decreased eNOS and nNOS, along with lower PDE5 mRNA expression. An increase of about 40% in reactive-oxygen species generation in corpus cavernosum from sickle mice was also detected. Our study shows that decreased nitric oxide bioavailability in erectile tissue due to increased oxidative stress leads to both sympathetic hyperactivity and dysregulation of nitric oxide signaling in

  9. Oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether by alkane hydroxylase in dicyclopropylketone-induced and n-octane-grown Pseudomonas putida GPo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christy A; Hyman, Michael R

    2004-08-01

    The alkane hydroxylase enzyme system in Pseudomonas putida GPo1 has previously been reported to be unreactive toward the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). We have reexamined this finding by using cells of strain GPo1 grown in rich medium containing dicyclopropylketone (DCPK), a potent gratuitous inducer of alkane hydroxylase activity. Cells grown with DCPK oxidized MTBE and generated stoichiometric quantities of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Cells grown in the presence of DCPK also oxidized tert-amyl methyl ether but did not appear to oxidize either TBA, ethyl tert-butyl ether, or tert-amyl alcohol. Evidence linking MTBE oxidation to alkane hydroxylase activity was obtained through several approaches. First, no TBA production from MTBE was observed with cells of strain GPo1 grown on rich medium without DCPK. Second, no TBA production from MTBE was observed in DCPK-treated cells of P. putida GPo12, a strain that lacks the alkane-hydroxylase-encoding OCT plasmid. Third, all n-alkanes that support the growth of strain GPo1 inhibited MTBE oxidation by DCPK-treated cells. Fourth, two non-growth-supporting n-alkanes (propane and n-butane) inhibited MTBE oxidation in a saturable, concentration-dependent process. Fifth, 1,7-octadiyne, a putative mechanism-based inactivator of alkane hydroxylase, fully inhibited TBA production from MTBE. Sixth, MTBE-oxidizing activity was also observed in n-octane-grown cells. Kinetic studies with strain GPo1 grown on n-octane or rich medium with DCPK suggest that MTBE-oxidizing activity may have previously gone undetected in n-octane-grown cells because of the unusually high K(s) value (20 to 40 mM) for MTBE.

  10. Strategies for Successful Long-Term Engagement of Adults With Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency Returning to the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Thomas MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH deficiency, also known as phenylketonuria, are lost to follow-up (LTFU; most are adults who stopped attending clinic after the age of 18 years. To understand why adult patients with PAH deficiency disengage from their clinic, a focus group of 8 adults with PAH deficiency who had been LTFU for 2 or more years was held in March 2016. Ten clinicians observed the focus group and discussed strategies for successfully reengaging adult patients and encouraging lifelong management of PAH deficiency. Four strategies were proposed: (1 create a safe, supportive environment, (2 acknowledge patients as partners in their care, (3 develop individualized management plans, and (4 provide patients with additional resources. These strategies provide a framework to motivate change in clinical practice to meet the unique needs of adults with PAH deficiency.

  11. Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) exon 11 is vulnerable - Molecular pathology of mutations in PAH exon 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    distributed throughout the exon. Finally, we identified a pseudoexon in intron 11, which would have pathogenic consequences if activated by mutations or improved splicing conditions. Exonic mutations that disrupt splicing are unlikely to facilitate response to BH(4) and may lead to inconsistent genotype......In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation...... molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified PAH exon 11...

  12. Factors affecting the induction of 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnik-Plevnik, T; Cresnar, B

    1990-05-01

    The 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone was induced in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans ATCC 6227b with different steroids as inducers and the induction process was optimized in regard to the age of the mycelium, to the concentration of the inducer and to the time of induction. Deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, steroids with higher polarity of the side-chain than progesterone, although poorer substrates for in vivo hydroxylation than progesterone, induced more enzyme compared to progesterone. Other alterations in the steroidal ring system examined diminished the induction capability of the inducing steroid to different extent. The highest 11 alpha-hydroxylating activity, if expressed on the basis of mycelial wet weight, was achieved with 18 h old mycelium which was induced for 2 h with 0.30 mM deoxycorticosterone.

  13. Expression of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase gene in a gravi-response mutant, weeping Japanese flowering cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Mami; Nakagawa, Yuriko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-01-01

    Expressions of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene were investigated in a normal upright type and a gravi-response mutant, a weeping type of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus spachiana), that is unable to support its own weight and elongates downward. A segment of the gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA of Prunus spachiana (Ps3ox), which is responsible for active gibberellin synthesis, was amplified by using real-time RT-PCR. The content of Ps3ox mRNA in the weeping type was much greater than that in the upright type, while the endogenous gibberellin level was much higher in the elongating zone of the weeping type. These results suggest that the amount and distribution of synthesized gibberellin regulate secondary xylem formation, and the unbalanced distribution of gibberellin affects the gravi-response of the Prunus tree.

  14. Characterisation of tryptic peptides of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase by high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Mark E. [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dickson, Phillip W. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dunkley, Peter R. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Nagy-Felsobuki, Ellak I. von [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)]. E-mail: ellak@newcastle.edu.au

    2005-03-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is involved in the biosynthesis of catecholamines and is activated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated TH was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS). Two mass scanning methods were used to detect tryptic cleavage products of TH. In the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+), the peptides that contain the phosphorylation sites of TH were identified. In the alternative method, a phosphopeptide was detected in the negative electrospray ionisation mode (ESI-) using single ion monitoring in combination with a sequential ESI+ switching experiment. A raised baseline interfered with detection of hydrophilic peptides in ESI-, with the signal-to-noise ratio indicating that the method was operating near the limit of detection for a conventional electrospray source. The switching method improved the certainty of identification of phosphopeptides.

  15. Co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and glutamic acid decarboxylase in dopamine differentiation factor-treated striatal neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S R; Bossio, A; Iacovitti, L

    1996-01-22

    We have previously shown that dopamine differentiation factors (DDF) can stimulate the novel expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the phenotypically plastic neurons of the embryonic mouse striatum (Du et al., J. Neurosci., 14 (1994) 7688-7694; Du and Iacovitti, J. Neurosci., 15 (1995) 5420-5427). The present study sought to determine whether TH induction required down-regulation of an existing GABAergic trait in striatal neurons or whether enzymes of both neurotransmitter systems were simultaneously expressed. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that, following treatment with DDFs, TH and the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were co-expressed in the same neurons. Moreover, GAD enzyme activity was not affected by the dramatic increase in TH. Thus, the induction of a novel neurotransmitter phenotype in brain neurons does not appear to occur at the expense of the existing phenotype.

  16. Distribution and regulation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase in human parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Cynthia S; Haughey, Bruce H; Armbrecht, Harvey J; Brown, Alex J

    2012-05-01

    Parathyroid glands express the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 1α-hydroxylase (1αOHase). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol) synthesized by extrarenal tissues generally does not enter the circulation, but plays an autocrine/paracrine role specific to the cell type, and is regulated by the needs of that particular cell. While the role of calcitriol produced in the parathyroid glands presumably is to suppress PTH and cell growth, its regulation in this cell type has not been defined. In the present study, we found that regulation of the human parathyroid 1αOHase differs from the renal enzyme in that it is induced by FGF-23 and extracellular calcium. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands from patients with chronic kidney failure normally display a heterogeneous cellularity. We found that the 1αOHase is expressed at much higher levels in oxyphil cells than in chief cells in these patients. Recent findings indicate that oxyphil cell content is increased by treatment with calcium receptor activators (calcimimetics). Here, we demonstrate that the calcimimetic cinacalcet increases the expression of 1αOHase in human parathyroid cultures. Additionally, we found that the 1αOHase in human parathyroid cultures is functionally active, as evidenced by the ability of the enzyme to 1-hydroxylate 25(OH)D(3) in parathyroid monolayers. Calcium, as well as cinacalcet, also induced expression of the degradation enzyme 24-hydroxylase, indicating the presence of a negative feedback system in the parathyroid cells. Therefore, local production of 1αOHase suggests an autocrine/paracrine role in regulating parathyroid function and may mediate, in part, the suppression of PTH by calcium and FGF-23. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss of ferulate 5-hydroxylase leads to Mediator-dependent inhibition of soluble phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Nickolas; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh E.; Chapple, Clint

    2015-06-05

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  18. 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the neonate - trends in steroid anabolism and catabolism during the first weeks of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakoudi, Sofia; Cowan, David A; Christakudis, Georgios; Taylor, Norman F

    2013-11-01

    Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase provides an in vivo model of intrauterine induction of enzymes participating in steroid anabolism and catabolism. Quantitative data for 93 steroid metabolites in urine from 111 patients and 7 controls (25 samples) were compared over the first six weeks of life. Net flux through the key anabolic enzymes was examined by comparison of the totals of steroids derived from the intermediates prior to and following each enzymatic step. Metabolic relationships were established on structural grounds and by Pearson correlation. The relative importance of each catabolic route was evaluated after summing metabolites classified according to their structure as fetal, neonatal, and classical (adult) type. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified the structure at C3-C5 as a key distinguishing feature of the major catabolic streams and demonstrated a split point in metabolic pattern in patients at 7 days. Changes with time in steroid metabolism, larger in patients than in controls, could be interpreted as reflecting increased cortisol demand post partum, the clinical onset of salt-wasting and a transition in catabolism from fetal to postnatal life. Faster involution of the fetal zone and pronounced enhancement of steroid production in zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa were indicated in patients. Predominant at birth were 'planar' fetal-type 5α-reduced metabolites, adapted to placental excretion, which gave way to additionally hydroxylated neonatal-type metabolites, facilitating renal excretion. Classical metabolism made gains over the study period. Overproduction of steroids in utero in 21-hydroxylase deficiency would have induced fetal catabolic pathways dependent on 5α-reduction. A progressive increase of steroids likely to arise from 5α-reductase type 2 activity, again more distinct in disease, was observed. We demonstrate that the key intermediates in the hypothetical 'backdoor' pathway of androgen synthesis are part of a broader catabolic

  19. Functional natural allelic variants of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene governing catechin traits in tea plant and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ji-Qiang; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Chen, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Functional allelic variants of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene provides new information of F3'5'H function of tea plant and its relatives. This insight may serve as the foundation upon which to advance molecular breeding in the tea plant. Catechins are the active components of tea that determine its quality and health attributes. This study established the first integrated genomic strategy for deciphering the genetic basis of catechin traits of tea plant. With the RNA-sequencing analysis of bulked segregants representing the tails of a F1 population segregated for total catechin content, we identified a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene. F3'5'H had one copy in the genomic DNA of tea plant. Among 202 tea accessions, we identified 120 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at F3'5'H locus. Seventeen significant marker-trait associations were identified by association mapping in multiple environments, which were involved in 10 SNP markers, and the traits including the ratio of di/tri-hydroxylated catechins and catechin contents. The associated individual and combination of SNPs explained 4.5-25.2 and 53.0-63.0% phenotypic variations, respectively. In the F1 population (validation population), the catechin trait variation percentages explained by F3'5'H diplotype were 6.9-74.3%. The genotype effects of ten functional SNPs in the F1 population were all consistent with the association population. Furthermore, the function of SNP-711/-655 within F3'5'H was validated by gene expression analysis. Altogether, our work indicated functional SNP allelic variants within F3'5'H governing the ratio of di/tri-hydroxylated catechins and catechin contents. The strong catechin-associated SNPs identified in this study can be used for future marker-assisted selection to improve tea quality.

  20. Pharmacological inhibition of FTO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available In 2007, a genome wide association study identified a SNP in intron one of the gene encoding human FTO that was associated with increased body mass index. Homozygous risk allele carriers are on average three kg heavier than those homozygous for the protective allele. FTO is a DNA/RNA demethylase, however, how this function affects body weight, if at all, is unknown. Here we aimed to pharmacologically inhibit FTO to examine the effect of its demethylase function in vitro and in vivo as a first step in evaluating the therapeutic potential of FTO. We showed that IOX3, a known inhibitor of the HIF prolyl hydroxylases, decreased protein expression of FTO (in C2C12 cells and reduced maximal respiration rate in vitro. However, FTO protein levels were not significantly altered by treatment of mice with IOX3 at 60 mg/kg every two days. This treatment did not affect body weight, or RER, but did significantly reduce bone mineral density and content and alter adipose tissue distribution. Future compounds designed to selectively inhibit FTO's demethylase activity could be therapeutically useful for the treatment of obesity.

  1. Iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent Dioxygenases: an emerging group of molecular targets for nickel toxicity and carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haobin

    2010-01-01

    Nickel compounds are important occupational and environmental pollutants. Chronic exposure to these pollutants has been connected with increased risks of respiratory cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear what are the specific molecular targets for nickel toxicity and carcinogenicity. Here, we propose that the iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family enzymes are important intracellular targets that mediate the toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel. In support of this hypothesis, our data show that three different classes of enzymes in this iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family, including HIF-prolyl hydroxylase PHD2, histone demethylase JHDM2A/JMJD1A, and DNA repair enzyme ABH3, are all highly sensitive to nickel inhibition. Inactivation of these enzymes accounts for a number of deleterious effects caused by nickel in cells, namely hypoxia-mimic stress and aberrant epigenetic changes. Future studies on nickel’s effects on these iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases would deepen our understanding on nickel toxicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:19096759

  2. In vivo imaging of HIF-active tumors by an oxygen-dependent degradation protein probe with an interchangeable labeling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Kuchimaru

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF functions as a master transcriptional regulator for adaptation to hypoxia by inducing adaptive changes in gene expression for regulation of proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and energy metabolism. Cancers with high expression of the alpha subunit of HIF (HIFα are often malignant and treatment-resistant. Therefore, the development of a molecular probe that can detect HIF activity has great potential value for monitoring tumor hypoxia. HIF prolyl hydroxylases (HPHDs act as oxygen sensors that regulate the fate of HIFα protein through its oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD domain. We constructed a recombinant protein PTD-ODD-HaloTag (POH that is under the same ODD regulation as HIFα and contains protein transduction domain (PTD and an interchangeable labeling system. Administration of near-infrared fluorescently labeled POH (POH-N to mouse models of cancers allowed successful monitoring of HIF-active regions. Immunohistochemical analysis for intratumoral localization of POH probe revealed its specificity to HIF-active cells. Furthermore, lack of the PTD domain or a point mutation in the ODD domain abrogated the specificity of POH-N to HIF-active cells. Overall results indicate that POH is a practical probe specific to HIF-active cell in cancers and suggest its large potential for imaging and targeting of HIF-related diseases.

  3. Cell autonomy of HIF effects in Drosophila: tracheal cells sense hypoxia and induce terminal branch sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanin, Lázaro; Dekanty, Andrés; Romero, Nuria; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Gorr, Thomas A; Wappner, Pablo

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila tracheal terminal branches are plastic and have the capacity to sprout out projections toward oxygen-starved areas, in a process analogous to mammalian angiogenesis. This response involves the upregulation of FGF/Branchless in hypoxic tissues, which binds its receptor Breathless on tracheal cells. Here, we show that extra sprouting depends on the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-alpha homolog Sima and on the HIF-prolyl hydroxylase Fatiga that operates as an oxygen sensor. In mild hypoxia, Sima accumulates in tracheal cells, where it induces breathless, and this induction is sufficient to provoke tracheal extra sprouting. In nontracheal cells, Sima contributes to branchless induction, whereas overexpression of Sima fails to attract terminal branch outgrowth, suggesting that HIF-independent components are also required for full induction of the ligand. We propose that the autonomous response to hypoxia that occurs in tracheal cells enhances tracheal sensitivity to increasing Branchless levels, and that this mechanism is a cardinal step in hypoxia-dependent tracheal sprouting.

  4. CYP52X1, Representing New Cytochrome P450 Subfamily, Displays Fatty Acid Hydroxylase Activity and Contributes to Virulence and Growth on Insect Cuticular Substrates in Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhu; Widemann, Emilie; Bernard, Grausem; Lesot, Agnes; Pinot, Franck; Pedrini, Nicolas; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2012-01-01

    Infection of insects by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana proceeds via attachment and penetration of the host cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer or waxy layer of the insect represents a structure rich in lipids including abundant amounts of hydrocarbons and fatty acids. A member of a novel cytochrome P450 subfamily, CYP52X1, implicated in fatty acid assimilation by B. bassiana was characterized. B. bassiana targeted gene knockouts lacking Bbcyp52x1 displayed reduced virulence when topically applied to Galleria mellonella, but no reduction in virulence was noted when the insect cuticle was bypassed using an intrahemoceol injection assay. No significant growth defects were noted in the mutant as compared with the wild-type parent on any lipids substrates tested including alkanes and fatty acids. Insect epicuticle germination assays, however, showed reduced germination of ΔBbcyp52x1 conidia on grasshopper wings as compared with the wild-type parent. Complementation of the gene-knock with the full-length gene restored virulence and insect epicuticle germination to wild-type levels. Heterologous expression of CYP52X1 in yeast was used to characterize the substrate specificity of the enzyme. CYP52X1 displayed the highest activity against midrange fatty acids (C12:0 and C14:0) and epoxy stearic acid, 4–8-fold lower activity against C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2, and little to no activity against C9:0 and C18:0. Analyses of the products of the C12:0 and C18:1 reactions confirmed NADPH-dependent regioselective addition of a terminal hydroxyl to the substrates (ω-hydroxylase). These data implicate CYP52X1 as contributing to the penetration of the host cuticle via facilitating the assimilation of insect epicuticle lipids. PMID:22393051

  5. Co-Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and GTP Cyclohydrolase I in Arginine Vasopressin-Synthesizing Neurons of the Human Supraoptic Nucleus Demonstrated by Laser Microdissection and Real-Time PCR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontostavlaki, D.P.; Sluijs, J.A.; Unmehopa, U.A.; Huitinga, I.; Hol, E.M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, has been identified immunohistochemically (IHC) in human neurosecretory neurons where it is found to colocalize with vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin. TH expression shows striking interindividual variability and

  6. Cytochrome P450 2E1 potentiates ethanol induction of hypoxia and HIF-1α in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Defeng; Yang, Lili; Gan, Lixia; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol induces hypoxia and elevates HIF-1α in the liver. CYP2E1 plays a role in the mechanisms by which ethanol generates oxidative stress, fatty liver, and liver injury. This study evaluated whether CYP2E1 contributes to ethanol-induced hypoxia and activation of HIF-1α in vivo and whether HIF-1α protects against or promotes CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro. Wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-knock-in (KI), and CYP2E1 knockout (KO) mice were fed ethanol chronically; pair-fed controls received isocaloric dextrose. Ethanol produced liver injury in the KI mice to a much greater extent than in the WT and KO mice. Protein levels of HIF-1α and downstream targets of HIF-1α activation were elevated in the ethanol-fed KI mice compared to the WT and KO mice. Levels of HIF prolyl hydroxylase 2, which promotes HIF-1α degradation, were decreased in the ethanol-fed KI mice in association with the increases in HIF-1α. Hypoxia occurred in the ethanol-fed CYP2E1 KI mice as shown by an increased area of staining using the hypoxia-specific marker pimonidazole. Hypoxia was lower in the ethanol-fed WT mice and lowest in the ethanol-fed KO mice and all the dextrose-fed mice. In situ double staining showed that pimonidazole and CYP2E1 were colocalized to the same area of injury in the hepatic centrilobule. Increased protein levels of HIF-1α were also found after acute ethanol treatment of KI mice. Treatment of HepG2 E47 cells, which express CYP2E1, with ethanol plus arachidonic acid (AA) or ethanol plus buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which depletes glutathione, caused loss of cell viability to a greater extent than in HepG2 C34 cells, which do not express CYP2E1. These treatments elevated protein levels of HIF-1α to a greater extent in E47 cells than in C34 cells. 2-Methoxyestradiol, an inhibitor of HIF-1α, blunted the toxic effects of ethanol plus AA and ethanol plus BSO in the E47 cells in association with inhibition of HIF-1α. The HIF-1α inhibitor also blocked the elevated oxidative

  7. Data on the 21-Hydroxylase deficient CAH patients and the identification of known/novel mutations in CYP21A2 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini Khajuria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the dataset regarding spectrum of mutations in 21-Hydroxylase deficient CAH patients as described in “The spectrum of CYP21A2 mutations in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in an Indian cohort” (R. Khajuria, R. Walia, A. Bhansali, R. Prasad, 2017 [1]. This dataset features about the CAH patients in the cohort, their classification into subtypes and finally screening the exon–intron boundaries of 21-Hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2 to detect common mutations, novel mutations along polymorphisms in the CYP21A2 gene. The specified large set of primers and the parameters for the mutation detection allow the identification and molecular characterization of CYP21A2 gene in the CAH patients.

  8. Investigation of CYP21A2 mutations in Turkish patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and a novel founder mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Bayram; Ökten, Ayşenur; Kalay, Ersan; Karagüzel, Gülay; Dinçer, Tuba; Açıkgöz, Emel Gül; Karagüzel, Ahmet

    2013-01-15

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by impaired production of adrenal steroids. Approximately 95% of all CAH are caused by mutations of the CYP21A2 that encodes 21-hydroxylase. In this study, mutation analyses of CYP21A2 were performed in 48 CAH patients from 45 Turkish families with the clinical diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). While in 39 (86.7%) of 21OHD patients, disease causing CYP21A2 mutations were identified in both alleles, in two 21OHD patients CYP21A2 mutations were identified only in one allele. In four patients, mutation was not detected at all. In total, seventeen known and one novel, disease causing CYP21A2 mutations were observed. Among identified mutations, previously described c.293-13C/A>G, large rearrangements and p.Q319X mutations were the most common mutations accounting for 33.3%, 14.4% and 12.2% of all evaluated chromosomes, respectively. In six families (13.3%) a novel founder mutation, c.2T>C (p.M1?), inactivating the translation initiation codon was found. This mutation is not present in pseudogene CYP21A1P and causes the classical form of the disease in six patients. In addition, depending on the nature of the rearrangements CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeras were further classified as CH(c/d), and CH-1(c) was shown to be the most prominent chimera in our study group. In conclusion, with this study we identified a novel founder CYP21A2 mutation and suggest a further classification for CYP21A1P/CYP21A2 chimeras depending on the combination of junction site position and whether it is occurred as a result of deletion or conversion. Absence of disease causing mutation of CYP21A2 in ten of screened ninety chromosomes suggests the contribution of regulatory elements in occurrences of CAH due to the 21OHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Addis Ababa. University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia(*drkvenkateswarlu@gmail.com, **berhanufk@yahoo.co.uk). ABSTRACT. In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra ...

  10. HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, LDL receptor, SR-B1, and ACAT in diet-induced syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K; Liang, Kaihui; Barnard, R James; Kim, Choong H; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2004-10-01

    Long-term consumption of Western diets can lead to acquired syndrome X, which presents with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. While plasma lipid abnormalities in syndrome X have been well characterized, their molecular basis remains unclear. This study explored potential mechanisms of hypercholesterolemia in diet-induced syndrome X. Female Fischer rats were fed a high-fat, refined-carbohydrate (sucrose) diet (HFS) or standard rat chow (low-fat, complex carbohydrate, LFCC) for 20 months. Plasma lipids and hepatic tissue mRNA, protein, and/or activities of the key enzymes and receptors involved in cholesterol metabolism were determined. The HFS group exhibited hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, significant down-regulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (the rate-limiting step in cholesterol catabolism) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R, the primary pathway of LDL clearance). In contrast, hepatic tissue acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT-2, the primary enzyme involved in intracellular esterification of cholesterol) and scavenger-receptor class B, type 1 (SR-B1 or HDL receptor) were up-regulated. While 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA expression was increased, its protein abundance and activity were unchanged, and HMG-CoA reductase-to-cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase ratio was increased in HFS-fed animals. Hypercholesterolemia in diet-induced syndrome X is associated with depressed cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, diminished LDL-R, elevated ACAT, and increased HMG-CoA reductase-to-cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase ratio. These findings point to impaired hepatic catabolism and uptake of cholesterol and inappropriate cholesterol production capacity as the underlying causes of hypercholesterolemia in rats with diet-induced syndrome X.

  11. Effect of Moderate Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Roxadustat, an Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendaal-van de Meent, Dorien; Adel, Martin den; Noukens, Jan; Rijnders, Sanne; Krebs-Brown, Axel; Mateva, Lyudmila; Alexiev, Assen; Schaddelee, Marloes

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Roxadustat is a hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in phase III development for the treatment of anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease. This study evaluated the effects of moderate hepatic impairment on roxadustat pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability. Methods This was an open-label study in which eight subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (liver cirrhosis Child?Pugh score 7?9) and eight subjects with normal hepatic funct...

  12. Aging and a long-term diabetes mellitus increase expression of 1 α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptors in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuica, Ana; Ferhatović Hamzić, Lejla; Vukojević, Katarina; Jerić, Milka; Puljak, Livia; Grković, Ivica; Filipović, Natalija

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with serious liver complications. As a metabolic chronic disease, DM is very common in the elderly. Recent studies suggest ameliorating effects of vitamin D on metabolic and oxidative stress in the liver tissue in an experimental model of DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and 1α-hydroxylase, the key enzyme for the production of active vitamin D form (calcitriol) in the liver during long-term diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) in aging rats. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of liver expression of 1α-hydroxylase and VDRs during aging in long-term streptozotocin-induced DM1. 1α-Hydroxylase was identified in the monocyte/macrophage system of the liver. In addition to the nuclear expression, we also observed the expression of VDR in membranes of lipid droplets within hepatocytes. Aging and long-term DM1 resulted in significant increases in the number of 1α-hydroxylase immunoreactive cells, as well as the percentage of strongly positive VDR hepatocytes. In conclusion, the liver has the capacity for active vitamin D synthesis in its monocyte/macrophage system that is substantially increased in aging and long-term diabetes mellitus. These conditions are also characterized by significant increases in vitamin D receptor expression in hepatocytes. The present study suggests that VDR signaling system could be a potential target in prevention of liver complications caused by diabetes and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260∗, resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260∗ was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database. In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Correlated basal expression of immediate early gene egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in zebrafish brain and downregulation in olfactory bulb after transitory olfactory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Sigrid; Wullimann, Mario F

    2012-12-01

    Imprinting on kin occurs during the sixth day of larval development in zebrafish and depends on olfactory signals. In rodents, the immediate early gene egr1 is involved in maintaining the dopaminergic phenotype of periglomerular olfactory bulb cells in an activity dependent way. Furthermore, egr1 is upregulated in medial amygdalar dopamine cells in some rodents (prairie voles) dependent on social pheromone interactions. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether egr1 is involved in imprinting processes and later kin recognition in zebrafish in olfactory centers, such as the olfactory bulb and suspected medial amygdala. In the present paper, we focus on a basic investigation of basal egr1 expression throughout zebrafish brain development and its co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Indeed, there is unambiguous co-localization of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the zebrafish olfactory bulb and hypothetical medial amygdala. Furthermore, as in rodents, ipsilateral transient olfactory deprivation through Triton X-100 treatment of the olfactory epithelium leads to downregulation of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory bulb, but apparently not in secondary olfactory targets of the zebrafish brain. This indicates that similar processes might be at work in zebrafish and rodent olfactory systems, but their more specific involvement in imprinting in zebrafish has to be further tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The P450-type carotene hydroxylase PuCHY1 from Porphyra suggests the evolution of carotenoid metabolism in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-En; Huang, Xing-Qi; Hang, Yu; Deng, Yin-Yin; Lu, Qin-Qin; Lu, Shan

    2014-09-01

    Carotene hydroxylases catalyze the hydroxylation of α- and β-carotene hydrocarbons into xanthophylls. In red algae, β-carotene is a ubiquitously distributed carotenoid, and hydroxylated carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein are also found. However, no enzyme with carotene hydroxylase activity had been previously identified in red algae. Here, we report the isolation of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450-type carotene hydroxylase (PuCHY1) from Porphyra umbilicalis, a red alga with an ancient origin. Sequence comparisons found PuCHY1 belongs to the CYP97B subfamily, which has members from different photosynthetic organisms ranging from red algae to land plants. Functional complementation in Escherichia coli suggested that PuCHY1 catalyzed the conversion from β-carotene to zeaxanthin. When we overexpressed PuCHY1 in the Arabidopsis thaliana chy2 mutant, pigment analysis showed a significant accumulation of hydroxylated carotenoids, including neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and lutein in the leaves of transgenic plants. These results confirmed a β-hydroxylation activity of PuCHY1, and also suggested a possible ϵ-hydroxylation function. The pigment profile and gene expression analyses of the algal thallus under high-light stress suggested that P. umbilicalis is unlikely to operate a partial xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular characterization of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases. Consensus sequence, comparison with related enzymes and the role of conserved histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britsch, L; Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1993-10-15

    A heterologous cDNA probe from Petunia hybrida was used to isolate flavanone-3 beta-hydroxylase-encoding cDNA clones from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), china aster (Callistephus chinensis) and stock (Matthiola incana). The deduced protein sequences together with the known sequences of the enzyme from P. hybrida, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) enabled the determination of a consensus sequence which revealed an overall 84% similarity (53% identity) of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases from the different sources. Alignment with the sequences of other known enzymes of the same class and to related non-heme iron-(II) enzymes demonstrated the strict genetic conservation of 14 amino acids, in particular, of three histidines and an aspartic acid. The conservation of the histidine motifs provides strong support for the possible conservation of structurally similar iron-binding sites in these enzymes. The putative role of histidines as chelators of ferrous ions in the active site of flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylases was corroborated by diethyl-pyrocarbonate modification of the partially purified recombinant Petunia enzyme.

