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Sample records for hierro nodular comercial

  1. Comportamiento del hierro nodular austemperizado en condiciones de corrosión y desgaste // Behavior of austempered ductile iron under wear and corrosion conditions

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    L. Goyos Pérez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Los hierros nodulares en general y los austemperizados en particular han sido usados con cada vez mayor frecuencia debido asus relevantes propiedades mecánicas en comparación con su costo.En el presente trabajo se valora el comportamiento del hierro nodular ante el trabajo en condiciones de desgaste y corrosión,luego de ser sometido a diferentes tratamientos de austemperizado.Fueron usados un hierro nodular aleado con níquel y molibdeno y otro no aleado. Ambos hierros fueron sometidos a diferentestratamientos de austemperización con mantenimientos isotérmicos a temperaturas entre 250°C y 425°C por tiempos entre 15 y180 minutos.Las muestras tratadas fueron sometidas a ensayos de desgaste por fricción en condiciones no lubricadas determinando laspendientes de desgaste uniforme para cada caso. La resistencia a la corrosión fue determinada mediante el métodopotenciométrico usando como medio el jugo de caña sintético.A partir de los resultados obtenidos se valora la influencia de los diferentes tratamientos sobre las propiedades estudiadas y sedeterminan los más efectivos desde el punto de vista técnico económico.Palabras claves: Hierro nodular, corrosión, desgaste, austemperizado.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractNodular irons and particularly austempered ductile iron has been used more and more due to their excellent mechanicalproperties in comparison with their cost.Presently work deals on behavior of nodular iron working under wear and corrosion conditions, after being submitted todifferent austempered treatments.A nodular iron alloyed with nickel and molybdenum were used as well as a not alloyed one. Both irons were treated underdifferent austempered treatment combinations using isothermal maintenance to temperatures between 250°C and 425°C andspending times between 15 and 180 minutes.Samples were submitted to non-lubricated wear using a “pin on disk” method evaluating the

  2. Consideraciones sobre la rotura por fatiga de contacto en el hierro nodular austemplado. // Considerations on the contact fatigue failure in the austempered nodular iron.

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    D. Moreno Mur

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo considera como factor importante la variación de la geometría del nódulo de grafito en el cálculo delnúmero de ciclos necesarios durante la formación de un pitting en una fundición nodular austemplada. En este caso se tomóen cuenta la aparición de una energía de deformación alrededor de este y se consideró el material con propiedadeshomogéneas. Es analizada la influencia de la variación de la carga, los valores de los diámetros de contacto, el tamaño delnódulo de grafito, de la profundidad donde aparece el nódulo en la geometría del nódulo, por ser estos factores importantesen la iniciación y propagación de grietas por fatiga de contacto. Se trabajó con las profundidades donde aparecen lasmáximas tensiones tangenciales, las cuales se obtuvieron de las expresiones de Hertz, con valores de carga dentro del límiteelástico. Luego se modela por elementos finitos el mecanismo de fractura, en el sistema ALGOR 12.06, y se realiza unaregresión múltiple en el sistema STATGRAPHICS, obteniendo modelos con buenos coeficientes de regresión y niveles deconfianza.Palabras claves: Fatiga de contacto, factura, grietas, nódulo grafito, FEM._________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The present paper deal with the failure of contact fatigue in the autempered ductil iron considering the graphite nodulesvariation as an important factor in th calculation of the number of cycles nedded for pitting, starting from theoreticalconsiderations, developing a methodology for the calculation. The influence of load variation is analyzed, the values of thecontact diameters, the size of graphite nodules, the depth where the nodule appears in the geometry of the nodule, areimportant factors in the initiation and propagation of contact fatigue cracks. It is considered the depths in wich the maximstangential tensions appear, which were obtained by Hertz expressions. An analysis by the method of

  3. Producción de hierros nodulares ferríticos directamente de fundición partiendo de chatarra de acero de alto manganeso // Production of ferrítics nodular irons directly from foundry leaving of high manganese scrap steel

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    C. DeFranch

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available La producción de hierros nodulares con matriz ferrítica es lograda normalmente con el uso de arrabios especiales con bajoscontenidos de elementos formadores de carburos, o mediante largos y costosos tratamientos térmicos. Estos arrabios tienenaltos precios, por lo que se hace necesario la búsqueda de variantes más económicas para la producción de este tipo dematerial. El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de dicho material usando como carga chatarra de acero, la cual tiene unprecio mucho mas bajo.La estructura de la matriz en el hierro nodular, depende de su composición química, su velocidad de enfriamiento, así como dela forma y cantidad de nódulos de grafito. Cuando lo que se desean son matrices ferríticas se deben mantener los elementosperlitizantes en contenidos lo más bajo posible para desfavorecer de esta forma la solidificación de acuerdo al diagramametaestable.El uso de chatarra plantea el problema de los niveles de manganeso presentes en la misma (generalmente entre 0.6 y 0.8%. Elmanganeso, que es un elemento perlitizante evita la obtención de altas elongaciones ya que la matriz nunca seríacompletamente ferrítica. Es por esto que si se desea usar chatarra de acero como material de carga sea necesario el estudio deformas de eliminarlo del baño.Para la eliminación del manganeso existen diversas referencias en la literatura a procesos desarrollados a base de cloro,oxígeno, sulfatos, óxido de hierro, y procesos con el uso de hornos al vacío.En este trabajo la eliminación del manganeso mediante el uso de óxido de hierro, Sulfato de sodio, y PVC. ha sido investigada,llegando a soluciones factibles para la producción de este tipo de hierro.El primero de los tres métodos ha demostrado ser el más factible ya que el segundo aumenta el contenido de azufre en el baño,requiriendo una desulfuración previa al tratamiento de esferoidización y el tercero de los métodos desprende una gran cantidadde gases da

  4. Efecto de la adición de una turba comercial en la asimilabilidad de cobre, zinc, hierro, manganeso de un suelo en el que se ha cultivado trigo

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros García, Patricia; Álvarez Álvarez, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, Demetrio; Obrador Pérez, Ana Francisca

    2014-01-01

    Se ha estudiado el efecto de la adición de diferentes cantidades de una turba comercial (con un 80 % de turba rubia y un 20% de turba negra) en la asimilabilidad de los elementos nutritivos en un suelo calcáreo en el que se cultivó trigo. Para ello se determinaron los contenidos en N, P y K, así como las concentraciones totales y potencialmente asimilables para las plantas de los micronutrientes Cu, Zn, Fe y Mn. También se determinó el rendimiento en grano y el índice de cosecha del cultivo d...

  5. Nodular Morphea

    OpenAIRE

    Kauer, Friederike; Simon, Jan C.; Sticherling, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Scleroderma may present as being strictly limited to the skin, as in morphea, or within a multiorgan disease, as in systemic sclerosis. Accordingly, cutaneous manifestations vary clinically. In nodular or keloidal scleroderma, patients develop lesions that are clinically indistinguishable from a keloid; however, the histopathological findings are more variable. We describe a 16-year-old girl with morpheic lesions for 3–4 years and additional development of keloidal nodules within these lesion...

  6. El nombre comercial

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    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La figura del nombre comercial suele ser objeto de poco desarrollo conceptual en los cursos de derecho de propiedad industrial, e incluso en los manuales que sirven de sustento a aquellos, esto por cuanto, entre otras razones, existe la predisposición a abarcar el análisis de los signos distintivos con el estudio –ese sí exhaustivo– de la marca; y además porque el mismo legislador suele reenviar, para efectos de la integración normativa del nombre comercial, a lo por él dispuesto sobre las marcas de comercio. Sin embargo, el nombre comercial ha devenido un signo de primer orden y sus implicaciones son hoy tan trascendentales en el mundo del intercambio de bienes y servicios que no es suficiente para su estudio verlo como un mero apéndice del signo distintivo por excelencia, esto es, la marca. El artículo realiza una exposición de la regulación del nombre, y dentro de ella hace énfasis en sus falencias y en aquellos asuntos que, con contradicciones evidentes, pueden colocar a la institución del nombre comercial en problemas de interpretación o de incerteza frente a la seguridad que reclama un tráfico jurídico cada vez más intenso en el uso y posicionamiento de signos distintivos diferentes a las marcas.

  7. Nodular Neuronal Heterotopia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1999-01-01

    Brain tissue from 4 children with intractable epilepsy and subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different etiologies (megalencephaly, cortical dysplasia, polymicrogyria) was examined at the University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, UK.

  8. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

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    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    Two unrelated boys, ages 8 and 5 years, with a syndrome of bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH), regional cortical dysplasia, mild mental retardation, and frontonasal malformation (FNM) are reported from the Instituto di Neuropsychiatria Infantile, University of Pisa, Italy, and the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

  9. Scleroderma with Nodular Scleroderma

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    Chutika Srisuttiyakorn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nodular scleroderma is a rare variant of scleroderma which can occur in connection with systemic sclerosis or morphea. A biopsy from the lesion can demonstrate the scleroderma pattern, i.e., keloid pattern or mixed type. Treatment is challenging, and several treatments modalities have been reported with unsatisfactory results. Main Observations: We present a case of systemic sclerosis in a 50-year-old female who developed nodular scleroderma in the absence of deterioration of the scleroderma condition. Although no additional treatment was given, the lesions remained stable without progression. Conclusions: Although this condition is rare, it has been reported sporadically, and clinicians should be able to recognize this variant in cases of scleroderma presenting with firm nodules or plaques.

  10. Nodular scleritis following alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of nodular scleritis following alendronate sodium. A 54 year-old male was treated with alendronate sodium 70 mg orally once per week. Eight weeks later, he experienced pain and redness of the right eye. Biomicroscopy was performed. Patient was found to have inferonasal nodular scleritis. Laboratory work-up was unrevealing. Patient was given 4 mg of subtenon's triamcinolone acetate in the area of the nodular scleritis and had complete resolution. Two weeks following rechallenge with alendronate sodium resulted in recurrence of his scleritis. Alendronate led to nodular scleritis and rechallenge caused recurrence of scleritis.

  11. Malignant Nodular Hidradenoma of Face

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    Bansal N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in an old woman, who presented with a nodular swelling in the right side of nose near the medial canthus of the right eye. Wide excision of the nodular mass with a clear margin of healthy surrounding tissue was performed along with primary closure. Post operatively, adjuvant radiation therapy was given on a telecobalt machine due to the presence of high risk features. In general, malignant forms of hidradenomas are not usual and treatment strategies should be individualized.

  12. Ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes de instituciones educativas

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    Mabel Vila

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es un problema de salud pública. La baja ingesta de hierro dietario es una de sus causas. Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Instituciones educativas del distrito de Ancón. Participantes: Trescientos cincuenticinco mujeres adolescentes estudiantes del nivel secundario, elegidas en forma aleatoria. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado, se aplicó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y bebidas semicuantitativo. Principales medidas de resultados: Ingesta dietaria diaria de hierro. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes fue 14 ± 1,69 años. La mediana de ingesta dietaria de hierro fue 10,4 mg/día (cuartil 1= 9 mg/día, cuartil 3 =12,1 mg/día y la mediana de adecuación, 38,4% (cuartil 1 = 33,45%; cuartil 3 = 45,56%. El 86,8% de las adolescentes no cubrieron ni el 50% de sus recomendaciones diarias de hierro. El hierro de alta biodisponibilidad representó la décima parte del total del hierro ingerido. El pan y el arroz fueron los alimentos que más hierro aportaron a la dieta. Conclusiones: El 86,8 % de las adolescentes evaluadas mostró riesgo alto de ingesta inadecuada de hierro. La ingesta de hierro de alta biodisponibilidad fue baja.

  13. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Epilepsy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, MRI, and EEG findings in 54 patients (35 female, 19 male; aged 1 to 64 years with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH were analyzed in relation to epileptic outcome and genesis of epileptic discharges, in a study at the Neurological Institute and Epilepsy Surgery Center, Niguarda General Hospital, Milan, Italy.

  14. Nodular hidradenoma of the caruncle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christakopoulos, Christos; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    . Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining with antibodies against CK-CAM 5.2, BER-EP4, p63, and smooth muscle actin-positive cells in some areas. The tumor was diagnosed as a nodular hidradenoma of the caruncle, which has never been reported before and should be included...

  15. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

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    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  16. Malignant nodular hidradenoma of scalp

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    Tanmoy Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH is a rare tumor of sweat gland known by many names in the literature. Scalp is a known and yet uncommon site of occurrence. We describe two patients with scalp MNH with brain parenchymal invasion. Both tumors recurred in spite of total excision and radiotherapy.

  17. HIERRO ELEMENTAL PARA REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL, COMÚNMENTE ENCONTRADO EN DRENAJE ÁCIDO DE MINAS

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    Maria A. Liendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la remoción del Ni2+ con partículas de hierro comercial, pues este catión se encuentra frecuentemente en los drenajes ácidos de minas (DAM, que es uno de los problemas ambientales más serios en la industria minera que afecta fuentes de aguas naturales. Fueron realizados ensayos en laboratorio con hierro comercial y soluciones sintéticas que contienen Ni2+, para observar tanto la cinética de remoción como los datos de equilibrio. Los resultados, mostraron que estos siguen el modelo de la isoterma de adsorción de Langmuir y que los datos cinéticos se ajustaron con la ecuación del modelo de adsorción de pseudo segundo orden. Se concluye del presente estudio que la remoción de níquel con hierro en estado elemental (HEE es posible y ocurre de manera rápida.

  18. Nodular Corrosion Characteristics of Zirconium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gil; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, D. J

    2003-01-15

    This study was reported the effect of the nodular corrosion on the nuclear reactor environmental along with metallurgical influence, also suggested experimental scheme related to evaluate nodular corrosion characteristics of Zr-1 Nb alloy. Remedial strategies against the nodular corrosion should firstly develop plan to assess the effect of the water quality condition (Oxygen, Hydrogen) as well as the boiling on the nodular corrosion, secondarily establish plan to control heat treatment process to keep a good resistance on nodular corrosion in Zr-1Nb alloy as former western reactor did.

  19. Ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes de instituciones educativas

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Vila; Margot Quintana

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es un problema de salud pública. La baja ingesta de hierro dietario es una de sus causas. Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Instituciones educativas del distrito de Ancón. Participantes: Trescientos cincuenticinco mujeres adolescentes estudiantes del nivel secundario, elegidas en forma aleatoria. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado, se aplicó un...

  20. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. EFECTO DEL CONSUMO DE PREBIOTICOS SOBRE LA BIODISPONIBILIDAD DE HIERRO

    OpenAIRE

    WEINBORN ASTUDILLO, VALERIE

    2009-01-01

    El hierro (Fe) es un elemento esencial para el ser humano, pero en exceso puede ser tóxico. La homeostasis de Fe es regulada por su absorción a través del enterocito. En la dieta el hierro se encuentra de dos formas: el hierro no hemínico (Fe-no hem) y el hierro hemínico (Fe-hem). La forma en que se encuentra el hierro en la dieta determina de cómo será absorbido. La absorción de Fe-no hem es influenciada por componentes intraluminales y dietarios: los taninos, fitatos y calcio disminuyen la ...

  3. Perianal nodular hidradenocarcinoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Montenegro, Ernesto; Sierra Luzuriaga, Gastón; Leone Stay, Gaetano; Salazar Menéndez, Vilma; Quiñonez Auria, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Eccrine glands (sweat glands) appear in all sites of the skin and are more abundant in hands and feet. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NH) is a rare malignant and aggressive tumor of the eccrine glands. The objective of this study is to report a case of perianal hidradenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 75-year-old female with diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Physical examination revealed a small perianal tumor that was palpated near the anal canal. Biopsy was done. Pathology report revealed perianal hidradenoma. Rectosigmoidoscopy was normal. Computed tomography showed 1-cm adenopathies in inguinal and right iliac regions. Extensive resection of the tumor was done. Definitive pathology report was malignant eccrine acrospiroma. The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy in the Oncology Service and died 1 month later. In patients with a first symptom of metastases in the inguinal region, suspicion must be directed to the anal canal.

  4. Efecto del conteo de nódulos en la resistencia al desgaste por abrasión de los hierros dúctiles austemperados

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    C. J. Diez Cicero

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre los materiales metálicos de mayor demanda, la producción de hierro con grafito nodular, ocupa en la actualidad, uno de los lugares más importantes entre los hierros fundidos de alta resistencia, y con la introducción del tratamiento térmico de austemperado, aplicado a estas fundiciones, se da lugar a una nueva familia de materiales, caracterizados por su alta resistencia mecánica y elevada tenacidad, que mantienen la economía y facilidad de producción de las fundiciones nodulares.Este trabajo, hace una valoración del comportamiento de hierros nodulares, con diferentes conteos de nódulos, a los que les fue aplicado el tratamiento de austemperado, y posteriormente se les sometió a ensayos de desgaste abrasivo. Con los resultados obtenidos, se hace un análisis de la influencia del conteo de nódulos en dichas propiedades, así como también, de la interrelación del conteo de nódulos, con las variables de tratamiento térmico utilizadas en las muestras ensayadas.Between the metallic materials of greater demand, the iron production with nódular graphite occupies at the present time, one of the most important places between fused irons of high resistance, and with the introduction of the austemperado heat treatment of, applied to these smeltings, gives rise to a new family of materials, characterized by its high resistance mechanical and elevated tenacity, that the economy and facility of production of the smeltings maintain nodulares. This work, makes a valuation of the iron behavior nodulares, with different counts from nodules, to which the austemperado was applied treatment to them of, and later it was put under to them tests of abrasive wearing down. Of the obtained results, an analysis takes control of the influence of the count of nodules in these properties, as well as, of the interrelation of the count of nodules, with the used variables of heat treatment in the tried samples.

  5. Epilepsy Outcome in Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and course of seizures in 16 patients with periventricular (subependymal nodular heterotopia (PNH were investigated at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  6. Volviendo a pensar la Edad del Hierro

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    Hill, J. D.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues there is an urgent need to critically evaluate the basic assumptions used by Iron Age archaeologists across Europe. It suggests that the existing frameworks of explanation and interpretation are at best inadequate to understand the actual archaeological evidence for the period. At worst they are still unconsciously reproducing nineteenth century nationalist and racist ideologies (e. g. the preoccupations with the «Celts≫ or «Iberians≫, etc.. Drawing on examples from Britain, and the Czech and Slovak republics. We will argue that archaeological evidence Iron the Iron Age does not neatly fit our modernist and Eurocentric assumptions about what the period ought to have been like. It suggests Iron Age archaeology must recognise the difference of the past, that prehistoric societies in Europe may have had very different forms of social organisations, world views and economies than those in later European history. This means critically questioning archaeological evidence and being open to the possibility that existing interpretations are wrong (e. g. stressing the impact of the Mediterranean World Economy, that Oppidas were urban centres, or that settlement and subsistence data can be adequately understood in modern capitalist/functionalist terms, etc.. As such Iron Age studies can on/y be a «Contextual Archaeology≫.

    Este artículo defiende la urgente necesidad de evaluar críticamente las asunciones básicas manejadas por los arqueólogos de la Edad del Hierro en toda Europa. Sugiere que los marcos explicativos e interpretativos existentes son, en el mejor de los casos, inadecuados para comprender la evidencia arqueológica real sobre el período. En el peor, están reproduciendo todavía las ideologías nacionalistas y racistas decimonónicas (p. e. las preocupaciones por los “Celtas”, los “Iberos”, etc.. A partir de ejemplos de Gran Bretaña, y las Repúblicas Checa y Eslovaca, sostenemos que la evidencia

  7. Biomarcadores del metabolismo y nutrición de hierro

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    Carmen Gloria Sermini

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La anemia por deficiencia de hierro continúa siendo la deficiencia nutricional más abundante en el mundo, y son los lactantes, preescolares, mujeres en edad fértil y embarazadas los grupos de mayor susceptibilidad. Debido a esto es que se hace necesario el conocer los mecanismos de regulación de captación, transporte y absorción del metal a nivel celular, principalmente a nivel del enterocito y, una vez que el hierro entra a la circulación, conocer cuáles son los biomarcadores que permiten realizar un seguimiento del estatus del hierro corporal. En esta revisión mostramos, en primer lugar, cómo se regula la entrada de hierro a nivel de la célula del epitelio intestinal, mostrando las principales proteínas involucradas (transportadores de entrada y salida de hierro, oxido-reductasas, proteína de almacenamiento y, para finalizar, hacemos un recuento de los principales biomarcadores del metabolismo de hierro una vez que este ha entrado y circula por el organismo.

  8. Sonographic Features of Nodular Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel Corey; Giampoli, Ellen; Montoya, Simone; Patel, Swapnil; Dogra, Vikram

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis and normal background thyroid parenchyma. Eighty-six patients who had fine-needle aspiration biopsy of 100 thyroid nodules confirmed to be HT and a thyroid ultrasound within 1 year of the biopsy were included in the study. Retrospective analysis of several sonographic features of each nodule was then performed. The mean age of patients with nodular HT was 53 years, 84% of which were female. Nodular HT occurred in a background of diffuse thyroiditis in 85% and in a homogeneous normal background in 15%. Ninety-three percent of nodules were completely solid and 7% of nodules were cystic and solid. Although the sonographic appearance of nodular HT was variable, the most common appearance was a solid (93/100) and hypoechoic nodule (44/100) with a thin hypoechoic halo (42/100) without calcifications (96/100). On color Doppler, 17% of nodules showed peripheral hypervascularity, 14% of nodules were diffusely hypervascular, 34% were iso vascular, 32% were hypovascular, and 3% were avascular. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT was not significantly different in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with those without background thyroiditis. The sonographic appearance of nodular HT is variable, but the most common appearance is a solid sharply circumscribed hypoechoic nodule with thin hypoechoic halo without calcification. There was no significant difference in the appearance of nodular HT in patients with diffuse background thyroiditis compared with patients with normal background thyroid parenchyma.

  9. Fatigue behaviour of synthetic nodular cast irons

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    A. Vaško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the influence of charge composition on microstructure, fatigue properties and failure micromechanisms of nodular cast irons. The additive of metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC in analysed specimens increases the content of ferrite in the matrix, decreases the size of graphite and increases the average count of graphitic nodules per unit of area. Consequently, the mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved. The best fatigue properties (fatigue strength were reached in the melt which was created by 60 % of steel scrap and 40 % of pig iron in the basic charge with SiC additive.

  10. Nodular Scleroderma - Successful Treatment With Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy

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    Wollina U

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular seleroderma is rare variant of circumscribed scleroderma (morphea. Treatment is often unsatisfactory. This report is on the use of extracorporeal photochemotherapy. A 12 year old girl and a 49 year old woman have been treated once a month on two consecutive days. A complete remission was achieved in one patient after 10 months and an almost complete remission in the young girl after 6 months. The treatment was well-tolerated and no severe side â€" effects occurred. In contrast to previous attempts in treating nodular scleroderma with different modalities, ECP seems to be an effective therapy.

  11. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  12. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  13. Current status of studies on nodular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Satoru; Echigoya, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yutaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takao; Yamanaka, Tuneyasu.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on nodular corrosion formed on the outer surface of BWR fuel cladding tubes were reviewed. Main factors affecting the corrosion behavior were material and environmental conditions and combined effect. The effects of such material conditions as fabrication process, alloy elements, texture and surface treatment and environmental factors as neutron irradiation, thermo-hydrodynamic, water chemistry, purity of the coolant and contact with foreign metals on the corrosion phenomena were surveyed. Out-of-reactor corrosion test methods and models for the corrosion mechanism were also reviewed. Suppression of the accumulated annealing temperature during tube reduction process improved the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloys. Improved resistance for the nodular corrosion was reported for the unirradiated Zircaloys with some additives. Detailed irradiation test under the BWR conditions is needed to confirm the trend. Concerning the environmental factors, boiling on the cladding surface due to heat flux reduces the nodular corrosion susceptibility, while oxidizing radical generated from dissolved oxygen accelerates the corrosion. Concerning corrosion mechanisms, importance of such phenomena as the depleted zone of alloying elements in zirconium matrix, reduction of H + to H 2 in oxide layer, electrochemical property of precipitates, crystallographic anisotropy of oxidation rates were revealed. (author) 59 refs

  14. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S.; Chan, A.C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  15. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  16. Radiology of nodular lesions of the lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.; Pugatch, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have arbitrarily classified these nodular lesions as (1) single, (2) coarsely nodular throughout one or both lungs, and (3) finely granular and irregularly or homogeneously distributed throughout both lungs. They have further classified pulmonary and nodular lesions as being most likely single as against those that may be either single or multiple throughout the lung fields

  17. Biomarcadores del metabolismo y nutrición de hierro

    OpenAIRE

    Sermini, Carmen Gloria; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Nutricionista; Acevedo, María José; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Nutricionista; Arredondo, Miguel; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Msc; Phd

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN La anemia por deficiencia de hierro continúa siendo la deficiencia nutricional más abundante en el mundo, y son los lactantes, preescolares, mujeres en edad fértil y embarazadas los grupos de mayor susceptibilidad. Debido a esto es que se hace necesario el conocer los mecanismos de regulación de captación, transporte y absorción del metal a nivel celular, principalmente a nivel del enterocito y, una vez que el hierro entra a la circulación, conocer cuáles son los biomarcadores que per...

  18. Tecnología de desulfuración de fundiciones grises con el fin de obtener hierro con grafito esferoidal // A desulfuration technology for gray iron in order to obtain spheroidal graphite iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batista Cabrera

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se describe una tecnología de desulfuracíon del hierro fundido gris, tomando como base el ya conocidométodo de Volianik (1. En este caso se modificaron algunos parámetros del citado método, adecuándolos a las condicionesexistentes en la Empresa de Fundición de Hierro y Acero de Holguín.( E.F. H. A.Como agente desulfurante se empleó carburo de calcio empleado por Volianik. Como agente activador del desulfurante seutilizó aire comprimido seco. El desulfurante con la granulometría apropiada fue introducido en la cazuela con hierro fundido a1460 oC, por medio de un dispositivo diseñado y construido para este fin.Una gráfica con la dependencia entre el tiempo de soplado y el rendimiento fue obtenida. Como resultado se logró estableceruna tecnología de desulfuración que permite disminuir el contenido de azufre en el hierro fundido desde 0,067 hasta 0,0148%para un rendimiento de 78%.Palabras claves: Hierro gris, desul furación, hierro nodular._____________________________________________________________________AbstractA desulfuration technology for gray cast iron is shown based on the well-known Volianik’s desulfuration method. In this casesome of its parameters were modified, for fitting them to the existent conditions in the Empresa de Hierro Fundido y Acero deHolguín (E.F. H. A..As desulfuration agent calcium carbide was used instead of lime, as it is usually employed by Volianik.Dry compressed air was used as activating agent for the calcium carbide. This one, with the proper grain size it was introducedin a ladle containing 160 RG of melted gray iron at 1460 oC, by means of a mixing device designed and constructed by theauthors.A graphic dependence between air compressed blowing time and desulfuration efficiency was obtained.As a result, a desulfuration technology which permits decrease melted gray iron sulfur contain, from 0,067 till 0,0148 %, wasobtained for a yield of 78 %.Key words: Gray iron, desul

  19. Is endoscopic nodular gastritis associated with premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L

    2015-06-01

    Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.

  20. Causas y consecuencias de la deficiencia de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de hierro es la deficiencia nutricional más prevalente y la principal causa de anemia a escala mundial. Además de las manifestaciones propias de la anemia, se han descrito otras manifestaciones no hematológicas tales como: disminución de la capacidad de trabajo físico y de la actividad motora espontánea, alteraciones de la inmunidad celular y de la capacidad bactericida de los neutrófilos, disminución de la termogénesis, alteraciones funcionales e histológicas del tubo digestivo, falla en la movilización de la vitamina A hepática, mayor riesgo de parto prematuro, bajo peso de nacimiento y de morbilidad perinatal, menor transferencia de hierro al feto, una disminución de la velocidad de crecimiento, alteraciones conductuales y del desarrollo mental y motor, velocidad de conducción más lenta de los sistemas sensoriales auditivo y visual, y reducción del tono vagal. La prevención de la deficiencia de hierro incluye cambios en los hábitos alimentarios, fortificación de los alimentos y la suplementación con hierro.

  1. Study on the reuse of nodular casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermont, V.M; Gomez, C.A; Lamas, J.F; Castillo, R.N

    2004-01-01

    Nodular cast pieces that have worn out are an attractive alternative to be reused as a cheap raw material for directly making other pieces. This materials recycling process often requires new and successive thermal treatments in order to be machined, to obtain the proper mechanical and microstructural properties. This work includes the results of the microstructural analysis by optic and Scanning Electron Microscopy and of the mechanical tests for traction and hardness of the test pieces submitted to different successive thermal treatments. The results show that by means of successive thermal treatments, followed by austemperizing, the appropriate mechanical and microstructural properties can be recovered permitting the nodular castings that were studied to be reliably reused (CW)

  2. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  3. Nodular granulomatous phlebitis: a phlebitic tuberculid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Angela; Siller, Gregory; Williamson, Richard; Faulkner, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with recurrent non-ulcerating skin nodules overlying the great saphenous vein on the anteromedial lower legs. Histology showed a granulomatous phlebitis, and polymerase chain reaction performed on lesional skin detected DNA specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lesions resolved with anti-tuberculous therapy. This case may be a further example of nodular granulomatous phlebitis, a phlebitic tuberculid.

  4. Nodular calcified neurocysticercosis with signs of reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coeli, Gustavo Nunes Medina; Tiengo, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Silva, Guilherme Carlos da; Silva, Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da, E-mail: gustavonmc@yahoo.com.br [Department of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Silva, Afonso Carlos da [Medical Practice, Hospital Escola de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Jose Otavio Meyer [Clinica Sul Mineira Tomosul and Clinica Magsul, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease characterized by the involvement of the central nervous system by the intermediate larval stage of the parasite Taenia solium. The larva degeneration process and the inflammatory reaction of the body cause clinical symptoms. The authors report a case of clinical and radiological reactivation of nodular calcified neurocysticercosis in a patient who was asymptomatic for more than 20 years. Antiparasitic treatment showed a good response (author)

  5. Crystallization of nodular cast iron with carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a crystallization process of nodular cast iron with carbides having a different chemical composition have been presented. It have been found, that an increase of molybdenum above 0,30% causes the ledeburutic carbides crystallization after (γ+ graphite eutectic phase crystallization. When Mo content is lower, these carbides crystallize as a pre-eutectic phase. In this article causes of this effect have been given.

  6. Nodular Fasciitis of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a pseudosarcomatous reactive process composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and it is most common in the upper extremities. Nodular fasciitis of the external auditory canal is rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 cases have been reported to date. We present a case of nodular fasciitis arising in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal. A 19-year-old man complained of an auricular mass with pruritus. Computed tomography showed a 1.7 cm sized soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal, and total excision was performed. Histologic examination revealed spindle or stellate cells proliferation in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Lymphoid cells and erythrocytes were intermixed with tumor cells. The stroma was myxoid to hyalinized with a few microcysts. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, but not for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and cytokeratin. The patient has been doing well during the 1 year follow-up period.

  7. STRUCTURE OF THE NODULAR GOITER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For today the question of early diagnosis of nosological variants, the method of treatment and prevention of nodular goiter in children is still not fully resolved. There is a few available literature data about study of this problem in children. Objective: to study morphofunctional structure of thyroid nodules in children.The article provides information consisting of the results of a retrospective analysis of case histories of 73 patients, operated with nodular goiter in Z.A. Bashlyaeva Children’sCityClinicalHospital(Moscow from 2003 to May 2015. The examination included an evaluation of the functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system: there were investigated serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hor-mone, also was performed thyroid scintigraphy 99mТc. In the postoperative period, there was carried out a final verification of the diagnosis according to the results of the histological conclusion. The histologi-cal type of nodal disease was defined by the WHO classification of 2004. It was established that in the structure of a single-node goiter in children prevail nodular colloid goiter with equal frequency in boys and girls, with the same frequency occurs thyroid adenoma, but more often in girls than in boys. The multinodular goiter equally often detected in girls and boys both nodular goiter colloidal with varying degree of proliferation and colloid in combination with follicular thyroid adenoma. "Hot" nodes in the multinodular goiter are more common than in the single-node goiter and more fre-quently in girls than in boys. The half of children with nodular pathology have "hot" nodes and one out of every three – decompensated form of functional autonomy. Decompensated form of functional autonomy of the thyroid gland in children with "hot" nodes detects regardless of the number of nodes. Papillary thyroid cancer occurs not only in patients with a single-node, but with a multinodular goiter. The results allow to

  8. [Nodular gastritis and gastric cancer in young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.

  9. Oligopolios mixtos, fusiones y liberación comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Méndez Naya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es el de analizar los efectos de la liberación comercial en los incentivos a fusionarse de las empresas en un modelo de oligopolio mixto. En concreto, se prueba que las fusiones, tanto nacionales como internacionales, son compatibles con los procesos de liberación comercial y privatización parcial de las empresas públicas.

  10. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  11. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  12. Complejo administrativo comercial – Lausana, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willomet, R.

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Administrative and commercial complex - Lausanne - Switzerland In an area which is being rebuilt in the centre of Lausanne, a 145,000 m2 administrative and commercial complex has been built. It consists of a low body with 3 levels, arranged as platforms above the street and in the shape of terraces with gardens whereby a 4,000 m2 area reserved for pedestrians has been created. On this lower part, high buildings have been constructed in harmony with each other. The building system consists of an upper structure with big beams and ribs which support the façade panels. The structure rests upon 4 big central columns and two on the side, whereby a diaphanous look has been achieved, further increased by mobile partition walls by which future needs also can be attended to. The light exterior enclosures were thoroughly studied and tested so as to provide total protection against dust and outer noise. Further the construction is equipped with interior heating and cooling installations and insulation from sound. This new urban complex does not attempt to adapt itself to the surrounding environment, but its lines are rather an expression of the architecture of tomorrow.En la ciudad de Lausana se ha construido un complejo administrativo y comercial de 145.000 m2, en una zona urbana del centro sujeta a remodelación. Consta de un cuerpo bajo, con tres niveles, a modo de plataformas sobre la calle, creándose así una zona de 4.000 m2 reservada a los peatones, con lugares para pasear, hacer compras o descansar entre terrazas ajardinadas. Sobre este volumen bajo se elevaron cuerpos en altura, combinados adecuadamente para constituir un conjunto estético y armonioso.

  13. Efectos de la deficiencia de hierro en el funcionamiento intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Pollitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar un análisis comparativo de los resultados de seis investigaciones en las cuales ha participado el autor sobre la relación entre la deficiencia de hierro y el funcionamiento intelectual. Las investigaciones fueron realizadas en Egipto, Estados Unidos, Guatemala, Indonesia y Tailandia entre niños de edad pre-escolar. La deficiencia de hierro con anemia está entre las dos deficiencias nutricionales más prevalentes en el mundo y es de esperar que su prevalencia sea alta en el Perú, particularmente entre los infantes y niños y entre las madres gestantes y lactantes. Una de las causas importantes es el limitado consumo de alimentos ricos en hierro hemínico que generalmente son muy costosos para los grupos más pobres de la sociedad. El análisis comparativo muestra que los resultados son consistentes a través de los seis estudios y que la deficiencia de hierro con anemia afecta el rendimiento en las pruebas de procesos cognoscitivos específicos y en las pruebas de rendimiento escolar. Los resultados también muestran que dichos efectos son reversibles con el tratamiento apropiado. A su vez, el análisis muestra que no hay evidencia suficiente para inferir que la deficiencia de hierro sin anemia afecta el cociente intelectual.   The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the results of six researches in which the author has participated, about the relation between iron deficiency and intellectual performance. The researches were carried out in Egypt, U.S.A., Guatemala, Indonesia and Thailand, with pre-school and school children. Iron deficiency with anemia are among the two nutritional deficiencies of major prevalence in the word and it must be expected that the same goes for Peru. One of the causes of the low consuming of food rich in iron is that these are too expensive for groups of low socioeconomic level. The comparative analysis shows consistent results in the six

  14. Pseudotemporal Epilepsy with Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Ünal

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH that is one of the subgroups of neuronal migration disorders is associated with intractable epilepsy. However the etiopathogenesis of seizures in PNH patients are still unclear. Heterotopias are not involved in the epileptic network, alone. A complex relation between nodules, hippocampus and neocortex has been reported as the cause. Case: A 20 year-old male patient with intractable seizures is presented with ictal and interictal EEG findings compatible with right temporal lobe seizure. Although his first MRI was reported as hyperintensity in right hippocampus, repeated MRI examination according to epilepsy protocol revealed bilateral PNH, with no signal change in hippocampus. Conclusion: The aim of this case report is to discuss the importance of PNH in the differential diagnosis of intractable seizures, and to mention that neurologists and radiologists can easily miss these lesions, if the walls of ventricles are not checked carefully

  15. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

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    S. Pietrowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen.The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  16. Microsegregation in Nodular Cast Iron with Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrowski S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of microsegregation in the newly developed nodular cast iron with carbides are presented. To investigate the pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The distribution of linear elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. To investigate the microsegregation pearlitic and bainitic cast iron with carbides obtained by Inmold method were chosen. The linear distribution of elements on the eutectic cell radius was examined. Testing of the chemical composition of cast iron metal matrix components, including carbides were carried out. The change of graphitizing and anti-graphitizing element concentrations within eutectic cell was determined. It was found, that in cast iron containing Mo carbides crystallizing after austenite + graphite eutectic are Si enriched.

  17. Periorbital nodular fasciitis arising during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon N Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis (NF is a benign proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that rarely occurs in the periorbital region. We report what we believe to be the first case of periorbital NF associated with pregnancy. A case of intravascular fasciitis, a NF variant, has been reported during pregnancy, but it was not located in the periorbital region. A weak presence of estrogen receptors has been reported in NF. This may make it more susceptible to the hormone-related changes during pregnancy and contribute to the development of the lesion by stimulating fibroblasts and smooth muscle cell types. Although rare, NF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periorbital soft-tissue masses arising during pregnancy.

  18. Absorción de hierro en "Maca" lepidum meyenii walp. (Brasicaceae

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    Mery L. Suni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii Walp (Brasicaceae “maca” es una planta andina apreciada por sus hipocótilos de alto valor medicinal y nutritivo, entre estos, su elevado contenido de hierro. Para determinar la posibilidad de incrementarlo se llevó a cabo un experimento en invernadero, en Lima, durante el periodo de mayo a noviembre de 1999, en el cual se proporcionó tres niveles de hierro natural (5, 15 y 25 ppm en soluciones nutritivas. Se utilizaron semillas, entrada ARB5441 (CIP. Se determinó el contenido de hierro a los 50 y 179 días después del tratamiento (ddt por el método de fenantrolina. Se encontró diferencias significativas en el contenido de hierro en hojas e hipocótilo a los 50 ddt, incrementado este en relación a la cantidad de hierro suministrada, mientras que a los 179 ddt esta misma respuesta se observa sólo a nivel de hojas. La concentración de hierro obtenida en el hipocótilo para cada tratamiento no incrementó en el tiempo mientras que en la hoja sí. En general los valores de concentración de hierro obtenidos son mayores a los reportados en la literatura. El peso de la planta tendió a disminuir en relación al nivel de hierro a los 50 ddt, pero a los 179 ddt tendió a incrementar. En función al tiempo, el peso de los hipocótilos en cada tratamiento incrementó notablemente; mientras que las hojas, ligeramente. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten señalar que un nivel de 5 ppm de hierro resulta adecuado y suficiente para obtener concentraciones altas de hierro en los hipocótilos de “maca”.

  19. Nodular Lymphangitis (Sporotrichoid Lymphocutaneous Infections. Clues to Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Tirado-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular lymphangitis, also known as sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infections, is characterized by suppurative inflammatory nodules along the lymphatic vessels. This manifestation is classic of sporotrichosis, however, other infections such as nocardiosis, atypical mycobacteriosis, leishmaniasis, among others, can also express this clinical pattern. Sporotrichosis, which often occurs in gardeners, remains the most recognized cause of nodular lymphangitis. The histopathological studies, as well as the culture are diagnostic standards of lesions that do not respond to empirical treatment. In this article, we will review the main causes of nodular lymphangitis or lymphocutaneous sporotrichoid infections.

  20. Nodular type of muscular sarcoidosis : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hong Soo; Park, Sook Hee; Kim, Sung Me

    1999-01-01

    Muscular involvement of sarcoidosis is rare and occurs in two forms:nodular and myopathic. In the nodular variety, lesions are long and extend along muscle fibers. Axial MR imaging reveals a star-shaped central structure of decreased signal intensity. Sagittal and coronal MR images show three stripes:an inner stripe of decreased signal intensity and outer stripes of increased signal intensity. Longitudinal sonography shows an echogenic inner stripe and hypoechoic outer stripes. We report a case of nodular- type muscular sarcoidosis in a 53-year-old man, describing the findings of MRI and ultrasonography

  1. Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Radiographic Features and Pathologic Correlate

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    L. A. Yeh-Nayre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity is a rare subtype of the most common malignant childhood brain tumor and has been associated with more favorable prognosis. The authors report the case of a 10-month-old girl with a posterior fossa tumor of excessive nodularity with decreased diffusivity on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences and robust grape-like postgadolinium contrast enhancing features. The unique neuroradiographic features were confirmed by histopathology and a diagnosis of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity was made. This case highlights the importance of recognizing this unique medulloblastoma subtype preoperatively, as the more favorable outcome may preclude less aggressive medical management.

  2. Estudio de la reoxidación y carburización de pelets reducidos de mineral de hierro

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    Lemus R., J.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carburization on the reoxidation of commercial iron ore pellets was studied. The pellets were H2-reduced up to 88 % and then carburized in H2/CO/CO2 gas mixture, for 0, 12, 18, 25 and 32 min, at 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C. After the reduction-carburization process, the pellets were reoxidized at 250, 300, 350 and 400°C. It was found out that the higher reduction temperature, the lower was the reoxidation degree. This effect was stronger at the reoxidation temperatures of 250 and 300°C. The presence of iron carbide (Fe3C was more notorious when the reduction was carried out at 700 and 800°C, and the carburization time was increased. Finally, it was observed that the higher the reoxidation temperature, the higher was the reoxidation degree.

    Se estudió la influencia de la carburización en la reoxidación de pelets de mineral de hierro de grado comercial. Los pelets fueron reducidos en hidrógeno hasta un 88 % y carburizados en una mezcla de gas H2-CO-CO2, por 0, 12, 18, 25 y 32 min a 700, 800, 900 y 1000°C. Después del proceso de reducción-carburización, los pelets se reoxidaron a 250, 300, 350 y 400°C. Se encontró que el grado de reoxidación disminuye con el incremento de la temperatura de reducción. Este efecto es más marcado a las temperaturas de reoxidación de 250°C y 300°C. La presencia de carburo de hierro (Fe3C fue más clara al incrementarse el tiempo de carburización cuando la reducción se llevó a cabo a 700 y 800°C. Finalmente, se observó que el grado de reoxidación es mayor a medida que se incrementa la temperatura de reoxidación .

  3. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Ubide, Teresa; Sudo, Masafumi; Martí, Joan; Galindo, Inés; Galé, Carlos; Morales, Jose María; Yepes, Jorge; Lago, Marceliano

    2016-01-01

    New age data have been obtained to time constrain the recent Quaternary volcanism of El Hierro (Canary Islands) and to estimate its recurrence rate. We have carried out 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on samples spanning the entire volcanostratigraphic sequence of the island and 14C geochronology on the most recent eruption on the northeast rift of the island: 2280 ± 30 yr BP. We combine the new absolute data with a revision of published ages onshore, some of which were identified through geomorphological criteria (relative data). We present a revised and updated chronology of volcanism for the last 33 ka that we use to estimate the maximum eruptive recurrence of the island. The number of events per year determined is 9.7 × 10-4 for the emerged part of the island, which means that, as a minimum, one eruption has occurred approximately every 1000 years. This highlights the need of more geochronological data to better constrain the eruptive recurrence of El Hierro.

  4. A Rare Case of Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Imagistic Features

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    Tascu A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of childhood. Neuroimaging can play a role in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma, however atypical features do exist [2]. We report the case of a 1 year and 10- month-old infant diagnosed with a medulloblastoma with what we term “excessive” nodularity based on neuroimaging features and confirmed by neuropathology. CT-scan (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain revealed a very large posterior fossa tumor attached to tentorium. On T2-weighted and post-gadolinium sequences, the tumor shows an extensive nodular grape-like appearance. Initial the patient was underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The second operative procedure was tumour resection. Histology examen revealed a diagnosis of medulloblastoma desmoplastic with extensive nodularity. The neuroradiographic features of this medulloblastoma with what we describe as “excessive” nodularity are important to recognize as these children may be cured with chemotherapy alone.

  5. Ultrasonic inspection of nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersh, S.; Zhang, Yingda

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of experimental results collected from several nodular cast iron (NCI) specimens, Amdata, Inc., has developed a tentative procedure for performing ultrasonic testing (UT) preservice inspection of NCI casks and qualifying personnel and equipment. The authors anticipate that this procedure will be a component in a comprehensive program to certify that casks are free from critical flaws prior to their introduction into service, with testing being performed on a production line basis by UT inspection personnel. The tentative procedure was applied to inspection of NCI block SGR-483-001 manufactured by Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH and Co. of West Germany. This block is 59 by 39.5 by 13.8 inches and weighs 5.2 tons. Several indications were detected with the I/98, in accordance with the tentative procedure, and they were analyzed using two-dimensional synthetic aperture technique (Line-SAFT). When compared with conventional sizing methods that may confound the effects of beam spread with flaw size, Line-SAFT significantly improved sizing accuracy. SAFT is an electronic simulation of a lens and has the property of reducing the effect of beam spread on the resultant indication sizes. Although a higher-precision 3-D SAFT option was also available, it would necessitate data transfer to a separate VAX computer and lengthy calculations. As an alternative, Line-SAFT, a faster but less precise 2-D simplification, was implemented on the I/98 data acquisition system

  6. Postoperative recurrent nontoxic nodular (multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstokorov A.S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of modern methods of examination (ultrasound investigation with Doppler mapping, aspiration (needle biopsy, radiodiagnostics cannot resolve the problem of verification of nodular mass in case of multinodular goiter before operation. Operative intervention is the method of choice in this case, which gives rise to the problem of surgery extent. The present study is useful in improvement of remote results of surgical treatment of multinodular goiter through statistical estimation of recurrent goiter development. The study was retrospective and included 102 consecutively admitted and operated patients with recurrent goiter and 102 patients of control group with first diagnosed and operated goiter. Patients of both groups were in euthyroid state. Patients were admitted to the Clinic of Surgery and Oncology of Raising Skills Faculty of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky from 2000 till 2004. Statistical analyses included calculation of average mean, standard deviation and mean error. Student's ratio was used as the test of validity of average mean. Chi-square test was used for assessment of qualitative characteristics.

  7. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. A...

  8. Los Grammy Latino, su meta inicial y su fin comercial

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    Marinés Arroyo Sotomayor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo refiere lo que es este festival musical que premia el talento latino, quienes participan, su meta inicial y su fin comercial. Muestra que a pesar de la tradición de intolerancia del exilio cubano, la música sirvió, una vez más, como puente de cultura

  9. Pigmented Nodular Basal Cell Carcinomas in Differential Diagnosis with Nodular Melanomas: Confocal Microscopy as a Reliable Tool for In Vivo Histologic Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casari, A.; Pellacani, G.; Seidenari, S.; Pepe, P.; Longo, C.; Cesinaro, A. M.; Beretti, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nodular basal cell carcinoma, especially when pigmented, can be in differential diagnosis with nodular melanomas, clinically and dermoscopically. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a relatively new imaging technique that permits to evaluate in vivo skin tumors with a nearly histological resolution. Here, we present four cases of challenging nodular lesions where confocal microscopy was able to clarify the diagnosis.

  10. Carcinoma thyroid in multi and uni nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, Z.; Rasul, S.; Inamullah, S.; Sagheer, H.; Bokhari, I.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency and profile of carcinoma in multi-nodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit-I, Ward-3 of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 1999 to January 2009. Methodology: Cases with solitary thyroid nodules and multi-nodular goiter were included. Patients under 12 years of age, cystic benign lesion in solitary thyroid nodules or those multi-nodular goiters which were not causing pressure symptoms, cosmetic problems or sign of malignancy were excluded. In solitary thyroid nodule, hemithyroidectomy was done and if histopathology examination revealed carcinoma thyroid then completion thyroidectomy was done. In multi-nodular goiter sub-total thyroidectomy done. Results were described as frequency percentages and mean. Results: Out of 397 patients of multi-nodular goiter only one patient was found to be papillary carcinoma (0.25%). In 220 patients of solitary thyroid nodules, 93 patients were diagnosed as carcinoma of thyroid (42.27%). Others diagnosed in solitary thyroid nodule were thyroid adenoma, colloid goiter, thyroiditis and multi-nodular goiter. The frequency of papillary carcinoma in 65.95% occurring females of 12-30 years of age and being multifocal in 6.45%, follicular carcinoma in 23.40%, medullary carcinoma in 7.44%, anaplastic carcinoma in 2.12% and lymphoma in 1.01%. Female were predominantly involved and papillary carcinoma was common in 12-30 years of age (71.63%) and follicular was common in 30-40 years of age (68.18%). 6.45% of papillary carcinoma was found to be multifocal in nature. Conclusion: Frequency of carcinoma of thyroid is very high in solitary thyroid nodule (42.27%), but markedly low in multi nodular goiter. Papillary carcinoma is the most common variety, most of in younger female. (author)

  11. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  12. Vigilancia comercial de la cadena productiva de la Pitaya Amarilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry A. Mosquera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la interacción de los distintos eslabones y sus respectivos segmentos que conforman el encadenamiento productivo de la pitaya amarilla; el uso de la vigilancia comercial permitió estudiar los aspectos referentes a clientes, proveedores y empresas, los mercados, la evolución de necesidades, los proveedores, entre otros. Por otra parte, se empleó el instrumento conocido como agenda prospectiva, el cual es un proceso de gestión estratégica que permite evidenciar las posibilidades de desarrollo exitoso de los proyectos, realizando para ello actividades organizadas por medio de planes de trabajo que guíen las actividades a desarrollar, dando claridad en relación con los recursos y capacidades disponibles para el cumplimiento de los objetivos propuestos, cuando se planteó la vigilancia comercial de la pitaya amarilla.

  13. VIDA COMERCIAL DE PITAHAYA AMARILLA TRATADA CON 1-MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA SERNA-COCK

    Full Text Available 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP, un inhibidor del etileno, ha sido utilizado para extender la vida comercial de diferentes frutas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de soluciones acuosas de 10, 100 y 200 gL-1 de 1-MCP, con tiempos de exposición de 1, 5 y 10 minutos, sobre la vida comercial de pitahaya amarilla en estado de madurez 4. Durante 15 días de almacenamiento (25 ± 2°C y 75% de humedad relativa, se evaluaron cambios físicos como la pérdida de peso y la aparición de pardeamiento; y se midieron cambios químicos como sólidos solubles, pH, acidez e índice de madurez. Se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos. Los resultados demostraron que aplicaciones de 200 gL-1 de 1-MCP durante 10 minutos prolongó por tres días, la vida comercial de la pitahaya amarilla, y redujo cambios en los sólidos solubles y la acidez

  14. Nodular Fasciitis of the Auricle: A Case Report

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    Mohammad Reza Majidi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nodular fasciitis is described as a benign reactive proliferation of myofibroblasts. Due to its rapid-growing nature, a precise clinical diagnosis is difficult and the condition is frequently misdiagnosed as malignant lesions.   Case Report: In this study, we present the case of a young woman with an auricular nodular fasciitis as an example of one of the rarest sites of this tumor. The patient underwent an excision of the lesion under general anesthesia. The literature choices for treatment include complete excision, partial excision, or intralesional injection of steroids. Due to its associated local discomfort, and in order to exclude other differential diagnosis, we recommend a complete surgical excision.   Conclusion:  Auricular nodular fasciitis is a rare lesion. Due to its associated local discomfort, and in order to exclude other differential diagnosis, we recommend a complete surgical excision.

  15. The micro-mechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vaško

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with a comparison of the micro-mechanisms of failure of nodular cast irons at static, impact and fatigue stress. Several specimens of ferrite-pearlitic nodular cast irons with different content of ferrite in a matrix were used for metallographic analysis, mechanical tests and micro-fractographic analysis. Mechanical properties were found by static tensile test, impact bending test and fatigue tests. The micro-fractographic analysis was made with use of scanning electron microscope VEGA II LMU on fracture surfaces of the specimens fractured by these mechanical and fatigue tests. Fracture surfaces of analysed specimens are characteristic of mixed mode of fracture. Micro-mechanism of failure of nodular cast irons is dependent on the method of stress.

  16. Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast Mimicking Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative lesion that is usually found in the soft tissue of the upper extremity and trunk in young to middle-aged persons. It has rarely been described in the breast. A 35-year-old woman had noticed a mass in her left breast. It was elastic-hard, 13 mm in size, and located mainly in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Mammography did not detect the mass. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion with an irregular margin. Neither fine-needle aspiration cytology nor core needle biopsy established a definitive diagnosis. Excisional biopsy was therefore performed. Histologically, the excised tumor tissue results were consistent with a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis of the breast. We report a case of nodular fasciitis of the breast, a rare histological type of breast tumor.

  17. A Case with Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Diagnosed as Depression

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    Melek Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a form of neuronal migration abnormality. Periventricular nodular heterotopia can easily be recognized by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The most common clinical appearance is epileptic seizures. In some cases, symptoms are accompanied with psychiatric complaints. In this article, we report a 33-year-old female with complaints of left-sided paresthesia induced by emotional stress. She had been followed at an outpatient psychiatry clinic for about 10 years with the diagnosis of somatization disorder. Her electroencephalography recordings -awake as well as during sleep- were found to be normal. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her seizures were controlled with carbamazepine treatment. Partial epileptic seizures might also be observed, even though the cerebral heterotopic lesions are bilateral. When a history is obtained from a patient with somatoform complaints, it should be kept in mind that these symptoms might be seizures, and the patient should be questioned accordingly

  18. A Case with Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia Diagnosed as Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a form of neuronal migration abnormality. Periventricular nodular heterotopia can easily be recognized by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. The most common clinical appearance is epileptic seizures. In some cases, symptoms are accompanied with psychiatric complaints. In this article, we report a 33-year-old female with complaints of left-sided paresthesia induced by emotional stress. She had been followed at an outpatient psychiatry clinic for about 10 years with the diagnosis of somatization disorder. Her electroencephalography recordings -awake as well as during sleep- were found to be normal. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her seizures were controlled with carbamazepine treatment. Partial epileptic seizures might also be observed, even though the cerebral heterotopic lesions are bilateral. When a history is obtained from a patient with somatoform complaints, it should be kept in mind that these symptoms might be seizures, and the patient should be questioned accordingly.

  19. Giant hidradenocarcinoma: a report of malignant transformation from nodular hidradenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S C; Lee, M J; Lee, M S; Kee, K H; Suh, C H

    1998-10-01

    A giant hidradenocarcinoma presented by a 75-year-old female is reported. The patient had a malignant transformation within a nodular hidradenoma involving the right postauricular area, which was treated by mass removal and a right radical neck dissection with a free-flap covering. Malignant hidradenocarcinoma is the least common adnexal tumor of uncertain origin. They are usually malignant from their inception, but some develop from a benign counterpart. To the authors' knowledge, only three cases have been reported previously. Two histologically distinct components were seen in this tumor: (i) typical nodular hidradenoma, which constituted a small part of the tumor; and (ii) carcinoma with areas of transition. The secretory cells of hidradenocarcinoma showed decapitation secretion on light and electron microscopic observations, which is evidence of apocrine differentiation. Histologically, this case was concluded as a hidradenocarcinoma arising from a long-standing nodular hidradenoma. A literature review is presented and the histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features are described.

  20. Clinical surgical and pathological characterization of nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Mendoza, Dayanis Ceila; Rodriguez Valdes, Adriana; Bejerano Garcia, Ramiro Julio

    2012-01-01

    Nodular thyroid disease is a worrisome endocrine problem due to its association with cancer. To characterize patients hospitalized with this condition according to clinical surgical and pathological aspects, as well as to determine the effectiveness of the cytology by fine-needle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis

  1. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series | Kot | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 cases of radiologically ...

  2. Nodular Lymphangitis in HIV-Infected Patients in Tanzania | Mapesi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early diagnosis, biopsy or culture of skin lesions and treatment are essential for improving outcomes. However, this is challenging in resource-limited settings. We present two HIV-infected patients with nodular lymphangitis treated with ketoconazole in the absence of itraconazole or amphotericin B with good initial response ...

  3. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  4. Report of a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, Claudio; Araujo, Ivan; Flores, Marlon; Guerrero, Patricia; Sanchez, Mayra

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease that presents moderate anemia and lymph node enlargement with a massive infiltrate to the bone marrow. It is rare for these patients to develop such an infiltrate, which give a bad prognosis. The treatment recommended in stage I is Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (The author)

  5. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  6. Thyroid cancers in nodular goitres in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is an occasional incidental finding in nodular goitres, but there has been no formal study on this disease in our centre which is located in an endemic goitrous region. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malignant growths in multinodular goitres. METHODOLOGY: ...