  18. Effects of methyl jasmonate, on stevioside and rebaudioside A content and expression of the ent-Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase gene in Stevia rebaudiana Bert. in vitro

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    Mehrdad Behmanesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycosides are a form of secondary metabolites that consist variety compounds and in some cases can play a role in primary metabolism. Steviol is lipophilic skeleton of Stevioside and Rebaudioside A, two main glycosides of Stevia rebuadiana. Steviol glycosides which are synthesized in S.rebaudiana have important medical and nutritional values as high intensity natural sweeteners. Steviol is synthesized from Kaurenoic acid in chloroplastic Terpenoid pathway that mediated by Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase. In this study, HPLC method and RT-PCR were performed for quantification of glycosides and gene expression (ent-Kaurenoic acid 13-hydroxylase respectively. Methyl jasmonate treatment (at 20 micromolar in vitro induced glycoside biosynthesis significantly (P≤0.05 whereas higher concentration of Methyl jasmonate (100 µM caused a decrease in glycoside production and growth. The most glycoside content of the plant was three days after treatment. Also Methyl jasmonate treatment caused an increase in ent-Kaurenoic 13-hydroxylase gene expression from 6 hours to 48 hours (after treatment Results showed that biosynthesis of Stevia glycosides was probably a defense mechanism against pathogens and herbivore insects. Also we found that different concentrations of Methyl jasmonate, alter the ratio between glycosides rather than the increase in glycoside contents.

  19. Polymorphism in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene is associated with activity-impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs.

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    Eniko Kubinyi

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene and two personality traits, activity-impulsivity and inattention, in German Shepherd Dogs. The behaviour of 104 dogs was characterized by two instruments: (1 the previously validated Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS filled in by the dog owners and (2 the newly developed Activity-impulsivity Behavioural Scale (AIBS containing four subtests, scored by the experimenters. Internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were demonstrated for AIBS. Dogs possessing at least one short allele were proved to be more active-impulsive by both instruments, compared to dogs carrying two copies of the long allele (activity-impulsivity scale of Dog-ADHD RS: p = 0.007; AIBS: p = 0.023. The results have some potential to support human studies; however, further research should reveal the molecular function of the TH gene variants, and look for the effect in more breeds.

  20. [Characterisation of three polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in a sample of Colombian population with major depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Idárraga, Adriana; Riveros-Barrera, Irene; Sánchez, Ricardo; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Calvo-Gómez, José Manuel; Yunis-Londoño, Juan José

    Identify whether rs11179000, rs136494 and rs4570625 polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene, are associated with a major depressive disorder in a sample of the Colombian population. Case-control study was conducted in which a comparison was made between subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder at some point in adulthood or active symptoms at the time of evaluation, and subjects with no psychiatric disease. Subjects were studied in the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and the Institute of Genetics at the National University of Colombia. Polymorphisms were genotyped using Taqman probes in real time PCR. As well as studying the association between major depressive disorder and these (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the association with other factors previously associated with depression were also analysed. No statistically significant association between genotypic and allelic frequencies of each polymorphism and major depressive disorder was found. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. Association between sex and complication during pregnancy / childbirth and major depressive disorder was observed. There was no association between any polymorphism and major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH01 9.3 allele in the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome in Swiss Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Jacqueline; Bartsch, Christine; Haas, Cordula

    2014-11-01

    Catecholamines, especially noradrenalin, are essential in the control of respiration and arousal. Thus, an impaired production of these neurotransmitters may contribute to the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The first step of the noradrenergic synthesis pathway is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The TH-encoding gene contains a tetrameric short tandem repeat in intron 1 (TH01), with allele 9.3 reported to be associated with SIDS in German infants. We investigated the allelic frequency of the TH01 marker in 171 Swiss SIDS infants and 500 healthy and gender-matched Caucasian adults. In our study population, the allelic frequency of the 9.3 allele is similarly distributed in SIDS cases and controls (27.2% vs. 25.6%; p-value = 0.562). Nevertheless, the TH-encoding gene is only one of several genes involved in the noradrenergic biosynthesis pathway. Therefore, further genetic investigations are required with focus on the whole noradrenergic signaling system. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Immunodetection and quantification of cytochromes P450 using epitope tagging: immunological, spectroscopic, and kinetic analysis of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, John M; Chapple, Clint

    2004-09-01

    Cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (P450s) are integral membrane proteins typically expressed at low levels both in vivo and by heterologous expression systems, often making quantification of these enzymes challenging. Since the time of their discovery, P450s have typically been quantified by their carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectra. Although this technique is reliable, it requires quantities of enzyme that are sometimes difficult to obtain, and spectroscopic instruments and expertise frequently unavailable in laboratories whose primary focus is genetics or molecular biology. We have developed a method for quantifying recombinant FLAG epitope-tagged proteins using fluorescence detection of a chromophore-labeled anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody and well-established immunoblot technology. The utility of this technique was tested using cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), one of the best-studied plant P450s. No substantial differences in the stability or kinetic properties were observed between the native and FLAG-tagged enzymes. Immunochemical quantification of epitope-tagged C4H reported slightly lower P450 concentrations than conventional methods but has a limit of quantification 400-fold lower than carbon monoxide difference spectroscopy.

  3. Polymorphism in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Gene Is Associated with Activity-Impulsivity in German Shepherd Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Enikő; Vas, Judit; Hejjas, Krisztina; Ronai, Zsolt; Brúder, Ildikó; Turcsán, Borbála; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Miklósi, Ádám

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and two personality traits, activity-impulsivity and inattention, in German Shepherd Dogs. The behaviour of 104 dogs was characterized by two instruments: (1) the previously validated Dog-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (Dog-ADHD RS) filled in by the dog owners and (2) the newly developed Activity-impulsivity Behavioural Scale (AIBS) containing four subtests, scored by the experimenters. Internal consistency, inter-observer reliability, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were demonstrated for AIBS. Dogs possessing at least one short allele were proved to be more active-impulsive by both instruments, compared to dogs carrying two copies of the long allele (activity-impulsivity scale of Dog-ADHD RS: p = 0.007; AIBS: p = 0.023). The results have some potential to support human studies; however, further research should reveal the molecular function of the TH gene variants, and look for the effect in more breeds. PMID:22272320

  4. Potential role of tyrosine hydroxylase in the loss of psychostimulant effect of amphetamine under conditions of impaired dopamine transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janenaite, Egle; Vengeliene, Valentina; Bespalov, Anton; Behl, Berthold

    2017-09-15

    Amphetamine and methylphenidate are known to have stimulatory effect in healthy subjects but not in humans with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in rodents with impaired dopamine transporter (DAT) function. This phenomenon is called the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants. It has been previously demonstrated that psychostimulants may regulate the enzymatic activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hence, the objective of the present study was to determine whether the lack of activity-stimulating effects of amphetamine in hyperactive rats is associated with changes in TH activity. To model hyperactivity in rats, acute administration of DAT inhibitor GBR12909 was used. Changes in TH activity, assessed as L-DOPA accumulation and TH phosphorylation levels, were measured in amphetamine treated rats with or without pretreatment with GBR12909. Our results showed that amphetamine treatment alone increased locomotor activity in rats, whereas pretreatment of rats with GBR12909 counteracted this effect, a finding consistent with the paradoxical calming effect. GBR12909, while having no effect on its own, blocked amphetamine-induced elevation of TH activity in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, measured as increased tissue L-DOPA concentration. However, the phosphorylation levels of TH were not affected by treatment with amphetamine, GBR12909 or the combination of both. Our findings indicate that other mechanisms than phosphorylation-regulated TH activity changes are responsible for the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine under conditions of impaired DAT activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic beta-cell failure in obese mice with human-like CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaler, Sarah; Morinaga, Hidetaka; Jih, Alice; Fan, WuQiang; Hedlund, Maria; Varki, Ajit; Kim, Jane J

    2011-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in human populations, particularly in obese individuals, and is characterized by progressive pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Most mammals, including Old World primates, express two major kinds of sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), typically found at the distal ends of glycoconjugate chains at the cell surface. Humans are uniquely unable to produce endogenous Neu5Gc due to an inactivating mutation in the CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (CMAH) gene. The CMAH enzyme catalyzes the generation of CMP-Neu5Gc by the transfer of a single oxygen atom to the acyl group of CMP-Neu5Ac. Here, we show that mice bearing a human-like deletion of the Cmah gene exhibit fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance following a high-fat diet. This phenotype is caused not by worsened insulin resistance but by compromised pancreatic β-cell function associated with a 65% decrease in islet size and area and 50% decrease in islet number. Obese Cmah-null mice also show an ∼40% reduction in response to insulin secretagogues in vivo. These findings show that human evolution-like changes in sialic acid composition impair pancreatic β-cell function and exacerbate glucose intolerance in mice. This may lend insight into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese humans.

  6. Cholesterol and ocular pathologies: focus on the role of cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase in cholesterol homeostasis

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    Fourgeux Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retina is responsible for coding the light stimulus into a nervous signal that is transferred to the brain via the optic nerve. The retina is formed by the association of the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium that is supported by Bruch’s membrane. Both the physical and metabolic associations between these partners are crucial for the functioning of the retina, by means of nutrient intake and removal of the cell and metabolic debris from the retina. Dysequilibrium are involved in the aging processes and pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual loss after the age of 50 years in Western countries. The retina is composed of several populations of cells including glia that is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is the main sterol in the retina. It is present as free form in cells and as esters in Bruch’s membrane. Accumulation of cholesteryl esters has been associated with aging of the retina and impairment of the retinal function. Under dietary influence and in situ synthesized, the metabolism of cholesterol is regulated by cell interactions, including neurons and glia via cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase. Several pathophysiological associations with cholesterol and its metabolism can be suggested, especially in relation to glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

  7. Disruption of phenylalanine hydroxylase reduces adult lifespan and fecundity, and impairs embryonic development in parthenogenetic pea aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Pierre; Gaget, Karen; Parisot, Nicolas; Duport, Gabrielle; Rey, Marjolaine; Febvay, Gérard; Charles, Hubert; Callaerts, Patrick; Colella, Stefano; Calevro, Federica

    2016-10-03

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a key tyrosine-biosynthetic enzyme involved in neurological and melanin-associated physiological processes. Despite extensive investigations in holometabolous insects, a PAH contribution to insect embryonic development has never been demonstrated. Here, we have characterized, for the first time, the PAH gene in a hemimetabolous insect, the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses confirmed that ApPAH is closely related to metazoan PAH, exhibiting the typical ACT regulatory and catalytic domains. Temporal expression patterns suggest that ApPAH has an important role in aphid developmental physiology, its mRNA levels peaking at the end of embryonic development. We used parental dsApPAH treatment to generate successful knockdown in aphid embryos and to study its developmental role. ApPAH inactivation shortens the adult aphid lifespan and considerably affects fecundity by diminishing the number of nymphs laid and impairing embryonic development, with newborn nymphs exhibiting severe morphological defects. Using single nymph HPLC analyses, we demonstrated a significant tyrosine deficiency and a consistent accumulation of the upstream tyrosine precursor, phenylalanine, in defective nymphs, thus confirming the RNAi-mediated disruption of PAH activity. This study provides first insights into the role of PAH in hemimetabolous insects and demonstrates that this metabolic gene is essential for insect embryonic development.

  8. Impact of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 G-703T polymorphism on anger-related personality traits and orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kim, Leen; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2012-05-16

    Genetic variation in human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) influences TPH enzymatic activity and is associated with emotion-related traits and mood disorders. The present study investigated the effect of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism on regional brain volume, assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and anger traits in mentally healthy individuals. We examined 63 healthy subjects to investigate structural abnormalities using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system, which was normalized to a customized T1 template and segmented with VBM. The VBM data were analyzed using an analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate. All subjects were assessed with the state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI) and genotyped for TPH2 G-703T. The subjects with G/G genotype had significantly higher anger control (AX-Con) anger scores than T allele carriers (G/T and T/T genotype). There was a negative correlation between the anger out (AX-Out) and trait anger (T-Ang) scores and gray matter concentration (GMC) in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and hippocampus. Compared to T allele carriers, subjects with the G/G genotype had significantly lower GMC in the inferior OFC. Our findings suggest that OFC is an intermediate phenotype that bridges serotonin synthesis and anger-related traits. The mechanism underlying the effect of the TPH2 gene on OFC abnormality, however, may be complex and may involve several processes related to anger expression.

  9. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Two Rice Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase to Evaluate Their Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangkyu; Choi, Min Ji; Lee, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lim, Sun-Hyung

    2016-09-13

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the major flavonoids in black and red rice grains, respectively, are mainly derived from 3',4'-dihydroxylated leucocyanidin. 3'-Hydroxylation of flavonoids in rice is catalyzed by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H: EC 1.14.13.21). We isolated cDNA clones of the two rice F3'H genes (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4) from Korean varieties of white, black, and red rice. Sequence analysis revealed allelic variants of each gene containing one or two amino acid substitutions. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CYP75B3 preferred kaempferol to other substrates, and had a low preference for dihydrokaempferol. CYP75B4 exhibited a higher preference for apigenin than for other substrates. CYP75B3 from black rice showed an approximately two-fold increase in catalytic efficiencies for naringenin and dihydrokaempferol compared to CYP75B3s from white and red rice. The F3'H activity of CYP75B3 was much higher than that of CYP75B4. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP75B3, CYP75B4, and most other flavonoid pathway genes were predominantly expressed in the developing seeds of black rice, but not in those of white and red rice, which is consistent with the pigmentation patterns of the seeds. The expression levels of CYP75B4 were relatively higher than those of CYP75B3 in the developing seeds, leaves, and roots of white rice.

  10. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

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    Marwa Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM in uterine fibroids (UF has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP and lysylpyridinoline (LP cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH and lysyl oxidases (LOX], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker (α-SMA, growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAKpY397; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1, and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF.

  11. Structure-based analysis of five novel disease-causing mutations in 21-hydroxylase-deficient patients.

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    Carolina Minutolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism, and accounts for 90-95% of CAH cases. The affected enzyme, P450C21, is encoded by the CYP21A2 gene, located together with a 98% nucleotide sequence identity CYP21A1P pseudogene, on chromosome 6p21.3. Even though most patients carry CYP21A1P-derived mutations, an increasing number of novel and rare mutations in disease causing alleles were found in the last years. In the present work, we describe five CYP21A2 novel mutations, p.R132C, p.149C, p.M283V, p.E431K and a frameshift g.2511_2512delGG, in four non-classical and one salt wasting patients from Argentina. All novel point mutations are located in CYP21 protein residues that are conserved throughout mammalian species, and none of them were found in control individuals. The putative pathogenic mechanisms of the novel variants were analyzed in silico. A three-dimensional CYP21 structure was generated by homology modeling and the protein design algorithm FoldX was used to calculate changes in stability of CYP21A2 protein. Our analysis revealed changes in protein stability or in the surface charge of the mutant enzymes, which could be related to the clinical manifestation found in patients.

  12. Molecular docking study of catecholamines and [4-(propan-2-yl) phenyl]carbamic acid with tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Zahida; Nawaz, Muhammad Sulaman; Shakil, Shazi; Greig, Nigel H; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder. As the classical disease-related motor symptoms are associated with the loss of dopamine-generating cells within the substantia nigra, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines has become an important target in the development of Parkinson's disease drug candidates, with the focus to augment TH levels or its activity. By contrast, TH inhibitors are of relevance in the treatment of conditions associated with catecholamine over-production, as occurs in pheochromocytomas. To aid characterizing new drug candidates, a molecular docking study of catecholamines and a novel hypothetical compound [4-(propan-2-yl) phenyl]carbamic acid (PPCA) with TH is described. Docking was performed using Autodock4.2 and results were analyzed using Chimera1.5.2. All the studied ligands were found to bind within a deep narrow groove lined with polar aromatic and acidic residues within TH. Our results corroborated a 'hexa interacting amino acids unit' located in this deep narrow groove crucial to the interaction of PPCA and the studied catecholamines with TH, whereby the 'His361-His336 dyad' was found to be even more crucial to these binding interactions. PPCA displayed a binding interaction with human TH that was comparable to the original TH substrate, L-tyrosine. Hence PPCA may warrant in vitro and in vivo characterization with TH to assess its potential as a candidate therapeutic.

  13. The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein Inhibitors, and Their Roles in Bone Repair and Regeneration

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    Lihong Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs are oxygen-dependent transcriptional activators that play crucial roles in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, energy metabolism, and cell fate decisions. The group of enzymes that can catalyse the hydroxylation reaction of HIF-1 is prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs. PHD inhibitors (PHIs activate the HIF pathway by preventing degradation of HIF-α via inhibiting PHDs. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are tightly coupled during bone repair and regeneration. Numerous studies suggest that HIFs and their target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, are critical regulators of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. In this brief perspective, we review current studies about the HIF pathway and its role in bone repair and regeneration, as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Additionally, we briefly discuss the therapeutic manipulation of HIFs and VEGF in bone repair and bone tumours. This review will expand our knowledge of biology of HIFs, PHDs, PHD inhibitors, and bone regeneration, and it may also aid the design of novel therapies for accelerating bone repair and regeneration or inhibiting bone tumours.

  14. Deficiency of Serotonin in Raphe Neurons and Altered Behavioral Responses in Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2-Knockout Medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Satoshi; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Maegawa, Shingo; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Washio, Youhei; Sato, Kenji; Kinoshita, Masato

    2017-12-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2Δ13/Δ13) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons. To investigate the effects of 5-HT deficiency in adult behaviors, the mutant fish were subjected to five behavioral paradigms (diving, open-field, light-dark transition, mirror-biting, and two-fish social interaction). The homozygous mutation caused a longer duration of freezing response in all examined paradigms and reduced the number of entries to the top area in the diving test. In addition, the mutants exhibited a decreased number of mirror-biting in the males and an increased contact time in direct social interaction between the females. These results indicate that this tph2-knockout medaka serves as a good model to analyze the effects of 5-HT deficiency in the raphe neurons.

  15. Interactive effects of hypoxia with estradiol-17β on tryptophan hydroxylase activity and serotonin levels in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxia causes a marked decline in reproductive neuroendocrine function in Atlantic croaker due to decreases in the hypothalamic expression and activities of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, the rate limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis) and aromatase. In the present study, the influence of the estrogen status on hypothalamic TPH and serotonin (5-HT) regulation by hypoxia (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks) was investigated in croaker. Treatment in vivo with the aromatase inhibitor, ATD (1,4,6-androstatrien-3,17-dione), significantly decreased TPH activity, TPHs (TPH-1 and TPH-2) mRNAs expression, and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, an immediate precursor of 5-HT) and 5-HT contents in croaker hypothalamus. Treatment with estradiol-17β partially restored hypothalamic TPH activity, TPHs mRNA expression, and 5-HTP and 5-HT contents in hypoxia-exposed fish. These results suggest that the hypoxia-induced inhibition of TPH and 5-HT synthesis is dependent on the estrogen status. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a role for estrogens in modulating neural TPH and 5-HT responses to hypoxia in aquatic vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel mutation in the sterol 27-hydroxylase gene of a woman with autosomal recessive cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

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    Garuti Rita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Article abstract Mutations of the gene encoding the mitochondrial enzyme sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 gene cause defects in the cholesterol pathway to bile acids that lead to the storage of cholestanol and cholesterol in tendons, lenses and the central nervous system. This disorder is the cause of a clinical syndrome known as cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX. Since 1991 several mutations of the CYP27A1 gene have been reported. We diagnosed the clinical features of CTX in a caucasian woman. Serum levels of cholestanol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol were elevated and the concentration of 27-hydroxycholesterol was reduced. Bile alcohols in the urine and faeces were increased. The analysis of the CYP27A1 gene showed that the patient was a compound heterozygote carrying two mutations both located in exon 8. One mutation is a novel four nucleotide deletion (c.1330-1333delTTCC that results in a frameshift and the occurrence of a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated protein of 448 amino acids. The other mutation, previously reported, is a C - > T transition (c. c.1381C > T that converts the glutamine codon at position 461 into a termination codon (p.Q461X. These truncated proteins are expected to have no biological function being devoid of the cysteine residue at position 476 of the normal enzyme that is crucial for heme binding and enzyme activity.

  17. Molecular analysis of exons 6 and 7 of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene mutations in Phenylketonuria patients in Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Keyvan; Alibakhshi, Reza; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism that results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). According to PAH database, exons 6 and 7 and their flanking introns of PAH gene contain the greatest number of mutant alleles. Therefore, as a preliminary study, nucleotide sequence analysis of exons 6 and 7 of the PAH gene has been performed in 25 PKU patients whose ancestors lived in Kermanshah province of Iran. To date, there has been no mutation data describing the genotypes of the PKU disease in this Kurdish ethnic region background. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients (aged between 2 and 23 years) participated in this study. The DNA fragments containing two exons of the PAH gene [6 and 7] and their exon-flanking intronic sequences were amplified and sequenced. RESULTS: The total of detected mutations were R261X (8%), R176X (4%), R243Q (4%), R243X (2%) and R261Q (2%), as they accounted for 20% of all mutant alleles in this study. The identified polymorphisms are: IVS5 -54 G > A (22%), Q232Q (8%) and V245V (4%). All of the detected mutations in this study are related to CpG dinucleotides in the PAH gene sequence. CONCLUSION: The frequency of R261X, the most common mutation in our study, in Iranian population is Iran. Therefore, it may be necessary to study the PAH gene mutations in other provinces of Iran separately. PMID:23716935

  18. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurons of cultured cerebral cortex: evidence for phenotypic plasticity in neurons of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Lee, J; Joh, T H; Reis, D J

    1987-04-01

    In vivo, neurons of the cerebral cortex of rat embryos did not stain with antibodies to the catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) even when examined using a highly sensitive technique for radioimmunocytochemistry. However, when embryonic day (E) 13 cortex was grown 1 d in culture, several thousand cells expressed immunoreactive and catalytically active TH. All TH cells simultaneously labeled with the neuronal enzyme, neuronal specific enolase, indicating that the TH was exclusively localized in neurons. Moreover, all TH neurons were postmitotic since they did not incorporate 3H-thymidine. With time in culture, the number of TH cells selectively declined from nearly 3000 cells at 2 d to several cells at 14 d. Similarly, the number of neurons competent to express TH in culture declined with advancing age of the donor embryo. Thus, by E18, very few cortical neurons had the capacity to express TH. We conclude that during a critical period of development, postmitotic cerebral cortical neurons can express catecholamine traits in vitro but not in vivo. Thus, the neurotransmitter phenotype of certain classes of central neurons is not fixed but can be influenced by epigenetic factors found in their environment, thereby providing evidence of phenotypic plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS).

  19. Tyrosine hydroxylase gene regulation in human neuronal progenitor cells does not depend on Nurr1 as in the murine and rat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Romano, Gaetano; Marshall, Cheryl; Donaldson, Angela E; Suon, Sokreine; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2006-04-01

    A previous study on the human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter revealed remarkable differences in the mechanism of TH gene regulation between the human and murine models. Indeed, a low degree of homology was observed in the sequence of TH promoters among human, mouse, and rat systems. Only five short conserved regions (CRs) could be identified among the three species. A human TH minimal promoter was engineered and assembled into a self-inactivating lentiviral vector system. This human TH minimal promoter contained the five CRs plus the first -194 bp from the transcription start of the human TH promoter and the first 35 bp of the untranslated messenger RNA leader of the human TH gene. A significant degree of specificity for this human TH minimal promoter was observed only for human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs), but not for TH-positive differentiated mouse primary striatal and substantia nigra cells, indicating a significant difference in TH gene regulation between the human and mouse systems. Not only is the degree of homology between the human and mouse promoters in the range of only 46%, but also those few elements that share a high degree of homology display totally different functions in human and mouse brain-derived cells. In the rodent system, NR4A2 (Nurr1) is required for the transactivation of TH minimal promoters. Intriguingly, neither the dimeric nor the heterodimeric binding sites for Nurr1 are present in the 13 kb DNA sequence that contains the human TH promoter. Instead, the CRs termed one and four of the human TH promoter encode only for a half palindromic binding site sequence for Nurr1, which failed to bind Nurr1 in an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Additionally, of the three monomeric NGFI-B response element (NBRE) core sites (AGGTCA) and two NBRE-related sites present in the human TH promoter, only one core and two NBRE-related sites formed protein binding complexes. Interestingly, there was no increase of protein

  20. Circadian expression of the steroid 15 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp2a4) and coumarin 7-hydroxylase (Cyp2a5) genes in mouse liver is regulated by the PAR leucine zipper transcription factor DBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, D J; Lopez-Molina, L; Margueron, R; Fleury-Olela, F; Conquet, F; Schibler, U; Bonfils, C

    1999-10-01

    To study the molecular mechanisms of circadian gene expression, we have sought to identify genes whose expression in mouse liver is regulated by the transcription factor DBP (albumin D-site-binding protein). This PAR basic leucine zipper protein accumulates according to a robust circadian rhythm in nuclei of hepatocytes and other cell types. Here, we report that the Cyp2a4 gene, encoding the cytochrome P450 steroid 15alpha-hydroxylase, is a novel circadian expression gene. This enzyme catalyzes one of the hydroxylation reactions leading to further metabolism of the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol in the liver. Accumulation of CYP2A4 mRNA in mouse liver displays circadian kinetics indistinguishable from those of the highly related CYP2A5 gene. Proteins encoded by both the Cyp2a4 and Cyp2a5 genes also display daily variation in accumulation, though this is more dramatic for CYP2A4 than for CYP2A5. Biochemical evidence, including in vitro DNase I footprinting on the Cyp2a4 and Cyp2a5 promoters and cotransfection experiments with the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, suggests that the Cyp2a4 and Cyp2a5 genes are indeed regulated by DBP. These conclusions are corroborated by genetic studies, in which the circadian amplitude of CYP2A4 and CYP2A5 mRNAs and protein expression in the liver was significantly impaired in a mutant mouse strain homozygous for a dbp null allele. These experiments strongly suggest that DBP is a major factor controlling circadian expression of the Cyp2a4 and Cyp2a5 genes in the mouse liver.

  1. Δ(9)-THC modulation of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene expression: possible involvement of induced levels of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Su, Shengzhong; Harada, Mari; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Nishimura, Hajime; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2014-12-04

    We recently reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of Δ(9)-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPARα isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms (β and γ). Δ(9)-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPARα, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPARα ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPARα induced were involved in the Δ(9)-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that; (i) Δ(9)-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPARα in a concentration-dependent manner, (ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPARα/FA2H was caused by Δ(9)-THC, (iii) PA could activate PPARα after the PPARα expression plasmid was introduced, and (iv) the Δ(9)-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPARα inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPARα may be involved in the Δ(9)-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tripodal bis(imidazole) thioether copper(I) complexes: mimics of the Cu(M) site of copper hydroxylase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Powell, Douglas; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2007-09-17

    Tripodal bis(imidazole) thioether ligands, (N-methyl-4,5-diphenyl-2-imidazolyl)2C(OR)C(CH3)2SR' (BIT(OR,SR'); R = H, CH3; R' = CH3, C(CH3)3, C(C6H5)3), have been prepared, offering the same N2S donor atom set as the CuM binding site of the hydroxylase enzymes, dopamine beta hydroxylase and peptidylglycine hydroxylating monooxygenase. Isolable copper(I) complexes of the type [(BIT(OR,SMe))Cu(CO)]PF6 (3a and 3b) are produced in reactions of the respective tripodal ligands 1a (R = H) and 1b (R = Me) with [Cu(CH3CN)4]PF6 in CH2Cl2 under CO (1 atm); the pyramidal structure of 3a has been determined crystallographically. The infrared (IR) nu(CO)'s of 3a and 3b (L = CO) are comparable to those of the Cu(M)-carbonylated enzymes, indicating similar electronic character at the copper centers. The reaction of [(BIT(OH,SMe))Cu(CH3CN)]PF6 (2a) with dioxygen produces [(BIT(O,SOMe))2Cu2(DMF)2](PF6)2 (4), whose X-ray structure revealed the presence of bridging BIT-alkoxo ligands and terminal -SOMe groups. In contrast, oxygenation of 2b (R = Me) affords crystallographically defined [(BIT(OMe,SMe))2Cu2(mu-OH)2](OTf)2 (5), in which the copper centers are oxygenated without accompanying sulfur oxidation. Complex 5 in DMF is transformed into five-coordinate, mononuclear [CuII(BIT(OMe,SMe))(DMF)2](PF6)2 (6). The sterically hindered BIT(OR,SR') ligands 9 and 10 (R' = t-Bu; R = H, Me) and 11 and 12 (R' = CPh3; R = H, Me) were also prepared and examined for copper coordination/oxygenation. Oxygenation of copper(I) complex 13b derived from the BIT(OMe,SBu-t) ligand is slow, relative to 2b, producing a mixture of (BIT(OMe,SBu-t))2Cu2(mu-OH)2-type complexes 14b and 15b in which the -SBu-t group is uncoordinated; one of these complexes (15b) has been ortho-oxygenated on a neighboring aryl group according to the X-ray analysis and characterization of the free ligand. Oxygenation of the copper(I) complex derived from BIT(OMe,SCPh3) ligand 12 produces a novel dinuclear disulfide complex, [(BIT

  3. Cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH mutations associated with the domestic cat AB blood group

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    Millon Lee V

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cat has one common blood group with two major serotypes, blood type A that is dominant to type B. A rare type AB may also be allelic and is suspected to be recessive to A and dominant to B. Cat blood type antigens are defined, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc is associated with type A and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc with type B. The enzyme cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH determines the sugar bound to the red cell by converting NeuAc to NeuGc. Thus, mutations in CMAH may cause the A and B blood types. Results Genomic sequence of CMAH from eight cats and the cDNA of four cats representing all blood types were analyzed to identify causative mutations. DNA variants consistent with the blood types were genotyped in over 200 cats. Five SNPs and an indel formed haplotypes that were consistent with each blood type. Conclusion Mutations in type B cats likely disrupt the gene function of CMAH, leading to a predominance of NeuAc. Type AB concordant variants were not identified, however, cDNA species suggest an alternative allele that activates a downstream start site, leading to a CMAH protein that would be altered at the 5' region. The cat AB blood group system is proposed to be designated by three alleles, A > aab > b. The A and b CMAH alleles described herein can distinguish type A and type B cats without blood sample collections. CMAH represents the first blood group gene identified outside of non-human primates and humans.

  4. Involvement of an alkane hydroxylase system of Gordonia sp. strain SoCg in degradation of solid n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piccolo, Luca; De Pasquale, Claudio; Fodale, Roberta; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2011-02-01

    Enzymes involved in oxidation of long-chain n-alkanes are still not well known, especially those in gram-positive bacteria. This work describes the alkane degradation system of the n-alkane degrader actinobacterium Gordonia sp. strain SoCg, which is able to grow on n-alkanes from dodecane (C(12)) to hexatriacontane (C(36)) as the sole C source. SoCg harbors in its chromosome a single alk locus carrying six open reading frames (ORFs), which shows 78 to 79% identity with the alkane hydroxylase (AH)-encoding systems of other alkane-degrading actinobacteria. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the genes encoding AlkB (alkane 1-monooxygenase), RubA3 (rubredoxin), RubA4 (rubredoxin), and RubB (rubredoxin reductase) were induced by both n-hexadecane and n-triacontane, which were chosen as representative long-chain liquid and solid n-alkane molecules, respectively. Biotransformation of n-hexadecane into the corresponding 1-hexadecanol was detected by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) analysis. The Gordonia SoCg alkB was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, and both hosts acquired the ability to transform n-hexadecane into 1-hexadecanol, but the corresponding long-chain alcohol was never detected on n-triacontane. However, the recombinant S. coelicolor M145-AH, expressing the Gordonia alkB gene, was able to grow on n-triacontane as the sole C source. A SoCg alkB disruption mutant that is completely unable to grow on n-triacontane was obtained, demonstrating the role of an AlkB-type AH system in degradation of solid n-alkanes.

  5. Involvement of an Alkane Hydroxylase System of Gordonia sp. Strain SoCg in Degradation of Solid n-Alkanes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Piccolo, Luca; De Pasquale, Claudio; Fodale, Roberta; Puglia, Anna Maria; Quatrini, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Enzymes involved in oxidation of long-chain n-alkanes are still not well known, especially those in Gram-positive bacteria. This work describes the alkane degradation system of the n-alkane degrader actinobacterium Gordonia sp. strain SoCg, which is able to grow on n-alkanes from dodecane (C12) to hexatriacontane (C36) as the sole C source. SoCg harbors in its chromosome a single alk locus carrying six open reading frames (ORFs), which shows 78 to 79% identity with the alkane hydroxylase (AH)-encoding systems of other alkane-degrading actinobacteria. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the genes encoding AlkB (alkane 1-monooxygenase), RubA3 (rubredoxin), RubA4 (rubredoxin), and RubB (rubredoxin reductase) were induced by both n-hexadecane and n-triacontane, which were chosen as representative long-chain liquid and solid n-alkane molecules, respectively. Biotransformation of n-hexadecane into the corresponding 1-hexadecanol was detected by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) analysis. The Gordonia SoCg alkB was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, and both hosts acquired the ability to transform n-hexadecane into 1-hexadecanol, but the corresponding long-chain alcohol was never detected on n-triacontane. However, the recombinant S. coelicolor M145-AH, expressing the Gordonia alkB gene, was able to grow on n-triacontane as the sole C source. A SoCg alkB disruption mutant that is completely unable to grow on n-triacontane was obtained, demonstrating the role of an AlkB-type AH system in degradation of solid n-alkanes. PMID:21183636

  6. Phenylalanine hydroxylase from Legionella pneumophila is a thermostable enzyme with a major functional role in pyomelanin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte I Flydal

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium that can cause Legionnaires' disease and other non-pneumonic infections in humans. This bacterium produces a pyomelanin pigment, a potential virulence factor with ferric reductase activity. In this work, we have investigated the role of phenylalanine hydroxylase from L. pneumophila (lpPAH, the product of the phhA gene, in the synthesis of the pyomelanin pigment and the growth of the bacterium in defined compositions.Comparative studies of wild-type and phhA mutant corroborate that lpPAH provides the excess tyrosine for pigment synthesis. phhA and letA (gacA appear transcriptionally linked when bacteria were grown in buffered yeast extract medium at 37°C. phhA is expressed in L. pneumophila growing in macrophages. We also cloned and characterized lpPAH, which showed many characteristics of other PAHs studied so far, including Fe(II requirement for activity. However, it also showed many particular properties such as dimerization, a high conformational thermal stability, with a midpoint denaturation temperature (T(m = 79 ± 0.5°C, a high specific activity at 37°C (10.2 ± 0.3 µmol L-Tyr/mg/min and low affinity for the substrate (K(m (L-Phe = 735 ± 50 µM.lpPAH has a major functional role in the synthesis of pyomelanin and promotes growth in low-tyrosine media. The high thermal stability of lpPAH might reflect the adaptation of the enzyme to withstand relatively high survival temperatures.

  7. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

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    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  8. Effects of Selective Deletion of Tyrosine Hydroxylase from Kisspeptin Cells on Puberty and Reproduction in Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon B. Z.; Parra, Ruby A.; Chahal, Navi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, regulates reproduction by stimulating GnRH secretion. Kiss1-syntheizing neurons reside primarily in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic, with females expressing more Kiss1 than males, and participate in estradiol (E2)-induced positive feedback control of GnRH secretion. In mice, most AVPV/PeN Kiss1 cells coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis (in this case, dopamine). Dopamine treatment can inhibit GnRH neurons, but the function of dopamine signaling arising specifically from AVPV/PeN Kiss1 cells is unknown. We generated a novel TH flox mouse and used Cre-Lox technology to selectively ablate TH specifically from Kiss1 cells. We then examined the effects of selective TH knock-out on puberty and reproduction in both sexes. In control mice, 90% of AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons coexpressed TH, whereas in mice lacking TH exclusively in Kiss1 cells (termed Kiss THKOs), TH was successfully absent from virtually all Kiss1 cells. Despite this absence of TH, both female and male Kiss THKOs displayed normal body weights, puberty onset, and basal gonadotropin levels in adulthood, although testosterone (T) was significantly elevated in adult male Kiss THKOs. The E2-induced LH surge was unaffected in Kiss THKO females, and neuronal activation status of kisspeptin and GnRH cells was also normal. Supporting this, fertility and fecundity were normal in Kiss THKOs of both sexes. Thus, despite high colocalization of TH and Kiss1 in the AVPV/PeN, dopamine produced in these cells is not required for puberty or reproduction, and its function remains unknown. PMID:28660243

  9. Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 plays a critical role in diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hirohide; Ichiki, Toshihiro; Inoue, Eriko; Nomura, Masatoshi; Miyazaki, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Toru; Ikeda, Jiro; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2013-05-28

    Recent studies suggest that the oxygen-sensing pathway consisting of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor and prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs) plays a critical role in glucose metabolism. However, the role of adipocyte PHD in the development of obesity has not been clarified. We examined whether deletion of PHD2, the main oxygen sensor, in adipocytes affects diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities. To delete PHD2 in adipocyte, PHD2-floxed mice were crossed with aP2-Cre transgenic mice (Phd2(f/f)/aP2-Cre). Phd2(f/f)/aP2-Cre mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity (36.7±1.7 versus 44.3±2.0 g in control; Preduction in adipocyte size. Macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue was also alleviated in Phd2(f/f)/aP2-Cre mice. Target genes of hypoxia-inducible factor, including glycolytic enzymes and adiponectin, were upregulated in adipocytes of Phd2(f/f)/aP2-Cre mice. Lipid content was decreased and uncoupling protein-1 expression was increased in brown adipose tissue of Phd2(f/f)/aP2-Cre mice. Knockdown of PHD2 in 3T3L1 adipocytes induced a decrease in the glucose level and an increase in the lactate level in the supernatant with upregulation of glycolytic enzymes and reduced lipid accumulation. PHD2 in adipose tissue plays a critical role in the development of diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. PHD2 might be a novel target molecule for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities.

  10. P450XXI (steroid 21-hydroxylase) gene deletions are not found in family studies of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, K.J.; Phillips, J.A. III; Miller, W.L.; Chung, B.C.; Orlando, P.J.; Frisch, H.; Ferrandez, A.; Burr, I.M.

    1987-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a common genetic disorder due to defective 21-hydroxylation of steroid hormones. The human P450XXIA2 gene encodes cytochrome P450c21 (steroid 21-monooxygenase (steroid 21-hydroxylase)), which mediates 21-hydroxylation. The P450XXIA2 gene may be distinguished from the duplicated P450XXIA1 pseudogene by cleavage with the restriction endonuclease Taq I, with the XXIA2 gene characterized by a 3.7-kilobase (kb) fragment and the XXIA1 pseudogene characterized by a 3.2-kb fragment. Restriction endonuclease mapping by several laboratories has suggested that deletion of the P450XXIA2 gene occurs in about 25% of patients with CAH, as their genomic DNA lacks detectable 3.7-kb Taq I fragments. The authors have cloned human P450c21 cDNA and used it to study genomic DNA prepared from 51 persons in 10 families, each of which includes 2 or more persons with CAH. After Taq I digestion, apparent deletions are seen in 7 of the 20 alleles of the probands; using EcoRI, apparent deletions are seen in 9 of the 20 alleles. However, the apparently deleted alleles seen with Taq I do not coincide with those seen with EcoRI. Furthermore, studies with Bgl II, EcoRI, Kpn I, and Xba I yield normal patterns with at least two enzymes in all cases. Since all probands yielded normal patterns with at least two of the five enzymes used, they conclude that the P450XXIA2 gene deletions widely reported in CAH patients probably represent gene conversions, unequal crossovers,or polymorphisms rather than simple gene deletions.

  11. A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

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    Yan-Kun Sha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. The patient showed physical signs of precocious puberty. The levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, urinary 17-ketone steroids (17-KS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, and serum progesterone (PRGE were elevated, whereas those of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and CO were reduced. Computed tomography (CT of the adrenal glands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the testes showed a soft tissue density (more pronounced on the right side and an irregularly swollen mass (more pronounced on the left side, respectively. Pathological examination of a specimen of the mass indicated polygonal/circular eosinophilic cytoplasm, cord-like arrangement of interstitial cells, and lipid pigment in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry results precluded a diagnosis of Leydig cell tumors. DNA sequencing revealed a hackneyed homozygous mutation, I2g, on intron 2 of the CYP21A2 gene. The patient’s symptoms improved after a three-month of dexamethasone therapy. Recent radiographic data showed reduced hyperplastic adrenal nodules and testicular tumors. A diagnosis of TART should be considered and prioritized in CAH patients with testicular tumors. Replacement therapy using a sufficient amount of dexamethasone in this case helps combat TART.

  12. A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yan-Kun; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Liu, Wei-Wu; Song, Yue-Qiang; Lin, Jin; He, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO) synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. The patient showed physical signs of precocious puberty. The levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), urinary 17-ketone steroids (17-KS), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and serum progesterone (PRGE) were elevated, whereas those of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and CO were reduced. Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the testes showed a soft tissue density (more pronounced on the right side) and an irregularly swollen mass (more pronounced on the left side), respectively. Pathological examination of a specimen of the mass indicated polygonal/circular eosinophilic cytoplasm, cord-like arrangement of interstitial cells, and lipid pigment in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry results precluded a diagnosis of Leydig cell tumors. DNA sequencing revealed a hackneyed homozygous mutation, I2g, on intron 2 of the CYP21A2 gene. The patient’s symptoms improved after a three-month of dexamethasone therapy. Recent radiographic data showed reduced hyperplastic adrenal nodules and testicular tumors. A diagnosis of TART should be considered and prioritized in CAH patients with testicular tumors. Replacement therapy using a sufficient amount of dexamethasone in this case helps combat TART. PMID:26985347

  13. Anaerobic respiration sustains mitochondrial membrane potential in a prolyl hydroxylase pathway-activated cancer cell line in a hypoxic microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eiji; Sato, Michihiko

    2014-02-15

    To elucidate how tumor cells produce energy in oxygen-depleted microenvironments, we studied the possibility of mitochondrial electron transport without oxygen. We produced well-controlled oxygen gradients (ΔO2) in monolayer-cultured cells. We then visualized oxygen levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΦm) in individual cells by using the red shift of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence and a cationic fluorescent dye, respectively. In this two-dimensional tissue model, ΔΦm was abolished in cells >500 μm from the oxygen source [the anoxic front (AF)], indicating limitations in diffusional oxygen delivery. This result perfectly matched GFP-determined ΔO2. In cells pretreated with dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) inhibitor, the AF was expanded to 1,500-2,000 μm from the source. In these cells, tissue ΔO2 was substantially decreased, indicating that PHD pathway activation suppressed mitochondrial respiration. The expansion of the AF and the reduction of ΔO2 were much more prominent in a cancer cell line (Hep3B) than in the equivalent fibroblast-like cell line (COS-7). Hence, the results indicate that PHD pathway-activated cells can sustain ΔΦm, despite significantly decreased electron flux to complex IV. Complex II inhibition abolished the effect of DMOG in expanding the AF, although tissue ΔO2 remained shallow. Separate experiments demonstrated that complex II plays a substantial role in sustaining ΔΦm in DMOG-pretreated Hep3B cells with complex III inhibition. From these results, we conclude that PHD pathway activation can sustain ΔΦm in an otherwise anoxic microenvironment by decreasing tissue ΔO2 while activating oxygen-independent electron transport in mitochondria.

  14. P450XXI (steroid 21-hydroxylase) gene deletions are not found in family studies of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, K J; Phillips, J A; Miller, W L; Chung, B C; Orlando, P J; Frisch, H; Ferrandez, A; Burr, I M

    1987-08-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a common genetic disorder due to defective 21-hydroxylation of steroid hormones. The human P450XXIA2 gene encodes cytochrome P450c21 [steroid 21-monooxygenase (steroid 21-hydroxylase), EC 1.14.99.10], which mediates 21-hydroxylation. The P450XXIA2 gene may be distinguished from the duplicated P450XXIA1 pseudogene by cleavage with the restriction endonuclease Taq I, with the XXIA2 gene characterized by a 3.7-kilobase (kb) fragment and the XXIA1 pseudogene characterized by a 3.2-kb fragment. Restriction endonuclease mapping by several laboratories has suggested that deletion of the P450XXIA2 gene occurs in about 25% of patients with CAH, as their genomic DNA lacks detectable 3.7-kb Taq I fragments. We have cloned human P450c21 cDNA and used it to study genomic DNA prepared from 51 persons in 10 families, each of which includes 2 or more persons with CAH. After Taq I digestion, apparent deletions are seen in 7 of the 20 alleles of the probands; using EcoRI, apparent deletions are seen in 9 of the 20 alleles. However, the apparently deleted alleles seen with Taq I do not coincide with those seen with EcoRI. Furthermore, studies with Bgl II, EcoRI, Kpn I, and Xba I yield normal patterns with at least two enzymes in all cases. Since all probands yielded normal patterns with at least two of the five enzymes used, we conclude that the P450XXIA2 gene "deletions" widely reported in CAH patients probably represent gene conversions, unequal crossovers, or polymorphisms rather than simple gene deletions.

  15. Localization of choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivities in the superior colliculus of the microbat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Se-Jin; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the superior colliculus (SC) of the microbat has the same neurochemical makeup as that of other mammals. We examined the organization of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers/cells using standard immunohistochemistry with antibodies against ChAT and TH. ChAT-IR fibers observed in the superficial layers were denser than those in the deeper layers, and these fibers were classified into two types: small varicose fibers and large varicose fibers. ChAT-IR cells were predominantly located in the superficial layers with diverse morphologies. Among the well-known sources of cholinergic fibers in the mammalian SC, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTN) and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTN) contained strongly labeled ChAT-IR cells, while no cholinergic structures were found in the parabigeminal nucleus (PBG) in the microbat brain. TH-immunoreactivity was found within fibers but not within cells. The density of TH-IR fibers was high in the zonal layer, moderate in the superficial gray and optic layers, and low in the deeper layers. Well-labeled TH-IR cells were also observed within area 13 and the locus coeruleus, known as the sources of catecholaminergic fibers in other mammalian SC. Although there are some cytoarchitectural variations among species, our results clearly showed elaborately organized ChAT-IR and TH-IR fibers/cells in the microbat SC. Our findings will contribute significantly to the understanding of actively constructed microbat visual systems.

  16. Oral Hypoxia–Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients with CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Robert; Besarab, Anatole; Sun, Chao H.; Diamond, Susan A.; Durham, John H.; Cangiano, Jose L.; Aiello, Joseph R.; Novak, James E.; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Roberts, Brian K.; Saikali, Khalil G.; Hemmerich, Stefan; Szczech, Lynda A.; Neff, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Roxadustat (FG-4592), an oral hypoxia–inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis, regulates iron metabolism, and reduces hepcidin, was evaluated in this phase 2b study for safety, efficacy, optimal dose, and dose frequency in patients with nondialysis CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The 145 patients with nondialysis CKD and hemoglobin ≤10.5 g/dl were randomized into one of six cohorts of approximately 24 patients each with varying roxadustat starting doses (tiered weight and fixed amounts) and frequencies (two and three times weekly) followed by hemoglobin maintenance with roxadustat one to three times weekly. Treatment duration was 16 or 24 weeks. Intravenous iron was prohibited. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving hemoglobin increase of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline and hemoglobin of ≥11.0 g/dl by week 17 (16 weeks of treatment). Secondary analyses included mean hemoglobin change from baseline, iron utilization, and serum lipids. Safety was evaluated by frequency/severity of adverse events. Results Of the 145 patients enrolled, 143 were evaluable for efficacy. Overall, 92% of patients achieved hemoglobin response. Higher compared with lower starting doses led to earlier achievement of hemoglobin response. Roxadustat–induced hemoglobin increases were independent of baseline C–reactive protein levels and iron repletion status. Overall, over the first 16 treatment weeks, hepcidin levels decreased by 16.9% (P=0.004), reticulocyte hemoglobin content was maintained, and hemoglobin increased by a mean (±SD) of 1.83 (±0.09) g/dl (Proxadustat were well tolerated and achieved anemia correction with reduced serum hepcidin levels. After anemia correction, hemoglobin was maintained by roxadustat at various dose frequencies without intravenous iron supplementation. PMID:27094610

  17. Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) for the Treatment of Anemia in Patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Robert; Besarab, Anatole; Sun, Chao H; Diamond, Susan A; Durham, John H; Cangiano, Jose L; Aiello, Joseph R; Novak, James E; Lee, Tyson; Leong, Robert; Roberts, Brian K; Saikali, Khalil G; Hemmerich, Stefan; Szczech, Lynda A; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2016-06-06

    Roxadustat (FG-4592), an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis, regulates iron metabolism, and reduces hepcidin, was evaluated in this phase 2b study for safety, efficacy, optimal dose, and dose frequency in patients with nondialysis CKD. The 145 patients with nondialysis CKD and hemoglobin ≤10.5 g/dl were randomized into one of six cohorts of approximately 24 patients each with varying roxadustat starting doses (tiered weight and fixed amounts) and frequencies (two and three times weekly) followed by hemoglobin maintenance with roxadustat one to three times weekly. Treatment duration was 16 or 24 weeks. Intravenous iron was prohibited. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving hemoglobin increase of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline and hemoglobin of ≥11.0 g/dl by week 17 (16 weeks of treatment). Secondary analyses included mean hemoglobin change from baseline, iron utilization, and serum lipids. Safety was evaluated by frequency/severity of adverse events. Of the 145 patients enrolled, 143 were evaluable for efficacy. Overall, 92% of patients achieved hemoglobin response. Higher compared with lower starting doses led to earlier achievement of hemoglobin response. Roxadustat-induced hemoglobin increases were independent of baseline C-reactive protein levels and iron repletion status. Overall, over the first 16 treatment weeks, hepcidin levels decreased by 16.9% (P=0.004), reticulocyte hemoglobin content was maintained, and hemoglobin increased by a mean (±SD) of 1.83 (±0.09) g/dl (Proxadustat were well tolerated and achieved anemia correction with reduced serum hepcidin levels. After anemia correction, hemoglobin was maintained by roxadustat at various dose frequencies without intravenous iron supplementation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Lower body weight and BMI at birth were associated with early adiposity rebound in 21-hydroxylase deficiency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, Shigeru; Nakajima, Keisuke; Nomura, Risa; Tsuji-Hosokawa, Atsumi; Matsuda, Nozomi; Matsubara, Yohei; Ono, Makoto; Miyai, Kentaro; Takasawa, Kei; Morio, Tomohiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Kashimada, Kenichi

    2016-11-30

    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most common type of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In addition to the clinical problems caused by adrenal insufficiency and androgen excess, a risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome during young adulthood is a major ramification of the disease. Although glucocorticoid therapy is very likely to be one of the contributory factors, the precise causes of the metabolic status of adult 21-OHD patients remain to be clarified. Previously we reported that 21-OHD patients developed early onset AR, a condition which might create a risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In order to elucidate the association between the onset of AR and factors during the fetal period to early infancy, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal analysis of 29 21-OHD patients (male: 14 cases, female: 15 cases, salt wasting type: 16, simple virilizing type: 13), who were identified by newborn screening and followed up at least until the age 10 years. Body size at birth, lower body weight, and lower BMI were found to precipitate the timing of AR. On the other hand, no significant association was observed between the timing of AR and sex, gestational age, treatment regimen (including cumulative dose of HDC), and disease severity (the type of the disease, the value of DHEA-S and 17-OHP). There are two points to consider: first, in 21-OHD patients treated with glucocorticoid substitution therapy, the risk for early AR cannot be reduced by adjusting the dose of glucocorticoid; second, fetal factors might affect the metabolic status of 21-OHD patients.

  19. Prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 enhances the hypoxic survival and G1 to S transition of carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Högel

    Full Text Available Hypoxia restricts cell proliferation and cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface but at least a subpopulation of carcinoma cells can escape the restriction. In carcinoma hypoxia may in fact select for cells with enhanced hypoxic survival and increased aggressiveness. The cellular oxygen sensors HIF proline hydroxylases (PHDs adapt the cellular functions to lowered environmental oxygen tension. PHD3 isoform has shown the strongest hypoxic upregulation among the family members. We detected a strong PHD3 mRNA expression in tumors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. The PHD3 expression associated with expression of hypoxic marker gene. Using siRNA in cell lines derived from HNSCC we show that specific inhibition of PHD3 expression in carcinoma cells caused reduced cell survival in hypoxia. The loss of PHD3, but not that of PHD2, led to marked cell number reduction. Although caspase-3 was activated at early hypoxia no induction of apoptosis was detected. However, hypoxic PHD3 inhibition caused a block in cell cycle progression. Cell population in G1 phase was increased and the population in S phase reduced demonstrating a block in G1 to S transition under PHD3 inhibition. In line with this, the level of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein Rb was reduced by PHD3 knock-down in hypoxia. PHD3 loss led to increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 expression but not that of p21 or p16. The data demonstrated that increased PHD3 expression under hypoxia enhances cell cycle progression and survival of carcinoma cells.

  20. Involvement of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Winton; Ka, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2017-09-01

    In shrimp, the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, is required for physiological and immunological responses against stress. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), a copper-containing monooxygenase enzyme that plays an important role in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network, was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, the potential role of DBH in the immunocompetence of L. vannamei was further estimated by depleting DBH by pharmaceutical inhibition of disulfiram and a gene silencing technique of L. vannamei DBH-double-stranded (ds)RNA (LvDBH-dsRNA). Immunocompetence was evaluated following the determination of the total hemocyte count, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity, and the clearance efficiency as well as the susceptibility against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. At 30-120 min after shrimp had received disulfiram, they exhibited significantly reduced total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes in hemolymph, respiratory bursts of hemocytes in hemolymph and per hemocyte, phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and survival ratio against V. alginolyticus infection, compared to those injected with saline. In addition, the significantly lower total hemocyte count, phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to V. alginolyticus infection were observed in shrimp that received LvDBH-dsRNA at 3 days post injection compared to those injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water or non-targeting gene-dsRNA. The DBH depleted L. vannamei revealed immunosuppression and decreased the survival ratio to V. alginolyticus infection, which indicated that DBH played a crucial role in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protected tyrosine hydroxylase function in a chronic MPTP/probenecid mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiu-Qi; Wu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairments and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. FLZ (formulated as: N-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic derivative of squamosamide from a Chinese herb and has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons in subacute PD models. However, whether FLZ has a neuroprotective effect on chronic PD model is still unknown. The present study was designed to verify the neuroprotection of FLZ on chronic PD mouse model induced by MPTP combined with probenecid (MPTP/p). The results showed that treatment of mice with FLZ for 9 weeks significantly improved motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal function of mice injected with MPTP/p. The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, as well as decrease of α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression, α-Syn phosphorylation, nitration, and aggregation. Moreover, FLZ decreased the interaction between α-Syn and TH, which eventually improved dopaminergic neuronal function. Mechanistic study demonstrated that FLZ increased Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, suggesting that FLZ activated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and this might be involved in the neuroprotection of FLZ. The present results provided more elaborate in vivo evidences to support the neuroprotective effect of FLZ on dopaminergic neurons of chronic PD mouse model and the potential of FLZ to be developed as new drug to treat PD.