  7. Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity: US, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, M.; Uliasz, M.; Roszkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for up to 25% of all paediatric CNS tumours. According to WHO classification (2007) medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) is a separate rare entity associated with younger age and better prognosis. A 9-month-old girl was admitted and examined because of macrocephaly and disturbed psychomotor development. Transfontanel ultrasound revealed dilated ventricular system and hyperechoic mass in the posterior cranial fossa. Computed tomography showed hyperdense mass in the cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass with gyriform pattern and strong contrast enhancement after gadolinium administration. Differential diagnosis included dysplastic heterotopic cortex, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT), and medulloblastoma (MB). The patient was operated on. Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) was finally diagnosed. The authors present and discuss three other cases of this rare entity.Transfontanel sonografic examination is capable of detection of the posterior fossa tumour as a cause of hydrocephalus and macrocephaly. The mass in a child's posterior cranial fossa that is hyperdense on unenhanced CT and gyriform, nodular, and markedly enhancing on MRI may strongly suggest medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN). (authors)

  8. Nodular Purpura and Intracranial Bleeding due to Late Onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed nodular purpuric spots for about three days prior to the intracranial bleeding. She was unconscious and responding only to pain, and was severely pale. She was transfused with two units of whole blood and underwent a craniotomy for draining the hemorrhage. She was treated with Vitamin K supplements.

  9. Microstructural aspects of zircaloy nodular corrosion in steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    Zircaloy-2 becomes susceptible to nodular corrosion in high-temperature, high-pressure steam when the total solute concentration of the β-stabilizing alloying elements Fe, Ni and Cr in the α-zirconium matrix falls below a critical value C c that is characteristic of the test conditions. C c for typical commercial Zircaloy-2 in a 24hr/510 C/10.4MPa steam-test is the precipitate-free a-matrix concentration in equilibrium with solute-saturated β phase at about 840 C, the corresponding critical temperature T c .Thus, immunity to nodular corrosion is a metastable condition for α-Zircaloy that requires fast cooling from above T c to achieve adequate solute concentration throughout the matrix. Annealing Zircaloy at any temperature below T c for a sufficiently long time makes it susceptible to nodular corrosion. In the (α+χ) phase field, where χ collectively designates the Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-containing precipitate phases, lowering the solute concentration to less than C c by Ostwald ripening can require many hundreds of hours. Above about 825 C, the temperature of the (α+χ)/(α+β+χ) transus, solute-saturated β phase surrounds each precipitate and a strong inverse activity gradient promotes equilibration with the much lower solute concentration in the α matrix. Sensitization to nodular corrosion occurs most rapidly at about 835 C between the (α+χ)/(α+β+χ) transus and T c . Annealing Zircaloy at temperatures above T c for a sufficiently long time will raise the solute concentration above C c and, with rapid cooling, heal any degree of susceptibility. Annealing within the protective coarsening window between T c and about 850 C, the temperature of the (α+β+χ)/(α+β) transus, achieves rapid precipitate growth in a matrix immune to nodular corrosion

  10. La funcionalidad de los óxidos de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño, J. G.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Some iron oxides have a great scientific and technological possibilities, not only for their importance in the present, but also for their great potential in the development of the future technologies. They have adequate properties to carry out several functions. They are plentiful in the nature and their synthetic obtention is not complex. This paper shows five of them (hematite, magnetite, maghemite, goethite and akaganeite and their utilization in fields like chemical industry, biotechnology, medicine, new materials and electromagnetism.

    Algunos óxidos de hierro tienen aplicaciones interesantes para las tecnologías actuales y futuras. Aparte de poseer propiedades adecuadas para cumplir diversas funciones, son relativamente abundantes en la naturaleza o su obtención en forma sintética no es complicada. En este artículo se presentan cinco de ellos (hematita, magnetita, maghemita, goethita y akaganeíta y su utilización en campos como la industria química, la biotecnología, la medicina, los nuevos materiales y el electromagnetismo.

  11. Graciela Hierro: Philosophy of Education in Gender Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Aimé Tapia González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of feminist theory and gender studies in Mexico cannot be understood without the work of Graciela Hierro. The aim of this article is to show the lasting value of her ethical proposal for a feminist education, as well as recognizing her contributions. I will deal with this in three sections: in the first one I will present her feminist ethics as a foundation of an education for women; in the second I will carry out a brief historical review of the philosophy of education from the viewpoint of Mexican female philosophers, and in the third, I will show the practical implications of the ethics of pleasure in women formation, from childhood to old age. My principal thesis is that Hierro’s ethics constitute the fundamentals for a philosophy of education that originates from feminist geneaology to Mexican culture through the visibilization of the legacy of local thinkers, that, from different standpoints, have reflected upon the “female question”.

  12. Vigilancia comercial de la cadena productiva de la Pitaya Amarilla

    OpenAIRE

    Henry A. Mosquera; Benjamín Betancourt; Julio César Castellanos; Luis Enrique Perdomo

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la interacción de los distintos eslabones y sus respectivos segmentos que conforman el encadenamiento productivo de la pitaya amarilla; el uso de la vigilancia comercial permitió estudiar los aspectos referentes a clientes, proveedores y empresas, los mercados, la evolución de necesidades, los proveedores, entre otros. Por otra parte, se empleó el instrumento conocido como agenda prospectiva, el cual es un proceso de gestión estratégica que permite evid...

  13. GESTIÓN COMERCIAL EN EMPRESAS FAMILIARES DE GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR.

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Ramirez, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Las empresas familiares constituyen aproximadamente el 80% del total de empresas activas a nivel mundial. En Latinoamérica, alcanzan alrededor del 75%, por lo que el estudio sobre este tema se torna imprescindible desde hace ya varios años; las investigaciones que se han hecho, han tomado relevancia en las últimas dos décadas. A partir de este panorama y teniendo en cuenta que la gestión comercial es uno de los pilares fundamentales para el crecimiento y continuidad de cualquier e...

  14. Hume, Smith e as etapas da sociedade comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Arthmar

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo trata das concepções de David Hume e de Adam Smith sobre o ressurgimento da sociedade comercial na Europa após o feudalismo. Parte-se de breve exposição dos princípios filosóficos de Hume a fim de se apresentar suas teses referentes ao assunto na obra History of England. Mostra-se como ele associa o movimento parlamentar pela liberdade na Inglaterra com o progresso do comércio ocasionado pelo consumo de luxo da nobreza. Posteriormente, revisa-se a posição de Smith sobre os obstáculos à riqueza, bem como sua explicação para a decadência das civilizações grega e romana. Evidencia-se ainda como a interpretação smithiana do advento da sociedade comercial moderna apoia-se na versão antecipada por Hume. Por fim, destacam-se as implicações do conflito central entre predação e produção presente nas teorias do desenvolvimento de longo prazo da humanidade elaboradas por ambos os autores.

  15. La arquitectura del hierro en España durante el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Navascués Palacio, Pedro; Calvo Serraller, Francisco

    1980-01-01

    Cuando el arquitecto neoclásico Silvestre Pérez, formado en la Academia de Bellas Artes y pensionado en Roma, recibe el encargo del ayuntamiento de Sevilla (1824) para hacer un proyecto de un puente sobre el Guadalquivir, éste se ve postergado al optarse por otro en hierro según se había experimentado ya en Inglaterra y Francia. Este hecho pone de relieve la forma violenta con que el hierro irrumpe en nuestra historia de la construcción, como fenómeno mimético, al margen de la lenta maduració...

  16. COMPUESTOS DE HIERRO PARA SUPLEMENTACIÓN ORAL: PRINCIPIOS Y AVANCES -REVISIÓN SISTEMATICA

    OpenAIRE

    PEREZ M, Lina J.; TOBÓN, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión que abarca los principales aspectos sobre la absorción oral del hierro (fuentes y captación) y sus funciones en el organismo, centrándose en la tendencia actual de utilizar complejos o quelatos de este metal con ligandos orgánicos para el tratamiento oral por deficiencia del mismo (monosacáridos, aminoácidos y ácidos carboxílicos de bajo peso molecular), ya que estos compuestos aumentan la biodisponibilidad del hierro y disminuyen los efectos adversos que presentan su...

  17. Can el Hierro be 100% electric-renewable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    This summer, the media have abundantly reported that the el-Hierro island in the Canaries could now count on a 100 % renewable electric mix. As a matter of fact, these reports were based on only two hours during which the Gorona del Viento (GdV) installation managed to reach the objectives announced in the project document. Full of enthusiasm, Segolene Royal, the French minister of environment and energy, rewarded the project on behalf of the 'Syndicat des energies Renouvelables' What is the situation today for this installation inaugurated in June 2014? a considerable investment, leading to a complex system with more than 34 MW of installed production power (diesel, wind and hydraulic turbines, each for about one third) when the peak electric demand is only 7.6 MW that is a factor four less. The reality of the performances after six months of effective exploitation: the renewable fraction for the three most favourable months, July to September, has been 42 %. For the half year, the figure is even more disappointing with only 30 % renewables. The reasons behind these very modest performances with respect to the announced goal, which, moreover for the year 2015, lead to a considerable cost of the renewable MWh which is going to cost four times more than the MWh produced by the diesel plant and a cost of the avoided CO 2 exceeding 1000 Euro/ton? As shown in this document, they are first the limited wind resource, which according to data could not have allowed a renewable fraction larger than 50 % and second, the nature of the contract signed by the Spanish state which does not encourage GdV to strive for the optimal environmental performances. To summarize: unrealistic objectives, deplorable governance and a technical semi-failure very costly for the Spanish citizen. (author)

  18. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, M.A. [Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Human Biochemistry, Uninversity of Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schnitman, M. [Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, French Hospital C.Milstein, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    In the present paper we present the consequences of an accidental occupational radiation exposure at a local hospital in Buenos Aires. Control at a local radiology service showed the lack of correct shielding in the X-ray equipment. The physicians and technicians (14 persons) exposed to radiation during 12 months were examined. The survey shows that: a) In 11 out of 14 radiation-exposed patients nodular goiter developed and an additional patient had diffuse goiter which means a goiter incidence of 85.7%; b) In 5 of the nodular goiter patients an increase in the size or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up period. No cancer was detected by FNA; c) Hypothyroidism was observed in 3/14 patients, and an additional patient had an abnormal TRH-TSH test, suggesting subclinical hypothyroidism; and d) Increased circulating antithyroid antibodies were found in one of the hypothyroid patients

  19. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia – neonatal cranial ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Horn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A female neonate was delivered at 30 weeks’ gestation to a mother with suspected bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH on computed tomography brain scan. Antenatal ultrasound (US performed at 28 weeks’ gestation showed mild lateral cerebral ventricle dilatation, but no other fetal anomalies. Clinical examination revealed mild dysmorphic features: facial and skull asymmetry, square-shaped ears, and long tapering fingers. Chromosomal analysis showed a 46XX karyotype.

  20. Localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hoon Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of localized nodular synovitis of the infrapatellar fat pad impinging on the patellofemoral joint causing limitation of extension. Arthroscopy involved use of a superolateral portal because location of lesion hindered access via a conventional anterior portal. The infrapatellar mass impinged in the patellofemoral joint upon knee extension and retracted upon flexion. Superior-superior triangulation allowed for complete excision of the mass.

  1. {sup 131}I treatment of nodular non-toxic goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, B.; Faber, J.; Hegdeues, L.; Hansen, J.M. [Herlev Hospital (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The traditional treatment of a growing nodular non-toxic goitre has for many years been surgical resection or levothyroxine suppressive treatment. During recent years, several studies have reported promising results of {sup 131}I treatment in terms of thyroid size reduction. This review outlines the different treatment modalities on non-toxic nodular goitre with special emphasis on {sup 131}I treatment. By the term nodular goitre the authors include glands with solitary or multiple thyroid nodules with uptake on a scintiscan. At what point of the natural history of non-toxic multinodular goitre {sup 131}I therapy should be used is not clear. In principle, the best result is obtained in smaller goitres and it is possible that the best effect of {sup 131}I is seen if treatment is given to patients with diffuse goitre before these become nodular. However, then there is a potential risk to swing in the direction to where {sup 131}I is used in an indiscriminate way, since the prevalence of non-toxic multinodular goitre is much higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Although we have data on the long-term hazards of {sup 131}I treatment in hyperthyroidism in terms of risk of cancer, we have only follow-up periods of 5 to 10 years for non-toxic goitres in small groups of patients and no data regarding the long-term risk of high-dose {sup 131}I treatment (>600 MBq) for this condition. Ideally, long term randomized studies comparing the effect, side effect and cost-benefit of surgery as opposed to {sup 131}I treatment should be performed. Awaiting this, it is at present mandatory that each individual patient be given a choice of treatment after proper information. 44 refs.

  2. Nodular hidradenoma and hidradenocarcinoma. A 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, E; Cestoni-Parducci, R

    1985-01-01

    We studied eighty-nine nodular hidradenomas (NHs) and six clear cell hidradenocarcinomas (CCHs) reported in a 10-year period. NHs were more commonly seen in women (ratio of 1.7 to 1); the average age was 37.2 years, and they were located mainly on the head. One CCH had widely disseminated metastasis that led to death. Other CCHs underwent spontaneous regression.

  3. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia, Surgical Goal in Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velandia-Hurtado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neuronal heterotopia is a migration disorder in which these cells do not complete their movement toward the cerebral cortex. Periventricular nodular heterotopia is the most frequently reported form, characterized by neuronal conglomerates adjacent to the lateral ventricles walls. About 90 % of patients with this condition suffer epilepsy at some point in their lives and the major proportion of them will be resistant to pharmacologic treatment. This makes an appropriate diagnostic approach necessary in order to determine which patients would benefit from surgical resection of the lesion, which in most cases offers a high rate of crisis control. Development: This article presents a review of the most important topics approached from the practice of periventricular nodular heterotopia pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis and therapy. It is aimed at exploring the role of this condition as a cause of intractable epilepsy. Conclusion: Pharmacologic treatment for resistant epilepsy will have a severe impact on patient’s quality of life. Periventricular nodular heterotopia is frequently associated to this condition, which must be successfully approached by the medical team attempting to an opportune diagnosis and defining which patients would benefit from surgical management. This positively impacts the quality of life of these patients and their caregivers.

  4. Nodular Hepatic Tuberculosis Masquerading as a Seminoma Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Houssem; Chaabouni, Amine; Kallel, Rim; Toumi, Nozha; Fendri, Sami; Krichene, Jihene; Boujelbene, Salah; Mzali, Rafik

    2018-04-01

    Isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is a very rare condition. It may mimic primitive or secondary tumors of the liver. This could delay or mislead the therapeutic management. An immunocompetent 48-year-old man with a history of non-metastatic seminoma was treated with right orchidectomy followed by 20 Gy radiotherapy. The discovery, 8 months later, of a 2 cm nodule of the hepatic dome evoked a liver metastasis. Percutaneous biopsy was not feasible. Wedge resection was performed whereas medical treatment would have sufficed, as pathologic examination of the resected specimen showed a macro-nodular hepatic tuberculosis. The patient received anti-tuberculosis drugs for 9 months. The diagnosis of isolated macro-nodular liver tuberculosis is frequently misleading, particularly in immunocompetent and paucisymptomatic patients. Thus percutaneous biopsy is mandatory for diagnosis and also prior to any major surgeries. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  5. Esclavitud y ética comercial en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Alejandro Tellkamp

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En varios tratados españoles del siglo XVI, la esclavitud como fenómeno social y comercial adquirió una importancia teórica cada vez mayor con respecto al estatus legal y moral de los seres humanos. El presente trabajo trata de esbozar algunos de los argumentos con respecto al comercio de esclavos y sus implicaciones morales y legales de acuerdo los autores Tomás de Mercado (1530-1576 y Bartolomé Frías de Albornoz (s. XVI, mostrando cómo la discusión se encaminó hacia la expresión de derechos individuales, sin, no obstante, superar el tradicional apego al concepto de esclavitud legal.

  6. Tres nuevos poblados de la Edad del Hierro en la Protohistoria de Gipuzkoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Olaetxea

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el descubrimiento de tres nuevos poblados de la Edad del Hierro para la provincia de Gipuzkoa. Su importancia estriba en que hasta el presente sólamente se conocía uno, el de Intxur   (Tolosa - Albiztur, y en que han sido descubiertos dentro de un plan sistemático de prospecciones.

  7. Estudio de la adición de estabilizantes y vitamina B12 al complejo inyectable de hierro dextrana

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Michelena; Antonio Bell; Graciela Cerutti; Emilia Carrera; Mónica Coronel; Gracia Rivas Monte

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó el estudio de adición de estabilizantes al complejo hierro dextrana mediante un diseño experimental 33 tipo mezcla con el objetivo de aumentar la fijación del hierro en el proceso de síntesis y disminuir su viscosidad, lo que incide favorablemente en la tecnología al obtener un producto de mayor filtrabilidad y con alto contenido de hierro. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron con la variante de adición en iguales relaciones de ácido cítrico y sorbitol y tres veces la cantidad en d...

  8. Aumento de los depósitos de hierro y su relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Meroño; Patricia Sorroche; Fernando D. Brites

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años, se ha avanzado considerablemente en el control de varios de los denominados factores de riesgo aterogénico tradicionales, a pesar de lo cual la incidencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) continúa siendo elevada. Entre las diversas condiciones asociadas a ECV, podría ubicarse también a la sobrecarga de hierro. Su estudio ha cobrado relevancia desde que se planteó la "hipótesis del hierro", la cual postula que bajos niveles de hierro ejercerían un efecto protector del...

  9. Full-Vector Geomagnetic Field Records for the Late Quaternary from El Hierro and the Eifel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monster, M.; de Groot, L. V.; Dekkers, M. J.; van Galen, J. P.; Kuiper, K.; Langemeijer, J.; Wiarda, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight flows in the age range of c. 100 to c. 500 ka were sampled on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) and twelve in the Eifel (Germany). All sites from the Eifel had been previously dated, whereas the ages of the El Hierro flows were approximated by stratigraphic and directional coherency with a dated section c. 4 km to the north-east. Additionally, seven flows were dated using the ThermoFisher Helix multi-collector mass spectrometer at VU University Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The rocks were subjected to standard rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic experiments. Palaeodirections were obtained using both thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation techniques. Apart from two sites that appear to have been struck by lightning, all sites yielded reliable palaeodirections. Absolute palaeointensities were obtained using three different methods: IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen protocol and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier technique. Nineteen sites from El Hierro and all twelve sites from the Eifel passed the selection criteria for one or more of these methods, with the pseudo-Thellier technique having the highest success rate (c. 35% for El Hierro and 55% for the Eifel). The palaeointensities obtained for El Hierro were mostly between 20 and 40 μT and for the Eifel between 20 and 50 μT, both with a tendency to be somewhat low compared to the present-day field of c. 39 μT and c. 49 μT, respectively. The pseudo-Thellier and multispecimen methods generally yielded lower palaeointensities than IZZI-Thellier, but no clear trend was visible.

  10. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  11. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmsted, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekita, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  12. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekitka, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Buck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  13. The role of radioiodine therapy in benign nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Fast, Søren; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    For treatment of benign nodular goitre the choice usually stands between surgery and (131)I therapy. (131)I therapy, used for 30 years for this condition, leads to a goitre volume reduction of 35-50% within 1-2 years. However, this treatment has limited efficacy if the thyroid (131)I uptake is low...... for additional therapy due to insufficient goitre reduction, but the price is a higher rate of hypothyroidism. Another approach with rhTSH-stimulation is to reduce the administered (131)I activity by a factor that equals the increase in the thyroid (131)I uptake. Using this approach, radiation exposure...

  14. Cavitation Erosion of Nodular Cast Iron − Microstructural Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with susceptibility of nodular cast iron with ferritic-pearlitic matrix on cavitation erosion. Cavitation tests were carried out with the use of a cavitation erosion vibratory apparatus employing a vibration exciter operated at frequency of 20 kHz. The study allowed to determine the sequence of subsequent stages in which microstructure of cast iron in superficial regions is subject to degradation. The first features to be damaged are graphite precipitates. The ferritic matrix of the alloy turned out to be definitely less resistant to cavitation erosion compared to the pearlitic matrix component.

  15. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  16. Movement disorder and epilepsy in subependymal nodular heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Lohmror

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment. We report a case of drug-resistant epilepsy with normal intelligence, having bilateral subependymal heterotopic nodules in the brain, presenting to us with a movement disorder in the form of myoclonus of bilateral lower limbs which is an unusual manifestation of gray matter heterotopias. Although rare, gray matter heterotopias may present as movement disorder and should be considered in differential diagnosis while workup of movement disorders.

  17. Familial bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia mimics tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, P E; Clarke, M A; Super, M

    1996-01-01

    A mother and daughter with an initial diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis are described. The daughter presented with partial seizures at the age of 8 months. Computed tomography showed uncalcified periventricular nodules which on magnetic resonance imaging were ovoid, almost contiguous, of grey matter density, and did not enhance with gadolinium. Brain imaging of her asymptomatic mother was similar. Absence of severe mental retardation, extracranial hamartomas, and depigmented patches distinguishes familial bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (FNH) from tuberous sclerosis. FNH is probably inherited as an X linked dominant with lethality in males. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8787433

  18. Carbides in Nodular Cast Iron with Cr and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In these paper results of elements microsegregation in carbidic nodular cast iron have been presented. A cooling rate in the centre of the cross-section and on the surface of casting and change of moulding sand temperature during casting crystallization and its self-cooling have been investigated. TDA curves have been registered. The linear distribution of elements concentration in an eutectic grain, primary and secondary carbides have been made. It was found, that there are two kinds of carbides: Cr and Mo enriched. A probable composition of primary and secondary carbides have been presented.

  19. A Case Report: Krukenberg Tumour with Nodular Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Demir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krukenberg tumor is a rare variety of metastatic cancer to the ovary. The stomach is the most common site for the primary tumor, followed by the breast, gall bladder, colon and pancreas. It is not always possible to distinguish ovarian metastasis from primary ovarian masses in patients in whom the malignancy center is unidentified. This case report firstly aims to present a patient who presented with common nodular skin lesions, migrating arthritis and severe clinical characteristics, and diagnosed with Krukenberg tumor with further examinations.

  20. Aumento de los depósitos de hierro y su relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Meroño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha avanzado considerablemente en el control de varios de los denominados factores de riesgo aterogénico tradicionales, a pesar de lo cual la incidencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV continúa siendo elevada. Entre las diversas condiciones asociadas a ECV, podría ubicarse también a la sobrecarga de hierro. Su estudio ha cobrado relevancia desde que se planteó la "hipótesis del hierro", la cual postula que bajos niveles de hierro ejercerían un efecto protector del sistema cardiovascular. No obstante, hasta el presente, los resultados de los estudios diseñados para probar esta hipótesis han sido controversiales. Por otro lado, se lograron numerosos avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo del hierro a partir del descubrimiento de la hormona reguladora hepcidina. Los estudios sobre las funciones fisiológicas de esta hormona permitieron elaborar nuevas hipótesis que explican los resultados de los estudios clínicos anteriormente concebidos como contradictorios. El objetivo de la presente actualización es exponer, a la luz de los últimos avances sobre la regulación del metabolismo del hierro y su vinculación con la inflamación, el estado actual del conocimiento sobre el posible rol del exceso de hierro como factor de riesgo de ECV.

  1. Responsabilidad Social Empresarial. Caso Centro Comercial Lago Mall

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    Carlos E. Torres Geisse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es el análisis de la responsabilidad empresarial para el centro comercial Lago Mall. El tipo de investigación fue un proyecto factible, descriptivo y de campo, con un diseño de tipo no experimental y transeccional. Se consideró como población al gerente de mercadeo del C.C Lago Mall, a quince (15 miembros de la comunidad interna, y a noventa (90 miembros de la comunidad externa del mismo. Las técnicas de recolección de datos aplicadas fueron: la encuesta y la entrevista. Los instrumentos fueron validados por cinco (5 expertos en gerencia social, obteniendo una confiabilidad de 0,99. Los resultados indican que en ambas dimensiones de la RSE los elementos que la integran no constituían un marco ideal para considerar a la empresa C.C. Lago Mall como socialmente responsable. Se concluye que el mismo carece de programas formales de responsabilidad social empresarial; sin embargo demuestra un compromiso con los principios de la empresa y con los valores de los empleados, donde se destacan la dignidad, identidad e integridad por los grupos de interés que se han denominado internos y externos.

  2. Eficacia del hierro aminoquelado en comparación con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro, Medellín, 2011

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    Maylen Liseth Rojas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La disminución de los depósitos de hierro constituye el primer eslabón de la cadena conducente a la deficiencia de hierro, la carencia nutricional más prevalente y principal causa de anemia en todo el mundo, situación que puede prevenirse mediante la fortificación de alimentos. Objetivo. Comparar la eficacia del hierro aminoquelado con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo clínico triple ciego con distribución aleatoria de grupos. Se analizaron 56 preescolares con deficiencia de hierro (ferritina menor de 24 ng/ml a los que se les dio diariamente 13 g de leche con 12,5 mg de hierro. Después de dos meses se midieron los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica. Resultados. En el grupo con sulfato ferroso la concentración de ferritina sérica aumentó de 18,8 a 24,1ng/ml, mientras que dicha variación fue de 18,4 a 29,7 ng/ml con el hierro aminoquelado, en ambos casos con diferencias significativas. El nivel de ferritina final difirió según el grupo de estudio, siendo mayor en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado (p=0,022. La hemoglobina y el hematocrito no variaron después de la intervención. Las reacciones adversas en el grupo con sulfato ferroso fueron de 35,7 %, en contraste con el 42,9 % en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado; cinco niños presentaron infección delas vías respiratorias, sin diferencias estadísticas. Conclusiones. Los dos compuestos aumentan los niveles de ferritina, siendo mayor el aumento entre quienes toman leche con hierro aminoquelado. No fue diferente la incidencia de reacciones adversas o de infecciones entre los grupos. Identificador en Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01412723 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i3.775

  3. Thyroid nodular disease: their usefulness of diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ayala, Irene Maria; Sanchez Luthard, Maria de los Angeles; Martins Schmitz; Gomez, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid nodular disease is defined by the presence of nodules of thyroid of solid, liquid or mixed consistency, they are or non concrete. Solitary nodule thyroid, diffuse and multinodular goiter forms can be presented in. The thyroid nodule is a frequent clinical problem, the clinical prevalence in adult population is of 4%. Objective: to make a bibliographical revision to near the utility of the different methods available for the thyroid nodular pathology diagnosis and determining which of them turns out more specific to differentiate benignancy from malignancy in the found nodules. Materials and Methods: the bibliographical search was made in the data base Medline (Pubmed), in scientific magazines of the region and text books. Criteria of inclusion: bibliographical references pertaining to medical magazines and free full text with an antiquity nongreater to 8 years were included. Conclusion: the presence of thyroid nodules constitutes a reason for frequent consultation, the main diagnostic method at the moment is the fine needle aspiration cytology, due to its simple accomplishment, low cost, not requiring the hospitalization of the patient, and being fundamental in the decision making of the doctor. This diagnostic method is, in addition, the one that with greater certainty allows to differentiate benign from malignant nodules. (authors) [es

  4. Role of ultrasound in the assessment of nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, S.; Bolland, M. J.; Croxson, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The role for ultrasound (US) in the assessment of nodular thyroid disease has increased in recent years. This expanded role has been highlighted in recent consensus guidelines on the management of nodular thyroid disease. In this review, we address the potential roles for US in assessing thyroid nodules and review these recent guidelines. In particular, we review the evidence that US characteristics of thyroid nodules can predict the risk of malignancy. A predominantly solid nodule, hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, macrocalcification, ill-defined margins, intranodular vascularity, and taller-than-wide shape have all been associated with increased risk of malignancy, but no single US characteristic is sufficiently sensitive or specific to exclude or diagnose malignancy by itself. However, the use of combinations of US characteristics to stratify nodules into high and low risk for malignancy appears a promising strategy. Unselected nodules without any suspicious US features have a low risk of malignancy (<2%), whereas malignancy rates are much higher in nodules with at least two suspicious features. Recent guidelines endorse this approach of using combinations of US features to guide nodule selection for fine needle aspiration.

  5. Nodular fasciitis: A pseudomalignant clonal neoplasm characterized by USP gene rearrangements and spontaneous regression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennebry, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly growing, self-limited, myofibroblastic neoplasm that typically arises in subcutaneous tissues of young adults and regresses spontaneously. Nodular fasciitis mimics sarcoma on clinical, radiological, and histological grounds and is usually, diagnosed following excision.\\r\

  6. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  7. Grave's Eye disease developing following radioiodine treatment for toxic nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, A A; Rangan, S; Moulik, P

    2007-07-01

    The development of Grave's ophthalmopathy (GO) following radioiodine (RI) treatment for Grave's thyrotoxicosis, though controversial, is well described. The development of ophthalmopathy following RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre is much less recognised. We report a 49 year-old female patient who developed thyrotoxicosis and GO after receiving RI treatment for toxic nodular goitre and we also review the relevant literature.

  8. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption

    OpenAIRE

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2016-01-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary I...

  9. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  10. Rosario Castellanos y Graciela Hierro: La reconfiguración de arquetipos femeninos

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    Krishna Naranjo Zavala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974 y Graciela Hierro (1928-2003 sobresalieron en el feminismo en México. Ambas reflexionan que, a lo largo de la historia, las mujeres han sido representadas de manera peyorativa, carentes de voz propia y envueltas en ideas románticas. Referencias que han forjado concepciones en torno a la condición femenina; sin embargo, a través de la literatura y la filosofía, pueden ser replanteadas. El artículo se propone establecer un diálogo entre sus respectivos trabajos, Castellanos en la poesía y Hierro en la filosofía, tomando como base: Mujer que sabe latín (1973, el poema “La muerte de Dido” (1953-1955 y planteamientos de Ética y Feminismo (1985, De la domesticación a la educación de las mexicanas (1993, Ética de la libertad (1993 a fin de identificar la reconfiguración de arquetipos femeninos. Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974 and Graciela Hierro (1928-2003 stand out in feminism in Mexico. Both reflect that, throughout history, women have been represented pejoratively, with no voice, and wrapped in romantic ideas. References that have shaped ideas around the female condition; however through literature and philosophy, can be reframed. This paper aims to establish a dialogue between their respective works, Castellano´s in poetry and Hierro´s in philosophy, in order to identify the reconfiguration of female, religious and mythical archetypes in Mujer que sabe latín (1973, the poem “La muerte de Dido” (1953-1955; for this purpose it will be used the approaches on which Ética y Feminismo (1985, De la domesticación a la educación de las mexicanas (1993, and Ética de la libertad (1993 are based.

  11. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro: estrategias de la OPS/OMS para combatirla

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    FREIRE WILMA B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es uno de los problemas nutricionales de mayor magnitud en el mundo. A pesar de conocer su etiología y tener a disposición el conocimiento de cómo enfrentarla y de saber que las intervenciones son de bajo costo, aún no se ha podido superar este problema. Este documento parte de una estimación de la magnitud del problema y plantea los elementos necesarios para el diseño, la ejecución y la medición del impacto de la suplementación con hierro y la fortificación, como las intervenciones más efectivas para disminuir considerablemente la dimensión de la anemia por falta de hierro. Propone una lista de pasos a seguir previos a la elaboración de un proyecto y recomienda una serie de elementos a considerar en ello. Define, asimismo, los aspectos que se deben incluir en una propuesta de fortificación y en otra de suplementación. El documento concluye con un listado de actividades complementarias que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud ofrece dentro de su paquete de cooperación técnica.

  12. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  13. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and GNSS data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). We compiled a new and unified regional seismic catalog and used long time-series of surface displacements recorded by permanent GNSS stations in the region. A regional- and local-scale analysis based on these data enabled us to identify signs of anomalous tectonic activity from 2003 onwards, whose intensity increased in 2007 and finally accelerated three months before the onset of the volcanic eruption on El Hierro in October 2011. This activity includes a regional extension and an uplift process that affects the southern Iberian Peninsula, NW Africa, and the Canary Islands. We interpret these observations as early signs of the geodynamic activity, which led to El Hierro eruption and the subsequent episodes of magma intrusion. Results point to the significant contribution of the mantle plume dynamics (i.e. external forces) in this renewed volcanic activity in the Canary Islands and emphasize the role of mantle dynamics in controlling regional tectonics.

  14. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  15. [A patient with muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Shoji; Murakami, Tatufumi; Shirabe, Teruo; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2002-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign pseudosarcomatous proliferative lesion which is frequently misdiagnosed as malignant tumor clinically and microscopically. It usually occurs as a rapidly enlarging subcutaneous mass on the upper extremities, especially on the forearm. Here we report a patient showing muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). A 17-year-old woman was hospitalized because of rapidly progressive torticollis. The right SCM was markedly enlarged and firm on palpation. Muscle biopsy taken from the right SCM revealed massive proliferation of spindle shaped fibroblasts infiltrating into the endomysium. These findings coincided with the intramuscular nodular fasciitis. However, different from typical nodular fasciitis, no apparent nodule formation was found in this patient. Instead, diffuse proliferative lesion extended widely into the neck soft tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of muscular torticollis caused by nodular fasciitis involving the SCM.

  16. Like father, like son: periventricular nodular heterotopia and nonverbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Marcia V; Pongonis, Stephen J; Golomb, Meredith R; Edwards-Brown, Mary; Christensen, Celanie K; Sokol, Deborah K

    2008-08-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common malformation of cortical development in which the migration of developing neurons destined for the cerebral cortex is abbreviated. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia is most commonly an X-linked disorder that involves mutations in the filamin A (FLNA) gene, but an autosomal recessive form and sporadic forms have been identified. To our knowledge, autosomal dominant transmission of isolated periventricular nodular heterotopia has not been reported. Periventricular nodular heterotopia has a heterogeneous phenotype, associated commonly with seizure disorder, and more recently with reading deficits and visual-spatial deficits in some patients. We present a father and son with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and similar visual-spatial learning deficits, consistent with nonverbal learning disability.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis for H. pylori infection

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    Romero-Flores JL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Juan L Romero-Flores,1 Justo A Fernandez-Rivero,1 Erika Marroquín-Fabian,1 Félix I Téllez-Ávila,2 Beatriz A Sánchez-Jiménez,1 Eva Juárez-Hernández,3 Misael Uribe,1 Norberto C Chávez-Tapia1,3 1Obesity and Digestive Diseases Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, 3Translational Research Unit, Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The term nodular is not included in the Sydney classification and there is no widely accepted histopathological definition. It has been proposed that the presence of antral nodularity could predict Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of nodular gastritis (NG for H. pylori infection after a rigorous standardization process, and to describe the associated histopathological characteristics. Materials and methods: Endoscopic images of patients submitted to endoscopy with biopsy sampling were included. Endoscopic images were distributed among six endoscopists. The analysis was performed sequentially in three rounds: the first round assessed the interobserver variability, the second evaluated the intraobserver variability, and the third calculated the interobserver variability after training. A correlation analysis between endoscopic and histopathological findings was performed. Results: A total of 917 studies were included. In the first analysis of interobserver variability, a poor kappa value (0.078 was obtained. The second evaluation yielded good intraobserver variability, with kappa values of 0.62–0.86. The evaluation of interobserver variability after training revealed an improvement in the kappa value of 0.42. A correlation was found between endoscopic images and histopathological reports. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between NG and H. pylori, but only after rigorous evaluation. The use of

  18. ALTERNATIVA COMERCIAL PARA EXTENDER VIDA DE ANAQUEL DE PAPAYA 'MARADOL'

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    J. A. Osuna-García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del 1-Metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y etileno (solos o en combinación para manipular el proceso de maduración y extender vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'. Durante el 2007 se realizaron tres ensayos: 1. Efecto del 1-MCP en papaya almacenada en condiciones de mercadeo y refrigeración más mercadeo; 2. Papaya tratada con 1-MCP y etileno y mezcla 1-MCP + etileno; 3. Evaluación comercial del 1-MCP y etileno en papaya. Se analizaron pérdida de peso, color externo, firmeza, color de pulpa y sólidos solubles totales. Se encontró que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 retrasó el desarrollo de color externo y pulpa e inhibió el ablandamiento de los frutos. También se observó que el etileno a dosis de 100 ¿l·litro-1 aplicado después del 1-MCP no revirtió el efecto de éste, sin embargo, el 1-MCP aplicado después del etileno redujo la velocidad de ablandamiento y el desarrollo del color en cáscara y pulpa inducido por el etileno. Se concluye que el 1-MCP a 100 nl·litro-1 por 12 horas aplicado después del etileno puede ser una técnica viable para manipular el proceso de maduración y alargar vida de anaquel de papaya 'Maradol'.

  19. Relación entre las reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido

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    Vásquez-Molina María Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la relación de los valores hematológicos maternos y neonatales en casos de reservas maternas de hierro bajas, moderadas y normales. Material y métodos. Diseño transversal en el que se incluyó a 163 mujeres embarazadas y sus neonatos de término, derechohabientes del Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en Chihuahua, Chih., México. Se analizaron antecedentes maternos. Se determinaron niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica en muestras maternas y de cordón umbilical. Se definieron reservas de hierro maternas de acuerdo a ferritina (µg /l: bajas o = 20.1. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis para establecer diferencias entre grupos, ji cuadrada para diferencia de proporciones y r de Pearson para establecer la relación entre reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido. Resultados. Se determinó una débil correlación entre la ferritina materna y neonatal r=0.14 (p=0.07. Las medias geométricas de ferritina neonatal respecto a las reservas maternas bajas, moderadas y normales fue de 4.77, 4.85 y 5.02, respectivamente (p=0.12. Las reservas de hierro maternas se modificaron con el suplemento de hierro (p=0.01. Conclusiones. Las reservas de hierro en el recién nacido están en estrecha relación con las maternas. Las mujeres que toman suplementos con hierro durante la gestación tienen reservas mayores al final del embarazo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  20. Malignant Transformation of Nodular Hidradenoma in the Lower Leg

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    Nhuan Ngo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nodular hidradenoma (NH is a benign adnexal tumor that arises from either eccrine or apocrine sweat glands. NH can originate from any cutaneous site, but the most common sites are the head and anterior surface of the trunk, with very rare cases in the extremities. Long-standing NH has been reported to undergo malignant transformation to malignant NH (MNH; however, its occurrence in the lower leg is extremely rare with only one other case reported to date. In this report, we present a rare case of MNH occurring in the lower leg which was resected with the intent to make a diagnosis. At the final follow-up after 11 months, no local recurrence or metastasis has been observed.

  1. Esclerite nodular e poliangiite granulomatosa (Wegener mimetizando tuberculose

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    Cybelle Moreno Luize Franco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poliangiite granulomatosa é uma doença sistêmica que afeta qualquer órgão, com predileção pelo trato respiratório superior, pulmões e rins. Este artigo tem como objetivo relatar um caso atípico de uma paciente com esclerite nodular como manifestação inicial da poliangiite granulomatosa (Wegener, mimetizando um quadro de tuberculose. A paciente apresentou hiperemia ocular e baixa acuidade visual progressiva por 1,5 anos, seguido por dor ocular por dois meses. A paciente possuía nódulos subpleurais com densidade de partes moles, linfonodomegalia em janela aorto-pulmonar e espessamento pleural bilateral discreto, negativo para bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes (BAAR. O diagnóstico histológico revelou uma vasculite granulomatosa sugestiva de vasculite não infecciosa (poliangiite granulomatosa. Foi iniciada pulsoterapia com ciclofosfamida.

  2. Zircaloy nodular corrosion analysis by an image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Junko; Sato, Kanemitsu; Kuwae, Ryosho; Higashinakagawa, Emiko

    1987-01-01

    An image processor has been fabricated to examine out-of-pile nodular corrosion for Zircaloy-2 tubings. The covering fraction, which is the percentage of the nodule occupying area on the Zircaloy surface, was measured with the processor. The covering fraction showed a strong correlation with the weight gain at any corrosion time of this experiment. The correlation observed can be explained by a model for the lenticular shape of the nodules. The image processor also gives unfolded pictures of the whole Zircaloy surface. By analyzing the picture, the location of the nodules generated was found to be determined in an early stage of corrosion. New nodules were not produced later, and the nodules only grew larger with time. (orig.)

  3. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma over the parotid gland: a pathologic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, D J; Kabbani, Wareef; DeFatta, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NHAC), an eccrine carcinoma, has been reported in the dermatology and pathology literature, but few references have been made in the otolaryngology literature even though the head and neck is a common site of occurrence. A case report of a 37-year-old Hispanic man with a right-sided neck mass diagnosed preoperatively as a parotid mass by imaging and fine-needle aspiration is presented. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision of the mass was undertaken. Final pathology revealed a NHAC, which is presented in our report. NHAC is an aggressive malignant tumor that is often misdiagnosed preoperatively and that must be treated with aggressive multimodality therapy for increased survival.

  4. Efecto del Hierro en el Desarrollo de las Raíces de las Plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Velásquez Jairo

    1964-08-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del hierro en el desarrollo de las raíces del cacao, el café y el fríjol. También se observó la velocidad de recuperación de la clorofila en plantas cloróticas de cacao y café, al agregarles cantidades crecientes de hierro, y el efecto de dicha recuperación sobre el desarrollo radical. Además, se estudió el grado de absorción y movilización de Fe50 en plantas de cacao, y el efecto de distintas dosis de hierro en el crecimiento de raíces aisladas cacao, café y fríjol. Las plantas fueron cultivadas en el invernadero en solución HoagIand N° 2 sin Fe y las raíces para cultivo se obtuvieron de semillas germinadas en el laboratorio. Se usaron plantas de cacao del clon uf 668 de 3 meses y de café (variedad caturra con la misma edad. El hierro radiactivo utilizado fue en forma de cloruro (Fe59 cl 3 y el agregado a la solución o al follaje, en forma de quelato (Fe E. D. T. A.. Las adiciones de este elemento se hicieron cuando las plantas mostraban síntomas característicos de su deficiencia. Hubo una recuperación casi total de la clorosis y tanto el volumen como la longitud radical aumentaron con las aplicaciones crecientes de hierro, aunque la longitud relativa de los tallos mostró una tendencia decreciente. En las hojas de cacao se presentó una acumulación del Fe y su movilización hacia los demás órganos de la planta fue lenta y en proporción reducida en relación con el total absorbido. Igual cosa sucedió con el Fe50 suministrado a las raíces. No se pudieron observar los efectos del Fe en el crecimiento de raíces aisladas de cacao, café y fríjol, pues el desarrollo fue muy reducido, debido a que la rápida oxidación de los tejidos (al separar aquéllas del resto de la planta redujo la viabilidad a unos pocos días.

  5. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  6. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  7. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  8. HRCT-pathologic correlation of nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsumi; Suzuki, Kenzo; Koike, Morio; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki; Asai, Sae; Ushimi, Naofumi; Kamata, Noriko

    1996-01-01

    Lung cancers, shown as nodules on conventional chest radiographs, are detected easily. However, nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), usually located at the periphery of the lung, are faint and poorly defined on conventional chest radiographs, it is thus difficult to detect and make the diagnosis. On the other hand, these lesions are clearly depicted on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), therefore HRCT is effective in assessing these faint pulmonary nodules. We retrospectively investigated preoperative HRCT of thirteen patients (8 men and 5 women, 53-80 years old) with pathologically proven nodular BACs of 2.2 (±0.43) cm in mean diameter by two radiologists. All the lesions were located periphery of the lung. In 11 cases (85%), HRCT showed a zone of ground-glass attenuation surrounding the nodule, which correlated pathologically with papillary tumor growth without disrupting the overall lung architecture along the framework of normal alveoli containing air-spaces, alveolar spaces filled with fluid, blood, and infiltration of macrophages. In 10 cases (77%), bubblelike radiolucencies of focal areas of air attenuation peripherally or centrally were observed and correlated pathologically with intratumoral patent air-containing bronchi and cystic glandular spaces within papillary tumor growth. Notches were demonstrated in 12 cases (92%), air bronchogram in 11 cases (85%), convergence of vessels in 10 cases (77%), pleural tags in 9 cases (69%), and spiculations in 6 cases (46%). Calcification was not seen in any cases. A zone of ground-glass attenuation and bubblelike radiolucencies were observed frequently among the CT findings of BAC, and are considered to be characteristic enough to suggest BAC. (author)

  9. Epileptogenic networks in nodular heterotopia: A stereoelectroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Francesca; Roehri, Nicolas; Catenoix, Hélène; Medina, Samuel; McGonigal, Aileen; Giusiano, Bernard; Carron, Romain; Scavarda, Didier; Ostrowsky, Karine; Lepine, Anne; Boulogne, Sébastien; Scholly, Julia; Hirsch, Edouard; Rheims, Sylvain; Bénar, Christian-George; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2017-12-01

    Defining the roles of heterotopic and normotopic cortex in the epileptogenic networks in patients with nodular heterotopia is challenging. To elucidate this issue, we compared heterotopic and normotopic cortex using quantitative signal analysis on stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. Clinically relevant biomarkers of epileptogenicity during ictal (epileptogenicity index; EI) and interictal recordings (high-frequency oscillation and spike) were evaluated in 19 patients undergoing SEEG. These biomarkers were then compared between heterotopic cortex and neocortical regions. Seizures were classified as normotopic, heterotopic, or normoheterotopic according to respective values of quantitative analysis (EI ≥0.3). A total of 1,246 contacts were analyzed: 259 in heterotopic tissue (heterotopic cortex), 873 in neocortex in the same lobe of the lesion (local neocortex), and 114 in neocortex distant from the lesion (distant neocortex). No significant difference in EI values, high-frequency oscillations, and spike rate was found comparing local neocortex and heterotopic cortex at a patient level, but local neocortex appears more epileptogenic (p < 0.001) than heterotopic cortex analyzing EI values at a seizure level. According to EI values, seizures were mostly normotopic (48.5%) or normoheterotopic (45.5%); only 6% were purely heterotopic. A good long-term treatment response was obtained in only two patients after thermocoagulation and surgical disconnection. This is the first quantitative SEEG study providing insight into the mechanisms generating seizures in nodular heterotopia. We demonstrate that both the heterotopic lesion and particularly the normotopic cortex are involved in the epileptogenic network. This could open new perspectives on multitarget treatments, other than resective surgery, aimed at modifying the epileptic network. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  11. Suppressive therapy for radiation-associated nodular thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuo; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Tsukada, Yoshiaki; Razack, M.S.; Sciasicia, Michael.

    1981-01-01

    A thyroid screening program for individuals who had irradiation to the head and neck areas was started at Roswell Park Memorial Institute in February 1977 and by June 1979, 1,071 patients were seen in the clinic. Three hundred and ninety-six patients were found to have palpable abnormalities of the thyroid, and following pretreatment evaluation, suppressive therapy with triiodothyronine (T3) (50 μg/day) or DT (desiccated thyroid) (120 mg/day) was administered in a double-blind fashion. Two hundred fifty patients with nodular disease completed 6 mo of treatment and are analyzed in this paper. Pretreatment thyroid function tests showed that two patients had hypothyroidism with a high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and a low thyroxine level. A high incidence of thyroid autoantibodies was also noted and surgical findings confirmed a high incidence of chronic thyroiditis. Complete disappearance of the nodules was seen in 29% of the patients, and in addition, 38% of the patients were seen to have significant shrinkage of the nodules, indicating that radiation-associated thyroid nodules were as sensitive to the thyroactive agents as nonirradiated nodular thyroid disease. There was little difference in the response rate between T3 and DT. Both agents suppressed circulating TSH levels to an unmeasurable level in 76% of the patients. There was no correlation between scan findings and response rates. Thyroid carcinoma was found in 19% of the patients who underwent surgery; although all were well-differentiated carcinomas, two-thirds of the patients already had evidence of dissemination and/or invasion suggesting the aggressive nature of postirradiation thyroid carcinoma. (author)

  12. Conteo de personas con un sensor RGBD comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castrillón-Santan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se demuestra que la información de profundidad proporcionada por una cámara RGBD comercial de bajo coste, es una fuente fiable de datos para realizar de forma robusta el conteo automático de personas. La adopción de una configuración de vista cenital reduce la complejidad del problema, al mismo tiempo que permite preservar la privacidad de las personas moni- torizadas. Para llevar a cabo el estudio experimental se han considerado dos técnicas propias del campo de análisis de imágenes 2D trasladadas al contexto de imágenes de profundidad. Las pruebas evaluaron su rendimiento con v́ıdeos reales sin restricciones de iluminación, incluyendo episodios de iluminación cambiante o muy baja. En este conjunto experimental se realizó la detección, seguimiento y análisis de patrones de comportamiento de las personas que cruzaban el campo de visión. Los resultados obtenidos alcanzan una tasa de acierto próxima al 95%, superando los obtenidos con técnicas actuales basadas exclusivamente en información visual. Estos resultados sugieren la utilidad del uso de información de profundidad en esta tarea particular. Abstract: In this paper, we prove that depth information provided by a consumer depth camera is a reliable data source to perform ro- bust people counting. The adoption of a top view configuration reduces the space problem complexity for this task, while pre- serving privacy. Two different background subtraction approaches for color images are transferred to this context and tested in real video to perform detection, tracking, and behavioral pat- terns analysis of subjects crossing the field of view. The results achieved in an experimental setup with real video reported a TPR over 95%, beating robust GMM background subtraction based only on the visual cue. The results suggest the benefits of the depth cue for this particular task. Palabras clave: Conteo de personas, c

  13. What are the clinical implications of nodular gastritis? Clues from histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmensuer, Cenk; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Yeniova, Ozgur; Ersoy, Osman; Aydinli, Musa; Yonem, Ozlem; Harmanci, Ozgur; Onal, Eda Demir; Altinok, Gulcin; Batman, Figen; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2009-10-01

    There is no widely accepted histopathological definition for nodular gastritis. In this study we aim to uncover the pathologic entity responsible for the nodular appearance and to find clues about the clinical implications of nodular gastritis. Antral biopsy specimens of 160 patients with nodular gastritis and 133 patients without nodular gastritis were examined by an experienced pathologist for dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia, inflammatory activity, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, intestinal metaplasia, and lymphoid follicle/aggregate formation, and comparative analysis was performed between the two groups of patients. The presence of intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more frequent in patients with nodular gastritis (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the two groups regarding the other pathological features such as presence of dysplasia, inflammatory activity, intestinal metaplasia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes may contribute to formation of macroscopical nodules in this peculiar type of gastritis. Nodular gastritis would not indicate a new therapeutic approach in addition to the current measures for Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  15. Nodular gastritis: an endoscopic indicator of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazigh Mrad, Sonia; Abidi, Kamel; Brini, Ines; Boukthir, Samir; Sammoud, Azza

    2012-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is a common and universally distributed bacterial infection. It is predominantly acquired in childhood. To assess the relationship between endoscopic nodular gastritis and Hp infection. A retrospective study was conducted in children who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for chronic abdominal pain. All children who had five gastric biopsies for histologic analysis, urease test and Hp culture were included in the study. The Sensitivity and sensibility of nodular gastritis were determined and different parameters were studied according the presence or not of nodular gastritis(age, gender, Hp status, gastritis score and lymphoid follicles). 49 children, mean age 6.9 ± 3 years (range 1-12 years) were eligible for the analysis. Hp Infection was diagnosed in 35 out of the 49 children (71.5 %). Nodular gastritis was recorded in 16 out of 49 children and in 14 infected children and 2 out of 14 non infected children (p=0.07), 40% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, 87.5% positive predictive value, and 36,4% negative predictive value. The parameters associated significantly to the presence of nodular gastritis were older age: (p=0.04), Hp infection: (p=0.01), chronic gastritis: (p=0.05), active gastritis: (p=0.02), follicular gastritis: (p=0.005), higher gastritis score: (p=0.005). Completely normal gastric mucosal histology was never found in infected children with antral nodularity. Among all infected children, the gastritis score was significantly higher when there was a nodular gastritis and follicular gastritis was significantly associated to nodular gastritis. The endoscopic pattern of antral nodularity identifies children with Hp infection, and active chronic follicular gastritis.

  16. Recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y manejo de la anemia por déficit de hierro en la mujer embarazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ernst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es una condición altamente prevalente a nivel mundial y, el déficit de hierro, la causa más frecuente, sin excepción; la mujer embarazada está particularmente en riesgo dada la mayor demanda de hierro que la gestación significa. La anemia se asocia a mayor morbilidad y mortalidad materno-perinatal. En mujeres embarazadas sin anemia, la prevención, mediante el uso de multivitamínicos que contienen hierro en dosis de 30-60 mg de hierro elemental, ha demostrado ser efectiva y se recomienda durante todo el embarazo. En casos de anemia, el diagnóstico de déficit de hierro se establece cuando la ferritina es menor a 30 ug/L y/o la saturación de transferrina es menor a 20%. La severidad de la anemia y la situación temporal en el embarazo, son factores modificantes del tratamiento. En mujeres embarazadas, con hemoglobina ≥9.0 g/dL y que tengan <34 semanas de embarazo, la indicación es tratamiento con hierro oral, en dosis de 100 mg al día, en días alternos, hasta normalizar los parámetros antes mencionados. Si la hemoglobina es <9.0 g/dL, o el embarazo es ≥34 semanas, el uso de hierro intravenoso ha demostrado ser más efectivo en corregir la anemia y el déficit de hierro y en disminuir la morbilidad materno-perinatal. En estos casos, sugerimos el uso del hierro carboximaltosa, dado su perfil de seguridad y efectividad favorable. Recomendamos conocer y practicar estas recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y manejo de la anemia por déficit de hierro durante el embarazo.

  17. Differential Diagnosis of Nodular Goiter by Aspiration Cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Suk Man; Lee, Houn Young; Han, Bong Heon; Kim, Sam Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    113 patients with nodular goiter were studied cytologically by needle aspiration for differential diagnosis at the department of internal medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital since October 1980 till July 1981, and the final diagnosis taken from biopsies were compared with the cytologic method on the 44 cases who received operation. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Among the 113 cases of total patients, male were 15 cases (13.3%) and female were 98 cases (86.7%) and the sex ratio (M : F) was 1 : 6.5. The peak age incidence was in the third decade followed by forth and second decades. 2. The findings of cytological diagnosis in 113 cases showed benign adenoma in 69 cases (61.1%), subacute and chronic thyroiditis in 22 cases (19.5%), papillary carcinoma in 15 cases (13.3%) and follicular carcinoma in 7 cases (6.2%), respectively, and 48 cases (69.6%) of the adenomas and 2 cases (9.1%) of papillary carcinomas showed combined cystic degeneration of the nodules. 3. The diameter of the nodules by palpation revealed within 2-5 cm in 88 cases (77.9%) out of 113 cases, below 2 cm in 17 cases and over 5 cm in 8 cases and there were no significant relationship between the size of the nodule and disease entity. 4. The findings of thyroid scintigram using 131 I in 113 cases of nodular goiter showed 'cold nodule' in 111 cases (98.2%) and normal scan (radioactivity) in 2 cases (1.8%) which showed adenoma in cytology and there was no cases with h ot nodule'. 5. The thyroid functions of the 113 cases revealed as euthyroidism in 108 cases (95.6%), hypothyroidism in 2 cases (2.7%) in adenomas but there was no evidence that the nodules of the above 3 cases were the reason of hyperthyroidism. 6. In 44 operated cases, the histological diagnosis revealed 23 cases of adenoma out of 27 cases (85.2%) who were diagnosed as adenoma by cytology and 15 cases of malignancy out of 17 cases (88.2%), and the overall diagnostic accuracy of aspiration cytology was 86.4%.

  18. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  19. Precursory diffuse CO2 emission signature of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, N. M.; Padilla, G. D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village, indicating the occurrence of a submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km far the coast line of La Restinga. Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. In order to improve the volcanic surveillance program of El Hierro Island and to provide a multidisciplinary approach, a continuous geochemical station to measure CO2 efflux was installed on September 2003 in Llanos de Guillen, the interception center of the three volcanic-rift zones of the island, with the aim of detecting changes in the diffuse emission of CO2 related to the seismic or volcanic activity. The station measures on an hourly basis the CO2 and H2S efflux, the CO2 and H2S air concentrations, the soil water content and temperature and the atmospheric parameters: wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity and barometric pressure. The meteorological parameters together with the air CO2 concentration are measured 1 m above the ground and the soil water content and soil temperature

  20. Nuevos conocimientos sobre el metabolismo del hierro New knowledge of iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Forrellat Barrios

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El hierro es un mineral de elevada importancia para el organismo y su regulación requiere de una red molecular compleja. Hasta hace unos años solo se conocían 3 proteínas que intervenían en el metabolismo del hierro, pero en la última década, se han descubierto de forma secuencial, y a partir del estudio de algunas enfermedades genéticas como la hemocromatosis hereditaria, nuevas proteínas que participan en la homeostasia del hierro y que están implicadas en su transporte, absorción, reciclaje y balance en el organismo. La identificación y aislamiento de estas proteínas lleva inevitablemente a la modificación de los modelos clásicos de regulación de la homeostasia de este importante mineral. En este trabajo se realizó una revisión de los elementos esenciales conocidos hasta la actualidad de cada una de estas nuevas proteínas y la interacción entre ellasIron is a very important mineral for the organism and its regulation requires a complex molecular network. Only 3 proteins that took part in iron metabolism were known a few years ago, but in the last decade, new proteins that participate in iron homeostasis and that are involved in its transportation, absorption, recycling and balance in the organism have been discovered in a sequential way, starting from the study of some genetical diseases, such as hereditary hemochromatosis. The identification and isolation of these proteins lead inevitably to the modification of the classical models of regulation of the homeostasis of this powerful mineral. A review of the esential elements known up to now of each of these new proteins and the interaction among them was made in this paper

  1. Dissolved gas geochemical signatures of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Pérez, N. M.; Sumino, H.; Melián, G. V.; Padilla, G. D.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island is the south westernmost and the youngest island of the Canary archipelago (Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of dissolved gases on four different observation points (vertical and horizontal wells) of El Hierro. Three wells are located on the north of the island (where the seismic activity occurred at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south. At each observation point the concentration of dissolved helium, CO2, N2, O2 and Ar and the isotopic composition of He, C-CO2 and Ar have been measured three times per week. Significant increases on the dissolved gases content, mainly on CO2 and He/CO2 ratio, have been measured at all the observation points prior to the increasing of released seismic energy. Isotopic composition of dissolved helium, measured as 3He/4He ratio, showed an significant increase (from 1-3 RA up to 7.2 RA, being RA the isotopic 3He/4He ratio on air) at all the observation points 20 days before the occurrence of the submarine eruption and these relatively high 3He/4He values have been maintained along the volcanic unrest period. The isotopic composition of CO2 has showed also significant changes in relation to the release of seismic energy. The results observed on this dissolved gases study have been tremendously beneficial on the volcanic surveillance tools to study and forecast the evolution of the seismic-volcanic crisis.