  2. Long-term glucocorticoid effect on bone mineral density in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Filippo; Barbot, Mattia; Albiger, Nora; Zilio, Marialuisa; De Toni, Pietro; Luisetto, Giovanni; Zaninotto, Martina; Greggio, Nella Augusta; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Camozzi, Valentina

    2016-08-01

    Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) assume a lifelong glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Excessive GC treatment increases the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures, even though the role of substitutive therapy is not fully established: we analyzed the effect of GC dose on bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) over time in patients with 21OHD. We studied bone metabolism markers and BMD in 38 adult patients with 21OHD (19-47 years, 24 females and 14 males) and 38 matched healthy control. In 15 patients, BMD data were available at both baseline and after a long-term follow-up. BMD was lower in patients than in controls at lumbar spine (0.961±0.1g/cm(2) vs 1.02±0.113g/cm(2), P=0.014) and femur neck (0.736±0.128g/cm(2) vs 0.828±0.103g/cm(2), P=0.02); otherwise, after height correction, only femoral neck BMD was lower in patients (0.458±0.081g/cm(2) vs 0.498±0.063g/cm(2), P=0.028). In those 21OHD subjects with at least 10 years follow-up, we observed an increase in lumbar BMD (P=0.0429) and a decrease in femur neck BMD values (P=0.004). Cumulative GC dose was not related to bone metabolism or BMD. No patient experienced clinical fragility fractures. BMD values are decreased in patients with 21OHD, which are in part explained by decreased height, but not by the dose of glucocorticoids. Nevertheless, bone status should be carefully monitored in patients with 21OHD. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks) which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme) that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  4. Restoration of tryptophan hydroxylase functions and serotonin content in the Atlantic croaker hypothalamus by antioxidant treatment during hypoxic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saydur Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are prototypical scavengers of oxygen-free radicals and have been shown to prevent neuroendocrine dysfunction in vertebrates during oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated whether antioxidant treatment can reverse hypoxia-induced down-regulation of hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH and serotonergic functions in Atlantic croaker. Hypothalamic neuronal contents of TPH-1 and TPH-2 proteins, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP as well as hypothalamic TPH-1 and TPH-2 mRNA expression and TPH activity were measured in croaker after exposure to hypoxia and treatment with pharmacological agents. Multiple injections of N-ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl alkylating agent, caused comparable decreases in hypothalamic TPHs functions and 5-HT contents to that induced by hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen: 1.7 mg/L for 4 weeks which were partially restored by repeated injections with a nitric oxide synthase (NOS-inhibitor and/or vitamin E. Double-labeled immunohistochemical results showed that TPHs and 5-HT neurons were co-expressed with neuronal NOS (nNOS, a neuroenzyme that catalyzes the production of nitric oxide, a free radical, in hypothalamic neurons. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced impairment of TPH and serotonergic functions are mediated by nNOS and involve the generation of free radicals and a decrease in the antioxidant status. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence of a protective role for an antioxidant in maintaining neural TPHs functions and 5-HT regulation in an aquatic vertebrate during hypoxic stress.

  5. Chronic desipramine treatment alters tyrosine hydroxylase but not norepinephrine transporter immunoreactivity in norepinephrine axons in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Susan L; Gandhi, Anjalika R; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K; Sampson, Allan R; Miner, LeeAnn; Blakely, Randy D; Sesack, Susan R

    2011-10-01

    Pharmacological blockade of norepinephrine (NE) reuptake is clinically effective in treating several mental disorders. Drugs that bind to the NE transporter (NET) alter both protein levels and activity of NET and also the catecholamine synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We examined the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by electron microscopy to determine whether the density and subcellular distribution of immunolabelling for NET and co-localization of NET with TH within individual NE axons were altered by chronic treatment with the selective NE uptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI). Following DMI treatment (21 d, 15 mg/kg.d), NET-immunoreactive (ir) axons were significantly less likely to co-localize TH. This finding is consistent with reports of reduced TH levels and activity in the locus coeruleus after chronic DMI and indicates a reduction of NE synthetic capacity in the PFC. Measures of NET expression and membrane localization, including the number of NET-ir profiles per tissue area sampled, the number of gold particles per NET-ir profile area, and the proportion of gold particles associated with the plasma membrane, were similar in DMI- and vehicle-treated rats. These findings were verified using two different antibodies directed against distinct epitopes of the NET protein. The results suggest that chronic DMI treatment does not reduce NET expression within individual NE axons in vivo or induce an overall translocation of NET protein away from the plasma membrane in the PFC as measured by ultrastructural immunogold labelling. Our findings encourage consideration of possible post-translational mechanisms for regulating NET activity in antidepressant-induced modulation of NE clearance.

  6. Myelination in the absence of UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyl-transferase and fatty acid 2 -hydroxylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gieselmann Volkmar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sphingolipids galactosylceramide (GalCer and sulfatide are major myelin components and are thought to play important roles in myelin function. The importance of GalCer and sulfatide has been validated using UDP-galactose:ceramide galactosyltransferase-deficient (Cgt-/- mice, which are impaired in myelin maintenance. These mice, however, are still able to form compact myelin. Loss of GalCer and sulfatide in these mice is accompanied by up-regulation of 2-hydroxylated fatty acid containing (HFA-glucosylceramide in myelin. This was interpreted as a partial compensation of the loss of HFA-GalCer, which may prevent a more severe myelin phenotype. In order to test this hypothesis, we have generated Cgt-/- mice with an additional deletion of the fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (Fa2h gene. Results Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- double-deficient mice lack sulfatide, GalCer, and in addition HFA-GlcCer and sphingomyelin. Interestingly, compared to Cgt-/- mice the amount of GlcCer in CNS myelin was strongly reduced in Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- mice by more than 80%. This was accompanied by a significant increase in sphingomyelin, which was the predominant sphingolipid in Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- mice. Despite these significant changes in myelin sphingolipids, compact myelin was formed in Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- mice, and g-ratios of myelinated axons in the spinal cord of 4-week-old Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- mice did not differ significantly from that of Cgt-/- mice, and there was no obvious phenotypic difference between Fa2h-/-/Cgt-/- and Cgt-/- mice Conclusions These data show that compact myelin can be formed with non-hydroxylated sphingomyelin as the predominant sphingolipid and suggest that the presence of HFA-GlcCer and HFA-sphingomyelin in Cgt-/- mice does not functionally compensate the loss of HFA-GalCer.

  7. A pair of tabersonine 16-hydroxylases initiates the synthesis of vindoline in an organ-dependent manner in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseau, Sébastien; Kellner, Franziska; Lanoue, Arnaud; Thamm, Antje M K; Salim, Vonny; Schneider, Bernd; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Höfer, René; Guirimand, Grégory; Guihur, Anthony; Oudin, Audrey; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Foureau, Emilien; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Burlat, Vincent; De Luca, Vincenzo; O'Connor, Sarah E; Courdavault, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxylation of tabersonine at the C-16 position, catalyzed by tabersonine 16-hydroxylase (T16H), initiates the synthesis of vindoline that constitutes the main alkaloid accumulated in leaves of Catharanthus roseus. Over the last decade, this reaction has been associated with CYP71D12 cloned from undifferentiated C. roseus cells. In this study, we isolated a second cytochrome P450 (CYP71D351) displaying T16H activity. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that CYP71D12 and CYP71D351 both exhibit high affinity for tabersonine and narrow substrate specificity, making of T16H, to our knowledge, the first alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme displaying two isoforms encoded by distinct genes characterized to date in C. roseus. However, both genes dramatically diverge in transcript distribution in planta. While CYP71D12 (T16H1) expression is restricted to flowers and undifferentiated cells, the CYP71D351 (T16H2) expression profile is similar to the other vindoline biosynthetic genes reaching a maximum in young leaves. Moreover, transcript localization by carborundum abrasion and RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that CYP71D351 messenger RNAs are specifically located to leaf epidermis, which also hosts the next step of vindoline biosynthesis. Comparison of high- and low-vindoline-accumulating C. roseus cultivars also highlights the direct correlation between CYP71D351 transcript and vindoline levels. In addition, CYP71D351 down-regulation mediated by virus-induced gene silencing reduces vindoline accumulation in leaves and redirects the biosynthetic flux toward the production of unmodified alkaloids at the C-16 position. All these data demonstrate that tabersonine 16-hydroxylation is orchestrated in an organ-dependent manner by two genes including CYP71D351, which encodes the specific T16H isoform acting in the foliar vindoline biosynthesis.

  8. Association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Wu, Zhihong; Zhuang, Qianyu; Fei, Qi; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yipeng; Ding, Yaozhong; Qiu, Guixing

    2008-09-15

    A genetic association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene (TPH1) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene(AANAT) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in Han Chinese. To access whether TPH1 and AANAT polymorphisms are associated with the predisposition, gender, and/or severity of AIS. Studies have shown that AIS is a multifactorial inheritance disease, but the etiology is still unknown. In addition, several lines of evidence show that melatonin deficiency is closely associated with AIS, although there are still doubts and debates. Some polymorphisms in TPH1 and AANAT, the genes of 2 critical enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, may contribute to variability of melatonin production in pineal glands. We genotyped 16 reported single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) present in TPH1 and AANAT in 103 AIS patients and 108 controls with matched sex and age. The data of 6 SNPs with minor allele frequence (MAF) above 5% were analyzed by the allelic and genotypic association analysis, the genotype-phenotype (gender and Cobb angle) association analysis, and the haplotype analysis. The single SNP analysis showed that rs10488682, located in the promoter region of TPH1, was related with the occurrence of AIS (P < 0.05). No SNP was found to be correlated with gender or Cobb angle. Two makers (rs8176799 and rs2108977) in TPH1 were found to be in strong LD [ D' = 1.0 (95% CI, 0.9-1.0), gamma = 0.501, LOD = 18.93] in the controls. Both global haplotype analysis and individual haplotype analysis showed that there was no haplotype significantly associated with AIS in this LD block. TPH1 polymorphisms were associated with AIS but not with gender and Cobb angle in AIS patients. AANAT polymorphisms were not associated with AIS. These results suggested that TPH1 was an AIS predisposition gene, and there was a close relationship between the dyssynthesis of melatonin and AIS.

  9. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8′-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (−)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic yield is too low for practical applications. Therefore, we designed novel CYP707A inhibitors, Abz-T compounds, that have simpler structures in which the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring of (−)-Abz-E2B has been replaced with a triple bond. They were successfully synthesised in shorter steps, resulting in greater yields than that of (−)-Abz-E2B. In the enzymatic assays, one of the Abz-T compounds, (−)-Abz-E3M, acted as a strong and selective inhibitor of CYP707A, similar to (−)-Abz-E2B. Analysis of the biological effects in Arabidopsis revealed that (−)-Abz-E3M enhanced ABA’s effects more than (−)-Abz-E2B in seed germination and in the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Treatment with (−)-Abz-E3M induced stomatal closure and improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, (−)-Abz-E3M also increased the ABA response in rice and maize. Thus, (−)-Abz-E3M is a more practical and effective inhibitor of CYP707A than (−)-Abz-E2B. PMID:27841331

  10. Abscinazole-E3M, a practical inhibitor of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase for improving drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Jun; Okamoto, Masanori; Mega, Ryosuke; Kanno, Yuri; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2016-11-14

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential phytohormone that regulates plant water use and drought tolerance. However, agricultural applications of ABA have been limited because of its rapid inactivation in plants, which involves hydroxylation of ABA by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A). We previously developed a selective inhibitor of CYP707A, (-)-Abz-E2B, by structurally modifying S-uniconazole, which functions as an inhibitor of CYP707A and as a gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme. However, its synthetic yield is too low for practical applications. Therefore, we designed novel CYP707A inhibitors, Abz-T compounds, that have simpler structures in which the 1,2,3-triazolyl ring of (-)-Abz-E2B has been replaced with a triple bond. They were successfully synthesised in shorter steps, resulting in greater yields than that of (-)-Abz-E2B. In the enzymatic assays, one of the Abz-T compounds, (-)-Abz-E3M, acted as a strong and selective inhibitor of CYP707A, similar to (-)-Abz-E2B. Analysis of the biological effects in Arabidopsis revealed that (-)-Abz-E3M enhanced ABA's effects more than (-)-Abz-E2B in seed germination and in the expression of ABA-responsive genes. Treatment with (-)-Abz-E3M induced stomatal closure and improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, (-)-Abz-E3M also increased the ABA response in rice and maize. Thus, (-)-Abz-E3M is a more practical and effective inhibitor of CYP707A than (-)-Abz-E2B.

  11. Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression during transdifferentiation of striatal neurons: changes in transcription factors binding the AP-1 site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1998-10-15

    We have shown previously that the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a coactivator (dopamine, protein kinase A, or protein kinase C activator) will induce the novel expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in neurons of the developing striatum. In this study we sought to determine whether, concomitant with TH expression, there were unique changes in transcription factors binding the AP-1 regulatory element on the TH gene. Indeed, we found a significant recruitment of proteins into TH-AP-1 complexes as well as a shift from low- to high-affinity binding. Supershift experiments further revealed dramatic changes in the proteins comprising the AP-1 complexes, including recruitment of the transcriptional activators c-Fos, a novel Fos protein, Fos-B, and Jun-D. Concomitantly, there was a decrease in repressor-type factors ATF-2 and CREM-1. aFGF appeared to play a central but insufficient role, requiring the further participation of at least one of the coactivating substances. Experiments examining the signal transduction pathway involved in mediating these nuclear events demonstrated that the presence of only an FGF (1, 2, 4, 9) competent to induce TH caused the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Moreover, the treatment of cells with MEK/ERK inhibitors (apigenin or PD98059) eliminated TH expression and the associated AP-1 changes, suggesting that MAPK was a critical mediator of these events. We conclude that, during transdifferentiation, signals may be transmitted via MAPK to the TH-AP-1 site to increase activators and reduce repressors, helping to shift the balance in favor of TH gene expression at this and possibly other important regulatory sites on the gene.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor works coordinately with partner molecules to initiate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1995-05-22

    Previous studies demonstrated that the cooperative interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a partner molecule could induce the novel expression of the catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in striatal neurons [Du and Iacovitti, J. Neurosci., in press; Du et al., J. Neurosci., 14 (1994) 7688-7694; Iacovitti et al., submitted]. The present study demonstrates that in addition to aFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also capable of moderate levels of TH induction (30% TH+ striatal neurons) when administered at high concentrations (100 ng/ml). As with aFGF, BDNF's activity depended on its coupling to an appropriate partner molecule; the most potent of which were 10 microM dopamine (DA) and 50 microM mazindol. BDNF + DA-induced TH expression was first evident after at 12 h; peaked by 18 h and declined by 4 days in culture. Cyclohexamide eliminated nearly all and alpha-amanitin reduced by half the TH induction elicited by DA and BDNF; indicating that both de novo transcription and translation were required for increased expression. In contrast with aFGF and BDNF, other putative dopamine differentiation factors, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), were able to elicit barely detectable (10%) levels of TH induction, regardless of the partner molecule used. These studies suggest that aFGF and/or BDNF may work coordinately with partner molecules to initiate TH expression; while a number of factors including, CNTF and GDNF, may be involved in its subsequent modulation.

  13. A fully active catalytic domain of bovine aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase expressed in Escherichia coli: characterization and evidence for the identification of an active-site region in vertebrate alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S; McGinnis, K; VanDusen, W J; Burke, C J; Kuo, A; Griffin, P R; Sardana, M K; Elliston, K O; Stern, A M; Friedman, P A

    1994-07-19

    The alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.16) specifically hydroxylates one aspartic or asparagine residue in certain epidermal growth factor-like domains of a number of proteins. The expression in Escherichia coli, purification, characterization of a fully active catalytic domain, and evidence for the identification of an active-site region of this enzyme are described. Sequence alignment analyses among the vertebrate alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and chemical modification studies were undertaken aimed at locating specific regions of 52-kDa recombinant aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase involved in substrate binding and/or catalysis. Based upon these studies, an alignment of the C-terminal regions of prolyl and lysyl hydroxylase and of aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase is proposed. When histidine-675, an invariant residue located in a region of homology within this alignment, was mutated to an alanine residue in aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase (H675A), no enzymatic activity was detected. Chemical modification studies show that the wild-type protein is protected from iodo[14C]acetamide labeling by Fe2+/alpha-ketoglutarate whereas the H675A mutant protein is not, suggesting that this mutant does not bind Fe2+/alpha-ketoglutarate.

  14. Structure and expression of the human Lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD): Introns 9 and 16 contain Alu sequences at the sites of recombination in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, J.; Hautala, T.; Kivirikko, K.I. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.4) catalyzes the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens by the hydroxylation of lysine residues in peptide linkages. This enzyme activity is known to be reduced in patients with the type VI variant of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and the first mutations in the lysyl hydroxylase gene (PLOD) have recently been identified. We have now isolated genomic clones for human lysyl hydroxylase and determined the complete structure of the gene, which contains 19 exons and a 5{prime} flanking region with characteristics shared by housekeeping genes. The constitutive expression of the gene in different tissues further suggests that lysyl hydroxylase has an essential function. We have sequenced the introns of the gene in the region where many mutations and rearrangements analyzed to date are concentrated. Intron 9 and intron 16 show extensive homology resulting from the many Alu sequences found in these introns. Intron 9 contains five and intron 16 eight Alu sequences. The high homology and many short identical or complementary sequences in these introns generate many potential recombination sites with the gene. The delineation of the structure of the lysyl hydroxylase gene contributes significantly to our understanding of the rearrangements in the genome of Ehlers-Danlos type VI patients. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the chalcone 3-hydroxylase gene of Cosmos sulphureus show increased levels of 3-hydroxyphloridzin and reduced susceptibility to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutabarat, Olly Sanny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Regos, Ionela; Miosic, Silvija; Kaufmann, Christine; Faramarzi, Shadab; Alam, Mohammed Zobayer; Gosch, Christian; Peil, Andreas; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    Overexpression of chalcone-3-hydroxylase provokes increased accumulation of 3-hydroxyphloridzin in Malus . Decreased flavonoid concentrations but unchanged flavonoid class composition were observed. The increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents correlate well with reduced susceptibility to fire blight and scab. The involvement of dihydrochalcones in the apple defence mechanism against pathogens is discussed but unknown biosynthetic steps in their formation hamper studies on their physiological relevance. The formation of 3-hydroxyphloretin is one of the gaps in the pathway. Polyphenol oxidases and cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes could be involved. Hydroxylation of phloretin in position 3 has high similarity to the B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids catalysed by the well-known flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H). Using recombinant F3'H and chalcone 3-hydroxylase (CH3H) from Cosmos sulphureus we show that F3'H and CH3H accept phloretin to some extent but higher conversion rates are obtained with CH3H. To test whether CH3H catalyzes the hydroxylation of dihydrochalcones in planta and if this could be of physiological relevance, we created transgenic apple trees harbouring CH3H from C. sulphureus. The three transgenic lines obtained showed lower polyphenol concentrations but no shift between the main polyphenol classes dihydrochalcones, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan 3-ols. Increase of 3-hydroxyphloridzin within the dihydrochalcones and of epicatechin/catechin within soluble flavan 3-ols were observed. Decreased activity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and chalcone synthase/chalcone isomerase could partially explain the lower polyphenol concentrations. In comparison to the parent line, the transgenic CH3H-lines showed a lower disease susceptibility to fire blight and apple scab that correlated with the increased 3-hydroxyphlorizin contents.

  16. Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Subhash J; Kassim, Amelia; Loh, Chye Ying; Shah, Farida H

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the nutritional quality of the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp oil is superior to that of African oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) mesocarp oil. Therefore, it is of important to identify the genetic features for its superior value. This could be achieved through the genome sequencing of the oil-palm. However, the genome sequence is not available in the public domain due to commercial secrecy. Hence, we constructed a cDNA library and generated expressed sequence tags (3,205) from the mesocarp tissue of the American oil-palm. We continued to annotate each of these cDNAs after submitting to GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL. A rough analysis turned our attention to the beta-carotene hydroxylase (Chyb) enzyme encoding cDNA. Then, we completed the full sequencing of cDNA clone for its both strands using M13 forward and reverse primers. The full nucleotide and protein sequence was further analyzed and annotated using various Bioinformatics tools. The analysis results showed the presence of fatty acid hydroxylase superfamily domain in the protein sequence. The multiple sequence alignment of selected Chyb amino acid sequences from other plant species and algal members with E. oleifera Chyb using ClustalW and its phylogenetic analysis suggest that Chyb from monocotyledonous plant species, Lilium hubrid, Crocus sativus and Zea mays are the most evolutionary related with E. oleifera Chyb. This study reports the annotation of E. oleifera Chyb. Abbreviations ESTs - expressed sequence tags, EoChyb - Elaeis oleifera beta-carotene hydroxylase, MC - main cluster PMID:21364789

  17. RNAi inhibition of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase reduces scopoletin biosynthesis and post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Zainuddin, Ima M; Vanderschuren, Herve; Doughty, James; Beeching, John R

    2017-05-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major world crop, whose storage roots provide food for over 800 million throughout the humid tropics. Despite many advantages as a crop, the development of cassava is seriously constrained by the rapid post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of its roots that occurs within 24-72 h of harvest, rendering the roots unpalatable and unmarketable. PPD limits cassava's marketing possibilities in countries that are undergoing increased development and urbanisation due to growing distances between farms and consumers. The inevitable wounding of the roots caused by harvesting triggers an oxidative burst that spreads throughout the cassava root, together with the accumulation of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, of which the coumarin scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is the most abundant. Scopoletin oxidation yields a blue-black colour, which suggests its involvement in the discoloration observed during PPD. Feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase is a controlling enzyme in the biosynthesis of scopoletin. The cassava genome contains a seven membered family of feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase genes, four of which are expressed in the storage root and, of these, three were capable of functionally complementing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants in this gene. A RNA interference construct, designed to a highly conserved region of these genes, was used to transform cassava, where it significantly reduced feruloyl CoA 6'-hydroxylase gene expression, scopoletin accumulation and PPD symptom development. Collectively, our results provide evidence that scopoletin plays a major functional role in the development of PPD symptoms, rather than merely paralleling symptom development in the cassava storage root.

  18. CYSL-1 Interacts with the O2-sensing Hydroxylase EGL-9 to Promote H2S-modulated Hypoxia-induced Behavioral Plasticity in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Dengke K.; Vozdek, Roman; Bhatla, Nikhil; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The C. elegans HIF-1 proline hydroxylase EGL-9 functions as an O2-sensor in an evolutionarily conserved pathway for adaptation to hypoxia. H2S accumulates during hypoxia and promotes HIF-1 activity, but how H2S signals are perceived and transmitted to modulate HIF-1 and animal behavior is unknown. We report that the experience of hypoxia modifies a C. elegans locomotive behavioral response to O2 through the EGL-9 pathway. From genetic screens to identify novel regulators of EGL-9-mediated beh...

  19. Diurnal variation in cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase activity is determined by the -203A>C polymorphism of the CYP7A1 gene

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachov?, Milu?e; Blahov?, Tereza; L?nsk?, V?ra; Len??ek, Martin; Pi?ha, Jan; V?tek, Libor; Kov??, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether the promoter polymorphism -203A>C of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP7A1) affects diurnal variation in CYP7A1 enzyme activity. Methods The study included 16 healthy male volunteers – 8 homozygous for -203A and 8 homozygous for the -203C allele of CYP7A1. Three 15-hour examinations (from 7am to 10pm) were carried out for each of the participants: after one-day treatment with cholestyramine; after one-day treatment with chenodeoxycho...

  20. Optimization of solubilization and purification procedures for the hydroxylase component of membrane-bound methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V I; Tikhonova, T V; Gvozdev, R I; Tukhvatullin, I A; Popov, V O

    2006-12-01

    The hydroxylase component of membrane-bound (particulate) methane monooxygenase (pMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus strain M was isolated and purified to homogeneity. The pMMO molecule comprises three subunits of molecular masses 47, 26, and 23 kD and contains three copper atoms and one iron atom. In solution the protein exists as a stable oligomer of 660 kD with possible subunit composition (alpha beta gamma)6. Mass spectroscopy shows high homology of the purified protein with methane monooxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath. Pilot screening of crystallization conditions has been carried out.

  1. Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Dimitrios; Saetre, Peter; Werge, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine...... metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n=132). The G-allele of the TPH1 rs4537731 (A-6526G) polymorphism was associated with 5-HIAA and HVA, but not MHPG concentrations. None of the other four TPH1...

  2. Screening non-classical 21-hydroxylase gene deficiency from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome by gene assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie HU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To screen non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC-21OHD from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS by gene assay. Methods  Ninety-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled according to 2003 Rotterdam criteria from Department of Endocrinology, Tangdu Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, and they were divided into three groups according to the modified Ferriman-Gallway (mF-G score as follows: group A with score 0-2; group B with score 3-5, and group C with score ≥6. Meanwhile, 30 healthy subjects from the Medical Center of the Hospital were recruited as control group. Peripheral blood of all subjects were collected for extracting DNA, the CYP21A2 gene were amplified by 5 pairs of specific primers, and then the PCR products were sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Co. The subjects would accept test for serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH at 8:00am if their CYP21A2 was proved to be abnormal. Results  Thirty subjects of control group had no any defects in CYP21A2, but 5 of 98 patients with PCOS were proved to be deficient in CYP21A2, and the genotypes were V281L/920-921insT (P1, V281L/I230M (P2, V281L/Normal (P3, P4, P5, respectively, and all of them were heterozygous mutations. The incidences of NC-21OHD in group C and B were 28.6% and 3.3%, respectively. Genotype P1 had been identified to belong to NC-21OHD, which was consistent with its clinical phenotype. All genotypes P3, P4 and P5 belonged to carriers. But for P2, since I230M hadn't been reported in literature, the patient with V281L/I230M couldn't be classified now. Serum biochemical results showed that only in P1 the cortisol was close to the normal lower level, and ACTH was close to the normal upper limit of the reported level in the literature, and the remainders were all normal. Conclusions  Although PCOS and NC-21OHD are very similar in clinical manifestations, they are different completely in the pathogenesis and treatment. So it

  3. Abscinazole-E2B, a practical and selective inhibitor of ABA 8'-hydroxylase CYP707A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Mariko; Kittikorn, Monrudee; Ueno, Kotomi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Satoru; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Todoroki, Yasushi

    2012-05-15

    We developed abscinazole-E2B (Abz-E2B), a practical and specific inhibitor of abscisic acid (ABA) 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), by structural modification of abscinazole-E1 (Abz-E1), another compound we developed. A butoxy group was introduced to Abz-E2B instead of the tosylate group of Abz-E1, in expectation of better water solubility, because the calculated logP value of Abz-E2B is 3.47, which is smaller than that of Abz-E1 (4.02). The water solubility of Abz-E2B was greater than 90% at a concentration of 100 μM, at which the solubility of Abz-E1 was 20%. The enzyme specificity was improved significantly. In in vitro assays constructed using recombinant enzymes, (±)-Abz-E2B was a considerably weaker inhibitor than (±)-Abz-E1 for CYP701A, a GA biosynthetic enzyme, which is a target of S-uniconazole (S-UNI), a lead compound of Abz-E1. (±)-Abz-E2B application to plants resulted in improved desiccation tolerance and an increase in endogenous ABA, with little retardation of growth. We also prepared optically pure Abz-E2B and determined its absolute configuration. The R-enantiomer of Abz-E2B was the more potent inhibitor of CYP707A, unlike UNI, whereas both enantiomers were markedly less effective than S-UNI in inhibiting CYP701A. Because S-Abz-E2B arrested the growth of rice seedlings at 100 μM, probably because of off-target effects, R-Abz-E2B should be used as a chemical tool for research focusing on CYP707A when 100 μM or higher concentration is required, although (±)-Abz-E2B may be useful as an alternative option at a lower concentration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: update on the management of adult patients and prenatal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Grouthier, Virginie; Courtillot, Carine; Dulon, Jérôme; Touraine, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is characterized by cortisol and in some cases aldosterone deficiency associated with androgen excess. Goals of treatment are to replace deficient hormones and control androgen excess, while avoiding the adverse effects of exogenous glucocorticoid. Over the last 5 years, cohorts of adults with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency from Europe and the United States have been described, allowing us to have a better knowledge of long-term complications of the disease and its treatment. Patients with CAH have increased mortality, morbidity and risk for infertility and metabolic disorders. These comorbidities are due in part to the drawbacks of the currently available glucocorticoid therapy. Consequently, novel therapies are being developed and studied in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. New management strategies in the care of pregnancies at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia using fetal sex determination and dexamethasone have also been described, but remain a subject of debate. We focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, concentrating on studies dealing with cardiovascular risk, fertility, treatment and prenatal management in adults with classic CAH to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Ultrastructure and mechanical properties of populus wood with reduced lignin content caused by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurhager, Ingela; Olsson, Anne-Mari; Zhang, Bo; Gerber, Lorenz; Kumar, Manoj; Berglund, Lars A; Burgert, Ingo; Sundberg, Björn; Salmén, Lennart

    2010-09-13

    Several key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis of Populus have been down-regulated by transgenic approaches to investigate their role in wood lignification and to explore their potential for lignin modification. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase is an enzyme in the early phenylpropanoid pathway that has not yet been functionally analyzed in Populus . This study shows that down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase reduced Klason lignin content by 30% with no significant change in syringyl to guaiacyl ratio. The lignin reduction resulted in ultrastructural differences of the wood and a 10% decrease in wood density. Mechanical properties investigated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis showed a decrease in stiffness, which could be explained by the lower density. The study demonstrates that a large modification in lignin content only has minor influences on tensile properties of wood in its axial direction and highlights the usefulness of wood modified beyond its natural variation by transgene technology in exploring the impact of wood biopolymer composition and ultrastructure on its material properties.