  2. Actualidades de las características del hierro y su uso en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Tostado-Madrid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan diversos aspectos del hierro: datos epidemiológicos y fisiológicos recientes, factores que regulan su absorción y que aumentan o reducen su biodisponibilidad; se evalúa el contenido y porcentaje de biodisponibilidad del hierro de diferentes alimentos y productos a través de tablas comparativas. Se destaca la importancia y la razón de un adecuado suplemento y la elección apropiada de fuentes alimentarias.

  3. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población infantil de Cuba. Brechas por cerrar

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Rodríguez, Gisela; Jiménez-Acosta, Santa

    2011-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud mundial que afecta tanto a los países desarrollados como a aquellos en desarrollo. Sus causas pueden ser multifactoriales y frecuentemente pueden coexisitir varias de ellas; la principal es la baja ingestión de alimentos con fuentes adecuadas de hierro, tanto en cantidad como en calidad. En Cuba se está trabajando desde el año 1987 en el desarrollo de programas de intervención para la prevención de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población, pero a p...

  4. Estado nutricional del hierro en niños de comunidades indígenas de Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños-Gallardo, María Victoria; Flórez Echeverry, Ofelia; Bermúdez Escobar, Amparo; Hernández Sampayo, Luzmila; Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los escolares son susceptibles a padecer anemia y deficiencia de micronutrientes. No hay reportes del estado del hierro en indígenas del sector urbano. Objetivo: Establecer el estado del hierro en niños de 5 a 14 años de edad de seis comunidades indígenas residentes en la ciudad de Cali-Colombia. Sujetos y métodos: Se estudiaron 62 niños indígenas de 5 a 14 años de edad, sin antecedentes febriles. Se les midió hemoglobina, hematocrito, volumen corpuscular medio, ferritina y tran...

  5. Soil gas radon and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 hours on October 10, followed on the afternoon of October 12 by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing indicating the initial stage of submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, El Hierro. Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn activities were continuously measured during the period of the recent volcanic unrest occurred at El Hierro, at two different geochemical stations, HIE02 and HIE03. Significant increases in soil 222Rn activity and 222Rn/220Rn ratio from the soil were observed at both stations prior the submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro, showing the highest increases before the eruption onset and the occurrence of the strongest seismic event (M=4.6). A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data corresponded closely to the seismic energy released during the volcanic unrest. The observed increases of 222Rn are related to the rock fracturing processes (seismic activity) and the magmatic CO2 outflow increase, as observed in HIE03 station. Under these results, we find that continuous soil radon studies are important for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil radon to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future

  6. Efecto de la estacionalidad sobre el estado nutricional de Hierro, Zinc y Cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda D, Melissa; Olivares G, Manuel; Araya Q, Magdalena; Pizarro A, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El consumo de alimentos y por lo tanto el estado de nutrición de los micronutrientes está condicionado por diferentes factores como la estacionalidad. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de la estacionalidad sobre el estado nutricional de hierro, zinc y cobre de sujetos adultos habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Un estudio longitudinal en 50 sujetos de ambos sexos se realizó entre los meses de septiembre del 2005 y agosto del 2006. Durante la primera semana ...

  7. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  8. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  9. Perdida de carga en conductos de hierro galvanizado conduciendo agua residual de instalaciones de gallinas ponedoras

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES DE SOUZA, José ANTONIO; ASTONI MOREIRA, DÉBORA; OLIVEIRA BATISTA, RAFAEL; OSORIO S., JAIRO ALEXANDER; ZAPATA MARÍN, OLGA LUCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Las operaciones relacionadas con la producción de aves de corral pueden generar efluentes procedentes de fuentes distintas, incluida la escorrentía originada en las jaulas, alimentación y abastecimiento de agua de las aves y de las instalaciones de almacenamiento y manejo de residuos. En todo proyecto de explotación de aves de corral, se debe tener en cuenta el manejo de residuos y aguas residuales, las cuales pueden ser conducidas en tuberías de hierro galvanizado. El objetivo de este trabaj...

  10. Efectos de la política comercial en los recursos naturales y el ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ ACOLT, Roberto; GONZÁLEZ GUILLÉN, Manuel de Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio analiza la influencia de la liberalization comercial total, que se dará a partir de 2008 en México, sobre los costos por agotamiento de los recursos naturales (petróleo, recursos forestales, uso de agua subterránea) y por degradación del ambiente (erosión del suelo y contaminación del agua, aire y suelo), usando un modelo de equilibrio general computable. Los resultados indican que los efectos de la liberalización comercial sobre las actividades económicas no fueron homogéneos. E...

  11. El fin de una etapa exitosa. Los TLC en la estrategia comercial de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Dingemans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia comercial chilena, basada en mejorar el acceso a los mercados internacionales se considera exitosa. Pero aunque el crecimiento económico de los últimos treinta años es impresionante, no se logró diversificó la estructura productiva. Se abre una nueva etapa donde la estrategia comercial se debe enfocar en la innovación, para lo cual se requiere revaluar el papel del Estado en el mercado y abandonar las políticas estrictamente horizontales.

  12. Implementación de un piloto del componente comercial del data warehouse de Etapatelecom

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Iñiguez, Roberto José

    2008-01-01

    El sistema a desarrollar se enmarca en una arquitectura de Data Warehouse, cuyo objetivo es extraer información de los Sistemas Transaccionales disponibles en Etapatelecom para ser usada en una Base de Datos orientada a la toma de decisiones (Data Warehouse) para el Área Comercial de la Empresa. El procedimiento se inicia con un análisis de los requerimientos de los usuarios estratégicos del Área Comercial de Etapatelecom donde se identifican los indicadores de negocio (Medidas) y las Dimensi...

  13. Creep testing of nodular iron at ambient and elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Aasa; Andersson-Oestling, Henrik C.M.; Seitisleam, Facredin; Wu, Rui; Sandstroem, Rolf (Swerea KIMAB AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The creep strain at room temperature, 100 and 125 deg C has been investigated for the ferritic nodular cast iron insert intended for use as the load-bearing part of canisters for long term disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The microstructure consisted of ferrite, graphite nodules of different sizes, compacted graphite and pearlite. Creep tests have been performed for up to 41,000 h. The specimens were cut out from material taken from two genuine inserts, I30 and I55. After creep testing, the specimens from the 100 deg C tests were hardness tested and a metallographic examination was performed. Creep strains at all temperatures appear to be logarithmic, and accumulation of creep strain diminishes with time. The time dependence of the creep strain is consistent to the W-model for primary creep. During the loading plastic strains up to 1% appeared. The maximum recorded creep strain after the loading phase was 0.025%. This makes the creep strains technically insignificant. Acoustic emission recordings during the loading of the room temperature tests showed no sounds or other evidence of microcracking during the loading phase. There is no evidence that the hardness or the graphite microstructure changed during the creep tests

  14. Pathogenesis of nodular goiter and its implications for surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, J.; Peter, H.J.; Gerber, H.; Berchtold, R.; Studer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Despite sufficient iodine supply, goiter continues to be of considerable surgical significance in formerly endemic countries. It now appears that iodine deficiency and increased thyrotropin stimulation are not the only causes of goiter. Xenotransplantation of human thyroid tissue onto nude mice allowed study of the regulation of growth and function in human goiter tissue. Grafts of human thyroid tissue growing in nude mice could be shown to react to endogenous mouse thyrotropic stimulation and suppression. 131 I autoradiographs of xenotransplanted goiter tissue showed as marked a heterogeneity as did the original goitrous tissue prior to transplantation. There was no firm correlation between the morphologic appearance of a follicle and its iodine metabolism. Scintigraphically cold and hot goiter tissue differed from each other quantitatively but not qualitatively; i.e., both hot and cold tissue were composed of metabolically active and nonactive follicles. Iodine organification was not completely suppressible by thyroxine treatment; this indicates autonomous functional activity. The distribution of proliferating tissue labeled by 3 H-thymidine did not parallel the distribution of functionally active tissue labelled by 131 I. Thyroxine treatment did not completely inhibit 3 H-thymidine incorporation, indicating autonomous growth. Thus, our pathogenetic concept of goiter formation is based on three mainstays: (1) goiter heterogeneity, (2) autonomy of growth and function, and (3) dissociation of growth and function in human goiter tissue. Thus, the surgeon dealing with goiter ought to remove all pathologically altered tissue, i.e., nodular tissue, irrespective of its appearance on scintiscans

  15. Nodular goiter after occupational accidental exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, Mario A.; Schnitman, M.A.; Buenos Aires Univ.; Hospital Frances, Buenos Aires

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: During a control of the safety measures at the Radiology Service in a local hospital in Buenos Aires, a lack of an appropriate shielding in the X-ray equipment was detected. Methods and Materials: Therefore studies were performed in the group of physicians and technicians exposed and in an age and sex matched group of non-exposed physicians and technicians. Check-ups included thyroid sonography, circulating thyroid hormones, TSH and thyroid antibodies. The exposed group included 9 females and 5 males, while the non-exposed group comprised 8 females and 5 males. Results: No thyroid abnormalities were found in the non-exposed patients. On the contrary in the exposed cohort in 11 out of 14 patients nodular goiter was diagnosed, while an additional patient presented diffuse goiter. In 5 out of the 12 patients with goiter, nodule growth or the appearance of new nodules was observed along the follow-up. Four patients presented changes in thyroid function: two had elevated basal TSH with increased titters of anti TPO antibodies in one, while another showed an abnormal TRH-TSH test. A fourth patient had low total T 4 values. Other abnormalities included: sperm abnormalities in 2 out of the 5 males, dry-eye syndrome in other two, mammary nodules in one female and a basocellular epithelioma in another one. Conclusions: accidental irradiation leads to thyroid abnormalities, such as the appearance of nodules and alterations in thyroid function. (author)

  16. MRI findings of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Yu Qingtai; Jing Yu; Wang Haiyi; Pan Jingjing; Duan Weidong; Wang Dianjun; Ye Huiyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of MRI on multiple focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. Methods: MR images of 9 cases with pathological-confirmed multiple FNH were retrospectively analyzed. MRI features of the lesions were correlated with pathological findings. Results: Multiple FNH was considered in all these 9 cases. Among them, the primary diagnosis was FNH in 5, hepatic adenoma in 3 and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma in 1 case. A total of 31 lesions were detected in the 9 cases. On T 2 WI, 19 lesions presented slightly high-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented iso-signal intensity. On T 1 WI, 12 lesions presented slightly low-signal intensity, 7 presented iso-signal intensity, and the other 12 presented high-signal intensity. On opposed-phase, the signal intensity of 1 lesion dropped unevenly. After bolus injection of contrast agent Gd-DTPA, in hepatic arterial phase 18 lesions showed mild to marked heterogeneous enhancement, 11 showed marked homogeneous enhancement, 1 showed moderate ring-like enhancement, and the last one did not have obvious enhancement. In portal venous and delayed phase, all the lesions turned to iso- or slightly high-signal intensity gradually. Sixteen of 31 lesions presented central scar, which demonstrated mild star-like enhancement in delayed phase. Conclusion: Multiple FNH presented certain MRI features, which contributed to the preoperative diagnosis. (authors)

  17. MSCT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haitao; Xu Qinsha; Chen Yutang; Song Yupiao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MSCT findings of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver, and to improve the diagnostic standard. Methods: The MSCT findings were analyzed retrospectively in 25 patients pathologically approved with FNH. All patients underwent 16 detector row spiral CT scanning with and without contrast enhancement. Results: 28 lesions were discovered by CT, with single lesion showed in 22 cases, 2 lesions showed in 3 cases. All lesions showed a solitary nodules or lobulated mass in the liver. On plain CT, FNH showed equal or slightly low density. In the arterial phase, 27 lesions were vigorously and homogeneously enhanced, except the central scars with CT value of 99∼149HU and the mean CT-number of 124 HU. 1 lesion ws enhanced inter-homogeneously. Tortuous and enlarged arteries were seen at the center or periphery in 8 of the 28 lesions. In the portal venous phase, 16 lesions remained slightly hyperdense, 8 lesions turned to isodense, and 1 lesion turned to slightly hypodense. The typical central scar was showed in 8 lesions and 2 lesions showed delayed enhancement. 21 cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT, with the diagnostic accuracy of 84.0%. Conclusion: MSCT scanning can fully show the pathologic and the blood supplying characteristics of FNH. The typical FNH can be easily diagnosed by CT, while the atypical cases should be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, hemangioma of liver, liver cell adenoma and fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  18. Sonographic pattern of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, A.; Gratz, K.F.; Broelsch, C.; Gebel, M.

    1984-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver (FNH) is a histologically defined benign hepatic tumour, possibly associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The present study deals with the question whether FNH can be distinguished from other lesions of the liver by ultrasonography alone or by a combination of realtime sonography and radiologic procedures. Therefore 18 cases of FNH, 16 females and 2 males, are presented. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic results of real-time sonography, hepatic scintigraphy, computed tomography with dynamic CT-densitometry, and angiography on these 18 patients. Ultrasonography enables the identification of the lesion in all of the 18 cases. FNH appears to show varying degrees of echogenicity (slight hypoechoic in 6 cases, isoechoic in 6 cases, and slight hyperechoic in 4 cases). In most of the patients the tumour had similar acoustic characteristics at the surrounding normal liver. By ultrasonography alone there is no possible differentation of FNH from other hepatic tumours. Both the echo pattern of FNH and the results of the ultrasonically guided cytopuncture are unspecific. (orig.)

  19. Canine sterile nodular panniculitis: a retrospective study of 39 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreary, Caitlin L; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Affolter, Verena K; Kass, Philip H; White, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Canine sterile nodular panniculitis (SNP) is an inflammatory disease of the panniculus that is typically managed with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments. It has been reported to be a cutaneous marker of an underlying systemic disease. To assess the presence or absence of concurrent systemic diseases associated with canine SNP and to document breed predispositions. Thirty nine dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital from 1990 to 2012 which met inclusion criteria. Inclusion in this retrospective study required a diagnosis of SNP via histopathological analysis and negative special stains for infectious organisms. Breed distributions of affected dogs were compared to all other dogs examined at this hospital during the study period. Correlations between the histological pattern of panniculitis and the histological presence of dermatitis, clinical presentation of lesions, dog breed and therapeutic outcomes were assessed. Australian shepherd dogs, Brittany spaniels, Dalmatians, Pomeranians and Chihuahuas were significantly over-represented, but correlations between inflammatory patterns of panniculitis and other histological and clinical factors were not identified. Based on the information available in medical records, 32 dogs (82.1%) had no concurrent systemic diseases identified. Four dogs had concurrent polyarthritis, which may be related to SNP through unknown mechanisms. This study identified several novel breed predilections for SNP; it failed to find any clear correlations with associated systemic diseases other than polyarthritis. The histological inflammatory pattern of SNP does not predict therapeutic outcome. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Pathophysiological analyses of periventricular nodular heterotopia using gyrencephalic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hoshiba, Yoshio; Morita, Kazuya; Uda, Natsu; Hirota, Miwako; Minamikawa, Maki; Ebisu, Haruka; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-15

    Although periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is often found in the cerebral cortex of people with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), the pathophysiology of PNH in TD is largely unknown. This is mainly because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples of TD patients and a lack of appropriate animal models for analyzing the pathophysiology of PNH in TD. Here we investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNH in the cerebral cortex of TD by utilizing a ferret TD model which we recently developed. To make TD ferrets, we electroporated fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) into the cerebral cortex of ferrets. Our immunohistochemical analyses showed that PNH nodules in the cerebral cortex of TD ferrets were mostly composed of cortical neurons, including upper layer neurons and GABAergic neurons. We also found disorganizations of radial glial fibers and of the ventricular lining in the TD ferret cortex, indicating that PNH may result from defects in radial migration of cortical neurons along radial glial fibers during development. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of PNH in TD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid carcinogenesis is traditionally thought to originate 'de novo'. However, it is debatable whether a malignant transformation can possibly arise from a benign thyroid nodule, as suggested for the malignant transformation of a thyroid adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been performed addressing the malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a case of nodular hyperplasia with focally malignant degeneration

  2. Open questions in the management of nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy.

  3. Compromiso nodular hepático secundario a mieloma múltiple Nodular hepatic lesions secondary to multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Vázquez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El mieloma múltiple (MM es una enfermedad maligna caracterizada por una proliferación clonal de células plasmáticas atípicas en la médula ósea, que produce una inmunoglobulina (Ig con estructura homogénea en la sangre y/o en la orina (cadenas livianas. El compromiso del parénquima hepático con masa ocupante en los pacientes con MM es excepcional. Describimos 3 casos clínicos confirmados histológicamente. La ecografía y la tomografía computarizada tienen una sensibilidad intermedia y las imágenes no son patognomónicas, por lo tanto es necesaria la confirmación a través de la biopsia. Se desconoce la implicancia pronóstica de este hallazgo.Multiple myeloma is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Myelomatous nodular lesions of the liver are infrequent. We describe 3 cases with histological confirmation and we review the bibliography.

  4. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  5. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.

    2016-12-01

    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  6. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  7. Driving magma to the surface: The 2011-2012 El Hierro Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Martí, Joan; del-Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Albert, Helena; Lamolda, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    We reanalyzed the seismic and deformation data corresponding to the preeruptive unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011. We considered new information about the internal structure of the island. We updated the seismic catalog to estimate the full evolution of the released seismic energy and demonstrate the importance of nonlocated earthquakes. Using seismic data and GPS displacements, we characterized the shear-tensile type of the predominant fracturing and modeled the strain and stress fields for different time periods. This enabled us to identify a prolonged first phase characterized by hydraulic tensile fracturing, which we interpret as being related to the emplacement of new magma below the volcanic edifice on El Hierro. This was followed by postinjection unidirectional migration, probably controlled by the stress field and the distribution of the structural discontinuities. We identified the effects of energetic magmatic pulses occurring a few days before the eruption that induced shear seismicity on preexisting faults within the volcano and raised the Coulomb stress over the whole crust. We suggest that these magmatic pulses reflect the crossing of the Moho discontinuity, as well as changes in the path geometry of the dyke migration toward the surface. The final phase involved magma ascent through a prefractured crust.

  8. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  9. Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. E.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Burchardt, S.; Krumbholz, M.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Soler, V.; Arzilli, F.; Brun, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material (`xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

  10. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  11. Repeated magmatic intrusions at El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Parks, Michelle M.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; García-Cañada, Laura

    2017-09-01

    After more than 200 years of quiescence, in July 2011 an intense seismic swarm was detected beneath the center of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands), culminating on 10 October 2011 in a submarine eruption, 2 km off the southern coast. Although the eruption officially ended on 5 March 2012, magmatic activity continued in the area. From June 2012 to March 2014, six earthquake swarms, indicative of magmatic intrusions, were detected underneath the island. We have studied these post-eruption intrusive events using GPS and InSAR techniques to characterize the ground surface deformation produced by each of these intrusions, and to determine the optimal source parameters (geometry, location, depth, volume change). Source inversions provide insight into the depth of the intrusions ( 11-16 km) and the volume change associated with each of them (between 0.02 and 0.13 km3). During this period, > 20 cm of uplift was detected in the central-western part of the island, corresponding to approximately 0.32-0.38 km3 of magma intruded beneath the volcano. We suggest that these intrusions result from deep magma migrating from the mantle, trapped at the mantle/lower crust discontinuity in the form of sill-like bodies. This study, using joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data in a post-eruption period, provides important insight into the characteristics of the magmatic plumbing system of El Hierro, an oceanic intraplate volcanic island.

  12. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  13. PERDIDA DE CARGA EN CONDUCTOS DE HIERRO GALVANIZADO CONDUCIENDO AGUA RESIDUAL DE INSTALACIONES DE GALLINAS PONEDORAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO RODRIGUES DE SOUZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las operaciones relacionadas con la producción de aves de corral pueden generar efluentes procedentes de fuentes distintas, incluida la escorrentía originada en las jaulas, alimentación y abastecimiento de agua de las aves y de las instalaciones de almacenamiento y manejo de residuos. En todo proyecto de explotación de aves de corral, se debe tener en cuenta el manejo de residuos y aguas residuales, las cuales pueden ser conducidas en tuberías de hierro galvanizado. El objetivo de este trabajo, fue el ajustar ecuaciones para estimar la perdida de carga continua en conductos de hierro galvanizado en los diámetros comerciales, variando de 50 a 150 mm, operando con agua residual de gallinas ponedoras en diferentes concentraciones de sólidos totales. Los resultados indicaron que las metodologías de Duffy & Titchener y HazenWilliams modificadas presentaron ajustes cuyo coeficiente de determinación fue superior a 0,95, por lo que es considerado apropiado para el dimensionamiento de proyectos hidráulicos.

  14. Plataforma administrativa para una web comercial de subastas electrónicas

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano Garalut, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en la implementación de una aplicación web expecífica basada en PHP y MySQL destinada a facilitar la administación, gestión y análisis de una página web comercial de subastas llamada PUJA DIRECTA.

  15. [The imaging diagnosis of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, M; Macorig, D; Cecconi, P; Gozzi, G

    1991-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign hepatocellular tumor occurring in noncirrhotic patients, mostly females, 20-50 years of age. It is usually asymptomatic. The authors took the lead from 5 cases of FNH studied over last year to analyze the different patterns exhibited by the condition on the various imaging techniques currently available. At scintigraphy with 99mTc DISIDA or with TcSC, FNH can be hyper, normal, or hypocaptating. On US scans, the lesion is often homogeneous and isoechoic, but it can also be hyper/hypoechoic. With Doppler US, high-flow signals can be observed. On unenhanced CT scans the lesion is solid, well-demarcated, isodense or slightly hyperdense; sometimes it shows a central hypodense area corresponding to fibrovascular scar. On postcontrast scans it appears hyper/isodense. At dynamic CT the lesion density, which is high during the arterial phase, decreases quickly in the parenchymal and the venous phases and reaches equal/inferior values to surrounding liver parenchyma. On liver angio-CT it is sometimes possible to visualize the bile ducts in the central scar. At angiography, FNH is hypervascular and homogeneous. On MR scans, in T1-weighted SE sequences, the condition is isointense or slightly hypointense, whereas on T2-weighted pulse sequences it is slightly hyperintense; the central scar is hypointense on T1, and hyperintense on T2, weighted scans. As we have no pathognomonic patterns but only orientative ones, a reliable differential diagnosis with hepatocellular adenoma (HA) and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) must be based on biopsy or cytology or, even better, histology. The differential diagnosis is nevertheless necessary because, while FNH does not usually require a surgical approach but only a radiological follow-up, both HA (due to possible bleeding and degeneration) and FL-HCC require surgery.

  16. Duodenal nodularity in children: A clinical and pathologic study of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çaltepe Dinler Gönül

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Duodenal nodularity is an uncommon endoscopic appearance of numerous visible mucosal nodules in the proximal duodenum. In this retrospective study we aimed to determine the clinical significance and histopathologic features of duodenal nodularity in children. Materials and Methods: The medical records of the patients who were defined to have duodenal nodularity by endoscopy were reviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were expressed as mean ± SD and percentages (%. Results: Seventeen patients with endoscopically defined duodenal nodularity were chosen. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.1 years (range: 6-17 years, 9 males. Abdominal pain (47% was the most common clinical symptom and antral nodularity (41% was the most common endoscopic finding in children with duodenal nodularity. Histopathologic evaluation of duodenal nodules revealed chronic inflammation in all patients, increased intercryptal and intraepithelial numbers of eosinophils in 70.5%, and villous atrophy in 47% of patients. Giardia infestation was demonstrated in 6 patients by histologic examination and/or Giardia lamblia-specific antigen positivity in stools. The clinical diagnoses of the patients have shown variations, such as celiac disease, giardiasis, secretory IgA deficiency, and Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and some of them were associated with the others. Conclusions: Although the endoscopic appearance is similar, clinical spectrum and pathologic features are not so similar and there are no specific histomorphologic findings for nodularity. The most demonstrative findings we observed in children were increased lymphocyte and/or eosinophil infiltration in the duodenal mucosa. We suggested that care should be taken in the evaluation of microbiological and immunologic etiologies causing this prominent inflammatory reaction.

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizzino Antonino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population. The reports of focal nodular hyperplasia in children have recently increased in number, with many cases associated to drug intake, particularly to chemotherapy. We here describe, to our knowledge, the first case of focal nodular hyperplasia in association with diabetes mellitus in childhood.

  18. Low Iodine in the Follicular Lumen Caused by Cytoplasm Mis-localization of Sodium Iodide Symporter may Induce Nodular Goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huibin; Shi, Yaxiong; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is a key ingredient in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and also a major factor in the regulation of thyroid function. A local reduction of iodine content in follicular lumen leads to overexpression of local thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), which in turn excessively stimulates the regional thyroid tissue, and result in the formation of nodular goiter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between iodine content and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression by using the clinical specimens from patients with nodular goiter and explored the pathogenesis triggered by iodine deficiency in nodular goiter. In total, 28 patients were clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and the corresponding adjacent normal thyroid specimens were harvested simultaneously. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed to assay NIS expression and localization in thyrocytes of both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid tissues. NIS expression mediated by iodine in follicular lumen was confirmed by follicular model in vitro. Meanwhile, radioscan with iodine-131were conducted on both nodular goiter and adjacent normal thyroid. Our data showed that NIS expression in nodular goiter was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with low iodine in the follicular lumen. Abnormal localization of NIS and lower amount of radioactive iodine-131 were also found in nodular goiter. Our data implied that low iodine in the follicular lumen caused by cytoplasm mis-localization of NIS may induce nodular goiter.