  6. The miR-124-prolyl hydroxylase P4HA1-MMP1 axis plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Balabhadrapatruni V S K; Pathi, Satya Sreehari; Goswami, Moloy T; Cieślik, Marcin; Zheng, Heng; Nallasivam, Sivakumar; Arekapudi, Subramanyeswara R; Jing, Xiaojun; Siddiqui, Javed; Athanikar, Jyoti; Carskadon, Shannon L; Lonigro, Robert J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana

    2014-08-30

    Collagen prolyl hydroxylases (C-P4HAs) are a family of enzymes involved in collagen biogenesis. One of the isoforms of P4HA, Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I (P4HA1), catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential for the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Here, we show the overexpression of P4HA1 in aggressive prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarray demonstrated that P4HA1 expression was correlated with prostate cancer progression. Using in vitro studies, we showed that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer cell growth and tumor progression. Expression profiling studies using P4HA1 modulated prostate cells suggested regulation of Matrix metalloproteases 1. The invasive properties of P4HA1 overexpressing cells were reversed by blocking MMP1. Our studies indicate P4HA1 copy number gain in a subset of metastatic prostate tumors and its expression is also regulated by microRNA-124. MiR-124 in turn is negatively regulated by transcriptional repressors EZH2 and CtBP1, both of which are overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mice xenograft investigations show that P4HA1 is required for tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Our observations suggest that P4HA1 plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and could serve as a viable therapeutic target.

  7. Protein kinase C-dependent dephosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase requires the B56δ heterotrimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hyuck Ahn

    Full Text Available Tyrosine hydroxylase, which plays a critical role in regulation of dopamine synthesis, is known to be controlled by phosphorylation at several critical sites. One of these sites, Ser40, is phosphorylated by a number of protein kinases, including protein kinase A. The major protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser40 is protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A. A recent study has also linked protein kinase C to the dephosphorylation of Ser40 [1], but the mechanism is unclear. PP2A isoforms are comprised of catalytic, scaffold, and regulatory subunits, the regulatory B subunits being able to influence cellular localization and substrate selection. In the current study, we find that protein kinase C is able to phosphorylate a key regulatory site in the B56δ subunit leading to activation of PP2A. In turn, activation of the B56δ-containing heterotrimeric form of PP2A is responsible for enhanced dephosphorylation of Ser40 of tyrosine hydroylase in response to stimulation of PKC. In support of this mechanism, down-regulation of B56δ expression in N27 cells using RNAi was found to increase dopamine synthesis. Together these studies reveal molecular details of how protein kinase C is linked to reduced tyrosine hydroxylase activity via control of PP2A, and also add to the complexity of protein kinase/protein phosphatase interactions.

  8. P450 CYP2C epoxygenase and CYP4A omega-hydroxylase mediate ciprofibrate-induced PPARalpha-dependent peroxisomal proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Arnaldo; Aguilera, Mauricio C; Contador, David; Loyola, Gloria; Pinto, Claudio O; Amigo, Ludwig; Tichauer, Juan E; Zanlungo, Silvana; Bronfman, Miguel

    2007-04-01

    Peroxisomal proliferators, such as ciprofibrate, are used extensively as effective hypolipidemic drugs. The effects of these compounds on lipid metabolism require ligand binding activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha subtype of nuclear receptors and involve transcriptional activation of the metabolic pathways involved in lipid oxidative metabolism, transport, and disposition. omega-Hydroxylated-eicosatrienoic acids (HEETs), products of the sequential metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by the cytochrome P450 CYP2C epoxygenase and CYP4A omega-hydroxylase gene subfamilies, have been identified as potent and high-affinity ligands of PPARalpha in vitro and as PPARalpha activators in transient transfection assays. Using isolated rat hepatocytes in culture, we demonstrate that specific inhibition of either the CYP2C epoxygenase or the CYP4A omega-hydroxylase abrogates ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomal proliferation, whereas inhibition of other eicosanoid-synthesizing pathways had no effect. Conversely, overexpression of the rat liver CYP2C11 epoxygenase leads to spontaneous peroxisomal proliferation, an effect that is reversed by a CYP inhibitor. Based on these results, we propose that HEETs may serve as endogenous PPARalpha ligands and that the P450 AA monooxygenases participate in ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomal proliferation and the activation of PPARalpha downstream targets.

  9. Steroids excreted in urine by neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. 3. Characterization, using GC-MS and GC-MS/MS, of androstanes and androstenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakoudi, Sofia; Cowan, David A; Taylor, Norman F

    2012-11-01

    Urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency contains a large range of androstane(ene)s, many of which have not been previously described. We present their characterization as the third part of a comprehensive study of urinary steroids, aiming to enhance the diagnosis of this disorder and to further elucidate steroid metabolism in neonates. Steroids were analyzed, after extraction and enzymatic conjugate hydrolysis, as methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives on gas-chromatographs coupled to quadrupole and ion-trap mass-spectrometers. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS spectra were used together to determine the structure of hitherto undescribed androstane(ene)s. GC-MS/MS was pivotal for the structural characterization of 2-hydroxylated androstenediones but GC-MS was generally more informative for androstane(ene)s, in contrast to 17-hydroxylated pregnane(ene)s. Parallels were found between the GC-MS and GC-MS/MS characteristics of structurally similar androstenediones and progesterones without a substituent on the D-ring, but not with those of 17-hydroxylated progesterones. Assignment of 5α(β) orientation, based on GC-MS characteristics, was possible for 11-oxo-androstanes. The major endogenous 3β-hydroxy-5-enes in 21-hydroxylase deficiency did not differ from those in unaffected neonates. The key qualitative and quantitative differences encompassed 5α(β)-androstanes and 3-oxo-androst-4-enes. Major positions of hydroxylation in these were C(2), C(6), C(11), C(16) and C(18). Additional oxo-groups were common at C(6), C(11) and C(16). We conclude that the presence of multiple further oxygenated metabolites of androstenedione in urine from neonates with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and their pattern indicate a predominance of the classical pathway of androgen synthesis and reflect an increased demand for clearance. The positions of oxygenation in androstane(ene)s are dependent on the configuration at C(3)-C(5). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, avasimibe, stimulates bile acid synthesis and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in cultured rat hepatocytes and in vivo in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, S.M.; Paul Zoeteweij, J.; Bos, M.H.A.; Wit, E.C.M. de; Havinga, R.; Kuipers, F.; Princen, H.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors are currently in clinical development as potential lipid-lowering and antiatherosclerotic agents. We investigated the effect of avasimibe (C1- 1011), a novel ACAT inhibitor, on bile acid synthesis and cholesterol 7α- hydroxylase in

  11. Effect of ghrelin receptor agonist and antagonist on the activity of arcuate nucleus tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons in C57BL/6 male mice exposed to normal or high fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirník, Z.; Majerčíková, Z.; Holubová, Martina; Pirník, R.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kiss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2014), s. 477-486 ISSN 0867-5910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : growth hormone secretagogue receptor * ghrelin receptor agonist * ghrelin receptor antagonist * high fat diet * tyrosine hydroxylase * arcuate nucleus * food intake Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2014

  12. Tumoral vitamin D synthesis by CYP27B1 1-alpha-hydroxylase delays mammary tumor progression in the PyMT-MMTV mouse model and its action involves NF-kappaB modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically-active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is synthetized from inactive prohormone 25(OH)D by the enzyme CYP27B1 1-a-hydroxylase in kidney and several extra-renal tissues including breast. While the development of breast cancer has been linked to inadequate vitamin D status, the importance of bioac...

  13. Effect of D-amphetamine on dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in striatum and pre-frontal cortex of D-amphetamine treated Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarun Koirala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain are the main source of dopamine in the mammalian central nervous system. Dopamine is a chemical messenger active in mesolimbic and mesocortical reward pathways. Dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The objective was to compare dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra and level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the striatum and pre-frontal cortex of D-amphetamine treated wistar mice. 15 Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with amphetamine 10 mg/kg body weight till 7 days while the controls groups (15 wistar rats were injected with normal saline in the same dose. One way-ANOVA test and Post-hoc tests was applied and decreased level of tyrosine hydroxylase was present in striatum (65% and pre-frontal cortex (71%. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase in all these areas were highly significant (p<0.001. D-AMPH affects the neuronal cell morphology and decreases expression level of Tyrosine hydroxylase. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and damaged synaptic connection in substantia nigra were observed leading to a reduction of stratial dopamine levels.

  14. No evidence of an association between A218C polymorphism of the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene and aggression in schizophrenia in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Lee, Joo Young; Min, Sung Kil

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between the tryptohan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene and aggression in schizophrenia in a Korean population. The sample included 61 aggressive patients as well as 104 non-aggressive patients from psychiatric hospitals and 335 healthy volunteers in Korea. Blood samples were collected from all participants for TPH1 A218C genotyping. The patients were administered standard psychiatric interviews as well as a self-report questionnaire for anger-related traits. In the case-control phenotypic comparisons, there was no significant association between the aggressive patients and the TPH1 A218C polymorphism. There was no significant effect of the TPH1 genotype on the anger-related traits, or no significant interaction between the genotype and group (aggressive and non-aggressive patients). These findings suggest that TPH1 does not play a major role in aggressive behavior via anger in schizophrenic patients.

  15. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumarina, Margarita; Azevedo, Carla; Bigarreau, Julie; Vignon, Clémentine; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Li, Jia-Yi; Roybon, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg) mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN) mice expressing human mutant SNCA(A53T) under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP), or wildtype (WT) mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Evidence-Based Model of Multidisciplinary Care for Patients and Families Affected by Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Wisniewski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2002 a consensus statement pertaining to the management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency was jointly produced by the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society of Pediatric Endocrinology. One of the recommendations of this consensus was that centers should maintain multidisciplinary teams for providing care and support to these patients and their families. However, the specifics for how this should be accomplished were not addressed in the original consensus statement. Here we interpret and translate the 2002 consensus statement recommendations into medical, surgical and mental health protocols. Additionally, we provide preliminary evidence that such protocols result in improved care and support for patients and families.

  17. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Nadia; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki Mnif, Mouna; Mseddi, Neila; Mnif, Fatma; Kallel, Nozha; Ben Naceur, Basma; Rekik, Nabila; Fourati, Hela; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zainab; Hadj Sliman, Mourad; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are make up a very small number of all testicular tumors and can be difficult to distinguish from TARTs. This distinction is interesting because LCTs and TARTs require different therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old patient with CAH due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, who presented with TARTs and an epididymal Leydig cell tumor. PMID:22606635

  18. An Evidence-Based Model of Multidisciplinary Care for Patients and Families Affected by Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers LauraJ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2002 a consensus statement pertaining to the management of classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency was jointly produced by the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society of Pediatric Endocrinology. One of the recommendations of this consensus was that centers should maintain multidisciplinary teams for providing care and support to these patients and their families. However, the specifics for how this should be accomplished were not addressed in the original consensus statement. Here we interpret and translate the 2002 consensus statement recommendations into medical, surgical and mental health protocols. Additionally, we provide preliminary evidence that such protocols result in improved care and support for patients and families.

  19. Derivation of mouse embryonic stem cell lines from tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mice crossed with a human SNCA transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Chumarina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC lines were derived by crossing heterozygous transgenic (tg mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter, with homozygous alpha-synuclein (aSYN mice expressing human mutant SNCAA53T under the control of the mouse Prion promoter (MoPrP, or wildtype (WT mice. The expression of GFP and human aSYN was validated by immunocytochemistry in midbrain neuron cultures upon differentiation of mESC lines using stromal cell-derived inducing activity. These mESC lines can help to study the impact of human aSYN expression in neurons and oligodendrocytes, and also trace GFP-expressing midbrain neurons.

  20. Differential expression of two flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase cDNAs involved in biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments and 3-deoxyanthocyanidin phytoalexins in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Hat; Chu, Ivan K; Yip, Wing Kin; Lo, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Three unique sorghum flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) cDNAs (SbF3'H1, SbF3'H2 and SbF3'H3) were discovered through bioinformatics analysis. Their encoded proteins showed >60% identity to the Arabidopsis TT7 (F3'H) protein. Overexpression of SbF3'H1 or SbF3'H2 restored the ability of tt7 mutants to produce 3'-hydroxylated flavonoids, establishing their roles as functional F3'H enzymes. In sorghum mesocotyls, SbF3'H1 expression was involved in light-specific anthocyanin accumulation while SbF3'H2 expression was involved in pathogen-specific 3-deoxyanthocyanidin synthesis. No SbF3'H3 expression was detected in all tissues examined. The sorghum mesocotyls represent a good system for investigation of differential regulation of F3'H genes/alleles responding to different external stimuli.

  1. Low frequency of Parkin, Tyrosine Hydroxylase, and GTP Cyclohydrolase I gene mutations in a Danish population of early-onset Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Ostergaard, K; juncker, Inger

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) with early-onset may be caused by mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2). We have ascertained 87 Danish patients with an early-onset form of PD (age at onset ... mutation and a missense mutation (A6T) in TH of unknown significance. It cannot be excluded that both mutations contribute to the phenotype. No other putative disease causing TH or GCH1 mutations were found. In conclusion, homozygous, or compound heterozygous PARK2 mutations, and mutations in GCH1 and TH...... to determine the frequency of PARK2 mutations. Analysis of the GTP cyclohydrolase I gene (GCH1) and the tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH), mutated in dopa-responsive dystonia and juvenile PD, have also been included. Ten different PARK2 mutations were identified in 10 patients. Two of the patients (2.3%) were...

  2. Dendritic cells, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase and pulsed with a myelin antigen, provide myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Huang; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J; Wang, Xiaohua; Goparaju, Naga Bharani; Xu, Yi; Wasnik, Samiksha; Cheng, Yanmei; Berumen, Edmundo Carreon; Qin, Xuezhong; Lau, Kin-Hing William; Tang, Xiaolei

    2017-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by immune-mediated damage of myelin sheath. Current therapies aim to block such immune responses. However, this blocking is not sufficiently specific and hence compromises immunity, leading to severe side effects. In addition, blocking medications usually provide transient effects and require frequent administration, which further increases the chance to compromise immunity. In this regard, myelin-specific therapy may provide the desired specificity and a long-lasting therapeutic effect by inducing myelin-specific regulatory T (T reg ) cells. Tolerogenic dendritic cells (TolDCs) are one such therapy. However, ex vivo generated TolDCs may be converted into immunogenic DCs in a proinflammatory environment. In this study, we identified a potential novel myelin-specific therapy that works with immunogenic DCs, hence without the in vivo conversion concern. We showed that immunization with DCs, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase for de novo synthesis of a focally high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration in the peripheral lymphoid tissues, induced T reg cells. In addition, such engineered DCs, when pulsed with a myelin antigen, led to myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (an MS animal model), and the disease suppression depended on forkhead-box-protein-P3(foxp3) + T reg cells. Our data support a novel concept that immunogenic DCs can be engineered for myelin-specific therapy for MS.-Li, C.-H., Zhang, J., Baylink, D. J., Wang, X., Goparaju, N. B., Xu, Y., Wasnik, S., Cheng, Y., Berumen, E. C., Qin, X., Lau, K.-H. W., Tang, X. Dendritic cells, engineered to overexpress 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase and pulsed with a myelin antigen, provide myelin-specific suppression of ongoing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. © The Author(s).

  3. Post-translationally abnormal collagens of prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 null mice offer a pathobiological mechanism for the high myopia linked to human LEPREL1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H; Eyre, David R

    2015-03-27

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2(n/n)) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2(n/n) mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Post-translationally Abnormal Collagens of Prolyl 3-Hydroxylase-2 Null Mice Offer a Pathobiological Mechanism for the High Myopia Linked to Human LEPREL1 Mutations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M.; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Werther, Rachel; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Weis, MaryAnn; Lee, Brendan H.; Eyre, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Myopia, the leading cause of visual impairment worldwide, results from an increase in the axial length of the eyeball. Mutations in LEPREL1, the gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase-2 (P3H2), have recently been identified in individuals with recessively inherited nonsyndromic severe myopia. P3H2 is a member of a family of genes that includes three isoenzymes of prolyl 3-hydroxylase (P3H), P3H1, P3H2, and P3H3. Fundamentally, it is understood that P3H1 is responsible for converting proline to 3-hydroxyproline. This limited additional knowledge also suggests that each isoenzyme has evolved different collagen sequence-preferred substrate specificities. In this study, differences in prolyl 3-hydroxylation were screened in eye tissues from P3h2-null (P3h2n/n) and wild-type mice to seek tissue-specific effects due the lack of P3H2 activity on post-translational collagen chemistry that could explain myopia. The mice were viable and had no gross musculoskeletal phenotypes. Tissues from sclera and cornea (type I collagen) and lens capsule (type IV collagen) were dissected from mouse eyes, and multiple sites of prolyl 3-hydroxylation were identified by mass spectrometry. The level of prolyl 3-hydroxylation at multiple substrate sites from type I collagen chains was high in sclera, similar to tendon. Almost every known site of prolyl 3-hydroxylation in types I and IV collagen from P3h2n/n mouse eye tissues was significantly under-hydroxylated compared with their wild-type littermates. We conclude that altered collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is caused by loss of P3H2. We hypothesize that this leads to structural abnormalities in multiple eye tissues, but particularly sclera, causing progressive myopia. PMID:25645914

  5. How Are Substrate Binding and Catalysis Affected by Mutating Glu127 and Arg161 in Prolyl-4-hydroxylase? A QM/MM and MD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Timmins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolyl-4-hydroxylase is a vital enzyme for human physiology involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxyproline, an essential component for collagen formation. The enzyme performs a unique stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation at the C4 position of proline despite the fact that the C5 hydrogen atoms should be thermodynamically easier to abstract. To gain insight into the mechanism and find the origin of this regioselectivity, we have done a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM study on wildtype and mutant structures. In a previous study (Timmins et al., 2017 we identified several active site residues critical for substrate binding and positioning. In particular, the Glu127 and Arg161 were shown to form multiple hydrogen bonding and ion-dipole interactions with substrate and could thereby affect the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction. In this work, we decided to test that hypothesis and report a QM/MM and molecular dynamics (MD study on prolyl-4-hydroxylase and several active site mutants where Glu127 or Arg161 are mutated for Asp, Gln, or Lys. Thus, the R161D and R161Q mutants give very high barriers for hydrogen atom abstraction from any proline C–H bond and therefore will be inactive. The R161K mutant, by contrast, sees the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reaction change but still is expected to hydroxylate proline at room temperature. By contrast, the Glu127 mutants E127D and E127Q show possible changes in regioselectivity with the former being more probable to react compared to the latter.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations and structure-guided mutagenesis provide insight into the architecture of the catalytic core of the ectoine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widderich, Nils; Pittelkow, Marco; Höppner, Astrid; Mulnaes, Daniel; Buckel, Wolfgang; Gohlke, Holger; Smits, Sander H J; Bremer, Erhard

    2014-02-06

    Many bacteria amass compatible solutes to fend-off the detrimental effects of high osmolarity on cellular physiology and water content. These solutes also function as stabilizers of macromolecules, a property for which they are referred to as chemical chaperones. The tetrahydropyrimidine ectoine is such a compatible solute and is widely synthesized by members of the Bacteria. Many ectoine producers also synthesize the stress protectant 5-hydroxyectoine from the precursor ectoine, a process that is catalyzed by the ectoine hydroxylase (EctD). The EctD enzyme is a member of the non-heme-containing iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase superfamily. A crystal structure of the EctD protein from the moderate halophile Virgibacillus salexigens has previously been reported and revealed the coordination of the iron catalyst, but it lacked the substrate ectoine and the co-substrate 2-oxoglutarate. Here we used this crystal structure as a template to assess the likely positioning of the ectoine and 2-oxoglutarate ligands within the active site by structural comparison, molecular dynamics simulations, and site-directed mutagenesis. Collectively, these approaches suggest the positioning of the iron, ectoine, and 2-oxoglutarate ligands in close proximity to each other and with a spatial orientation that will allow the region-selective and stereo-specific hydroxylation of (4S)-ectoine to (4S,5S)-5-hydroxyectoine. Our study thus provides a view into the catalytic core of the ectoine hydroxylase and suggests an intricate network of interactions between the three ligands and evolutionarily highly conserved residues in members of the EctD protein family. © 2013.

  7. Crystal Structure of a Putative Cytochrome P450 Alkane Hydroxylase (CYP153D17 from Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26605 and Its Conformational Substrate Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Woo Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic alkane hydroxylation reactions are useful for producing pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical intermediates from hydrocarbons. Several cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze the regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation of alkanes. We evaluated the substrate binding of a putative CYP alkane hydroxylase (CYP153D17 from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26605. Substrate affinities to C10–C12 n-alkanes and C10–C14 fatty acids with Kd values varied from 0.42 to 0.59 μM. A longer alkane (C12 bound more strongly than a shorter alkane (C10, while shorter fatty acids (C10, capric acid; C12, lauric acid bound more strongly than a longer fatty acid (C14, myristic acid. These data displayed a broad substrate specificity of CYP153D17, hence it was named as a putative CYP alkane hydroxylase. Moreover, the crystal structure of CYP153D17 was determined at 3.1 Å resolution. This is the first study to provide structural information for the CYP153D family. Structural analysis showed that a co-purified alkane-like compound bound near the active-site heme group. The alkane-like substrate is in the hydrophobic pocket containing Thr74, Met90, Ala175, Ile240, Leu241, Val244, Leu292, Met295, and Phe393. Comparison with other CYP structures suggested that conformational changes in the β1–β2, α3–α4, and α6–α7 connecting loop are important for incorporating the long hydrophobic alkane-like substrate. These results improve the understanding of the catalytic mechanism of CYP153D17 and provide valuable information for future protein engineering studies.

  8. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especially in sojourners. These environmental challenges have caused dynamic evolutionary changes within natives of HA, allowing them to develop adaptive plasticity. This review focuses on the genomic and biochemical features of the molecules involved in the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways with respect to HA pulmonary edema (HAPE and adaptation. We review the role of genetic markers such as HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 2, endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin 1, cytochrome b-245 alpha polypeptide, and glutathione S-transferase pi 1, as well as three circulatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, endothelin 1, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, by highlighting approaches such as candidate gene and genome-wide, adopted in deciphering the pathways. A disagreement between the two approaches has also been highlighted. In addition, we discuss that an overrepresentation of wild-type alleles in HA natives and mutant alleles of same polymorphisms in HAPE patients implies that the allelic variants at the same locus are involved in adaptation and HAPE, respectively. Moreover, healthy sojourners present a number of genomic features similar to HA natives, further strengthening the concept of genetic predisposition. A trend in correlation between protective and risk alleles and altered levels of circulatory markers clearly documents the phenomenon of genotype–phenotype correlations. We conclude that the genetic and biochemical

  9. Roxadustat (FG-4592): Correction of Anemia in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besarab, Anatole; Chernyavskaya, Elena; Motylev, Igor; Shutov, Evgeny; Kumbar, Lalathaksha M; Gurevich, Konstantin; Chan, Daniel Tak Mao; Leong, Robert; Poole, Lona; Zhong, Ming; Saikali, Khalil G; Franco, Marietta; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2016-04-01

    Safety concerns with erythropoietin analogues and intravenous (IV) iron for treatment of anemia in CKD necessitate development of safer therapies. Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally bioavailable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that promotes coordinated erythropoiesis through HIF-mediated transcription. We performed an open-label, randomized hemoglobin (Hb) correction study in anemic (Hb≤10.0 g/dl) patients incident to hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty patients received no iron, oral iron, or IV iron while treated with roxadustat for 12 weeks. Mean±SD baseline Hb was 8.3±1.0 g/dl in enrolled patients. Roxadustat at titrated doses increased mean Hb by ≥2.0 g/dl within 7 weeks regardless of baseline iron repletion status, C-reactive protein level, iron regimen, or dialysis modality. Mean±SEM maximal change in Hb from baseline (ΔHb(max)), the primary endpoint, was 3.1±0.2 g/dl over 12 weeks in efficacy-evaluable patients (n=55). In groups receiving oral or IV iron, ΔHb(max) was similar and larger than in the no-iron group. Hb response (increase in Hb of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline) was achieved in 96% of efficacy-evaluable patients. Mean serum hepcidin decreased significantly 4 weeks into study: by 80% in HD patients receiving no iron (n=22), 52% in HD and PD patients receiving oral iron (n=21), and 41% in HD patients receiving IV iron (n=9). In summary, roxadustat was well tolerated and corrected anemia in incident HD and PD patients, regardless of baseline iron repletion status or C-reactive protein level and with oral or IV iron supplementation; it also reduced serum hepcidin levels. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Increased EPO Levels Are Associated With Bone Loss in Mice Lacking PHD2 in EPO-Producing Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Martina; Franke, Kristin; Murray, Marta; Singh, Rashim Pal; Hiram-Bab, Sahar; Platzbecker, Uwe; Gassmann, Max; Socolovsky, Merav; Neumann, Drorit; Gabet, Yankel; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Wielockx, Ben

    2016-10-01

    The main oxygen sensor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) is a critical regulator of tissue homeostasis during erythropoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, and wound healing. Recent studies point toward a role for the PHD2-erythropoietin (EPO) axis in the modulation of bone remodeling, even though the studies produced conflicting results. Here, we used a number of mouse strains deficient of PHD2 in different cell types to address the role of PHD2 and its downstream targets HIF-1α and HIF-2α in bone remodeling. Mice deficient for PHD2 in several cell lineages, including EPO-producing cells, osteoblasts, and hematopoietic cells (CD68:cre-PHD2 f/f ) displayed a severe reduction of bone density at the distal femur as well as the vertebral body due to impaired bone formation but not bone resorption. Importantly, using osteoblast-specific (Osx:cre-PHD2 f/f ) and osteoclast-specific PHD2 knock-out mice (Vav:cre- PHD2 f/f ), we show that this effect is independent of the loss of PHD2 in osteoblast and osteoclasts. Using different in vivo and in vitro approaches, we show here that this bone phenotype, including the suppression of bone formation, is directly linked to the stabilization of the α-subunit of HIF-2, and possibly to the subsequent moderate induction of serum EPO, which directly influenced the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblast progenitors resulting in lower bone density. Taken together, our data identify the PHD2:HIF-2α:EPO axis as a so far unknown regulator of osteohematology by controlling bone homeostasis. Further, these data suggest that patients treated with PHD inhibitors or EPO should be monitored with respect to their bone status. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Cellular and developmental adaptations to hypoxia: a Drosophila perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria Magdalena; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely utilized genetic model, is highly resistant to oxygen starvation and is beginning to be used for studying physiological, developmental, and cellular adaptations to hypoxia. The Drosophila respiratory (tracheal) system has features in common with the mammalian circulatory system so that an angiogenesis-like response occurs upon exposure of Drosophila larvae to hypoxia. A hypoxia-responsive system homologous to mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been described in the fruit fly, where Fatiga is a Drosophila oxygen-dependent HIF prolyl hydroxylase, and the basic helix-loop-helix Per/ARNT/Sim (bHLH-PAS) proteins Sima and Tango are, respectively, the Drosophila homologues of mammalian HIF-alpha (alpha) and HIF-beta (beta). Tango is constitutively expressed regardless of oxygen tension and, like in mammalian cells, Sima is controlled at the level of protein degradation and subcellular localization. Sima is critically required for development in hypoxia, but, unlike mammalian model systems, it is dispensable for development in normoxia. In contrast, fatiga mutant alleles are all lethal; however, strikingly, viability to adulthood is restored in fatiga sima double mutants, although these double mutants are not entirely normal, suggesting that Fatiga has Sima-independent functions in fly development. Studies in cell culture and in vivo have revealed that Sima is activated by the insulin receptor (InR) and target-of-rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Paradoxically, Sima is a negative regulator of growth. This suggests that Sima is engaged in a negative feedback loop that limits growth upon stimulation of InR/TOR pathways.

  12. Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico; Dewailly, Didier; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Moran, Carlos; Oberfield, Sharon; Witchel, Selma F; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess. We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. Peer-reviewed studies evaluating NCAH published up to October 2016 were reviewed. Multiple databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, ERIC, EBSCO, dissertation abstracts, and current contents. The worldwide prevalence of NCAH amongst women presenting with signs and symptoms of androgen excess is 4.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-5.4%). The clinical consequences of NCAH expand from infancy, i.e. accelerated growth, to adolescence and adulthood, i.e. premature pubarche, cutaneous symptoms and oligo-ovulation in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like clinical picture. The diagnosis of NCAH relies on serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations. A basal 17-OHP concentration ≥2 ng/ml (6 nmol/l) should be used for screening if more appropriate in-house cut-off values are not available. Definitive diagnosis requires a 17-OHP concentration ≥10 ng/ml (30 nmol/l), either basally or after cosyntropin-stimulation. Molecular genetic analysis of the CYP21A2 gene, which is responsible for 21-hydroxylase activity, may be used for confirmation purposes and should be offered to all patients with NCAH along with genetic counseling because these patients frequently carry alleles that may result in classic CAH, the more severe form of the disease, in their progeny. Treatment must be individualized. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy may benefit pediatric patients with accelerated growth or advanced bone age or adult women seeking fertility, whereas adequate control of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and other cutaneous symptoms is best served by the use of oral contraceptive pills

  13. Study of RNA interference inhibiting rat ovarian androgen biosynthesis by depressing 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase activity in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xing

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase encoded by CYP17 is the key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis pathway. Previous studies demonstrated the accentuation of the enzyme in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS was the most important mechanism of androgen excess. We chose CYP17 as the therapeutic target, trying to suppress the activity of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase and inhibit androgen biosynthesis by silencing the expression of CYP17 in the rat ovary. Methods Three CYP17-targeting and one negative control oligonucleotides were designed and used in the present study. The silence efficiency of lentivirus shRNA was assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and hormone assay. After subcapsular injection of lentivirus shRNA in rat ovary, the delivery efficiency was evaluated by GFP fluorescence and qPCR. Total RNA was extracted from rat ovary for CYP17 mRNA determination and rat serum was collected for hormone measurement. Results In total, three CYP17-targeting lentivirus shRNAs were synthesized. The results showed that all of them had a silencing effect on CYP17 mRNA and protein. Moreover, androstenedione secreted by rat theca interstitial cells (TIC in the RNAi group declined significantly compared with that in the control group. Two weeks after rat ovarian subcapsular injection of chosen CYP17 shRNA, the GFP fluorescence of frozen ovarian sections could be seen clearly under fluorescence microscope. It also showed that the GFP DNA level increased significantly, and its relative expression level was 7.42 times higher than that in the control group. Simultaneously, shRNA treatment significantly decreased CYP17 mRNA and protein levels at 61% and 54%, respectively. Hormone assay showed that all the levels of androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone declined to a certain degree, but progesterone levels declined significantly. Conclusion The present study proves for the first time that ovarian androgen

  14. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  15. Antisense and sense expression of cDNA coding for CYP73A15, a class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, leads to a delayed and reduced production of lignin in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K.; Choi, J. W.; O'Connell, A. P.; Jupe, S. C.; Schuch, W.; Lewis, N. G.; Bolwell, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    A number of plant species contain the class II of genes encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP73, the cognate protein of which cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, is the second enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In order to begin to determine possible functionality, tobacco has been transformed with a truncated French bean class II cinnamate hydroxylase (CYP73A15) in the sense and antisense orientations. Signals for C4H protein could be detected in vascular tissue from wild-type plants using heterologous probes. The transformed plants showed a normal phenotype, even though detectable C4H protein was much reduced in tissue prints. Young propagated transformants displayed a range of reduced C4H activities, as well as either reduced or no phloroglucinol-stainable lignin. However, all mature tobacco plants showed the accumulation of lignin, even though its deposition was apparently delayed. This was not due to induction of tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity, which was not detected, but instead it is presumed due to sufficient C4H residual activity. Analysis of the lignin content of the plants showed reductions of up to 30% with a slightly reduced syringyl to guaiacyl ratio as compared to wild type. This reduction level was favourable in comparison with some other targets in the lignification pathway that have been manipulated including that of class I cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. It is proposed that the class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase might also function in lignification in a number of species including French bean and tobacco, based on these data.

  16. Vascular Endothelial Over-Expression of Human Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (Tie2-sEH Tr) Attenuates Coronary Reactive Hyperemia in Mice: Role of Oxylipins and ω-Hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Ahmad; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Morisseau, Christophe; Falck, John R; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2017-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) into two vasoactive oxylipins with opposing biologic effects: epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and omega-(ω)-terminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). EETs have numerous beneficial physiological effects, including vasodilation and protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury, whereas ω-terminal HETEs induce vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of these oxylipins on post-ischemic vasodilation known as coronary reactive hyperemia (CRH). CRH prevents the potential harm associated with transient ischemia. The beneficial effects of EETs are reduced after their hydrolysis to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). ω-terminal HETEs are formed by ω-hydroxylase family members. The relationship among endothelial over-expression of sEH (Tie2-sEH Tr), the changes in oxylipins it may produce, the pharmacologic inhibition of ω-hydroxylases, activation of PPARγ, and CRH response to a brief ischemia is not known. We hypothesized that CRH is attenuated in isolated mouse hearts with endothelial sEH over-expression through modulation of oxylipin profiles, whereas both inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance CRH. Compared to WT mice, Tie2-sEH Tr mice had decreased CRH, including repayment volume, repayment duration, and repayment/debt ratio (P Tr mice. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB reversed the decreased CRH in Tie2-sEH Tr mice. Endothelial over-expression of sEH significantly changed oxylipin profiles, including decreases in DHETs, mid-chain HETEs, and prostaglandins (P Tr and wild type (WT) mice. These data demonstrate that endothelial over-expression of sEH (through changing the oxylipin profiles) attenuates CRH, whereas inhibition of ω-hydroxylases and activation of PPARγ enhance it.

  17. CYSL-1 interacts with the O2-sensing hydroxylase EGL-9 to promote H2S-modulated hypoxia-induced behavioral plasticity in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dengke K; Vozdek, Roman; Bhatla, Nikhil; Horvitz, H Robert

    2012-03-08

    The C. elegans HIF-1 proline hydroxylase EGL-9 functions as an O(2) sensor in an evolutionarily conserved pathway for adaptation to hypoxia. H(2)S accumulates during hypoxia and promotes HIF-1 activity, but how H(2)S signals are perceived and transmitted to modulate HIF-1 and animal behavior is unknown. We report that the experience of hypoxia modifies a C. elegans locomotive behavioral response to O(2) through the EGL-9 pathway. From genetic screens to identify novel regulators of EGL-9-mediated behavioral plasticity, we isolated mutations of the gene cysl-1, which encodes a C. elegans homolog of sulfhydrylases/cysteine synthases. Hypoxia-dependent behavioral modulation and H(2)S-induced HIF-1 activation require the direct physical interaction of CYSL-1 with the EGL-9 C terminus. Sequestration of EGL-9 by CYSL-1 and inhibition of EGL-9-mediated hydroxylation by hypoxia together promote neuronal HIF-1 activation to modulate behavior. These findings demonstrate that CYSL-1 acts to transduce signals from H(2)S to EGL-9 to regulate O(2)-dependent behavioral plasticity in C. elegans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reconstruction of the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway in rice endosperm reveals a metabolic bottleneck at the level of endogenous β-carotene hydroxylase activity.

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    Bai, Chao; Berman, Judit; Farre, Gemma; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2017-02-01

    Astaxanthin is a high-value ketocarotenoid rarely found in plants. It is derived from β-carotene by the 3-hydroxylation and 4-ketolation of both ionone end groups, in reactions catalyzed by β-carotene hydroxylase and β-carotene ketolase, respectively. We investigated the feasibility of introducing an extended carotenoid biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm to achieve the production of astaxanthin. This allowed us to identify potential metabolic bottlenecks that have thus far prevented the accumulation of this valuable compound in storage tissues such as cereal grains. Rice endosperm does not usually accumulate carotenoids because phytoene synthase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step in the pathway, is not present in this tissue. We therefore expressed maize phytoene synthase 1 (ZmPSY1), Pantoea ananatis phytoene desaturase (PaCRTI) and a synthetic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii β-carotene ketolase (sCrBKT) in transgenic rice plants under the control of endosperm-specific promoters. The resulting grains predominantly accumulated the diketocarotenoids canthaxanthin, adonirubin and astaxanthin as well as low levels of monoketocarotenoids. The predominance of canthaxanthin and adonirubin indicated the presence of a hydroxylation bottleneck in the ketocarotenoid pathway. This final rate-limiting step must therefore be overcome to maximize the accumulation of astaxanthin, the end product of the pathway.

  19. Expression and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase in mango (Mangifera indica 'Ataulfo') during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Carlos, H; Contreras-Vergara, C A; Muhlia-Almazán, A; Islas-Osuna, M A; González-Aguilar, G A

    2014-05-16

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) are key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The relative expression of PAL and C3H was evaluated in mango fruit cultivar 'Ataulfo' in four ripening stages (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, enzyme activity of PAL and C3H was determined in mango fruits during ripening. The PAL levels were downregulated at the RS2 and RS3 stages, while C3H levels were upregulated in fruits only at RS3. The enzyme activity of PAL followed a pattern that was different from that of the PAL expression, thus suggesting regulation at several levels. For C3H, a regulation at the transcriptional level is suggested because a similar pattern was revealed by its activity and transcript level. In this study, the complexity of secondary metabolite biosynthesis regulation is emphasized because PAL and C3H enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites that are active during all mango ripening stages.

  20. HIF-1α is required for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and 4-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors enhance mobilization by stabilizing HIF-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristal, C E; Nowlan, B; Jacobsen, R N; Barbier, V; Walkinshaw, G; Walkley, C R; Winkler, I G; Levesque, J P

    2015-01-01

    Many patients with hematological neoplasms fail to mobilize sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) precluding subsequent autologous HSC transplantation. Plerixafor, a specific antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, can rescue some but not all patients who failed to mobilize with G-CSF alone. These refractory poor mobilizers cannot currently benefit from autologous transplantation. To discover alternative targetable pathways to enhance HSC mobilization, we studied the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the effect of HIF-1α pharmacological stabilization on HSC mobilization in mice. We demonstrate in mice with HSC-specific conditional deletion of the Hif1a gene that the oxygen-labile transcription factor HIF-1α is essential for HSC mobilization in response to G-CSF and Plerixafor. Conversely, pharmacological stabilization of HIF-1α with the 4-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4497 synergizes with G-CSF and Plerixafor increasing mobilization of reconstituting HSCs 20-fold compared with G-CSF plus Plerixafor, currently the most potent mobilizing combination used in the clinic. PMID:25578474

  1. Genes of the thymidine salvage pathway: thymine-7-hydroxylase from a Rhodotorula glutinis cDNA library and iso-orotate decarboxylase from Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Jeffrey A; Kundracik, Melisa; Landfried, Daniel A; Barnes, Vincient R; Axhemi, Armend A

    2005-05-25

    Genes for two enzymes in the thymidine salvage pathway, thymine-7-hydroxylase (THase; official name thymine dioxygenase) and iso-orotate decarboxylase (IDCase) have been isolated from fungal sources. THase was isolated from a Rhodotorula glutinis cDNA library using a degenerate oligonucleotide based on the published amino acid sequence. The coding sequence was transferred to an Escherichia coli expression system, from which recombinant THase activity was measured using 14C-labeled thymine. The THase sequence shows an almost complete avoidance of codons ending in A or T: 95.8% GC content is present in the third position of codons. A connection between this codon bias and the role of the thymidine salvage pathway in pyrimidine metabolism is proposed. The THase sequence is similar to Group I Fe+2-dependent, alphaKG-dependent dioxygenases. The R. glutinis THase gene was used to locate the probable THase genes in the sequenced genomes of Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans. The genes neighboring THase in these two genomes are similar to each other, and are similar to the mammalian 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdhyde decarboxylase (ACMSD), leading to their identification as IDCase genes. The N. crassa version was isolated by PCR of genomic DNA, and IDCase activity was measured in recombinant E. coli carrying this gene. A new family of decarboxylases, using similar substrates, is identified by virtue of the protein sequence similarity.

  2. Nimodipine but Not Nifedipine Promotes Expression of Fatty Acid 2-Hydroxylase in a Surgical Stress Model Based on Neuro2a Cells

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    Eva Herzfeld

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nimodipine is well characterized for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been shown to promote a better outcome and less delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Animal and clinical trials show neuroprotective efficacy following nerve injuries. We showed a neuroprotective effect on Neuro2a cells. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed—among others—fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H upregulated by nimodipine in vitro, which is a component of myelin synthesis. Differentiated Neuro2a cells were analyzed for nimodipine-mediated survival considering stress treatment in comparison to nifedipine-treatment. Cell survival was determined by measurement of LDH activity in the culture medium. Nimodipine decreased surgery-like stress-induced cell death of differentiated Neuro2a cells. Neuro2a cell culture was analyzed for changes in FA2H expression induced by nimodipine or nifedipine in surgery-like stress conditions. We analyzed expression levels of FA2H mRNA and protein by qPCR using fa2h specific primers or a FA2H-specific antibody in nimodipine or nifedipine non- and pre-treated Neuro2a cell culture, respectively. Nimodipine but not nifedipine increases FA2H protein levels and also significantly increases mRNA levels of FA2H in both undifferentiated and differentiated Neuro2a cells. Our findings indicate that higher expression of FA2H induced by nimodipine may cause higher survival of Neuro2a cells stressed with surgery-like stressors.

  3. Nimodipine but Not Nifedipine Promotes Expression of Fatty Acid 2-Hydroxylase in a Surgical Stress Model Based on Neuro2a Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Eva; Speh, Lea; Strauss, Christian; Scheller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Nimodipine is well characterized for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been shown to promote a better outcome and less delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Animal and clinical trials show neuroprotective efficacy following nerve injuries. We showed a neuroprotective effect on Neuro2a cells. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed—among others—fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) upregulated by nimodipine in vitro, which is a component of myelin synthesis. Differentiated Neuro2a cells were analyzed for nimodipine-mediated survival considering stress treatment in comparison to nifedipine-treatment. Cell survival was determined by measurement of LDH activity in the culture medium. Nimodipine decreased surgery-like stress-induced cell death of differentiated Neuro2a cells. Neuro2a cell culture was analyzed for changes in FA2H expression induced by nimodipine or nifedipine in surgery-like stress conditions. We analyzed expression levels of FA2H mRNA and protein by qPCR using fa2h specific primers or a FA2H-specific antibody in nimodipine or nifedipine non- and pre-treated Neuro2a cell culture, respectively. Nimodipine but not nifedipine increases FA2H protein levels and also significantly increases mRNA levels of FA2H in both undifferentiated and differentiated Neuro2a cells. Our findings indicate that higher expression of FA2H induced by nimodipine may cause higher survival of Neuro2a cells stressed with surgery-like stressors. PMID:28467360

  4. Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 haplotype association with borderline personality disorder and aggression in a sample of patients with personality disorders and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Weinstein, Shauna; New, Antonia S.; Bevilacqua, Laura; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goodman, Marianne; Koenigsberg, Harold W.; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is decreased serotonergic function in impulsive aggression and borderline personality disorder (BPD), and genetic association studies suggest a role of serotonergic genes in impulsive aggression and BPD. Only one study has analyzed the association between the tryptophan-hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene and BPD. A TPH2 “risk” haplotype has been described that is associated with anxiety, depression and suicidal behavior. Methods We assessed the relationship between the previously identified “risk” haplotype at the TPH2 locus and BPD diagnosis, impulsive aggression, affective lability, and suicidal/parasuicidal behaviors, in a well-characterized clinical sample of 103 healthy controls (HCs) and 251 patients with personality disorders (109 with BPD). A logistic regression including measures of depression, affective lability and aggression scores in predicting “risk” haplotype was conducted. Results The prevalence of the “risk” haplotype was significantly higher in patients with BPD compared to HCs. Those with the “risk” haplotype have higher aggression and affect lability scores and more suicidal/parasuicidal behaviors than those without it. In the logistic regression model, affect lability was the only significant predictor and it correctly classified 83.1% of the subjects as “risk” or “non-risk” haplotype carriers. Conclusions We found an association between the previously described TPH2 “risk” haplotype and BPD diagnosis, affective lability, suicidal/parasuicidal behavior, and aggression scores. PMID:20451217

  5. Sesamin Modulates Tyrosine Hydroxylase, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Inducible No Synthase and Interleukin-6 Expression in Dopaminergic Cells Under Mpp+-Induced Oxidative Stress

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    Vicky Lahaie-Collins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is regarded as a mediator of nerve cell death in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Sesamin, a lignan mainly found in sesame oil, is currently under study for its anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. We used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine (MPP+ ion, the active metabolite of the potent parkinsonism-causing toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, to produce oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in neuronal PC12 cells, which express dopamine, as well as neurofilaments. Our results show that picomolar doses of sesamin protected neuronal PC12 cells from MPP+-induced cellular death, as revealed by colorimetric measurements and production of reactive oxygen species. We also demonstrated that sesamin acted by rescuing tyrosine hydroxylase levels from MPP+-induced depletion. Sesamin, however, did not modulate dopamine transporter levels, and estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta protein expression. By examining several parameters of cell distress, we found that sesamin also elicited a strong increase in superoxide dismutase activity as well as protein expression and decreased catalase activity and the MPP+ stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, in neuronal PC12 cells. Finally, sesamin possessed significant anti-inflammatory properties, as disclosed by its potential to reduce MPP+-induced interleukin-6 mRNA levels in microglia. From these studies, we determined the importance of the lignan sesamin as a neuroprotective molecule and its possible role in complementary and/or preventive therapies of neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.

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    Huan Liu

    Full Text Available A gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium SJTD-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. SJTD-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C30 as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. In 36 h, 500 mg/L of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octadecane were transformed completely; and 2 g/L n-hexadecane was degraded to undetectable levels within 72 h. Two putative alkane-degrading genes (gene 3623 and gene 4712 were characterized and our results indicated that their gene products were rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synergetic catabolism of C12-C16 alkanes. On the basis of bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis, two P450 monooxygenases, along with a putative AlmA-like oxygenase, were examined. Genetically defective mutants lacking the characteristic alkane hydroxylase failed to degrade n-octadecane, thereby suggesting a different catalytic mechanism for the microbial transformation of alkanes with chain lengths over C18.

  7. Characterization of the medium- and long-chain n-alkanes degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SJTD-1 and its alkane hydroxylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Jing; Liang, Rubing; Liu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    A gram-negative aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium SJTD-1 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA sequence, phenotype, and physiological features. SJTD-1 could efficiently mineralize medium- and long-chain n-alkanes (C12-C30) as its sole carbon source within seven days, showing the most optimal growth on n-hexadecane, followed by n-octadecane, and n-eicosane. In 36 h, 500 mg/L of tetradecane, hexadecane, and octadecane were transformed completely; and 2 g/L n-hexadecane was degraded to undetectable levels within 72 h. Two putative alkane-degrading genes (gene 3623 and gene 4712) were characterized and our results indicated that their gene products were rate-limiting enzymes involved in the synergetic catabolism of C12-C16 alkanes. On the basis of bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis, two P450 monooxygenases, along with a putative AlmA-like oxygenase, were examined. Genetically defective mutants lacking the characteristic alkane hydroxylase failed to degrade n-octadecane, thereby suggesting a different catalytic mechanism for the microbial transformation of alkanes with chain lengths over C18.

  8. A giant ovarian cyst in a neonate with classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency with very high testosterone levels demonstrating a high-dose hook effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güran, Tülay; Yeşil, Gözde; Güran, Ömer; Cesur, Suna; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur; Topçuoğlu, Sevilay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-09-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of disorders affecting the adrenal steroid synthesis. The most common form, 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), leads to decreased production of cortisol and aldosterone with increased androgen secretion. In classic CAH, glucocorticoid treatment can be life-saving and serves to bring the symptoms under control. However, the treatment challenge is to effectively control the excess androgen effect by using the lowest possible glucocorticoid dose. Previous studies suggested a relationship between ovarian cyst formation and adrenal androgen excess, but neonatal large ovarian cysts have been very rarely reported in newborns with CAH. Here, we present the unique case of a neonate with classical 21-OHD who underwent surgery for a giant (10x8x7 cm) unilateral solitary ovarian follicular cyst on the 2nd postnatal day. Hormonal evaluation of the patient revealed high-dose hook effect for serum testosterone levels for the first time by a two-site immunoradiometric assay. Possible mechanisms by which androgen excess may cause ovarian cyst formation are discussed.

  9. MicroRNA dysregulation in liver and pancreas of CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase null mice disrupts insulin/PI3K-AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Chang, Byung-Soo; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah)-null mice fed with a high-fat diet develop fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimately develop characteristics of type 2 diabetes. The precise metabolic role of the Cmah gene remains poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate type 2 diabetes. Expression profiles of miRNAs in Cmah-null mouse livers were compared to those of control mouse livers. Liver miFinder miRNA PCR arrays (n = 6) showed that eight miRNA genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. Compared with controls, seven miRNAs were upregulated and one miRNA was downregulated in Cmah-null mice. Specifically, miR-155-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-503-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-29b-3p were significantly upregulated in the liver and pancreas of Cmah-null mice. These target miRNAs are closely associated with dysregulation of insulin/PI3K-AKT signaling, suggesting that the Cmah-null mice could be a useful model for studying diabetes.

  10. CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase Null Mice as a Model for Studying Metabolic Disorders Caused by the Evolutionary Loss of Neu5Gc in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the modification/turnover of gene products that are altered in humans due to evolutionary loss of Neu5Gc. CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase- (Cmah-) deficient mice show the infiltration of Kupffer cells within liver sinusoids, whereas body and liver weight develop normally. Pathway analysis by use of Illumina MouseRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChip provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including the glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathways, as well as glycogen metabolism-related gene expression, were significantly upregulated in Cmah-null mice. The intracellular glucose supply in Cmah-null mice resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and the advanced glycation end products accumulation that could further induce oxidative stress. Finally, low sirtuin-1 and sirtuin-3 gene expressions due to higher NADH/NAD in Cmah-null mice decreased Foxo-1 and MnSOD gene expression, suggesting that oxidative stress may result in mitochondrial dysfunction in Cmah-null mouse. The present study suggests that mice with CMAH deficiency can be taken as an important model for studying metabolic disorders in humans.

  11. MicroRNA Dysregulation in Liver and Pancreas of CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase Null Mice Disrupts Insulin/PI3K-AKT Signaling

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    Deug-Nam Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah-null mice fed with a high-fat diet develop fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimately develop characteristics of type 2 diabetes. The precise metabolic role of the Cmah gene remains poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which microRNAs (miRNAs regulate type 2 diabetes. Expression profiles of miRNAs in Cmah-null mouse livers were compared to those of control mouse livers. Liver miFinder miRNA PCR arrays (n=6 showed that eight miRNA genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. Compared with controls, seven miRNAs were upregulated and one miRNA was downregulated in Cmah-null mice. Specifically, miR-155-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-503-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-29b-3p were significantly upregulated in the liver and pancreas of Cmah-null mice. These target miRNAs are closely associated with dysregulation of insulin/PI3K-AKT signaling, suggesting that the Cmah-null mice could be a useful model for studying diabetes.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) asparagine hydroxylase is identical to factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) and is related to the cupin structural family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Kirsty S; McNeill, Luke A; Riordan, Madeline V; Tian, Ya-Min; Bullock, Alex N; Welford, Richard W; Elkins, Jonathan M; Oldham, Neil J; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Gleadle, Jonathan M; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Pugh, Christopher W; Schofield, Christopher J

    2002-07-19

    Activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex is controlled by oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of prolyl and asparaginyl residues. Hydroxylation of specific prolyl residues by 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases mediates ubiquitinylation and proteasomal destruction of HIF-alpha. Hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIF-alpha abrogates interaction with p300, preventing transcriptional activation. Yeast two-hybrid assays recently identified factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) as a protein that associates with the CAD region of HIF-alpha. Since FIH contains certain motifs present in iron- and 2-OG-dependent oxygenases we investigated whether FIH was the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase. Assays using recombinant FIH and HIF-alpha fragments revealed that FIH is the enzyme that hydroxylates the CAD asparagine residue, that the activity is directly inhibited by cobalt(II) and limited by hypoxia, and that the oxygen in the alcohol of the hydroxyasparagine residue is directly derived from dioxygen. Sequence analyses involving FIH link the 2-OG oxygenases with members of the cupin superfamily, including Zn(II)-utilizing phosphomannose isomerase, revealing structural and evolutionary links between these metal-binding proteins that share common motifs.

  13. Enhanced hypocholesterolemic effects of interesterified oils are mediated by upregulating LDL receptor and cholesterol 7-α- hydroxylase gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Malongil B; Gowda, Lalitha R; Lokesh, Belur R

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of LDL cholesterol in plasma is strongly influenced by the amount and type of lipid in the diet. Our studies have shown that positional changes in the fatty acids in blended oil introduced using lipase-catalyzed interesterification differentially modulate circulating LDL levels in rats compared with those observed in rats given a physical blend of oils. To investigate the molecular basis of these differences, transcriptional profiling of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis was studied after feeding rats with a semipurified diet containing 10% fat from native oils; coconut oil (CNO), rice bran oil (RBO), or sesame oil (SESO); blended (B); CNO+RBO(B) or CNO+SESO(B) and interesterified oil (I); CNO+RBO(I) or CNO+SESO(I) for 60 d. Hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R) expression significantly increased in rats fed interesterified oils by 100-200% compared with rats fed blended oils and by 400-500% compared with rats fed CNO. Positional alteration in fatty acids of oils used in the diet induced changes in LDL-R expression, which was accompanied by parallel changes in cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and SREBP-2 genes. This suggested that not only the fatty acid type but also its position in the TG of dietary lipids play an important role in maintaining plasma cholesterol levels by suitably modulating gene expression for LDL-R in rat liver.