  19. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-08-01

    Genetic and a large number of environmental non-iodine-related factors play a role in the cause of nodular goitre. Most evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the cause of goitre is from cross-sectional, population-based studies. Only a few studies have included prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter is often thyroid volume or frequency with increased thyroid volume. Moreover, information on the presence and effect of gene-environment, gene-gene, and environment-environment effect modifications is limited. Thus, firm conclusions about the relative contributions and causality of the investigated risk factors should be made with caution. Smoking seems to be an established risk factor for nodular goitre, possibly with effect modification from iodine intake, as the risk associated with smoking is smaller or absent in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The use of oral contraceptives might have protective effects against goitre, and childbirth is an increased risk factor for goitre in areas with non-optimal iodine intake. Insulin resistance is a recently investigated risk factor, and the risk of goitre may be reversible with metformin treatment. Iodine remains the major environmental risk factor for nodular goitre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nodular fasciitis: correlation of MRI findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; De Schepper, A.M.A.; Vanhoenacker, F.; Gielen, J.; De Raeve, H.; Aparisi, F.; Rausin, L.; Somville, J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the histopathology of nodular fasciitis (NF) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in order to evaluate the basis of the MR signal characteristics. Design and patients: Ten patients with NF, nine females and 1 male, with an age ranging from 13 to 58 years (mean 26.8 years) were studied. MRI findings, available in all 10 patients, were compared with the histopathology in nine patients, and an area-to-area comparative study of the whole specimen section histopathology and MRI was performed in two patients. Results: On the basis of an excisional biopsy or resection specimen, the nine lesions were classified into myxoid (n=4), cellular (n=3) and fibrous (n=2) subtypes. Four myxoid lesions with a subcutaneous location showed a homogeneous SI comparable with muscle on T1-weighted images, high SI on T2-weighted images, and had homogeneous enhancement. One cellular lesion presented with homogeneous, slightly higher SI than muscle on T1-weighted images and inhomogeneous, high SI on T2-weighted images. Alcian blue stain of the whole specimen section revealed the lesion had two parts corresponding to different enhancement patterns on MRI. The blue-stained myxoid part showed markedly diffuse enhancement, while the non-stained cystic space had only peripheral enhancement. Two other cellular lesions had the same appearance on both T1- and T2-weighted images and showed inhomogeneous, diffuse enhancement. One fibrous subtype lesion presented with inhomogeneous, overall slightly higher SI than muscle on T1-weighted images, lower SI at the periphery and high SI in the center on STIR images and only peripheral enhancement. Microscopy and CD-31 staining of the lesion showed more extracellular matrix, with poor vascularity in the center and more collagenous matrix with higher vascularity at the periphery. Conclusion: Although similar findings were found in some lesions, the large histologic variability of NF hampers the definition of a prototype of NF

  1. 47 patients with FLNA associated periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Max; Kasper, Burkhard; Bohring, Axel; Rutsch, Frank; Kluger, Gerhard; Hoffjan, Sabine; Spranger, Stephanie; Behnecke, Anne; Ferbert, Andreas; Hahn, Andreas; Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard; Diepold, Katharina; Schreyer, Isolde; Bernhard, Matthias K; Mueller, Franziska; Siebers-Renelt, Ulrike; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Uyanik, Goekhan; Janssens, Sandra; Boltshauser, Eugen; Winkler, Juergen; Schuierer, Gerhard; Hehr, Ute

    2015-10-15

    Heterozygous loss of function mutations within the Filamin A gene in Xq28 are the most frequent cause of bilateral neuronal periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Most affected females are reported to initially present with difficult to treat seizures at variable age of onset. Psychomotor development and cognition may be normal or mildly to moderately impaired. Distinct associated extracerebral findings have been observed and may help to establish the diagnosis including patent ductus arteriosus Botalli, progressive dystrophic cardiac valve disease and aortic dissection, chronic obstructive lung disease or chronic constipation. Genotype-phenotype correlations could not yet be established. Sanger sequencing and MLPA was performed for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH (age range 1 to 65 years). For 34 patients more detailed clinical information was available from a structured questionnaire and medical charts on family history, development, epileptologic findings, neurological examination, cognition and associated clinical findings. Available detailed cerebral MR imaging was assessed for 20 patients. Thirty-nine different FLNA mutations were observed, they are mainly truncating (37/39) and distributed throughout the entire coding region. No obvious correlation between the number and extend of PVNH and the severity of the individual clinical manifestation was observed. 10 of the mutation carriers so far are without seizures at a median age of 19.7 years. 22 of 24 patients with available educational data were able to attend regular school and obtain professional education according to age. We report the clinical and mutation spectrum as well as MR imaging for a large cohort of 47 patients with Filamin A associated PVNH including two adult males. Our data are reassuring in regard to psychomotor and cognitive development, which is within normal range for the majority of patients. However, a concerning median diagnostic latency of 17 to 20

  2. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  3. Lithospheric magma dynamics beneath the El Hierro Volcano, Canary Islands: insights from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Tiraboschi, C.; Principe, C.; Groppelli, G.; Villa, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    At active volcanoes, petrological studies have been proven to be a reliable approach in defining the depth conditions of magma transport and storage in both the mantle and the crust. Based on fluid inclusion and mineral geothermobarometry in mantle xenoliths, we propose a model for the magma plumbing system of the Island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The peridotites studied here were entrained in a lava flow exposed in the El Yulan Valley. These lavas are part of the rift volcanism that occurred on El Hierro at approximately 40-30 ka. The peridotites are spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, and dunites which equilibrated in the shallow mantle at pressures between 1.5 and 2 GPa and at temperatures between 800 and 950 °C (low-temperature peridotites; LT), as well as at higher equilibration temperatures of 900 to 1100 °C (high-temperature peridotites; HT). Microthermometry and Raman analyses of fluid inclusions reveal trapping of two distinct fluid phases: early type I metasomatic CO2-N2 fluids ( X N2 = 0.01-0.18; fluid density (d) = 1.19 g/cm3), coexisting with silicate-carbonate melts in LT peridotites, and late type II pure CO2 fluids in both LT (d = 1.11-1.00 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) and HT ( d = 1.04-1.11 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) peridotites. While type I fluids represent metasomatic phases in the deep oceanic lithosphere (at depths of 60-65 km) before the onset of magmatic activity, type II CO2 fluids testify to two fluid trapping episodes during the ascent of xenoliths in their host mafic magmas. Identification of magma accumulation zones through interpretation of type II CO2 fluid inclusions and mineral geothermobarometry indicate the presence of a vertically stacked system of interconnected small magma reservoirs in the shallow lithospheric mantle between a depth of 22 and 36 km (or 0.67 to 1 GPa). This magma accumulation region fed a short-lived magma storage region located in the lower oceanic crust at a depth of 10-12 km (or 0.26-0.34 GPa). Following our model

  4. El uso del hierro en la Casa Milá de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila Rodríguez, Rafael

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The materials and construction systems, even the conception of the general structure, were for Gaudí no more than mediums at the service of the formal and spatial expression of his architectural imagination. Sometimes, the use of certain materials was indiscriminate or without sufficient guarantees. The Casa Milá is a good example. The use of laminated iron in the Pedrera, which allowed Gaudí to conceive a story independent of the façades —wall-screens of stone which seem to defy the law of gravity—, have been, at the same time, the main cause of the deterioration of these façades. In the case of the structure, the conceptual solution based on the use of iron has responded well to the static needs. This has not occured with the solutions —no less ingeneous but too improvlsed and risky— foreseen, also based on iron, to hold up the façade. Here, the material, subjected to the effects of humidity —favored by the form given to the stone—, has not resisted the passage of time very well.

    Los materiales y los sistemas constructivos, incluso la concepción de la estructura general, no eran para Gaudí más que medios al servicio de la expresividad formal y espacial de su imaginativa arquitectura. A veces, la utilización de algunos materiales se hizo de forma indiscriminada o sin suficientes garantías. La Casa Milá es un buen ejemplo. La utilización del hierro laminado en la Pedrera, que permitió a Gaudí concebir una planta libre independiente de las fachadas —muros-cortina de piedra que parecen desafiar la ley de la gravedad—, ha sido, al mismo tiempo, la causa principal del deterioro de estas fachadas. En el caso de la estructura, la solución conceptual basada en el uso del hierro ha respondido bien a las solicitudes estáticas. No ha ocurrido así con las soluciones —no menos ingeniosas pero excesivamente improvisadas y arriesgadas— previstas, también en base al hierro, para la sustentación de la fachada. Aqu

  5. Modificación superficial de aceros y hierros fundidos mediante láser de Nd: YAG. // Steels and cast irons superficial modification by means of laser Nd: YAG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sagaró Z.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de los autores en el tratamiento térmico superficial con técnica láser (TTSL. Con el empleo deun láser de Nd: YAG se procedió al endurecimiento superficial de los aceros AISI 1045, W1, W112 y hierros fundidos detipo laminar y nodular. Los autores prestan atención a las rutas de endurecimiento superficial atendiendo a los parámetrosoperacionales del láser: potencia incidente en la zona de interacción (P y la velocidad de barrido del haz de láser (V. Deigual forma se establecen valoraciones acerca de las estructuras metalográficas obtenidas. En todos los casos se reportanvalores de microdureza Vickers que oscilan entre los 500-900 HV (incrementos de 3-4 veces respecto al substratooriginal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer en todos los casos experimentados que el incremento de lavelocidad de barrido provocó una disminución de la profundidad de la capa endurecida. Las experiencias del TTSL en losaceros ensayados muestran una tendencia a la disminución de la profundidad del endurecimiento con el incremento delcontenido de carbono.Palabras claves: Endurecimiento superficial, parámetros de operación de láser., microdureza, profundidadde capa endurecida, de fallo, vibraciones.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper expose the experiences of researchers on the laser surface heat treatment. The hardening of AISI 1045, W1,W112 steels and cast irons flake and nodular was carried out by using a Nd: YAG laser. Operation parameters of laser, likebeam power (P and traverse speed of the laser spot (V are closely with hardening depth . Authors present some analysesabout metallographic studies. In all cases are reported Vickers microhardness about 500-900 HV (three or four times higherthan original substrates. Relations between microhardness and depth of hardening are presented for the processedmaterials. Experimental results showed that the increased

  6. Estudio de la deficiencia de hierro en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva: una práctica clínica que precisa mayor atención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Belmar Vega

    2016-05-01

    Conclusión: La ICC se asocia con alta frecuencia a anemia, deficiencia de hierro e insuficiencia renal. El estudio de los parámetros férricos en los pacientes que ingresan con ICC, pese a que la corrección de la deficiencia de hierro se asocia a mejoría de la sintomatología, no se realiza con la frecuencia necesaria.

  7. Intra-articular Nodular Fasciitis: An Unexpected Diagnosis for a Joint Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Michelle Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lesions in and around a joint can arise from underlying dermis, subcutis, deep muscle, bone or synovium. Clinical presentation can include joint pain, joint swelling, palpable masses and mechanical restriction. Whilst giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, lipoma arborescens, juxta articular myxomas and inflammatory arthritis are the better-known conditions of the joint. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis, on the other hand, is less well recognized both clinically and radiologically. It is rarely seen in routine practice and is only described in case reports in the literature. Due to the non-specific clinical and radiological findings as well as the unfamiliarity with the entity, the diagnosis of intra-articular nodular fasciitis is usually clinched only after histological examination. We present a case of intra-articular nodular fasciitis arising in the knee joint which was not suspected clinically or radiologically.

  8. Genetic and non-iodine-related factors in the aetiology of nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nils; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and a large number of environmental non-iodine-related factors play a role in the cause of nodular goitre. Most evidence for the influence of genetic and environmental factors in the cause of goitre is from cross-sectional, population-based studies. Only a few studies have included...... prospective data on risk factors for nodular goitre, although few prospective data are available on the effect of iodine and tobacco smoking on goitre development. Goitre is not one single phenotype. Many epidemiological studies do not distinguish diffuse from nodular goitre, as the investigated parameter...... is often thyroid volume or frequency with increased thyroid volume. Moreover, information on the presence and effect of gene-environment, gene-gene, and environment-environment effect modifications is limited. Thus, firm conclusions about the relative contributions and causality of the investigated risk...

  9. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with nodular antritis and follicular gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is known to be the must common cause of chronic gastritis having some endoscopic and pathologic characteristies as determinated by the Sydney System for Gastritis Classification. The aim of our case report was to point out the relationship between an endoscopic finding of nodular antritis and the presence of H. pylori infection and active chronic gastritis. Case report. Our patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic complaints and was diagnosed as having nodular antritis, but also underwent urease test and hystopathologic examination of antral mucosa, to determine the presence and density of H. pylori infection and the presence and severity of gastritis. After a course of anti H. pylori treatment, dyspepsia improved and new biopsy specimens obtained two months and six months afterwards revealed no pathological findings. Conclusion. The case report supported the association of H. pylori infection of lymphoid follicles with nodular gastric mucosis.

  10. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  11. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in an African American (AA) man with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteddu, Nirmal K; Duggirala, Jayasri; Reddy, Anand C

    2018-05-18

    Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING) in a non-diabetic patient is uncommon. Nodular glomerulosclerosis is hallmark sign of diabetic nephropathy. ING is a very rare clinicopathological disease associated with smoking, obesity and hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. A 68-year-old non-obese African American man with hypertension, smoking and history of hepatitis C presented to the clinic with progressive worsening of lower extremity oedema and declining renal function over few months. Renal biopsy demonstrated nodular glomerulosclerosis. In this case, ING is hypothesised to be associated with hepatitis C along with smoking and hypertension (HTN). We present this case to speculate the existence of yet unknown aetiologies of ING. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The clinical application of percutaneous auto-biopsy of small lung nodular under CT-Guided

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanmin; Ye Genxin; Zhang Chenghui; Wang Yu; Chen Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluated the clinical value of technology of petcutaneous auto-biopsy of small lung nodular under CT- Guide. Methods: 44 cases of small single lung nodular were underwent biopsy with 20G auto-biopsy needle under CT guidance. All cases underwent pathological diagnosis. Results: All 44 cases were punctured successfully. 41 cases were succeeded in first puncturation. The success ratio was 93.02%. Other 3 cases needed second puncturation. 39 of 44 cases pathological diagnosis were malignant. Only 1 case could not be diagnosed. 6 patients had lightly pneumatothorax after biopsy. 10 cases had mild pneumonorrhagia after biopsy. 2 of them had haemptysis. All cases had no complication such as infection, needle track implantation. Conclusion: The technology of CT Guidance auto-biopsy of small lung nodular is safe and effective; it has extreme diagnostic ratio and less complication. (authors)

  13. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp of a young woman: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masayoshi; Hiramoto, Michiaki; Fujii, Miki; Togo, Takeshi

    2004-09-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma was first reported as clear-cell eccrine carcinoma by Keasby and Hadley in 1954 (Cancer 1954;7:934-52) and rare malignant tumor. Several synonyms and related terms for nodular hidradenocarcinoma have appeared in the literature. They have potential for uncontrollable local recurrence, tend to metastasize, and often cause death. Most cases have been reported in the pathology literature with limited clinical information. We report a 27-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. The management of rare cases is not well defined. In our case, she was only treated with a wide local excision, and no recurrence was observed 2 years after excision. Most authors have concluded that early wide surgical excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. The efficiency of adjuvant therapy generally has not established.

  14. Geologic-radiometric techniques applied for uranium prospection at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Olivera, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using geologic-radiometric techniques uraniferous anomalies were evaluated at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area located in Pinar del Rio province. During the uranium prospection works at most promising areas, geologic itineraries and gamma ray, radon emanation spectrometric survey were done. Trenches were made and some boreholes were drilled (up to 20-30 m depth). In addition a lot of samples were taken in order to determine the amount of U, Ra, Th, y K by spectrometric techniques. As result of this investigation, a geological placing, a mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of uraniferous mineralization was possible to find out. The appropriate prospection indications for uranium exploration at Esperanza geologic zone were defined

  15. Figuras zoomorfas de barro de la Edad del Hierro en la Meseta Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo ALONSO HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el yacimiento de Las Cogotas, durante la campaña de excavaciones arqueológicas de 1986 apareció una cabeza de caballo, en barro cocido. Es de destacar su interés al igual que el de otras piezas aparecidas en las antiguas excavaciones de este yacimiento (cabeza de serpiente y bóvido. Se trata de importantes ejemplos de figuración zoomorfa en el marco de la Meseta Norte, realizados durante la Segunda Edad del Hierro.ABSTRACT: A horse's head in clay was discovered in the archaeological excavations at Las Cogotas settlement in 1986. This figure and others recovered in the excavations of the 20's (serpent and ox are remarkable in the context of zoomorphic representations of the Meseta Iron Age. They are important examples of the sculpture elaborated by Late Iron Age communitties of the Central Meseta.

  16. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  17. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  18. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  19. Eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana del hierro en la Región Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo J. Pico F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la investigación fue analizar la eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana de Hierro de Reducción Directa (HRD en la Región Guayana en el periodo 2005 al 2009. La investigación fue explicativa. El método aplicadofue el hipotético deductivo con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. La recolección de datos fue documental y la población fueron los reactores ubicados en la Región Guayana, ya que allí es donde se concentra toda la producción de HRD de Venezuela. La técnica de análisis de los datos aplicada fue Análisis Envolvente de Datos. Los resultados, indican que la producción de HRD está en descenso por la disminución de oferta de insumos (factores externos y la ineficiencia del manejo de insumos (factores internos, siendo la más significativa los factores externos que representa un 74% de la producción y una perdida de 17.569 miles de toneladas, lo que significa un descenso de 1,02 miles de Toneladas anuales en los niveles de producción equivale una pérdida de 23.330 miles de toneladas en el lapso 2005-2009, un 38,7% de producción. Se concluye que es ineludible un cambio de actitud con criterio de competitividad en la conducción de la gestión de los procesos de producción de reducción directa de hierro

  20. Nodular Gastritis and Pathologic Findings in Children and Young Adults with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Noh, Tae-Woong; Baek, Seoung-Yon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the pathologic characteristics of nodular gastritis in children and young adults infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Materials and Methods A total of 328 patients were enrolled in this study, and the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was done with gastroduodenal endoscopy concomitant with a CLO™ test and pathologic analysis of the biopsy specimens. Diagnoses of normal, superficial gastritis, nodular gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease were made from the gastroduodenal endoscopic findings. The density of H. pylori organisms in the gastric mucosa was rated as normal, mild, moderate, or marked. The pathologic findings of nodular gastritis were based on the histopathologic findings of inflammation, immune activity, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia. Each of these findings was scored as either normal (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or marked (3) according to the updated Sydney system and using visual analog scales. The gastritis score was the sum of the four histopathologic scores. Results In this study, nodular gastritis (50.6%) was most common, and mild density (51.5%) H. pylori infection was also common upon microscopic examination. Intestinal metaplasia occurred in 9 patients (2.7%). Conclusion Logistic regression revealed a significant increase in the incidence of nodular gastritis with gastritis score (p = 0.008), but not an association with sex, age, or H. pylori density. Gastritis score was the only significant factor influencing the occurrence of nodular gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia, which was originally thought to be a pre-malignant lesion, occurred in 2.7% of the patients with H. pylori infection. PMID:17461522

  1. Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lauren; Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Desser, Terry; Szabunio, Margaret M; Hildebolt, Charles F; Mandel, Susan J; Cronan, John J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sonographic appearance of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis. As part of an ongoing multiinstitutional study, patients who underwent ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration of one or more thyroid nodules were analyzed for multiple predetermined sonographic features. Patients completed a questionnaire, including information about thyroid function and thyroid medication. Patients (n = 61) with fine-needle aspiration cytologic results consistent with nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 64) were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) diameter of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis was 15 +/- 7.33 mm. Nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred as a solitary nodule in 36% (23/64) of cases and in the setting of five or more nodules in 23% (15/64) of cases. Fifty-five percent (35/64) of the cases of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred within a sonographic background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 45% (29/64) of cases occurred within normal thyroid parenchyma. The sonographic appearance was extremely variable. It was most commonly solid (69% [42/61] of cases) and hypoechoic (47% [27/58] of cases). Twenty percent (13/64) of nodules had calcifications (seven with nonspecific bright reflectors, four with macrocalcifications, and three eggshell), and 5% (3/64) of nodules had colloid. Twenty-seven percent (17/64) of nodules had a hypoechoic halo. The margins were well defined in 60% (36/60) and ill defined in 40% (24/60) of nodules. On Doppler analysis, 35% (22/62) of nodules were hypervascular, 42% (26/62) were isovascular or hypovascular, and 23% (14/62) were avascular. The sonographic features and vascularity of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis were extremely variable.

  2. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogentic volcanic field during magmatic reactivation: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ocaña, C.; Feldman, R. C.; Pointer, Z. R.; Rodríguez, F.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    El Hierro (278 km2), the younger, smallest and westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago, is a 5-km-high edifice constructed by rapid constructive and destructive processes in 1.12 Ma, with a truncated trihedron shape and three convergent ridges of volcanic cones. It experienced a submarine eruption from 12 October, 2011 and 5 March 2012, off its southern coast that was the first one to be monitored from the beginning in the Canary Islands. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. Diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island since 1998 in a yearly basis, with much higher frequency in the period 2011-2012. At each survey, about 600 sampling sites were selected to obtain a homogeneous distribution. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ following the accumulation chamber method. During pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced significant increases before the onset of the submarine eruption and the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest (Melián et al., 2014. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, 6976-6991). The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 53.1 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 77.6% and 22.4% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 1.8 and 9.2 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the interception center of the three convergent ridges and the north of the island. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by El Hierro was at 1,150 ± 42 t d-1, value higher than the

  3. Forecasting the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of soil He degassing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, E.; Pérez, N. M.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Padilla, G. D.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island is the southwesternmost and the youngest island of the Canary archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of 12 October a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic

  4. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  5. Estratégias de precificação em pequenas empresas do segmento comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Göller, Tamires Kryszczun

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo visa analisar os principais métodos para formação de preços com ênfase no segmento comercial, norteada por um estudo de caso de uma loja comercial. A formação do preço de venda pode definir a lucratividade desejada pelos proprietários, mas isso não é um processo simples, pois existem diversas formas de precificação, as que são baseadas em custos (mark-up); concorrência e valor percebido pelo cliente. A precificação baseada em custos considera os elementos que compõem o custo...

  6. Giant Solitary Nodular Trichoepithelioma: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A giant solitary nodular trichoepithelioma (GST is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. A 45-year-old female was diagnosed as having a giant solitary nodular trichoepithelioma on her right forearm. About 11 cases have been reported in literature. Our case is the 2nd largest of all reported cases and, so far, GST of the forearm has not been reported in literature. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors, both clinically and histopathologically. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 58-60

  7. The Importance of a Proper Selection Area to be Biopsied in Nodular Leukoplakia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular leukoplakia is a non-homogeneous type of oral leukoplakia presenting a white surface with verrucous, nodular, ulcerated or erythematous features with a greater risk of malignant transformation when compared to the homogeneous type. Common sites of involvement include lip commissures, buccal mucosa and soft palate. It is often associated with epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma and requires detailed microscopic assessment and regular follow-up. The importance of a proper selection of the area to be biopsied and the close teamwork between a dentist and oral pathologist is the basis of providing an accurate final diagnosis.

  8. Ultrasonography, angiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, C.; Pelletier, G.; Attali, P.; Ladouch-Badre, A.; Fabre, M.; Roche, A.; Etienne, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonographic, computed tomographic, and angiographic abnormalities of nodular regenerative hyperplasia have been described in very few cases. We report here the case of a 50-year-old man with round, well-limited hypoechogenic lesions involving the two lobes of the liver, and hypervascular, poorly delineated angiographic lesions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance of the liver were normal. Histological examination of large liver specimens provided by intraoperative biopsy allowed the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Such a pseudo-tumoral ultrasonographic and angiographic pattern must be recognized in order to avoid diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes, especially since percutaneous liver biopsy usually fails to diagnose this disease. (author)

  9. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma with prominent squamous differentiation: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Kim, Y C; Cinn, Y W

    2000-09-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with nodular hidradenocarcinoma on the scalp. While histopathology of the tumor showed a circumscribed, lobulated intradermal mass with prominent squamous differentiation, the immunohistochemical study with antibodies to cytokeratins, CAM 5.2 and 19, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein and p53 all demonstrated positivity. These findings confirmed that the tumor was of eccrine sweat gland origin and it was thought to be a nodular hidradenocarcinoma differentiating toward the eccrine duct and/or secretory portions. She was treated with a wide local excision and no recurrence was observed 18 months after excision.

  10. Estudio de la rentabilidad de un aliado comercial de Telefónica Telecom

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este documento ha sido elaborado para facilitar el estudio de rentabilidad de un aliado comercial para servicios de telecomunicaciones como Amigos Comerciales, con el fin de conocer la factibilidad del proyecto al incorporarse en una empresa como Telefonica Telecom con alternativas de crear negocio. Además, permite tener lineamientos básicos para tomar decisiones frente a la opción de constituir y operar una empresa comercializadora en este sector del mercado en Colombia. Esta...

  11. Las rentas de las exportaciones y la política comercial con oligopolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Ávalos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Para una industria oligopólica, este ensayo analiza la manera cómo la políti -ca comercial puede depender de la naturaleza competitiva de los mercados.Estudiamos los efectos de las fusiones nacionales y extranjeras en la políticaco mer cial óp ti ma del país de re fe ren cia y en las ren tas de las ex por ta cio nes yel bienestar interno. Hay cuatro resultados principales: i se de mues tra quesi el país de referencia aplica su política comercial óptima, siempre perderáa resultas de una fusión extranje ra; ii cuan do el país de re fe ren cia apli ca supolítica comercial óptima, una fusión extranjera disminuirá las rentas de lasexportaciones; iii cuando el gobierno responde óptimamente a una fusióninterna, ésta no afectará el bienestar nacional, y iv cuan do el go bier no res -pon de óp ti ma men te a una fu sión in ter na, ésta no afec ta rá las ren tas de lasexportaciones.

  12. Biodisponibilidad de diferentes compuestos de hierro añadidos a un néctar de frutas funcional. Interacción con las vitaminas y Fructo-oligosacáridos

    OpenAIRE

    Haro Vicente, Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    El enriquecimiento de los alimentos con hierro es considerado una de las estrategias más eficaces en la prevención de la deficiencia en hierro. El éxito del enriquecimiento de los alimentos depende tanto del tipo de alimento como del compuesto de hierro seleccionado. En nuestro estudio se seleccionó un néctar de frutas y varios compuestos de hierro: Pirofosfato férrico micronizado (PFM), Bisglicinato ferroso (BF) y Sulfato ferroso (SF), éste último como referencia, junto con las vitaminas C, ...

  13. Efecto de la concentracion de hidrogeno en la red de hierro bcc por calculos ab-initio

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Javier; Andrés, Pedro L. de; Fullea, J.; Andrade, C.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizando cálculos mecano-cuánticos de primeros principios hemos estudiado la interacción del hidrógeno con la red cúbica centrada en el cuerpo del hierro. El hidrógeno intersticial puede ocupar dos posiciones de alta simetría en la red: el hueco octaédrico y el tetraédrico. Nuestros cálculos nos proporcionan barreras de difusión entre ambos huecos, que analizamos para entender la propagación del hidrogeno a través de la red de hierro. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la concentración de hidróge...

  14. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo

    2017-07-01

    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  15. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  16. Nodular Epithelial Hyperplasia after Photorefractive Keratectomy Followed by Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoni, Ayla; Salerno, Liberdade Cezaro; Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of nodular epithelial hyperplasia and stromal alterations in a patient with keratoconus who was submitted to topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) followed by corneal collagen cross-linking. Debridement of the epithelial nodule was performed. After a 2-year followup, a new topography-guided PRK was indicated.

  17. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Zhang, Qing; You, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined liver specimens from 15 patients with uveal melanoma (UM) who had died of their disseminated disease. We found 2 distinct growth patterns of UM metastasis: infiltrative (n = 12) and nodular (n = 3). In the infiltrative pattern, individual UM cells with a CD133+ cancer stem cell-like p...

  18. The effects of corrosion conditions and cold work on the nodular corrosion of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung

    1992-02-01

    The nodular corrosion of Zircaloy-4 was investigated on the effects of corrosion conditions and cold work. Variation of steam pressures, heat-up environments and prefilms were considered and cold work effects were also studied. The corrosion rate of Zircaloy-4 was dependent on pressure between 1 and 100 atm and it followed the cubic law as W=16.85 x P 0.31 for plate specimens and W=12.69 x P 0.27 for tube specimens, where W is weight gain (mg/dm 2 ) and P is the steam pressure (atm). The environment variation in autoclave during heat-up period did not affect the early stage of nodular corrosion. The prefilm, which was formed at 500 .deg. C under 1 atm steam for 4 hours, restrained the formation of the initial small nodules. The oxide film formed under 1 atm steam showed no difference of electrical resistivity from the oxides formed under 100 atm steam pressure. Cold work specimens showed the higher resistivity against nodular corrosion than as-received specimens. The corrosion resistance arising from cold work seems to be due to the texture changes by the cold work. The results showed that cold work can affect the later stage of uniform corrosion and the early stage of nodular corrosion, namely, the nodule initiation stage

  19. Intracranial evaluation and laser ablation for epilepsy with periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Tandon, Nitin

    2016-10-01

    Surgical treatment of focal epilepsy in the presence of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) poses a challenge, as the relative roles of the nodular tissue and the overlying cortex in the generation of seizures can be complex and variable. Here, we review the literature on chronic invasive EEG recordings in humans with this substrate and present two illustrative cases from our practice. We found that while inter-ictal spiking from nodules is common, clinical seizures rarely arise solely from nodular tissue. More typically, ictal onset is simultaneous with overlying neocortex or mesial temporal structures. Surgical outcome is more favorable in cases with unilateral (as opposed to bilateral) PVNH, and when a substantial or complete ablation of PVNH is performed. In rare cases, nodular ablation alone may be sufficient, as may be completed by MRI-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy. The mechanism(s) by which PNVH interacts with overlying cortex are not fully understood, but we suggest that PVNH either orchestrates or amplifies local network epileptogenicity. At present, invasive recordings with penetrating depth electrodes are required prior to surgical therapy, as illustrated in our cases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A novel Xp22.11 deletion causing a syndrome of craniosynostosis and periventricular nodular heterotopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelenberg, M. van; Lerone, M.; Toni, T. De; Divizia, M.T.; Brouwer, A.P. de; Veltman, J.A.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Robertson, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a follow-up evaluation of a male with a phenotype including craniosynostosis, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and neurodevelopmental delay. He was initially assigned a clinical diagnosis of Fontaine-Farriaux syndrome (FFS) as an infant although now, with improved delineation of

  1. Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2010-06-01

    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

  2. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia, portal vein thrombosis and primary myelofibrosis: an unusual triple association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sández Montagut, Víctor Manuel; Giráldez Gallego, Álvaro; Ontanilla Clavijo, Guilermo

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of a regenerative nodular hyperplasia with a portal vein cavernomatosis with a subsequent progression to symptomatic, occlusive thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein. A thorough investigation resulted in a final diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis associated with the V617F mutation in the JAK2 gene.

  3. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Young Ha; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  4. Cushing syndrome in a young woman due to primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Kathryn L; Davis, Anna L; Curnow, Paul A; Serpell, Jonathan W; McLean, Catriona A; Topliss, Duncan J

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Cushing syndrome due to apparently sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease in a young woman. We describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histologic findings of Cushing syndrome due to the rare condition of primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening itch without rash over her shoulders and arms and weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face. Careful questioning did not elicit any history of exogenous glucocorticoid use (systemic or topical), including hydrocortisone. On examination, the patient had a slightly rounded and plethoric face, a small buffalo hump, central adiposity, and thin skin with a few small striae on her inner thighs. No features of the Carney complex were observed. Investigations showed hypercortisolism with suppressed corticotropin and normal adrenal imaging despite documentation of enlarged adrenal glands at removal. High-dose dexamethasone administration was followed by a decrease in urinary free cortisol excretion rather than a paradoxical rise as previously reported in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. No mutations were detected in the PRKAR1A gene. Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease should be suspected in patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome who have normal adrenal imaging. The role of genetic testing in apparently sporadic cases is not established, but cumulative experience may be helpful in defining the frequency of PRKAR1A mutations.

  5. Cervical nodular fasciitis in a 10-year-old girl: a case report of a rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, as clinical and morphologic characteristics are similar to those of malignant tumours, this entity is often misdiagnosed, with a few cases described in the literature. We present a case of nodular fasciitis involving the retropharynx and hypopharynx of a 10-year-old girl and discuss the importance of considering this rare ...

  6. Synthesis of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in the ferrite of nodular cast iron

    CERN Document Server

    Fras, E; Guzik, E; Lopez, H

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis method of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in nodular cast iron is presented. After introduction of this method, the nanoparticles with 10-70 nm of diameter was obtained in the ferrite. The diffraction investigations confirmed that these particles are vanadium carbides of type V/sub 3/C/sub 4/.

  7. Part 1: MRI features of focal nodular hyperplasia with an emphasis on hepatobiliary contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Tom; Seale, Melanie; Yap, Yap

    2014-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is the second most common benign liver tumour and typically do not require any treatment. An accurate non-invasive diagnosis is therefore vital to avoid unnecessary intervention and to reassure patients. This article discusses the demographics and pathology of FNH and reviews the appearance of FNH at MRI using liver-specific contrast agents.

  8. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez-Garibay Edgar Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis en niños que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (Inadej, Arandas, Jalisco, México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre 1997 y 1999 con 432 niños de 12 a 120 meses de edad, de nuevo ingreso al Inadej. Se determinaron variables hematológicas, yodo en orina y presencia de parásitos. Se utilizaron las pruebas Ji cuadrada y t de Student en variables no paramétricas y paramétricas. Resultados. Hubo más anemia (20 vs 7.4% p=0.007 y deficiencia de hierro (60.9 vs 44.4% p=0.02 en prescolares que en escolares. El 29% presentaron deficiencia de yodo (10.5% moderada o grave y 47.2% parasitosis. Predominaron G. lamblia y E. histolytica. Bajo salario, sexo masculino y no tener seguridad social se asociaron con parasitosis. Conclusiones. La elevada prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis obliga al sector salud estatal a ejecutar medidas eficaces para abatir estas enfermedades prevenibles.

  9. Apertura comercial de México y su impacto en la Balanza Comercial: análisis para el período 1993-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Duana Avila

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de sustitución de importaciones el cual caracterizó a la economía de México desde los años treinta, fue eliminado por la crisis económica nacional de 1982,y fue sustituido por uno de economía abierta, estos cambios profundos presentaron como consecuencia la firma y entrada en vigor del TLCAN. El ingreso de México al Acuerdo General de Comercio y Aranceles (GATT se dio cuarenta años después de que se fundara. Con este se inició el proceso de apertura comercial contemporáneo de la economía mexicana.

  10. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  11. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  12. The 2011 submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    On 10 October 2011 a submarine volcanic eruption began 2 km SW of La Restinga village in the South coast of El Hierro Island (Spain). It became the first submarine eruption reported in 500 years of historical record in the Canary Islands. The eruption took place after three months of intensive seismic activity and ground deformation. The first signal evidencing the eruption was a harmonic tremor signal, located somewhere in the South sector of El Hierro Island and registered in every seismic station on the island. On the following day, the tremoŕs amplitude increased up enough to be felt by the residents of La Restinga. The first visual evidence of the eruption was observed during the afternoon of 12 October, a large light-green coloured area on the sea surface, 2 km to the SW of La Restinga. Three days later, steaming lava fragments were observed floating on the sea, in the area where the vent was supposed to be located. These fragments had a bomb-like shape and their sizes ranged between 10 and 40 cm long. They were bicoloured, a black outer part with a basaltic composition, and a white inner part, highly vesiculated and rich in silica content (>60%). This type of fragments was only observed during the first days of the eruption. Within the next two months further emission episodes have been observed with turbulent water, foam rings and large bubbles on the sea surface. On the 27th of November new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Most of them were "lava balloons" or hollow fragments of lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm, and highly vesiculated outer crust of basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane composition. The emission of these products continues intermitently up to date (January 2012) During the eruption, the GPS monitoring network detected episodes of inflation-deflation and a maximum vertical deformation of 4 cm. The horizontal deformation, which had reached up to 5 cm before the eruption, remains stable. The

  13. Characterization and growth mechanism of a peculiar nodular structure in shale: Comprehensive study over the Sitakund anticline, Bengal basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, M. Y.; Kabir, S. M. M.; Imam, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Nodular shales commonly occur in comparatively older and silty shales near the axial (proximity to core) region of Sitakund Anticline (Study area), Sitapahar Anticline, Patharia Structure, Sylhet Anticline and Mirinja Anticline as observed. Stratigraphically, they are pronounced in the Surma group of Neogene succession. They are less abundant in limb portion. In many outcrop, they are found in the incompetent bed with the obliterated bedding bounded by well bedded competent beds. Their occurrence are sporadic rather than continuous along and across the strike of the bed. At some places huge number cluster of small and big nodular shales occur while in the other places, they occur as isolated mass in the highly disturbed or obliterated beds. The Surma group is the prime startigraphic unit in Bangladesh with major economic and academic importance. Yet there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of mudrocks of Surma group. This has prompted the present research to be undertaken. An initial field based study has been followed by detail textural, mineralogical, petrological and geochemical by using upscale laboratory techniques that include Thin Section Microscopy, Laser Particle Size Analyses, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Florescence (XRF). From laser diffraction analysis, it is evident that nodular shales are silty in nature containing approximately 60% silt (Mainly quartz). XRD pattern shows that Nodular shale contains clay minerals, predominantly illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite and expandable mixed layer clay mineral. Detail geochemical analysis of some nodular shale samples shows that there are no significant variation from other samples in major and trace element concentration. Microcrack's within the quartz grains were observed in nodular shale. Projection of 15 nodular shale long axes in outcrop shows their orientation in NNW-SSE that is parallel to the fold axis. The study suggests a new name of conventionally called

  14. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory.

  15. Mucosal surface nodularity on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) : prospective analysis of its primary cause and prevalence of gastric malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal surface nodularity was defined as present at UGIS when multiple nodular defects larger than 5 mm were scattered in the gastric mucosa in an area greater than 5 x 5 cm. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary causes of this radiographic finding and to assess the incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients. During a one-year period were prospectively collected among patients who underwent UGIS, data for 51 [aged 30-78 (mean, 51) years] above who met the criteria of mucosal surface nodularity. Whether or not this was present was decided by two radiologists who in reaching a consensus excluded the possibility of erosive gastritis, indicated by central barium collection in the nodular defects. The primary causes of mucosal nodularity and associated gastric pathologies were determined by the histopathological results obtained from the specimens after surgery (n=18) or endoscopic biopsy (n=33). Pathological examinations revealed that the primary causes of the mucosal nodularity in these 51 patients were intestinal metaplasia in 28 (54.9%), MALT lymphoma in seven (13.7%), early gastric cancer in six (11.8%), chronic gastritis in five (9.8%), low grade dysplasia in four (7.8%), and gastritis cystica profunda in one (2%). Gastric malignancy was present either in or outside the area of mucosal nodularity in 34 (66/7%) of the 51 (27 carcinomas and 7 MALT lymphomas). No different patterns of mucosal surface nodularity were noted between the groups of each disease entity. Mucosal surface nodularity is observed at UGIS in various gastric pathologies. Because of the high incidence of gastric malignancy in these patients, close follow-up or gastrofiberscopic biopsy is mandatory

  16. Estructura e importancia de la cadena productiva y comercial de la miel en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Magaña Magaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron analizar la importancia socioeconómica de la cadena productiva y del proceso comercial de la miel en México, así como examinar la problemática e influencia que dicho proceso ejerce en apicultor, en particular sobre el comportamiento de los precios, el valor generado y su distribución. Se utilizaron como marco metodológico y teórico los fundamentos del comercio interregional y de la economía de los mercados agrarios, los cuales permiten analizar la integración y relación entre los niveles de mercado. Se encontró que la importancia socioeconómica de la apicultura se limita principalmente a su aporte de divisas y generación de empleos e ingresos en el medio rural. El principal canal de comercialización de la miel a granel lo conforman el apicultor, los acopiadores rurales, la empresa comercializadora mayorista y el agente comercial internacional. La producción y comercialización de miel está integrada para su acopio, proceso y entrega al comercializador externo o, en su caso, su distribución al mercado interno, pero con limitado beneficio al apicultor. La cosecha y oferta de miel en el mercado se concentra en pocos meses; esta situación y la necesidad de liquidez de los productores, favorece la ventaja de apropiación de valor que tienen los otros eslabones de la cadena, en especial el mayorista, quien determina el precio. Así, el valor que se agrega a la miel en la cadena productiva y comercial no se distribuye equitativamente, y su diferencia estriba en la capacidad de apropiación o poder de mercado de cada participante.

  17. Cistadenocarcinoma renal e dermatofibrose nodular em cães pastor alemão: 4 casos Renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis in german shepherd dogs: 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available São descritos quatro casos da síndrome cistadenocarcinoma renal-dermatofibrose nodular em Pastor Alemão. Todos eram cães machos, com idades entre 6 e 10 anos. Os aspectos clínicos incluíam hematúria e retenção urinária, emagrecimento progressivo, anorexia, vômito, polidipsia e dificuldade respiratória. Em um animal, foram observados múltiplos nódulos recidivantes na pele. Três cães tiveram morte espontânea e um foi submetido à eutanásia. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíram nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes na pele e múltiplos nódulos, muitas vezes císticos, em ambos os rins. Na avaliação histológica, observaram-se dermatofibrose nodular na pele e cistos, hiperplasia, displasia e neoplasia de células epiteliais dos túbulos renais. As neoplasias foram classificadas como cistadenoma em um dos casos e como cistadenocarcinoma nos outros três. Metástases foram observadas em dois casos: no fígado, no baço e no pulmão em um cão e no linfonodo renal em outro.Renal cystadenocarcinoma-nodular dermatofibrosis syndrome of German shepherd are described in four 6 to 10-year-old male dogs. Clinical findings included hematuria and urinary retention, progressive weight loss, polydipsia, anorexia, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Several recurrent skin nodules were observed in one of the dogs. Three dogs died spontaneously and one was euthanatized. Main gross findings included multifocal to coalescent skin nodules and multiple nodules, mostly cystic, in both kidneys. Microscopically there was nodular dermatofibrosis in the skin and renal cysts, dysplastic, hyperplastic and neoplastic changes of the renal tubular epithelium. The neoplasms were classified as cystadenoma in one case and cystadenocarcinoma in the other three. There were metastases in the liver, spleen and lung of one dog and in the renal lymph node in another one.

  18. Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency disease; Hiperplasia nodular linfoide en un paciente con inmunodeficiencia combinada grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alegre, M. L.; Casanova, A.; Delgado, J.; Relanzon, S. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    We describe a case of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a woman with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. the patient complained of constipation and episodes of abdominal pain, and examination revealed the presence of a large abdominal mass. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the initial radiological studies, but intestinal biopsy was necessary to rule out lymphomatous involvement. We point out the radiological features of this entity which, despite the fact that it may be a chance finding of no pathological significance, requires special attention, especially in immuno deficient individuals. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver. Case report with special reference to diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutze, A.; Rueckert, R.; Rudolph, B.; Paris, S.; Podrabski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a benign epithelial proliferation of the liver with unknown etiology. We observed a female patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome and secondary nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver over a period of five years. Patient history, diagnostic imaging (sonography, CT, MR imaging, angiography), and clinical course are demonstrated along with results of macroscopic and microscopic studies of explanted liver prior to liver transplantation. The patient presented with various predisposing factors in combination that favour the development of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. (orig.) [de

  20. Importancia de la inteligencia comercial: caso práctico exportaciones ecuatorianas

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo, Mónica; Jara, Estefanía

    2010-01-01

    La globalización obliga a todos los países desarrollados y en vías de desarrollo a ser competitivos en calidad y servicios, a optimizar sus recursos, a conocer todas y cada una de las características de los mercados a fin de satisfacer sus necesidad mediatas e inmediatas. Realizar comercio exterior y entrar en el mundo de las negociaciones internacionales representa hoy en día contar con herramientas efectivas. Es el caso de la Inteligencia Comercial, que apoya la gestión de los diferentes es...

  1. Projecto de design integrado: espaço comercial de moda infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, João Pedro Sá da Fonte

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Design Integrado na Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão do Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo Do gosto e carinho pela moda infantil e da percepção necessidade de um espaço comercial especializado em Viana do Castelo dedicado aos mais pequenos, surgiu a ideia de desenvolvimento de um projecto de design integrado para uma loja multimarca para vestir uma segunda geração de pequenos clientes. A criação da loja Maria Pipocca foi pensada para o comércio de vestuário e ...

  2. Planificación y diseño del centro comercial inteligente Monay Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Buele Villa, Luis Enrique

    2009-01-01

    El proyecto descrito a continuación trata del diseño integro automatizado, de las instalaciones tanto eléctricas, de telecomunicaciones y circuito cerrado de televisión, del centro comercial MONAY SHOPPING, para ello se desarrollaran tres redes independientes que son: Red de energía eléctrica. Red de voz y datos mediante su cableado estructurado. Red de circuito cerrado de televisión para seguridad. La automatización consiste básicamente en totalizar unidades de control y regulación independi...

  3. Liberalización comercial y crecimiento de la productividad: algunas lecciones del caso mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Adrían Leon Arias

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando la más reciente metodología para explicar las diferencias en el crecimiento económico entre países (Barro, 1997), educación e infraestructura han sido consideradas como factores relevantes para explicar diferencias en el crecimiento de la productividad en las manufacturas urbanas mexicanas (De León, 1999). En este artículo se evalúa si ha habido un cambio en la relevancia de esta variable bajo liberalización comercial. En particular, se evaluó la hipótesis de que liberalización com...

  4. Comunicación comercial del turismo en las redes sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, César

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: A lo largo de este proyecto se va hablar sobre la comunicación comercial en las redes sociales, concretamente en el sector turístico de las aerolíneas. Se empezará hablando sobre los diferentes usos de las redes sociales, destacando las ventajas y desventajas dentro de las empresas, así como los malos usos que se pueden dar en ellos, si no se usan de forma correcta. Se analizará las principales y diferentes redes sociales que existen, destacando sus características principale...

  5. Bases para el relevo generacional de las directivas de Comercial y Servicios Larco S. A.

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo Restrepo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación, de tipo exploratorio, da cuenta de la revisión de los procedimientos, las responsabilidades y el perfil del cargo de Gerente Técnico Financiero de la empresa Comercial y Servicios Larco S. A., con el fin de plantear los principios que faciliten la implementación de protocolos de transferencia de conocimiento en el cargo definido, para garantizar la sucesión generacional, sin pérdida de conocimiento -- Para ello se propone trabajar el cargo mediante el análisis de do...

  6. Viabilidade econômica e financeira de uma empresa comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Hilário José Borba

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho centrou-se em promover um estudo do equilíbrio financeiro das empresas, baseado em um estudo de caso de uma empresa comercial do ramo de varejo, as Lojas Renner S/A, identificando sua relação com sua saúde econômica. Complementarmente, avalia as alternativas de financiamento para capital de giro, disponíveis no Brasil, como instrumentos capazes de contribuir para o desenvolvimento e estabilidade das empresas. Contém um breve resumo das principais demonstrações contáb...

  7. Las Cortes y el mercado: normativa comercial en la Castilla bajomedieval (1252-1520)

    OpenAIRE

    García Díaz, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    ¿Un estudio sobre la normativa comercial en la Castilla bajomedieval a través de las Cortes? La presente Tesis Doctoral es el resultado parcial de un gran Proyecto de Investigación que se gestó hace ya algunos años, y que tenía como objetivo principal el análisis del mercado en la Corona castellana durante los siglos finales de la Edad Media desde el punto de vista de su reglamentación normativa. Ya entonces comprobábamos c&oacu...

  8. Proyecto ejecutivo (prácticum), seguimiento de obra e interiorismo de un local comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Huerga López, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    El proyecto del centro comercial que os presento a continuación es un proyecto real en el cual hay partes que las realicé durante mi convenio universidad-empresa (considerando esta parte como un practicum), otra parte que la realicé solo para el Trabajo Final de Grado y la última parte de documentación aportada por la empresa (El segundo cuaderno). Nos centraremos en las dos primeras partes. Los planos del proyecto ejecutivo los realicé en la empresa con la supervisión del ingeniero....

  9. Indicadores para evaluar la gestión ambiental en el sector comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Ramírez, David Alexander; Reyes León, Cástulo

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto responde a la necesidad de crear estos indicadores ambientales en el sector comercial, con el fin de buscar el estado de desempeño ambiental de las mismas empresas. Teniendo en cuenta que en la actualidad las empresas deben tener en cuenta que frente al acelerado proceso de globalización y rápido crecimiento demográfico, no solo deben dedicarse a producir y a mejorar las finanzas, sino a prevenir el impacto que generan cada una de las actividades que realiza dentro de la empres...

  10. Hierro libre, transferrina y ferritina séricas de niños con desnutrición grave en terapia de recuperación nutricional. Turbo-Antioquia 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Velásquez R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El hierro libre contribuye a la producción de sustancias oxidativas que alteran la permeabilidad de la membrana celular y originan el edema característico del kwashiorkor (1. La OMS recomienda la suplementación con hierro para niños desnutridos, una vez recuperan el apetito.

  11. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  12. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  13. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  14. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  15. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  16. Energy saving using solar filters with iron base in windows; Ahorro de energia usando filtros solares con base en hierro en ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Galan, Jesus

    2003-07-01

    software Energy 10, of the energy behavior of a home when using windows with single (one sheet) lime-soda type glasses, as well as when this same building uses the windows with solar filters developed with FeO base. Both cases are compared obtaining in this way the possible energy savings for the using of solar filters in the windows. The simulations were carried out for different localities in the country resulting that the solar filters developed in FeO allow energy savings mainly for the concept of air conditioning (heating and cooling). The simulations performed for the extreme warm climates (Mexicali and Chihuahua) and warm-humid (Merida and Veracruz) present the greatest percentages of energy savings of up to 16.4%; while the lowest numbers are for temperate climates (Mexico City) where savings of 9.1% are observed. The case was also simulated in which Reflectasol AP Tintex of Vitro glasses are used for the Mexicali city, resulting in a better performance of the solar filters with FeO base developed. When strategies are considered, such as the use of eaves and lighting control, together with solar filters with FeO base, the energy savings are incremented, as it was demonstrated for the Mexicali case. [Spanish] Para las temporadas calurosas, la radiacion emitida por el Sol que se introduce a traves de las ventanas, provoca una ganancia termica grande en las edificaciones, por lo que el interior de ellas experimenta un calentamiento excesivo. Para los periodos de frio, el exterior se encuentra a una temperatura baja y la ventana es el principal elemento a traves del cual la edificacion pierde el calor generado en el interior. Lo anterior resulta en un elevado consumo de energia (electricidad principalmente) para conseguir las condiciones de confort termico humano, y que aunado a la creciente demanda energetica que experimenta el sector residencial, comercial y publico en Mexico, constituye un serio problema. Como una propuesta de solucion al problema de disconfort

  17. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiotherapy as Alternative Treatment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominance Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Rick L.M.; Girinsky, Theo; Aleman, Berthe; Henry-Amar, Michel; Boer, Jan-Paul de; Jong, Daphne de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, characterized by an indolent clinical course, with sometimes very late relapses occurring in a minority of all patients. Considerable discussion is ongoing on the treatment of primary and relapsed disease. Patients and Methods: A group of 9 patients were irradiated to a dose of 4 Gy on involved areas only. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 6-66), the overall response rate was 89%. Six patients had complete remission (67%), two had partial remission (22%), and one had stable disease (11%). Of 8 patients, 5 developed local relapse 9-57 months after radiotherapy. No toxicity was noted. Conclusion: In nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma, low-dose radiotherapy provided excellent response rates and lasting remissions without significant toxicity.

  18. Long-term results in patients with low-grade nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviles, A.; Diaz-Maqueo, J.C.; Sanchez, E.; Cortes, H.D.; Ayala, J.R.; Oncology Hospital, Mexico City; National Medical Center, Mexico City

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with nodular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were randomized to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (total nodal or involved field irradiation). Although the complete remission rate was similar in the three programs (about 90%) the relapse-free survival rate (RFS) among patients with complete remission was significantly higher in the groups treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy than among those treated with chemotherapy alone. The 7-year RFS in the groups treated with total node irradiation and involved field irradiation was 71% and 66% respectively, compared to only 33% in the group treated by chemotherapy alone (p<0.01). The results suggest that combined chemoradiotherapy may achieve complete long-term remission and potential cure in more than 60% of patients with nodular low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Toxicity was moderate in all three arms. Bulky disease and a high level of lactic dehydrogenase were associated with a poor prognosis. (orig.)

  19. Prognostic factors in nodular lymphomas: a multivariate analysis based on the Princess Margaret Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Bush, R.S.; Brown, T.C.; Chua, T.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1,394 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital between January 1, 1967 and December 31, 1978. Overall actuarial survival of 525 patients with nodular lymphomas was 40% at 12 years; survival of patients with localized (Stage I and III) nodular lymphomas treated with radical radiation therapy was 58%. Significant prognostic factors defined by multivariate analysis included patient's age, stage, histology, tumor bulk, and presence of B symptoms. By combining prognostic factors, distinct prognostic groups have been identified within the overall population. Patients with Stage I and II disease, small or medium bulk, less than 70 years of age achieved 92% 12 year actuarial survival and a 73% relapse-free rate in 12 years of follow-up. These patients represent groups highly curable with irradiation

  20. Effects of alloying elements on nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsuhiro

    1992-01-01

    The effects of alloying and impurity elements (tin, iron, chromium, nickel, niobium, tantalum, oxygen, aluminum, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus) on the nodular and uniform corrosion resistance of zirconium-based alloys were studied. The improving effect of iron, nickel and niobium in nodular corrosion resistance were observed. The uniform corrosion resistance was also improved by nickel, niobium and tantalum. The effects of impurity elements, nitrogen, aluminum and phosphorus were negligibly small but increasing the silicon content seemed to improve slightly the uniform corrosion resistance. Hydrogen pick-up fraction were not changed by alloying and impurity elements except nickel. Nickel addition increased remarkably hydrogen pick-up fraction. Although the composition of secondary precipitates changed with contents of alloying elements, the correlation of composition of secondary precipitates to corrosion resistance was not observed. (author)

  1. [Characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in Grave's disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, A; Paunović, I

    2003-01-01

    The biology of thyroid cancer represents a spectrum of behavior ranging from well-differentiated lesions with an excellent prognosis to anaplastic carcinoma, which is almost fatal. For this reason, it is important that clinicians have methods at their disposal to asses the characteristics of patient's thyroid malignancy. In this work we discuss the behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer in associated diseases of thyroid as: Graves' disease, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis--Hashimoto and nodular goiter. This is retrospectively reviewing of 50 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Department of surgery, Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica from 1998 until 2003. We evaluated occurrence, as well as the role of this diseases in patients with thyroid cancer. We found a more favorable course of thyroid cancer in the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and nodular goiter, a contrary Graves' disease. In associated diseases of thyroid, a significantly greater proportion of patients with thyroid cancer, have modular goiter.

  2. frente al de Estados Unidos en un contexto de liberalización comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Velia Ayala Garay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de rentabilidad del cultivo de frijol en México, aunada al incremento de los volúmenes de importación y la desregulación del mercado, ocasiona que el grano sea cada vez menos competitivo en relación con el cultivado en Estados Unidos, su principal socio comercial. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la competitividad de la producción de frijol en México en el marco de la liberalización comercial; se encontró que a nivel macro, ésta es revelada negativa, debido al tipo de cambio sobrevaluado que favorece el dumping en las importaciones, además de que ha quedado desprotegida por e l Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN, al omitirse el pago de aranceles. A nivel meso, la formación de organizaciones ha favorecido a los productores, que han logrado crear economías de escala, aunque les falta consolidarlas. En el estudio a nivel micro, en Chihuahua, se observó que los costos de producción unitarios son elevados y los rendimientos bajos, lo que resulta en una rentabilidad menor en comparación con la de Estados Unidos.

  3. La explotación sexual comercial infantil: una ganancia subjetiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Bibiana Camacho Ordóñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La explotación sexual comercial infantil (Esci es un problema que crece día a día en nuestro país, y afecta considerablemente el desarrollo físico y psicológico de los menores y las menores de edad involucrados en estas prácticas. El estudio realizado por el grupo de investigación Crecer del programa de psicología de la Universidad Surcolombiana de Neiva, sintetizado en este artículo, abordó esta problemática en los municipios de Neiva, Campoalegre y Pitalito, del departamento del Huila, a través de un enfoque metodológico cualitativo. El estudio permitió encontrar que para los niños, niñas y adolescentes participantes en esta investigación, la explotación sexual comercial infantil representa una ganancia subjetiva, ante una historia de carencias económicas y afectivas.

  4. Apertura comercial y desarrollo económico mundial en la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Encinas Ferrer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La política económica neoliberal ha promovido a escala global la apertura comercial bajo la hipótesis de que la liberalización del comercio da lugar automáticamente a un quiebre positivo en la tendencia de crecimiento económico. Esta acción de política económica está sustentada fundamentalmente en la teoría de la ventaja comparativa desarrollada por David Ricardo en la segunda década del Siglo XIX. Sin embargo, la ausencia de un incremento generalizado del PIB que acompañe la apertura comercial implementada a partir de la década de los ochenta en una gran cantidad de países nos muestra señales de que algo ha sucedido en el modelo exportador adoptado contrario a las expectativas favorables prometidas. México y muchos otros países se encuentran en un callejón sin salida, con problemas que se han profundizado con la reciente crisis económica que hasta ahora, especialmente en EE.UU. y Europa, no muestra señales de una recuperación global.

  5. La explotación sexual comercial infantil: una ganancia subjetiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Bibiana Camacho Ordóñez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La explotación sexual comercial infantil (Esci es un problema que crece día a día en nuestro país, y afecta considerablemente el desarrollo físico y psicológico de los menores y las menores de edad involucrados en estas prácticas. El estudio realizado por el grupo de investigación Crecer del programa de psicología de la Universidad Surcolombiana de Neiva, sintetizado en este artículo, abordó esta problemática en los municipios de Neiva, Campoalegre y Pitalito, del departamento del Huila, a través de un enfoque metodológico cualitativo. El estudio permitió encontrar que para los niños, niñas y adolescentes participantes en esta investigación, la explotación sexual comercial infantil representa una ganancia subjetiva, ante una historia de carencias económicas y afectivas.

  6. Diffuse Muscular Pain, Skin Tightening, and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia Revealing Paraneoplastic Amyopathic Dermatomyositis due to Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Norrenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis (DM associated with testicular cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with skin tightening, polymyalgia, hypereosinophilia, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealing seminoma and associated paraneoplastic DM.

  7. The Rare Benign Lesion That Mimics a Malignant Tumor in Breast Parenchyma: Nodular Fasciitis of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Erinanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein report the clinical and pathological findings of a rare case of nodular fasciitis in the breast parenchyma of a 48-year-old female. Because of potentially malignant findings on ultrasonography and during clinical examination, the patient underwent an excisional biopsy. Histologically, the lesion was composed of spindle to round shaped cells arranged in short bundles in a storiform pattern. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for vimentin and SMA and negative for desmin, S100, and CD34. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of nodular fasciitis was made. We emphasize that nodular fasciitis of the breast may show clinical features and imaging findings similar to those of breast cancer. The histopathologic diagnosis of nodular fasciitis can also be challenging. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the characteristics and the differential diagnosis of this rare neoplasm.

  8. Periventricular nodular heterotopia and bilateral intraventricular xanthogranulomas in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moogeh Baharnoori

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is the most common pathogenic copy number variant in humans. Neuropsychiatric phenotypes, including schizophrenia, are prominent. Imaging studies of individuals with this syndrome show a variety of abnormalities that may indicate abnormal neuronal migration. Here we present the neuroimaging and neuropathologic features of a 22q11DS patient with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNH and intraventricular xanthogranulomas that were identified by post-mortem examination.