  14. Differential expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase during fruit development establishes the different B-ring hydroxylation patterns of flavonoids in Fragaria × ananassa and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Jana; Miosic, Silvija; Gotame, Tek Prasad; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Gosch, Christian; Veberic, Robert; Preuss, Anja; Schwab, Wilfried; Stampar, Franci; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) was studied for the first time in different Fragaria species. The cDNA clones isolated from unripe and ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa (garden strawberry) and Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) showed high similarity (99% at the amino acid level) to the publically available F. vesca genome sequence and no significant differences could be identified between species and developmental stages of the fruits. In contrast, the genomic F3'H clones showed differences in the non-coding regions and 5'-flanking elements. The recombinant F3'Hs were functionally active and showed high specificity for naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, and kaempferol, whereas apigenin was only a minor substrate. During fruit development, a clear difference in the F3'H expression was observed between F. × ananassa and F. vesca. While a drastic decline of F3'H expression occurred during fruit ripening in F. × ananassa, F3'H in F. vesca was highly expressed in all stages. This was reflected by the anthocyanin composition, which showed a prevalence of pelargonidin in ripe fruits of F. × ananassa, whereas F. vesca had a high content of cyanidin. Screening of 17 berry species for their anthocyanin and flavonol composition showed that the prevalence of monohydroxylated anthocyanins makes garden strawberry unique among all other fruit species indicating that selection of bright red color during strawberry breeding, which consumers typically associate with freshness and ripeness, has selected phenotypes with a special biochemical background. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH) inhibitor nepicastat in participants who meet criteria for cocaine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Bubar, Marcy J; Carbone, Crystal L; Moeller, F Gerard; Newton, Thomas F; Anastasio, Noelle C; Harper, Tod A; Ware, David L; Fuller, Michael A; Holstein, Gaylyn J; Jayroe, Jason B; Bandak, Stephen I; Reiman, Kirsten Z; Neale, Ann C; Pickford, Lesley B; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-06-03

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the potent and selective dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) inhibitor nepicastat would have minimal effects on cardiovascular and pharmacokinetic parameters associated with cocaine administration and would reduce the positive subjective effects produced by cocaine. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, inpatient study of oral nepicastat (0, 80 and 160mg) concurrent with intravenous (IV) cocaine (0, 10, 20 and 40mg) in non-treatment seeking participants who metcriteria for cocaine use disorder. Safety analyses revealed that nepicastat was well-tolerated and there were no differences in adverse events observed after nepicastat plus cocaine vs. cocaine alone. In addition, the pharmacokinetic properties of cocaine administration were not altered by nepicastat treatment. Cocaine-induced cardiovascular and subjective effects were evaluated for completers in the cohort randomized to nepicastat (n=13) using a within-subjects statistical analysis strategy. Specifically, the cardiovascular and subjective effects of cocaine were assessed in the presence of placebo (0mg), 80mg of nepicastat or 160mg of nepicastat on study Days 4, 8 and 12, respectively. Analyses revealed a main effect of nepicastat to reduce several cocaine-induced positive subjective effects. Taken together, these data indicate that nepicastat is safe when co-administered with cocaine and may suppress its positive subjective effects, and may be viable as a pharmacotherapy for treatment of cocaine use disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental role of phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) genes during adventitious rooting of Juglans regia L. microshoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheniany, Monireh; Ganjeali, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase play important role in the phenylpropanoid pathway, which produces many biologically important secondary metabolites participating in normal plant development. Flavonol quercetin is the main representant of these compounds that has been identified in numerous Juglans spp. In this survey, the developmental expression patterns of PAL and C4H genes during in vitro rooting of two walnut cultivars 'Sunland' and 'Howard' was examined by RT-PCR. To understand the potential role in rooting, the changing pattern of endogenous content of quercetin was also analyzed by HPLC. The 'Sunland' with better capacity to root had more quercetin content during the "inductive phase" of rooting than 'Howard'. In each cultivar, the level of PAL transcripts showed the same behavior with the changing patterns of quercetin during root formation of microshoots. The positive correlation between the changes of quercetin and PAL-mRNA indicated that PAL gene may have an immediate effect on flavonoid pathway metabolites including quercetin. Although the behavioral change of C4H expression was similar in both cultivars during root formation (with significantly more level for 'Howard'), it was not coincide with the changes of quercerin concentrations. Our results showed that C4H function is important for the normal development, but its transcriptional regulation does not correlate with quercetin as an efficient phenolic compound for walnut rhizogenesis.

  17. Stress-induced reinstatement of amphetamine-conditioned place preference and changes in tyrosine hydroxylase in the nucleus accumbens in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Leão, Rodrigo M; Marin, Marcelo T; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2010-08-01

    Drug abuse among humans often begins during adolescence. Exposure to psychostimulants during this age period may have long-term consequences which can render the organism more susceptible to drug abuse and relapse later in life. It has been demonstrated that exposure to stress can promote relapse to drug use even after long periods of withdrawal. The reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) is a useful animal model for studying relapse. In humans and animals, changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been related to drug addiction. Our study examined whether amphetamine-induced CPP during adolescence could be reinstated by exposure to stress 1 (adolescence) and 30 (adulthood) days after the extinction test. We also investigated TH levels following the reinstatement of CPP. Our results showed that amphetamine-induced CPP during adolescence can be reinstated by stress exposure 1day (P42, end of adolescence) but not 30days after extinction (P71, adulthood). Moreover the reinstatement of AMPH-induced CPP by stress exposure occurred in the presence of decreased TH in the nucleus accumbens. In conclusion, our data add new evidence that neuroadaptations on TH may mediate relapse to drug-seeking behavior induced by stress within adolescence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise-Mediated Increase in Nigral Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Accompanied by Increased Nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 Expression in Aging Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer C.; Salvatore, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise may alleviate locomotor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) or aging. Identifying molecular responses immediately engaged by exercise in the nigrostriatal pathway and allied tissue may reveal critical targets associated with its long-term benefits. In aging, there is loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, GFR-α1, in the substantia nigra (SN). Exercise can increase GDNF expression, but its effect on GFR-α1 expression is unknown. Infusion of GDNF into striatum or GFR-α1 in SN, respectively, can increase locomotor activity and TH function in SN but not striatum in aged rats. GDNF may also increase glutamate transporter expression, which attenuates TH loss in PD models. We utilized a footshock-free treadmill exercise regimen to determine the immediate impact of short-term exercise on GFR-α1 expression, dopamine regulation, glutamate transporter expression, and glutamate uptake in 18 month old male Brown-Norway/Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats. GFR-α1 and TH expression significantly increased in SN but not striatum. This exercise regimen did not affect glutamate uptake or glutamate transporter expression in striatum. However, EAAC1 expression increased in SN. These results indicate that nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 expression increased in conjunction with increased nigral TH expression following short-term exercise. PMID:26599339

  19. Is it possible to improve memory function by upregulation of the cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1 in the brain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maioli

    Full Text Available We previously described a heterozygous mouse model overexpressing human HA-tagged 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1 utilizing a ubiquitous expression vector. In this study, we generated homozygotes of these mice with circulating levels of 24OH 30-60% higher than the heterozygotes. Female homozygous CYP46A1 transgenic mice, aged 15 months, showed an improvement in spatial memory in the Morris water maze test as compared to the wild type mice. The levels of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 1, phosphorylated-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2A, postsynaptic density 95, synapsin-1 and synapthophysin were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the CYP46A1 transgenic mice as compared to the controls. The levels of lanosterol in the brain of the CYP46A1 transgenic mice were significantly increased, consistent with a higher synthesis of cholesterol. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the flux in the mevalonate pathway in the brain is of importance in cognitive functions.

  20. Virus-induced gene silencing identifies Catharanthus roseus 7-deoxyloganic acid-7-hydroxylase, a step in iridoid and monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Vonny; Yu, Fang; Altarejos, Joaquín; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    Iridoids are a major group of biologically active molecules that are present in thousands of plant species, and one versatile iridoid, secologanin, is a precursor for the assembly of thousands of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) as well as a number of quinoline alkaloids. This study uses bioinformatics to screen large databases of annotated transcripts from various MIA-producing plant species to select candidate genes that may be involved in iridoid biosynthesis. Virus-induced gene silencing of the selected genes combined with metabolite analyses of silenced plants was then used to identify the 7-deoxyloganic acid 7-hydroxylase (CrDL7H) that is involved in the 3rd to last step in secologanin biosynthesis. Silencing of CrDL7H reduced secologanin levels by at least 70%, and increased the levels of 7-deoxyloganic acid to over 4 mg g(-1) fresh leaf weight compared to control plants in which this iridoid is not detected. Functional expression of this CrDL7H in yeast confirmed its biochemical activity, and substrate specificity studies showed its preference for 7-deoxyloganic acid over other closely related substrates. Together, these results suggest that hydroxylation precedes carboxy-O-methylation in the secologanin pathway in Catharanthus roseus. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. High-cell-density cultivation of recombinant Escherichia coli, purification and characterization of a self-sufficient biosynthetic octane ω-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeaux, Mélanie; de Girval, Diane; Rullaud, Robin; Subileau, Maeva; Dubreucq, Eric; Drone, Jullien

    2014-01-01

    We have recently described the biocatalytic characterization of a self-sufficent biosynthetic alkane hydroxylase based on CYP153A13a from Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2 (thereafter A13-Red). Despite remarkable regio- and chemo-selectivity, A13-Red suffers of a difficult-to-reproduce expression and moderate operational stability. In this study, we focused our efforts on the production of A13-Red using high-cell-density cultivation (HCDC) of recombinant Escherichia coli. We achieved 455 mg (5,000 nmol) of functional enzyme per liter of culture. Tight control of cultivation parameters rendered the whole process highly reproducible compared with flask cultivations. We optimized the purification of the biocatalyst that can be performed in either two or three steps depending on the application needed to afford A13-Red up to 95 % homogeneous. We investigated different reaction conditions and found that the total turnover numbers of A13-Red during the in vitro hydroxylation of n-octane could reach up to 3,250 to produce 1-octanol (1.6 mM) over a period of 78 h.

  2. Muscle-derived differentiation factor increases expression of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and enzyme activity in cultured dopamine neurons from the rat midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, L; Evinger, M J; Stull, N D

    1992-12-01

    Our earlier work demonstrated that certain populations of brain neurons which do not synthesize catecholamine (CA) neurotransmitters in vivo, will, when grown in culture with muscle-derived differentiation factor (MDF), unexpectedly express the gene for the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). In this paper, we sought to determine whether MDF could also regulate TH expression in those neurons which normally synthesize CA neurotransmitters. Incubation of cultured dopamine neurons from the ventral midbrain with MDF elevated the levels of TH mRNA and TH enzyme activity 5- to 40-fold higher than that measured in control cultures. Sympathetic neurons were unaffected by a similar MDF treatment. Unlike the 2-day critical period for MDF-responsivity in non-CA neurons. CA neurons remained susceptible to MDF's influence over an extended developmental interval (E14-18), suggesting that MDF may be important for TH gene regulation in brain CA neurons even differentiation is complete. Because of these unique properties, MDF may provide a unique opportunity to explore ways in which the TH gene might be directly manipulated in these cell populations in order to correct the CA imbalances that occur in certain neurological diseases and disorders.

  3. Protein kinase C activators work in synergy with specific growth factors to initiate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in striatal neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Iacovitti, L

    1997-02-01

    Our previous studies indicate that, in the noncatecholamine (non-CA) neurons of the striatum, expression of the gene for the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can be initiated by the synergistic interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a second partner molecule. In this study, we sought to determine whether the activators of protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways, either alone or in conjunction with various growth factors, is sufficient to induce TH in striatal neurons. We found that when the active beta from of 4 beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), but not the inactive alpha analogue, was incubated in the presence of aFGF, basic FGF, or brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TH expression was initiated. Activation of the PKC pathways alone (in the absence of growth factors) did not mimic these effects, suggesting that multiple pathway activation is required for novel TH expression. Although other specific activators of PKC were effective growth factor partners, TPA was the most potent with an ED50 of 0.008 muM. Conversely, inhibitors of protein kinases, such as H7, H8, or H89, prevented the expression of TH by aFGF and TPA. Because pretreatment with protein (cycloheximide) or RNA synthesis (amanitin and actinomycin D) inhibitors eliminated the inductive effect of aFGF and TPA, we conclude that de novo transcription and translation are necessary for the expression of TH after convergence of both PKC and growth factor pathways.

  4. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minor activities and transition state properties of the human steroid hydroxylases cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21, from reactions observed with deuterium-labeled substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Zhou, Yishan; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Stidd, David; Yoshimoto, Jennifer A.; Sharma, Kamalesh K.; Matthew, Susan; Auchus, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The steroid hydroxylases CYP17A1 (P450c17, 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) and CYP21A2 (P450c21, 21-hydroxylase) catalyze progesterone hydroxylation at one or more sites within a 2 Å radius. We probed their hydrogen atom abstraction mechanisms and regiochemical plasticity with deuterium-labeled substrates: 17-[2H]-pregnenolone; 17-[2H]-, 16α-[2H]-, 21,21,21-[2H3]-, and 21-[2H]-progesterone; and 21,21,21-[2H3]-17-hydroxyprogesterone. Product distribution and formation rates with recombinant human P450-oxidoreductase and wild-type human CYP17A1 or mutation A105L (reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylation) and wild-type human CYP21A2 or mutation V359A (substantial progesterone 16α-hydroxylation) were used to calculate intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). The intramolecular KIEs for CYP17A1 and mutation A105L were 4.1 and 3.8, respectively, at H-17 and 2.9 and 5.1, respectively, at H-16α. Mutation A105L 21-hydroxylates progesterone (5% of products), and wild-type CYP17A1 also catalyzes a trace of 21-hydroxylation, which increases with 16α-[2H]- and 17-[2H]-progesterone. The intramolecular KIEs with CYP21A2 mutation V359A and progesterone were 6.2 and 3.8 at H-21 and H-16α, respectively. Wild-type CYP21A2 also forms a trace of 16α-hydroxyprogesterone, which increased with 21,21,21-[2H3]-progesterone substrate. Competitive intermolecular KIEs paralleled the intramolecular KIE values, with DV values of 1.4–5.1 and DV/K values of 1.8–5.1 for these reactions. CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 mutation V359A both 16α-hydroxylate 16α-[2H]-progesterone with 33–44% deuterium retention, indicating stereochemical inversion. We conclude that human CYP17A1 has progesterone 21-hydroxylase activity and human CYP21A2 has progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, both of which are enhanced with deuterated substrates. The transition states for C-H bond cleavage in these hydroxylation reactions are either significantly non-linear and/or asymmetric, and C-H bond

  6. Neural control of left ventricular contractility in the dog heart: synaptic interactions of negative inotropic vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, V J; Dickerson, L W; Gray, A L; Lauenstein, J M; Blinder, K J; Newsome, J T; Rodak, D J; Fleming, T J; Gatti, P J; Gillis, R A

    1998-08-17

    Recent physiological evidence indicates that vagal postganglionic control of left ventricular contractility is mediated by neurons found in a ventricular epicardial fat pad ganglion. In the dog this region has been referred to as the cranial medial ventricular (CMV) ganglion [J.L. Ardell, Structure and function of mammalian intrinsic cardiac neurons, in: J.A. Armour, J.L. Ardell (Eds.). Neurocardiology, Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1994, pp. 95-114; B.X. Yuan, J.L. Ardell, D.A. Hopkins, A.M. Losier, J.A. Armour, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the canine intrinsic cardiac nervous system, Anat. Rec., 239 (1994) 75-87]. Since activation of the vagal neuronal input to the CMV ganglion reduces left ventricular contractility without influencing cardiac rate or AV conduction, this ganglion contains a functionally selective pool of negative inotropic parasympathetic postganglionic neurons. In the present report we have defined the light microscopic distribution of preganglionic negative inotropic neurons in the CNS which are retrogradely labeled from the CMV ganglion. Some tissues were also processed for the simultaneous immunocytochemical visualization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH: a marker for catecholaminergic neurons) and examined with both light microscopic and electron microscopic methods. Histochemically visualized neurons were observed in a long slender column in the ventrolateral nucleus ambiguus (NA-VL). The greatest number of retrogradely labeled neurons were observed just rostral to the level of the area postrema. TH perikarya and dendrites were commonly observed interspersed with vagal motoneurons in the NA-VL. TH nerve terminals formed axo-dendritic synapses upon negative inotropic vagal motoneurons, however the origin of these terminals remains to be determined. We conclude that synaptic interactions exist which would permit the parasympathetic preganglionic vagal control of left ventricular contractility to be modulated monosynaptically by

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein–Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöllner A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 μM CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopic characterization of the diferric-peroxo intermediate of human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase in the presence of its substrate eIF5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasniewski, Andrew J; Engstrom, Lisa M; Vu, Van V; Park, Myung Hee; Que, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    Human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (hDOHH) is an enzyme that is involved in the critical post-translational modification of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Following the conversion of a lysine residue on eIF5A to deoxyhypusine (Dhp) by deoxyhypusine synthase, hDOHH hydroxylates Dhp to yield the unusual amino acid residue hypusine (Hpu), a modification that is essential for eIF5A to promote peptide synthesis at the ribosome, among other functions. Purification of hDOHH overexpressed in E. coli affords enzyme that is blue in color, a feature that has been associated with the presence of a peroxo-bridged diiron(III) active site. To gain further insight into the nature of the diiron site and how it may change as hDOHH goes through the catalytic cycle, we have conducted X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of hDOHH on five samples that represent different species along its reaction pathway. Structural analysis of each species has been carried out, starting with the reduced diferrous state, proceeding through its O2 adduct, and ending with a diferric decay product. Our results show that the Fe⋯Fe distances found for the five samples fall within a narrow range of 3.4-3.5 Å, suggesting that hDOHH has a fairly constrained active site. This pattern differs significantly from what has been associated with canonical dioxygen activating nonheme diiron enzymes, such as soluble methane monooxygenase and Class 1A ribonucleotide reductases, for which the Fe⋯Fe distance can change by as much as 1 Å during the redox cycle. These results suggest that the O2 activation mechanism for hDOHH deviates somewhat from that associated with the canonical nonheme diiron enzymes, opening the door to new mechanistic possibilities for this intriguing family of enzymes.

  9. Cardiac safety profile of etamicastat, a novel peripheral selective dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor in non-human primates, human young and elderly healthy volunteers and hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vaz-da-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the cardiac risk for etamicastat, a peripheral reversible dopamine-β-hydroxylase inhibitor. Etamicastat blocked the hERG current amplitude with an IC50 value of 44 μg/ml. Etamicastat had no substantial effects on arterial blood pressure, heart rate and the PR interval in male Cynomolgus monkeys when administered orally up to 90 mg/kg. Administered orally at 15 and 45 mg/kg/day in female and male Cynomolgus monkey for 91 days, etamicastat had no effect on heart rate and the waveform or intervals of the electrocardiogram. At the highest dose level of 45 mg/kg, mean plasma concentrations of etamicastat ranged from 1875 to 3145 ng/ml on Day 1 and Day 91 of treatment, respectively. The effect of age on the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of etamicastat in elderly (≥65 years and young adult (18–45 years subjects showed that supine systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure, ECG heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration and QTcF interval were not affected following once-daily administration of 100 mg/day etamicastat for 7 days. In hypertensive patients the decrease of blood pressure tended to be more important in subjects who had received etamicastat (50, 100 and 200 mg than in subjects who had received placebo. No clinically significant out-of-range values in vital signs or ECG parameters, ECG heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration and QTcF interval were observed in hypertensive subjects following once-daily administration of etamicastat for 10 days. In conclusion, etamicastat is not likely to prolong the QT interval at therapeutic doses.

  10. Biodegradation of variable-chain-length n-alkanes in Rhodococcus opacus R7 and the involvement of an alkane hydroxylase system in the metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampolli, Jessica; Collina, Elena; Lasagni, Marina; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus opacus R7 is a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil for its versatile metabolism; indeed the strain is able to grow on naphthalene, o-xylene, and several long- and medium-chain n-alkanes. In this work we determined the degradation of n-alkanes in Rhodococcus opacus R7 in presence of n-dodecane (C12), n-hexadecane (C16), n-eicosane (C20), n-tetracosane (C24) and the metabolic pathway in presence of C12. The consumption rate of C12 was 88%, of C16 was 69%, of C20 was 51% and of C24 it was 78%. The decrement of the degradation rate seems to be correlated to the length of the aliphatic chain of these hydrocarbons. On the basis of the metabolic intermediates determined by the R7 growth on C12, our data indicated that R. opacus R7 metabolizes medium-chain n-alkanes by the primary alcohol formation. This represents a difference in comparison with other Rhodococcus strains, in which a mixture of the two alcohols was observed. By GC-MSD analysis we also identified the monocarboxylic acid, confirming the terminal oxidation. Moreover, the alkB gene cluster from R. opacus R7 was isolated and its involvement in the n-alkane degradation system was investigated by the cloning of this genomic region into a shuttle-vector E. coli-Rhodococcus to evaluate the alkane hydroxylase activity. Our results showed an increased biodegradation of C12 in the recombinant strain R. erythropolis AP (pTipQT1-alkR7) in comparison with the wild type strain R. erythropolis AP. These data supported the involvement of the alkB gene cluster in the n-alkane degradation in the R7 strain.

  11. Contribution of a common variant in the promoter of the 1-α-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1) to fracture risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Nguyen, Tuan V; Au, Amy; Bullock, Martyn; Cameron, Ian; Cumming, Robert; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-02-01

    CYP27B1 encodes mitochondrial 1α-hydroxylase, which converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to its active 1,25-dihydroxylated metabolite. We tested the hypothesis that common variants in the CYP27B1 promoter are associated with fracture risk. The study was designed as a population-based genetic association study, which involved 153 men and 596 women aged 65-101 years, who had been followed for 2.2 years (range 0.1-5.5) between 1999 and 2006. During the follow-up period, the incidence of fragility fractures was ascertained. Bone ultrasound attenuation (BUA) was measured in all individuals, as were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and PTH concentrations; 86% subjects had vitamin D insufficiency. Genotypes were determined for the -1260C>A (rs10877012) and +2838T>C (rs4646536) CYP27B1 polymorphisms. A reporter gene assay was used to assess functional expression of the -1260C>A CYP27B1 variants. The association between genotypes and fracture risk was analyzed by Cox's proportional hazards model. We found that genotypic distribution of CYP27B1 -1260 and CYP27B1 +2838 polymorphisms was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. The two polymorphisms were in high linkage disequilibrium, with D' = 0.96 and r² = 0.94. Each C allele of the CYP27B1 -1260 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of fracture (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% CI 1.03-1.73), after adjustment for age, sex, number of falls, and BUA. In transient transfection studies, a reporter gene downstream of the -1260(A)-containing promoter was more highly expressed than that containing the C allele. These data suggest that a common but functional variation within the CYP27B1 promoter gene is associated with fracture risk in the elderly.

  12. Knockout of Cytidine Monophospho-N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (CMP-NeuAc) Hydroxylase From Porcine Endothelial Cells by a CRISPR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, R; Esaki, Y; Hasuwa, H; Ikawa, M; Lo, P; Matsuura, R; Nakahata, K; Zenitani, M; Asada, M; Maeda, A; Eguchi, H; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    We attempted to knock out the expression of Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigens through the use of a CRISPR (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9 system for pig cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH). Plasmids expressing hCas9 and sgRNA for pCMAH were prepared by ligating oligos into the BbsI site of pX330. The N-terminal and C-terminal EGFP coding regions overlapping 482 bp were PCR-amplified and placed under a ubiquitous CAG promoter. The approximately 400-bp genomic fragments containing the sgRNA target sequence of pCMAH were placed into the multi-cloning sites flanked by the EGFP fragments. The pCAG-EGxxFP-target was mixed with pX330 with/without the sgRNA sequences and then introduced into HEK293T cells. Four oligos and primers, gSO1, gSO3, gSO4, and gSO8, were nominated from 8 candidates. Among them, gSO1 showed the best efficiency. Pig endothelial cells (PECs) from an α-Gal knockout pig were then used to examine the changes in the expression of the H-D antigen by the knockout of the CMAH genome by the pX330-gS01. Changes in the expression of the H-D antigen in the PECs with the CRISPR (gS01) were clear in comparison with those in the parental cells, on the basis of FACS analysis data. The expression of the H-D antigen can be knocked out by use of the CRISPR system for pCMAH, thus confirming that this system is a very convenient system for producing knockout pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: A five-year retrospective study in the Children's Hospital of Damascus, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Alshabab, Lina Ibrahem; AlebrahIm, Assad; Kaddoura, Ahmad; Al-Fahoum, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. 21-hydroxylase deficiency is responsible for the majority of cases (90-95%) and considered the most common cause of genital ambiguity. There are no statistics concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Syria, although the high rate of consanguineous marriages indicates a possible high prevalence. Objectives: This study aims to collect baseline information about CAH in Syria to evaluate the potential need of a screening program. Subjects and Methods: All medical records of inpatients who had CAH as a final or presumptive diagnosis at the Children's Hospital of Damascus between 2008–2012, or were diagnosed elsewhere and then admitted at the hospital for the first time within the same period, were retrospectively reviewed and divided into two groups: confirmed and suspected cases. Results: Eighty-nine cases were confirmed, 25 were still suspected. Of the 89 confirmed cases: 20 (22.5%) were males, 66 (74.1%) were females, and 3 were ambiguous. Sixty-one patients (68.5%) were of the salt wasting type and 28 (31.5%) were of the simple virilizing type. The mortality rate was 6.7%. Thirty-two females were assigned as males at birth. Seventeen cases (19.1%) underwent previous hospitalization. 69.7% of patients were not diagnosed during the first month of life. Of the 25 suspected cases: 12 were males, 8 were females and 5 were ambiguous. Confirmatory tests had not been performed because of death in 7 patients (28%) and early discharge upon parental request in another 7 patients (28%). Conclusion: A mandatory screening program for CAH in Syria seems necessary due to the obvious lack of awareness, delayed diagnosis and high expected prevalence. However, further efforts are needed to confirm the effectiveness of such a program in the Syrian society. PMID:26535179

  14. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Two Rice Flavonoid 3’-Hydroxylase to Evaluate Their Roles in Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Rice Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, the major flavonoids in black and red rice grains, respectively, are mainly derived from 3′,4′-dihydroxylated leucocyanidin. 3′-Hydroxylation of flavonoids in rice is catalyzed by flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H: EC 1.14.13.21. We isolated cDNA clones of the two rice F3′H genes (CYP75B3 and CYP75B4 from Korean varieties of white, black, and red rice. Sequence analysis revealed allelic variants of each gene containing one or two amino acid substitutions. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrated that CYP75B3 preferred kaempferol to other substrates, and had a low preference for dihydrokaempferol. CYP75B4 exhibited a higher preference for apigenin than for other substrates. CYP75B3 from black rice showed an approximately two-fold increase in catalytic efficiencies for naringenin and dihydrokaempferol compared to CYP75B3s from white and red rice. The F3′H activity of CYP75B3 was much higher than that of CYP75B4. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP75B3, CYP75B4, and most other flavonoid pathway genes were predominantly expressed in the developing seeds of black rice, but not in those of white and red rice, which is consistent with the pigmentation patterns of the seeds. The expression levels of CYP75B4 were relatively higher than those of CYP75B3 in the developing seeds, leaves, and roots of white rice.

  15. Effects of the Administration of 25(OH) Vitamin D3 in an Experimental Model of Chronic Kidney Disease in Animals Null for 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremadé, Noelia; Bozic, Milica; Goltzman, David; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, José M

    2017-01-01

    The final step in vitamin D activation is catalyzed by 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by low levels of both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 provoking secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT). Therefore, treatments with active or native vitamin D compounds are common in CKD to restore 25(OH)D3 levels and also to decrease PTH. This study evaluates the dose of 25(OH)D3 that restores parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels in a model of CKD in CYP27B1-/- mice. Furthermore, we compare the safety and efficacy of the same dose in CYP27B1+/+ animals. The dose needed to decrease PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD was 50 ng/g. That dose restored blood calcium levels without modifying phosphate levels, and increased the expression of genes responsible for calcium absorption (TRPV5 and calbindinD- 28K in the kidney, TRPV6 and calbindinD-9k in the intestine). The same dose of 25(OH)D3 did not modify PTH in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD. Blood calcium remained normal, while phosphate increased significantly. Blood levels of 25(OH)D3 in CYP27B1-/- mice were extremely high compared to those in CYP27B1+/+ animals. CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD showed increases in TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindinD-28K and calbindinD-9K, which were not further elevated with the treatment. Furthermore, CYP27B1+/+ animals displayed an increase in vascular calcification. We conclude that the dose of 25(OH)D3 effective in decreasing PTH levels in CYP27B1-/- mice with CKD, has a potentially toxic effect in CYP27B1+/+ animals with CKD.

  16. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the neglected human malaria parasite: molecular cloning, expression and specific inhibition by the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton.

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    Veronika Anyigoh Atemnkeng

    Full Text Available Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the only drug which cures the dormant hypnozoites of persistent liver stages from P. vivax. Increasing resistance needs the discovery of alternative pathways as drug targets to develop novel drug entities. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH completes hypusine biosynthesis in eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-5A which is the only cellular protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine. Modified EIF-5A is important for proliferation of the malaria parasite. Here, we present the first successful cloning and expression of DOHH from P. vivax causing tertiary malaria. The nucleic acid sequence of 1041 bp encodes an open reading frame of 346 amino acids. Histidine tagged expression of P. vivax DOHH detected a protein of 39.01 kDa in E. coli. The DOHH protein from P. vivax shares significant amino acid identity to the simian orthologues from P. knowlesi and P. yoelii strain H. In contrast to P. falciparum only four E-Z-type HEAT-like repeats are present in P. vivax DOHH with different homology to phycocyanin lyase subunits from cyanobacteria and in proteins participating in energy metabolism of Archaea and Halobacteria. However, phycocyanin lyase activity is absent in P. vivax DOHH. The dohh gene is present as a single copy gene and transcribed throughout the whole erythrocytic cycle. Specific inhibition of recombinant P. vivax DOHH is possible by complexing the ferrous iron with zileuton, an inhibitor of mammalian 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX. Ferrous iron in the active site of 5-LOX is coordinated by three conserved histidines and the carboxylate of isoleucine(673. Zileuton inhibited the P. vivax DOHH protein with an IC50 of 12,5 nmol determined by a relative quantification by GC/MS. By contrast, the human orthologue is only less affected with an IC50 of 90 nmol suggesting a selective iron-complexing strategy for the parasitic enzyme.

  17. Structural insight of dopamine β-hydroxylase, a drug target for complex traits, and functional significance of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms.

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    Abhijeet Kapoor

    Full Text Available Human dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH is an important therapeutic target for complex traits. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have also been identified in DBH with potential adverse physiological effect. However, difficulty in obtaining diffractable crystals and lack of a suitable template for modeling the protein has ensured that neither crystallographic three-dimensional structure nor computational model for the enzyme is available to aid rational drug design, prediction of functional significance of SNPs or analytical protein engineering.Adequate biochemical information regarding human DBH, structural coordinates for peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and computational data from a partial model of rat DBH were used along with logical manual intervention in a novel way to build an in silico model of human DBH. The model provides structural insight into the active site, metal coordination, subunit interface, substrate recognition and inhibitor binding. It reveals that DOMON domain potentially promotes tetramerization, while substrate dopamine and a potential therapeutic inhibitor nepicastat are stabilized in the active site through multiple hydrogen bonding. Functional significance of several exonic SNPs could be described from a structural analysis of the model. The model confirms that SNP resulting in Ala318Ser or Leu317Pro mutation may not influence enzyme activity, while Gly482Arg might actually do so being in the proximity of the active site. Arg549Cys may cause abnormal oligomerization through non-native disulfide bond formation. Other SNPs like Glu181, Glu250, Lys239 and Asp290 could potentially inhibit tetramerization thus affecting function.The first three-dimensional model of full-length human DBH protein was obtained in a novel manner with a set of experimental data as guideline for consistency of in silico prediction. Preliminary physicochemical tests validated the model. The model confirms, rationalizes and

  18. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Sex differences in the expression of vasotocin/isotocin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase family genes in the medaka brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Y; Hiraki, T; Takeuchi, A; Okubo, K

    2012-08-30

    In teleost fish, sex differences in several behavioral and physiological traits have been assumed to reflect underlying sex differences in the central expression of neurotransmitter/neuromodulator-related molecules, including vasotocin (VT)/isotocin (IT), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases (TH and TPH). However, the sex-dependent expression patterns of these molecules have not been fully characterized in the teleost brain. In the present study, we therefore systematically evaluated sex differences in their expression in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) brain. The most prominent sex difference was observed in vt expression in the nucleus posterior tuberis (NPT) and the posterior part of the nucleus ventral tuberis (NVT) in the hypothalamus, where the expression was completely male-specific. Male-biased expression of gnrh1, tph1, and tph2 was also evident in the supracommissural and posterior nuclei of the ventral telencephalic area (Vs/Vp), medial nucleus of the dorsal telencephalic area (Dm), and thalamic dorsal posterior nucleus (DP), respectively. In contrast, the overall expression levels of it and gnrh3 were higher in the female brain than in the male brain. Equally importantly, no conspicuous sex differences were observed in the expression of gnrh2, th1, and th2, despite several previous reports of their sex-biased expression in the brains of other teleost species. Taken together, these data have uncovered previously unidentified sex differences in the expression of VT/IT, GnRH, and TPH in the teleost brain, which may possibly be relevant to sexual dimorphism in some behavioral and/or physiological traits, and have simultaneously highlighted potential species differences in the roles of these molecules. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA, serotonin, and 5-hydroxytryptophan levels in the brain of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, during sex differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, K; Sudhakumari, C C; Senthilkumaran, B; Kagawa, H; Dutta-Gupta, A; Nagahama, Y

    2011-03-01

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (tph) is the key regulator in serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis that stimulates the release of GnRH and gonadotropins by acting at the level of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In brain, 5-HT is expressed predominantly in preoptic area-hypothalamus (POA-HYP) region in teleosts. Therefore, in the present study we isolated tph2 from catfish brain to evaluate its expression pattern in male and female brains during early development. Tph2 cloned from catfish brain is 2.768 Kb in length which encodes predicted protein of 488 amino acid residues. The characterization of recombinant tph2 was done by transient transfection in CHO cells. Tissue distribution of tph2 revealed ubiquitous expression except ovary. Real time PCR analysis in discrete regions of adult male brain revealed that tph2 mRNA was abundant in the POA-HYP and optic tectum+cerebellum+thalamus (OCT) regions. Differential expression of tph2 was observed at mRNA and protein levels in the POA-HYP and OCT regions of male and female brains during development that further correlate with the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and 5-HT levels measured using HPLC method in these regions of male and female brains. Tph2 immunoreactive neurons were observed in different regions of brain at 50 days post hatch using catfish specific tph2 antibody. Changes in tph2 mRNA expression, 5-HTP, and 5-HT levels in the POA-HYP+OCT region of brains of methyltestosterone and para-chlorophenylalanine treated fishes during development further endorse our results. Based on our results, we propose that the serotonergic system is involved in brain sex differentiation in teleosts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Pair of Tabersonine 16-Hydroxylases Initiates the Synthesis of Vindoline in an Organ-Dependent Manner in Catharanthus roseus1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseau, Sébastien; Kellner, Franziska; Lanoue, Arnaud; Thamm, Antje M.K.; Salim, Vonny; Schneider, Bernd; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Höfer, René; Guirimand, Grégory; Guihur, Anthony; Oudin, Audrey; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Foureau, Emilien; Papon, Nicolas; Clastre, Marc; Giglioli-Guivarc’h, Nathalie; St-Pierre, Benoit; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Burlat, Vincent; De Luca, Vincenzo; O’Connor, Sarah E.; Courdavault, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylation of tabersonine at the C-16 position, catalyzed by tabersonine 16-hydroxylase (T16H), initiates the synthesis of vindoline that constitutes the main alkaloid accumulated in leaves of Catharanthus roseus. Over the last decade, this reaction has been associated with CYP71D12 cloned from undifferentiated C. roseus cells. In this study, we isolated a second cytochrome P450 (CYP71D351) displaying T16H activity. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that CYP71D12 and CYP71D351 both exhibit high affinity for tabersonine and narrow substrate specificity, making of T16H, to our knowledge, the first alkaloid biosynthetic enzyme displaying two isoforms encoded by distinct genes characterized to date in C. roseus. However, both genes dramatically diverge in transcript distribution in planta. While CYP71D12 (T16H1) expression is restricted to flowers and undifferentiated cells, the CYP71D351 (T16H2) expression profile is similar to the other vindoline biosynthetic genes reaching a maximum in young leaves. Moreover, transcript localization by carborundum abrasion and RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that CYP71D351 messenger RNAs are specifically located to leaf epidermis, which also hosts the next step of vindoline biosynthesis. Comparison of high- and low-vindoline-accumulating C. roseus cultivars also highlights the direct correlation between CYP71D351 transcript and vindoline levels. In addition, CYP71D351 down-regulation mediated by virus-induced gene silencing reduces vindoline accumulation in leaves and redirects the biosynthetic flux toward the production of unmodified alkaloids at the C-16 position. All these data demonstrate that tabersonine 16-hydroxylation is orchestrated in an organ-dependent manner by two genes including CYP71D351, which encodes the specific T16H isoform acting in the foliar vindoline biosynthesis. PMID:24108213

  2. Prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor activating hypoxia-inducible transcription factors reduce levels of transplant arteriosclerosis in a murine aortic allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christian; Bernhardt, Wanja; Jalilova, Sabina; Wang, Zhendi; Motsch, Benjamin; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Weyand, Michael; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2016-05-01

    The development of transplant arteriosclerosis, the hallmark feature of heart transplant rejection, is associated with a chronic immune response and also influenced by an initial injury to the graft through ischaemia and reperfusion. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1 pathway signalling has a protective effect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and has already been demonstrated to ameliorate allograft nephropathy in previous animal studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors with a prolyl-hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitor on transplant arteriosclerosis in an experimental aortic allograft model. MHC-class I mismatched C.B10-H2(b)/LilMcdJ donor thoracic aortas were heterotopically transplanted into the abdominal aorta of BALB/c mice. Donor animals received a single dose of the PHD inhibitor 2-(1-chloro-4-hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate (ICA) (40 mg/kg) or vehicle i.p. 4 h before transplantation. Intragraft HIF accumulation after ICA treatment was detected by immunohistochemistry before and after cold ischaemia (n = 5). Grafts were harvested 30 days after transplantation and analysed by histology (n = 7) and immunofluorescence (n = 7). In addition, intragraft mRNA expression for cytokines, adhesion molecules and growth factors was determined on Day 14 (n = 7). Donor preconditioning with ICA resulted in HIF accumulation in the aorta and induction of the HIF target genes vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta. Vascular lesions were present in both experimental groups. However, there was significantly reduced intimal proliferation in preconditioned grafts when compared with vehicle controls [intimal proliferation 31.3 ± 8% (ICA) vs 55.3 ± 20% (control), P arteriosclerosis and allograft injury. Pharmaceutical inhibition of PHDs appears to be a very attractive strategy for organ preservation that deserves further clinical

  3. Oxidation of gasoline oxygenates by closely related non-haem-iron alkane hydroxylases in Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 and other n-octane-utilizing Pseudomonas strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christy A; Hyman, Michael R

    2010-06-01

    Pseudomonas mendocina KR1 oxidizes the gasoline oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) during growth on C5 -C8 n-alkanes. We have further explored oxidation of ether oxygenates by this strain to help identify the enzyme that catalyses these reactions. High levels of MTBE-oxidizing activity occurred in resting cells grown on C5 -C8 n-alkanes. Lower activities occurred in cells grown on longer-chain n-alkanes (C9 -C11 ) and 1°-alcohols (C5 -C10 ). N-octane-grown cells also oxidized tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) to tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA), but did not oxidize ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), TBA or TAA. A 39 kDa polypeptide in whole cell extracts of n-octane-grown cells strongly cross-reacted with an anti-AlkB polyclonal antiserum in an SDS-PAGE/immunoblot. This polypeptide was absent or less abundant in cells grown on dextrose, dextrose plus dicyclopropylketone or 1-octanol. N-octane-grown cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains KSLA-473 and ATCC 17423 oxidized MTBE and TAME but not ETBE. N-hexadecane-grown cells of these strains and strain PAO1 did not oxidize any of the oxygenates tested. Our results indicate ether oxygenate-degrading activity in alkane-utilizing pseudomonads is consistently observed with close homologues of the GPo1 non-haem-iron alkane hydroxylases but is otherwise not a consistent catalytic feature of these diverse enzymes. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and catecholamines synergistically up-regulate tyrosine hydroxylase activity in developing and damaged dopamine neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1996-10-01

    Our previous studies indicate that, in certain non-catecholamine (CA) neurons, expression of the gene for the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can be initiated by the obligatory interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a CA activator. In this study, we sought to determine whether these same differentiation factors also play a role in regulating existing TH expression in CA neurons. Thus, the effects of exogenous aFGF and CAs on TH were studied in developing or toxin-damaged dopamine (DA) neurons from the embryonic day 15 rat ventral midbrain, where it was likely to be at physiologically low levels. Cultures were incubated with various concentrations of aFGF, DA, or aFGF and DA. Some cultures were first damaged with 2.5 microM 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. In developing DA neurons, an 80% increase in TH activity was found only after co-treatment with aFGF (100 ng/ml) and DA (1 microM) or other monoamines. Likewise, in damaged DA neurons, aFGF and DA reversed the 50% loss in TH activity caused by toxin. This was observed within 4 h of treatment and was not associated with changes in the number or appearance of DA neurons, suggesting a biochemical rather than a trophic effect. Pretreatment with protein or RNA synthesis inhibitors eliminated the increase. In PC12 cells, where TH is highly expressed, activity was unaltered by treatment. We conclude that the aFGF and CAs may be involved in not only the initiation but also the regulation of TH.

  5. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  6. Pyridoxine improves hippocampal cognitive function via increases of serotonin turnover and tyrosine hydroxylase, and its association with CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Dae Won; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Chung, Jin Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Yoo, Dae Young; Hwang, In Koo

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of pyridoxine on hippocampal functions and changes in protein profiles based on the proteomic approach. Eight-week-old mice received intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline (vehicle) or 350mg/kg pyridoxine twice a day for 21days. Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 was up-regulated, while CB1 cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (CRIP1) was down-regulated, in the pyridoxine-treated group. Additionally, the serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase was increased in the hippocampus of the pyridoxine-treated group than in that of the vehicle-treated group. Furthermore, discrimination indices based on the novel object recognition test were significantly higher in the pyridoxine-treated group than in the vehicle-treated group. Administration of CRIP1a siRNA significantly increases the discrimination index as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. In addition, the administration of rimonabant, a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, for 3weeks significantly decreased the novel object recognition memory, the tyrosine hydroxylase level, the amount of cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly increased novel object recognition memory, but slightly ameliorated rimonabant-induced reduction in serotonin, the tyrosine hydroxylase level, the amount of cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pyridoxine promotes hippocampal functions by increasing serotonin and tyrosine hydroylase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. This positive effect may be associated with CRIP1a and CB1 cannabinoid receptor function. Vitamin-B6 enhances hippocampal functions and this is closely associated with CRIP1a and CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.brozek@gmx.at; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S. [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-26

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression.

  8. Odorant Sensory Input Modulates DNA Secondary Structure Formation and Heterogeneous Ribonucleoprotein Recruitment on the Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 1 Promoters in the Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Cai, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Nana; Fones, Lilah; Brown, Elizabeth; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Cave, John W

    2017-05-03

    Adaptation of neural circuits to changes in sensory input can modify several cellular processes within neurons, including neurotransmitter biosynthesis levels. For a subset of olfactory bulb interneurons, activity-dependent changes in GABA are reflected by corresponding changes in Glutamate decarboxylase 1 ( Gad1 ) expression levels. Mechanisms regulating Gad1 promoter activity are poorly understood, but here we show that a conserved G:C-rich region in the mouse Gad1 proximal promoter region both recruits heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) that facilitate transcription and forms single-stranded DNA secondary structures associated with transcriptional repression. This promoter architecture and function is shared with Tyrosine hydroxylase ( Th ), which is also modulated by odorant-dependent activity in the olfactory bulb. This study shows that the balance between DNA secondary structure formation and hnRNP binding on the mouse Th and Gad1 promoters in the olfactory bulb is responsive to changes in odorant-dependent sensory input. These findings reveal that Th and Gad1 share a novel transcription regulatory mechanism that facilitates sensory input-dependent regulation of dopamine and GABA expression. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Adaptation of neural circuits to changes in sensory input can modify several cellular processes within neurons, including neurotransmitter biosynthesis levels. This study shows that transcription of genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes for GABA and dopamine biosynthesis ( Gad1 and Th , respectively) in the mammalian olfactory bulb is regulated by G:C-rich regions that both recruit heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) to facilitate transcription and form single-stranded DNA secondary structures associated with repression. hnRNP binding and formation of DNA secondary structure on the Th and Gad1 promoters are mutually exclusive, and odorant sensory input levels regulate the balance between these regulatory features. These

  9. Preparation and X-ray structures of metal-free, dicobalt and dimanganese forms of soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Merkx, Maarten; Cadieux, Elisabeth; Tang, Sonya; Lippard, Stephen J

    2004-12-28

    A three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme system catalyzes the hydroxylation of methane to methanol at a carboxylate-bridged diiron center housed in the alpha-subunit of the hydroxylase (MMOH). Catalysis is facilitated by the presence of a regulatory protein (MMOB) and inhibited by MMOD, a protein of unknown function encoded in the sMMO operon. Both MMOB and MMOD are presumed to bind to the same region of the MMOH alpha-subunit. A colorimetric method for monitoring removal of Fe(II) from MMOH was developed using 1,10-phenanthroline and yields apo MMOH with <0.1 Fe/homodimer. With the use of this method, it was possible to investigate the X-ray structure of the apoenzyme and to perform metal reconstitution studies. Using MMOH from Methylococccus capsulatus (Bath), the effects of MMOB and MMOD on metal binding were studied and structural perturbations relevant to the function of this enzyme were identified. X-ray crystal structures of the apo, Mn(II)-soaked, and Co(II)-grown MMOH, determined to 2.3 A or greater resolution, reveal that the presence of metal ions is essential for the proper folding of helices E, F, and H of the alpha-subunit. The active sites of Mn(II)-soaked and Co(II)-grown MMOH are similar to that of reduced, native MMOH with notable differences in the metal-metal distances and ligand coordination sphere that may reflect how this dinuclear metal center might change in the presence of MMOB. MMOB and MMOD decrease the rate of removal of Fe(II) from the enzyme by 22- and 16-fold, respectively. On the basis of previous studies, it is hypothesized that MMOB, and perhaps MMOD, function to block solvent access to the MMOH active site. Finally, ITC studies and the observed disorder in helices E, F, and H in the apo and Mn(II)-soaked structures suggest that these regions of MMOH are critical for MMOB and MMOD binding.

  10. Evidence for modified mechanisms of chloroethene oxidation in Pseudomonas butanovora mutants containing single amino acid substitutions in the hydroxylase alpha-subunit of butane monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Kimberly H; Doughty, David M; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Bottomley, Peter J; Arp, Daniel J

    2007-07-01

    The properties of oxidation of dichloroethene (DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by three mutant strains of Pseudomonas butanovora containing single amino acid substitutions in the alpha-subunit of butane monooxygenase hydroxylase (BMOH-alpha) were compared to the properties of the wild-type strain (Rev WT). The rates of oxidation of three chloroethenes (CEs) were reduced in mutant strain G113N and corresponded with a lower maximum rate of butane oxidation. The rate of TCE degradation was reduced by one-half in mutant strain L279F, whereas the rates of DCE oxidation were the same as those in Rev WT. Evidence was obtained that the composition of products of CE oxidation differed between Rev WT and some of the mutant strains. For example, while Rev WT released nearly all available chlorine stoichiometrically during CE oxidation, strain F321Y released about 40% of the chlorine during 1,2-cis-DCE and TCE oxidation, and strain G113N released between 14 and 25% of the available chlorine during oxidation of DCE and 56% of the available chlorine during oxidation of TCE. Whereas Rev WT, strain L279F, and strain F321Y formed stoichiometric amounts of 1,2-cis-DCE epoxide during oxidation of 1,2-cis-DCE, only about 50% of the 1,2-cis-DCE oxidized by strain G113N was detected as the epoxide. Evidence was obtained that 1,2-cis-DCE epoxide was a substrate for butane monooxygenase (BMO) that was oxidized after the parent compound was consumed. Yet all of the mutant strains released less than 40% of the available 1,2-cis-DCE chlorine, suggesting that they have altered activity towards the epoxide. In addition, strain G113N was unable to degrade the epoxide. TCE epoxide was detected during exposure of Rev WT and strain F321Y to TCE but was not detected with strains L279F and G113N. Lactate-dependent O(2) uptake rates were differentially affected by DCE degradation in the mutant strains, providing evidence that some products released by the altered BMOs reduced the impact of CE on

  11. Evidence for Modified Mechanisms of Chloroethene Oxidation in Pseudomonas butanovora Mutants Containing Single Amino Acid Substitutions in the Hydroxylase α-Subunit of Butane Monooxygenase▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Kimberly H.; Doughty, David M.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The properties of oxidation of dichloroethene (DCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by three mutant strains of Pseudomonas butanovora containing single amino acid substitutions in the α-subunit of butane monooxygenase hydroxylase (BMOH-α) were compared to the properties of the wild-type strain (Rev WT). The rates of oxidation of three chloroethenes (CEs) were reduced in mutant strain G113N and corresponded with a lower maximum rate of butane oxidation. The rate of TCE degradation was reduced by one-half in mutant strain L279F, whereas the rates of DCE oxidation were the same as those in Rev WT. Evidence was obtained that the composition of products of CE oxidation differed between Rev WT and some of the mutant strains. For example, while Rev WT released nearly all available chlorine stoichiometrically during CE oxidation, strain F321Y released about 40% of the chlorine during 1,2-cis-DCE and TCE oxidation, and strain G113N released between 14 and 25% of the available chlorine during oxidation of DCE and 56% of the available chlorine during oxidation of TCE. Whereas Rev WT, strain L279F, and strain F321Y formed stoichiometric amounts of 1,2-cis-DCE epoxide during oxidation of 1,2-cis-DCE, only about 50% of the 1,2-cis-DCE oxidized by strain G113N was detected as the epoxide. Evidence was obtained that 1,2-cis-DCE epoxide was a substrate for butane monooxygenase (BMO) that was oxidized after the parent compound was consumed. Yet all of the mutant strains released less than 40% of the available 1,2-cis-DCE chlorine, suggesting that they have altered activity towards the epoxide. In addition, strain G113N was unable to degrade the epoxide. TCE epoxide was detected during exposure of Rev WT and strain F321Y to TCE but was not detected with strains L279F and G113N. Lactate-dependent O2 uptake rates were differentially affected by DCE degradation in the mutant strains, providing evidence that some products released by the altered BMOs reduced the impact of CE on cellular

  12. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and 5-HT7 receptor preferentially expressed in triple-negative breast cancer promote cancer progression through autocrine serotonin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jaya; Banskota, Suhrid; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Ahn, Subi; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Jeong, Hyunyoung; Kim, Seung Joo; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2016-11-21

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a high risk of relapse and there are few chemotherapy options. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) signaling pathways have been suggested as potential targets for anti-cancer drug development, the mechanism responsible for the action of 5-HT in TNBC remains unknown. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured using CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution. siRNA transfection was used to assess involvement of genes in cancer invasion, which were identified by Matrigel transwell invasion assay. Levels of 5-HT and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured using ELISA kits. Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and mouse tumor model were used to investigate the in vivo effects of SB269970, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, and BJ-1113, a novel synthetic compound. TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, HCC-1395, and Hs578T) expressed higher levels of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) than hormone-responsive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D). In MDA-MB-231 cells, 5-HT promoted invasion and proliferation via 5-HT7 receptor, and interestingly, the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on MDA-MB-231 cell invasion was stronger than its effect on proliferation. Likewise, downstream signaling pathways of 5-HT7 differed during invasion and proliferation, that is, Gα-activated cAMP and Gβγ-activated kinase signaling during invasion, and Gβγ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling during proliferation. Also, 5-HT increased the protein expressions of TPH1 and VEGF in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results provide insight of the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on breast cancer progression; 5-HT was found to act more strongly during the first stage of metastasis (during invasion and migration) than during the later proliferative phase after local invasion. Interestingly, these actions of 5-HT were inhibited by BJ-1113, a 6-amino-2

  13. The Hypoxia-inducible Factor Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitor Roxadustat (FG-4592) and Warfarin in Healthy Volunteers: A Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug-Drug Interaction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendaal-van de Meent, Dorien; den Adel, Martin; Rijnders, Sanne; Krebs-Brown, Axel; Kerbusch, Virginie; Golor, Georg; Schaddelee, Marloes

    2016-04-01

    Roxadustat is a small-molecule hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor in late-stage clinical development for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic window that is often prescribed to treat coexisting cardiovascular diseases in patients with CKD. This clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of roxadustat on warfarin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. This open-label, single-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy volunteers (male or female) aged 18 to 55 years with a body mass index of 18.5 to 30.0 kg/m(2). The study consisted of 2 periods separated by a minimum washout period of 14 days. After an overnight fast, volunteers received a single oral dose of 25 mg (5 × 5 mg tablets) warfarin on Day 1 of Period 1 and Day 7 of Period 2. Volunteers received oral doses of 200 mg (2 × 100 mg tablets) roxadustat on Days 1, 3, 5, 7 (concomitant with warfarin), 9, 11, 13, and 15 of Period 2. Plasma S- and R-warfarin (unbound and total concentrations) and prothrombin time were determined at multiple time points up to 216 hours postdose. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECGs. The geometric mean ratios and 90% CIs for Cmax and AUC∞ of total and unbound S- and R-warfarin (with and without roxadustat) were within the standard bioequivalence interval of 80.00% to 125.00%. Roxadustat increased the geometric mean (GM) prothrombin (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) AUC from time zero to last measurable sample (AUCPT,last and AUCINR,last) by 24.4%. Coadministration of roxadustat and warfarin in healthy volunteers was associated with a favorable tolerability profile, with most treatment-associated adverse events mild in severity. Based on the lack of clinically significant

  14. Effect of Moderate Hepatic Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Roxadustat, an Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendaal-van de Meent, Dorien; Adel, Martin den; Noukens, Jan; Rijnders, Sanne; Krebs-Brown, Axel; Mateva, Lyudmila; Alexiev, Assen; Schaddelee, Marloes

    2016-09-01

    Roxadustat is a hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in phase III development for the treatment of anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease. This study evaluated the effects of moderate hepatic impairment on roxadustat pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability. This was an open-label study in which eight subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (liver cirrhosis Child-Pugh score 7-9) and eight subjects with normal hepatic function (matched for body mass index, age and sex) received a single oral 100 mg roxadustat dose under fasted conditions. Blood samples were collected until 144 h post-dose in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and until 96 h post-dose in subjects with normal hepatic function. In subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from the time of drug administration to infinity (AUC∞) and observed maximum concentration (C max) were 23 % higher [geometric least-squares mean ratio (GMR) 123 %; 90 % CI 86.1-175] and 16 % lower (GMR 83.6 %; 90 % CI 67.5-104), respectively, than in subjects with normal hepatic function. Mean terminal half-life (t ½) appeared to be longer (17.7 vs. 12.8 h) in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, however intersubject variability on apparent total systemic clearance after single oral dosing (CL/F), apparent volume of distribution at equilibrium after oral administration (V z/F) and t ½ was approximately twofold higher. Erythropoietin (EPO) baseline-corrected AUC from administration to the last measurable EPO concentration (AUCE,last) and maximum effect (E max) were 31 % (GMR 68.95 %; 90 % CI 29.29-162.