  9. New data on aetiology of nodular gill disease in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyková, Iva; Kostka, Martin; Wortberg, F.; Nardy, E.; Pecková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 157-163 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/09/0137; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nodular gill disease * aetiological study * amoebae * Naegleria sp. * fish diseases * aquaculture * Oncorhynchus mykiss Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  10. Animal models of disease: feline hyperthyroidism: an animal model for toxic nodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Since first discovered just 35 years ago, the incidence of spontaneous feline hyperthyroidism has increased dramatically to the extent that it is now one of the most common disorders seen in middle-aged to senior domestic cats. Hyperthyroid cat goiters contain single or multiple autonomously (i.e. TSH-independent) functioning and growing thyroid nodules. Thus, hyperthyroidism in cats is clinically and histologically similar to toxic nodular goiter in humans. The disease in cats is mechanistically different from Graves' disease, because neither the hyperfunction nor growth of these nodules depends on extrathyroidal circulating stimulators. The basic lesion appears to be an excessive intrinsic growth capacity of some thyroid cells, but iodine deficiency, other nutritional goitrogens, or environmental disruptors may play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Clinical features of feline toxic nodular goiter include one or more palpable thyroid nodules, together with signs of hyperthyroidism (e.g. weight loss despite an increased appetite). Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism is confirmed by finding the increased serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine, undetectable serum TSH concentrations, or increased thyroid uptake of radioiodine. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrates a heterogeneous pattern of increased radionuclide uptake, most commonly into both thyroid lobes. Treatment options for toxic nodular goiter in cats are similar to that used in humans and include surgical thyroidectomy, radioiodine, and antithyroid drugs. Most authorities agree that ablative therapy with radioiodine is the treatment of choice for most cats with toxic nodular goiter, because the animals are older, and the disease will never go into remission. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F J; Carracedo, J C; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Soler, V; Troll, V R; Wiesmaier, S

    2012-11-01

    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  12. Nodular Scleritis Associated with Herpes Zoster Virus: An Infectious and Immune-Mediated Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Loureiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of anterior nodular scleritis, preceded by an anterior hypertensive uveitis, which was primarily caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV. Case Report. A 54-year-old woman presented with anterior uveitis of the right eye presumably caused by herpetic viral disease and was successfully treated. Two months later, she developed a nodular scleritis and started oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory without effect. A complete laboratory workup revealed positivity for HLA-B27; the infectious workup was negative. Therapy was changed to oral prednisolone and an incomplete improvement occurred. Therefore, a diagnostic anterior paracentesis was performed and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed VZV. She was treated with valacyclovir and the oral prednisolone began to decrease; however, a marked worsening of the scleritis occurred with the reduction of the daily dose; subsequently, methotrexate was introduced allowing the suspension of the prednisolone and led to clinical resolution of the scleritis. Conclusion. This report of anterior nodular scleritis caused by VZV argues in favor of an underlying immune-mediated component, requiring immunosuppressive therapy for clinical resolution. The PCR analysis of the aqueous humor was revealed to be a valuable technique and should be considered in cases of scleritis with poor response to treatment.

  13. A comparison of nodular defect seed geometeries from different deposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, C.J.; Tench, R.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Fornier, A.

    1995-01-01

    A focused ion-beam milling instrument commonly utilized in the semiconductor industry for failure analysis and IC repair, is capable of cross-sectioning nodular defects. Utilizing the instrument's scanning on beam, high-resolution imaging of the seeds that initiate nodular defect growth is possible. In an attempt to understand the origins of these seeds, HfO 2 /SiO 2 and Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 coatings were prepared by a variety of coating vendors and different deposition processes including e-beam, magnetron sputtering, and ion beam sputtering. By studying the shape, depth, and composition of the seed, inferences of its origin can be drawn. The boundaries between the nodule and thin film provide insight into the mechanical stability of the nodule. Significant differences in the seed composition, geometry of nodular growth and mechanical stability of the defects for sputtered versus e-beam coatings are reported. Differences in seed shape were also observed from different coating vendors using e-beam deposition of HfO 2 /SiO 2 coatings

  14. Rare cause of multiple nodular opacities at chest x-ray: pulmonary hydatid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, K.; Hamcan, S.; Gumus, S.; Turhan, U.; Karaman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hydatid disease is incidentally common in our country. Objectives and tasks: In this study, unlike the classical radiological appearance of hydatid disease of the lung, MDCT appearance of multiple nodules were demonstrated. Materials and methods: The patient who comes our hospital's Pulmonary Clinic with shortness of breath and with membranes that come from his mouth, referred to our clinic for chest radiography and chest HRCT. Results: In the conventional chest x-ray, multiple nodular opacities in both lungs were common. HRCT was performed with 5 mm and 1 mm thick sections of our patient. In both hemithorax, multiple nodular lesions were found in various sizes and configurations, some of them opened to the bronchus which is the largest one is 2 cm in diameter. Nodule in the left hemithorax inferior lingular segment has calcified wall. Patient's Echinococcus granulosus test was evaluated positive for IgG. Conclusion: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation created by Echinococcus granulosus. Although seen most frequently in the liver, often seen in the lungs 10-30%.. 30 to 50% of cases are asymptomatic and incidentally diagnosed radiologically. Although we know that the classic radiologic findings of hydatid cyst, different radiographic views (eg nodular mass) should be considered in rare circumstances

  15. Tecnología y sociedad en el abastecimiento tradicional de agua en la isla de El Hierro. Canarias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Martín Fernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Son conocidas las penurias históricas y recientes sufridas en El Hierro para disponer de agua. Los recursos acuíferos herreños, en cantidad y disponibilidad, han sido histórica­mente insuficientes para cubrir la demanda in­sular, siendo éste un factor limitante de prime­ra magnitud en su desarrollo socioeconómico. Hasta la década de 1970 la innova­ción tecnológica en materia hidráulica es nula. Unas pocas fuentes, un número aún menor de pozos y cierta cantidad de charcos formaban los pilares del sistema de abastecimiento co­tidiano de agua. En este artículo, se estudian estos sistemas en conjunción con la dinámica social herreña, planteando la idea de que han sido causas sociales las que explican la se­cular y estrecha dependencia de tecnologías populares para el abastecimiento de agua en El Hierro.There are known the historical and recent penuries suffered in El Hierro to have water. Subsoil’s water, in quantity and availa­bility, has been historically insufficient to cover the insular demand, being this one a limiting factor of first magnitude in his socioeconomic development. Up to the decade of 1970 the techno­logical innovation in hydraulic matter is void. A few fountains, a still minor number of wells and certain quantity of puddles were forming the props of the system of daily water supplying. In this article, these systems are studied in conjunction with the insular’s social dynamics, locating in social causes the explanation of the strait and secular dependency of popular tech­nologies for the water supply.

  16. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  17. El déficit comercial de Estados Unidos frente a la entrada de China a su mercado

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique Romero, Ximena Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza las causas del déficit comercial de Estados Unidos (DCEU), desde la perspectiva macroeconómica y estructural, a partir de la década de los noventa, sin abarcar los años de la última crisis financiera del siglo XXI, que debilitó el crecimiento del DCEU. Una vez establecido el marco de referencia, el texto estudia la coyuntura que marca el desplazamiento de Japón por China, como la relación comercial deficitaria más importante para Estados Unidos, para enfocarse en...

  18. Estudio del metabolismo del hierro en lactantes de una alta y perenne transmisión de malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Gómez, Nuria Pilar

    2003-01-01

    [spa] La malaria y la anemia se encuentran entre los principales problemas de la salud pública mundial. Los recién nacidos y los niños pequeños son uno de los grupos de la población más afectados por ambas patologías. En áreas endémicas de malaria, la frecuente coexistencia de ferropenia, procesos inflamatorios y malaria dificulta la interpretación de las magnitudes bioquímicas utilizadas para valorar el metabolismo del hierro. Otra dificultad añadida en la interpretación de los resultados e...

  19. Estudio del metabolismo del hierro en lactantes de una alta y perenne transmisión de malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Gómez, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    La malaria y la anemia se encuentran entre los principales problemas de la salud pública mundial. Los recién nacidos y los niños pequeños son uno de los grupos de la población más afectados por ambas patologías. En áreas endémicas de malaria, la frecuente coexistencia de ferropenia, procesos inflamatorios y malaria dificulta la interpretación de las magnitudes bioquímicas utilizadas para valorar el metabolismo del hierro. Otra dificultad añadida en la interpretación de los resultados es la f...

  20. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Riveros; Gloria Echagüe; Santiago Evers; Laura Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La a...

  1. Emporion y las mutaciones de la arquitectura ibérica a la primera Edad de Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre MORET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de las recientes excavaciones de la palaia polis de Empúries, se discute la posibilidad de influjos cruzados entre arquitecturas griega e indígena durante la primera Edad de Hierro en el Languedoc y costas orientales de la península Ibérica.ABSTRACT: Recent excavations at the palaia polis of Emporion (Empúries, Spain give way to a discussion about possible cross-influences between greek domestic architecture and native architecture in Western Languedoc and along the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

  2. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  3. Suplementación y metabolismo de hierro en neonatos bovinos en condiciones de trópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Páez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del suministro de hierro en la dinámica hemática y su metabolismo en terneros; para el efecto se seleccionaron 72 neonatos bovinos pertenecientes a tres grupos raciales: dos de origen Bos taurus (Hartón de Valle y Holstein Friesian y uno de origen Bos indicus (Cebú Brahmán para un total de 24 animales por raza y ocho animales por grupo experimental. Los animales del grupo 1 recibieron 500 mg de hierro dextran intramuscular (T1, al grupo 2 se le suministraron 100 mg de espirulina oral (T2 y el grupo 3 permaneció como control (T3. El suministro de hierro se hizo cada mes desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 meses de edad de los terneros, mensualmente se tomaron muestras de sangre mediante venipunción yugular y sistema vacutainer en tubos con y sin anticoagulante (EDTA. El promedio de ganancia de peso vivo animal fue 509 ± 0.40 g/día. El número de leucocitos/mm³ fue de 16,059. El promedio de hemoglobina en sangre fue de 12.11 ± 2.8 g/dl, el hematocrito presentó un valor de 38.4% ± 7.6 y la concentración promedio de hemoglobina corpuscular fue de 31.62% ± 4.7. La proteína sérica presentó un valor promedio de 5.55 ± 0.7 g/dl, el valor promedio de hierro sérico fue de 18.70± 11.8 µmol/lt. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron que el factor mes de muestreo y raza fueron significativos para los valores séricos de los metabolitos analizados, mientras que los valores de la concentración promedio de hemoglobina corpuscular lo fueron para tratamiento (P < 0.01.

  4. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Garibay Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde Enrique; Nápoles-Rodríguez Francisco; Nuño-Cosío María Eugenia; Trujillo-Contreras Francisco; Sánchez-Mercado Oscar

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis en niños que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (Inadej), Arandas, Jalisco, México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre 1997 y 1999 con 432 niños de 12 a 120 meses de edad, de nuevo ingreso al Inadej. Se determinaron variables hematológicas, yodo en orina y presencia de parásitos. Se utilizaron las pruebas Ji cuadrada y t de Student en variables no paramétricas y paramétric...

  5. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  6. The influence of various cooling rates during laser alloying on nodular iron surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Marta; Makuch, Natalia; Kulka, Michał

    2018-06-01

    The results of research referring to modification of the nodular iron surface layer by laser alloying with cobalt were presented. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of cobalt implementation into the surface layer of nodular iron in various laser heat treatment conditions (by generating different cooling rates of melted surface layer). The modified surface layer of nodular iron was analyzed with OM, SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and Vickers microhardness tester. The modified surface layer of nodular iron after laser alloying consisted of: the alloyed zone (melted with cobalt), the transition zone and the hardened zone from solid state. The alloyed zone was characterized by higher microstructure homogeneity - in contrast to the transition and the hardened zones. All the alloyed zones contained a dendritic microstructure. Dendrites consisted of martensite needles and retained austenite. Cementite was also detected. It was stated, that due to similar dimension of iron and cobalt atoms, their mutual replacement in the crystal lattice could occur. Thus, formation of phases based on α solution: Co-Fe (44-1433) could not be excluded. Although cobalt should be mostly diluted in solid solutions (because of its content in the alloyed zone), the other newly formed phases as Co (ε-hex.), FeC and cobalt carbides: Co3C, CoC0.25 could be present in the alloyed zones as a result of unique microstructure creation during laser treatment. Pearlite grains were observed in the zone, formed using lower power density of the laser beam and its longer exposition time. Simply, such conditions resulted in the cooling rate which was lower than critical cooling rate. The alloyed zones, produced at a higher cooling rate, were characterized by better microstructure homogeneity. Dendrites were finer in this case. This could result from a greater amount of crystal nuclei appearing at higher cooling rate. Simultaneously, the increased amount of γ-Fe and Fe3C precipitates was expected in

  7. Razões para a falta de rendimento esportivo do Comercial F.C. Reasons for the lack of sports performance of Comercial F.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Machado Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The international football, according to the report of the Plan for Modernization of the Brazilian Football FGV (2000 annual turnover of approximately $ 250 billion, while Brazil represents only 1% of the total. The Commercial F. C. headquartered in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP, had its poly auctioned sports stadium partially forbidden for 23 years and not disputed the series A1, A3series being relegated to the Campeonato Paulista in 2009. This study aimed to identify those factors that hinder sports performance of the Commercial F. C., to do so, we studied its history, its relations with the government and legislation, market performance, partnerships established, administrative structures and results in the tournaments played between 2007 and 2008 to discuss their management problems. The methods used were research-explanatory and qualitative semi-structured interview to build a case study. We conclude that the gap between the formal structure and practice of members of the answers as a key element in the absence of the club's sports performance. O futebol internacional, segundo o relatório do Plano de Modernização do Futebol Brasileiro da FGV (2000, movimenta anualmente cerca de 250 bilhões de dólares, sendo que o Brasil participa com apenas 1% desse total. O Comercial F. C., sediado na Cidade de  Ribeirão Preto (SP, teve seu poliesportivo leiloado, estádio parcialmente interditado, e, há 23 anos, não disputava a série A1, sendo rebaixado para série A3 no Campeonato Paulista, em 2009. Este trabalho buscou identificar quais são os fatores que dificultam o rendimento esportivo do Comercial F. C., para tanto, foi estudada sua história, suas relações com o governo, sua legislação, seu mercado de atuação, suas parcerias realizadas, suas estruturas administrativas e seus  resultados  nos campeonatos disputados entre 2007 e 2008, a fim de discorrer

  8. El contrato de agencia comercial. Análisis dentro del contexto del derecho romano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Camacho López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sumario: Premisa. Principios derivados del sistema jurídico romano-germánico aplicables al contrato de agencia comercial. i. Algunas figuras de la actividad mercantil en el derecho romano. ii. Cláusulas de no competencia. A. Posibles fuentes de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. 1. Obsequium. 2. Operae iuratae. 3. Operae stipulatae. 4. Stipulatio. 5. Contratos innominados. 6. Lex mancipii. B. Licitud o ilicitud de la obligación de no competencia en el derecho romano. C. Condena por el incumplimiento de la obligación de no competir. iii. Consecuencias de la terminación del contrato. A. Revocación del mandato por parte del mandante. B. Renuncia del mandato por parte del mandatario. iv. Conclusiones

  9. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils Biodegradabilidade de óleos diesel comercial e intemperizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 - dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a capacidade de diferentes microrganismos em degradar óleo diesel comercial em comparação com um óleo diesel intemperizado coletado da água subterrânea em um posto de combust

  10. La interpretación e integración de los instrumentos de Derecho Comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Rodríguez Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de armonización a que se encuentran sometidas las normas del Derecho Comercial Internacional se realiza usualmente en tres etapas: concepción, redacción y aceptación del instrumento; adopción del instrumento internacional en los ordenamientos locales, e interpretación (aplicación del instrumento internacional. El presente artículo se refiere a la tercera, y tal vez más importante de esas etapas, esto es, la de interpretación internacional de los textos de Derecho uniforme o armónico, y particularmente lo que será la interpretación de las Reglas de Rotterdam.

  11. La pesca comercial y el estudio de la fauna marina en la Argentina, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana V. Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina la relación entre el desarrollo de la pesca comercial marítima y el estudio de la fauna marina en la Argentina de fines del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Se analizan las investigaciones ictiológicas, la comercialización de productos marítimos frescos y las oportunidades que ofrecieron los mercados urbanos para la formación de colecciones. También se focaliza en los inicios de la pesca de altura que posibilitaría la captura y estudio de nuevas especies así como la acumulación de información sobre el ambiente marino.

  12. DEUDA BANCARIA VERSUS DEUDA COMERCIAL Y TIEMPO DE RESOLUCIÓN DEL CONCURSO

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    Aguiar Díaz, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objeto analizar la incidencia de la deuda bancaria versus deuda comercial en el tiempo de resolución de los concursos en Espana. Para ello se utiliza una muestra de 567 empresas que han entrado en concurso entre 2004 y 2009. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un comportamiento diferenciado de los acreedores bancarios y comerciales,tanto enfuncióndelniveldedeuda como deltipo de resolución. Así, mientras que los primeros permiten un alargamiento del proceso, los segundos tratan de acortarlo. Además, estos resultados se mantienen en la muestra de empresas que se liquidan, mientrasque enlas empresasque se reorganizansolo es relevante la actitudde los acreedores comerciales, los cuales además tienen un comportamiento diferente en función del tipo de resolución.

  13. Liberalización comercial y crecimiento de la productividad: algunas lecciones del caso mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrían Leon Arias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la más reciente metodología para explicar las diferencias en el crecimiento económico entre países (Barro, 1997, educación e infraestructura han sido consideradas como factores relevantes para explicar diferencias en el crecimiento de la productividad en las manufacturas urbanas mexicanas (De León, 1999. En este artículo se evalúa si ha habido un cambio en la relevancia de esta variable bajo liberalización comercial. En particular, se evaluó la hipótesis de que liberalización comercial promovería el crecimiento de la productividad en las manufacturas de las ciudades del norte mexicano como resultado de los efectos dinámicos del comercio, dado que estas ciudades están más cercanas al nuevo mercado central para las manufacturas mexicanas y quizás a la pérdida de relevancia en los factores de crecimiento previamente acumulados (Livas y Krugman, 1992; Hanson, 1994. En contraste a esta hipótesis, se observa que las manufacturas en ciudades cercanas a los Estados Unidos no mostraron un mejor desempeño productivo que el resto de las manufacturas en el resto de las ciudades y que factores de crecimiento previamente acumulados, como educación e infraestructura, son aún relevantes para explicar el crecimiento de la productividad entre las manufacturas urbanas mexicanas.

  14. El reconocimiento jurídico de diversos tipos familiares en el nuevo Código Civil y Comercial argentino

    OpenAIRE

    PellegrinI, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    La reforma y unificación del Código Civil y Comercial argentino sancionada en octubre de 2014 incorpora al ordenamiento jurídico argentino la regulación sistematizada y autónoma de las uniones convivenciales –convivencias de pareja– y sus efectos

  15. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  16. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  17. Papulo-Nodular Reactions in Black Tattoos as Markers of Sarcoidosis: Study of 92 Tattoo Reactions from a Hospital Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina; Serup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is, from historical data, suggested to be more prevalent among patients with tattoo reactions. We aimed to evaluate this association in a systematic study. This is a consecutive study of patients with tattoo complications, diagnosed in the "Tattoo Clinic" at Bispebjerg University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2008 to 2015, based on clinical assessment and histology. From the overall group of 494 tattoo complications in 406 patients, 92 reactions in 72 patients showed a papulo-nodular pattern studied for local and systemic sarcoidosis, since sarcoidosis is expected to be nodular. Of the 92 reactions with a papulo-nodular pattern, 27 (29%) reactions in 19 patients were diagnosed as cutaneous or systemic sarcoidosis, supported by histology; 65 (71%) were diagnosed as non-sarcoidosis due to histology and no clinical sarcoid manifestations. "Rush phenomenon" with concomitant reaction in many other black tattoos, triggered by a recent tattoo with a papulo-nodular reaction, was observed in 70% in the sarcoidosis group and 28% in the non-sarcoidosis group, indicating a predisposing factor which may be autoimmune and linked with sarcoidosis. Agglomerates of black pigment forming foreign bodies may in the predisposed individual trigger widespread reaction in the skin and internal organs. Black tattoos with papulo-nodular reactions should be seen as markers of sarcoidosis. Papulo-nodular reactions may, as triggers, induce widespread reactions in other black tattoos - a "rush phenomenon" - depending on individual predisposition. Sarcoidosis is estimated to be 500-fold increased in papulo-nodular reactions compared to the prevalence in the general population, and the association with black tattoos is strong. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David

    2015-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  19. PARÁMETROS GENÉTICOS PARA CRECIMIENTO COMERCIAL SOBREVIVENCIA Y MANCHADO EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Pulgarin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estimar los efectos genéticos para peso al momento de sexaje, crecimiento y sobrevivencia hasta cosecha, y proporción de mancha (área de mancha y presencia/ausencia de mancha durante la fase comercial en un grupo de 86 familias de hermanos enteros y 31 familias de hermanos medios de tilapia roja ( Oreochromis sp.. La media de peso durante la fase de crecimiento comercial fue de 181,4 g (184 g para machos y 178 g para hembras, los machos significativamente más grandes que las hembras (P < 0,001. Las variables de sobrevivencia, área de mancha y ausencia de mancha no presentaron diferencias entre los sexos. Las heredabilidades estimadas ( h 2 ± e . s para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia fueron 0,23±0,02 y 0,05±0,03, respectivamente. e l porcentaje de mancha y la ausencia y presencia de la misma mostraron heredabilidades cercanas a cero, lo cual indica que estos dos caracteres están relacionados más con efectos ambientales que con efectos genéticos aditivos. s e encontró una correlación favorable y significativa entre sobrevivencia y crecimiento comercial (0,24; P < 0,05. Los resultados de este trabajo indican que mediante la explotación de la genética aditiva es posible mejorar el desempeño de los animales para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia en la tilapia roja, mientras que poco progreso se puede esperar por medio de la selección para variables relacionadas con el manchado corporal en la población evaluada.

  20. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage

  1. Some approaches to treatment of patients with thyroid nodular diseases in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Abisheva, Gulniaz; Taooka, Yasuyuki; Bhattarcharjee, Deborshi; Kamiya, Kenji

    2003-12-01

    It was determined by experts that in the region adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site thyroid nodular prevalence was significantly associated with radiation dose from nuclear weapons testing. The medical rehabilitation of patients is of special practical and scientific importance in this region. Some patients have contraindications for surgery and radioiodine or refuse them for various reasons. Percutaneous intranodular injection therapy by "Paoscle" (PIITP) was used for treatment of patients with benign thyroid nodular diseases. The study group included a total of 107 patients (mainly "pretoxic" and "compensated" nodules). Seventy-four patients received PIITP on an out-patient basis. Seventy-two of them were women and 2 men, mean age, 52.9 +/- 1.3 years; range 26 to 77 years. Thyroid ultrasound examination, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, thyroid function tests and cytopathology were performed in all patients to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The nodule volume reduction rate for patients with thyroid adenomas was 56 % on average and 60.2 % in the case of colloid nodules. The reduction rate of thyroid adenomas with necrotic and cystic degeneration was higher and reached 72 %. The suggested method is indicated for cases of benign nodular thyroid diseases (cysts, adenomas, adenomas with necrotic and cystic degeneration, colloid nodules, polynodular goiter). We did not reveal any complications or thyroid test abnormalities after the treatment. A tendency to normalization of the blood serum thyroglobulin level and antibodies to thyroglobulin was documented. Analysis of the treatment results revealed that this approach is effective, inexpensive, safe, well tolerated and can be used on an outpatient basis.

  2. Phenotypic and imaging features of FLNA-negative patients with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallil, Zianka; Pardoe, Heath; Bachman, Robert; Cunningham, Benjamin; Parulkar, Isha; Shain, Catherine; Poduri, Annapurna; Knowlton, Robert; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-10-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development due to impaired neuronal migration resulting in the formation of nodular masses of neurons and glial cells in close proximity to the ventricular walls. We report the clinical characteristics of the largest case series of FLNA-negative patients with seizures and bilateral periventricular heterotopia. Participants were recruited through the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP), a multicenter collaborative effort to collect detailed phenotypic data and DNA on a large number of individuals with epilepsy, including a cohort with symptomatic epilepsy related to PVNH. Included subjects had epilepsy, and MRI confirmed bilateral PVNH. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were visually and quantitatively reviewed to investigate the topographic extent of PVNH, symmetry, and laterality. We analyzed data on 71 patients with bilateral PVNH. The incidence of febrile seizures was 16.6%. There was at least one other family member with epilepsy in 36.9% of this population. Developmental delay was present in 21.8%. Focal onset seizures were the most common type of seizure presentation (79.3%). High heterotopia burden was strongly associated with female gender and trigonal nodular localization. There was no evidence for differences in brain volume between PVNH subjects and controls. No relationship was observed between heterotopic volume and gender, developmental delay, location of PVNH, ventricular or cerebellar abnormalities, laterality of seizure onset, age at seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy. A direct correlation was observed between high heterotopia burden, female gender, and trigonal location in this large cohort of FLNA-negative bilateral PVNH patients with epilepsy. Quantitative MRI measurements indicated that this correlation is based on the diffuse nature of the heterotopic nodules rather than on the total volume of abnormal heterotopic tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Mammotome biopsy under ultrasound control in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions - own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibil, Wojciech; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Mammotome biopsy is an effective, minimally invasive, novel technique used in the verification of breast lesions.The aim of the study was to assess the value of ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (mammotome biopsy) in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions, considering own data.Material and methods. Analysis comprised 1183 mammotome biopsies under ultrasound control performed in 1177 female patients during the period between 2000 and 2010, at the Regional Clinic for Early Diagnostics and Treatment of Breast Lesions, I Chair and Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum.Results. The average patient age amounted to 41.7 years. The size of the investigated lesions ranged between 4 and 65 mm (mean - 12 mm). The histopathological examination result was as follows: fibrocystic lesions (n=285), adenofibroma (n=477), adenosis sclerosans (n=188), hyperplasia without atypy (n=58), phyllode tumor (n=2), papilloma (n=14), hamartoma (n=1), atypical hyperplasia (n=25), in situ ductal carcinoma (n=4), in situ lobular carcinoma (n=5), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n=114), infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n=4), non-diagnostic result (n=6). The histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 99.5% of cases. Patients diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or cancer were qualified for surgery, according to accepted standards. The presence of a hematoma was the most common complication after the biopsy, observed in 16.5% of patients.Conclusions. The obtained results confirmed the high value of ultrasound-guided biopsies in the diagnostics of nodular breast lesions. The method is safe, minimally invasive, with few complications, providing a good cosmetic effect. In case of benign lesions with a diameter of less than 15 mm the mammotome biopsy enables to completely excise the lesions, being an alternative to open surgical biopsies. The mammotome biopsy should become the method of choice considering the diagnostics of nodular

  4. Fatigue strength of nodular cast iron with regard to heavy-wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleicher, Christoph; Wagener, Rainer; Kaufmann, Heinz [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Melz, Tobias [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt (Germany). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-11-01

    For a proper estimation of the fatigue life of a heavy-walled cast component made of nodular cast iron, sufficient knowledge regarding the cyclic properties of the material is necessary. Based on the material parameters at hand for component design, different fatigue analysis procedures can be used. Elastic and elastic-plastic approaches can be adopted, with the latter being reserved only for local approaches. The present publication summarizes the cyclic material parameters gained during a research project by extensive material tests under stress and strain controlled cyclic loading at different load ratios for three nodular cast iron grades. In addition to an improved knowledge of the cyclic material behavior, the notch, the size effects and the mean stress sensitivity were of special concern during the investigations in order to provide an entire overview of the tested materials and thus input information for both stress and strain based design approaches. Tests were performed for specimens taken from large cast blocks of the nodular cast iron grades EN-GJS-400-18U-LT and EN-GJS-450-18, both with ferritic matrices, and EN-GJS-700-2 with a pearlitic matrix. For some of these materials, mean stress sensitivities above 0.5 were obtained during the investigations. These values are not covered by the common standards, which calculate lower values for the mean stress sensitivity. Cyclic material parameters for stress and strain controlled tests are given in this paper as well as values for the size effect, based on the concept of the highly stressed volume. The effect of different specimen sizes could be shown not only by stress but also by strain controlled tests.

  5. Estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes, Medellín, Colombia / Nutritional status of iron in pregnant adolescents, Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Parra S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia de anemia fue 17,1% en el tercer trimestre de gestación y por deficiencia de hierro, 51%. La mediana de ferritina sérica fue 13,3 µg/L (RQ: 7,7 µg/L-17,9 µg/L; sólo el 5,6% (n = 9 presentó valores adecuados de ferritina. Las madres que tomaron suplemento de hierro diariamente presentaron mejores concentraciones de hemoglobina y ferritina, frente a aquellas que no lo hicieron, Hb 12,1g/dL vs. 11,7 g/dL (p = 0,019 y ferritina sérica 14,6 µg/L vs. 7,0 µg/L (p = 0,000. Discusión: hubo altas prevalencias de anemia y ferropenia en las gestantes, asociadas con la no adherencia al suplemento de hierro Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia

  6. Violations of macro- and micronutrient support in patients with nodular thyroid pathology from regions injured after the Chornobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kravchenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study was to determine the state of macro- and micronutrient support of patients with nodular thyroid pathology from the regions injured after the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. 65 habitants of the Chernihiv area were examined: 40 — without thyroid pathology (15 men and 25 women aged 36.62 ± 0.60 years, and 25 (5 men and 20 women — with the diagnosed nodular goiter. Results. Research of urinary iodine excretion showed that a median in the control group was 95.6 µg/l, among patients with nodular goiter — 89.3 µg/l, indicating the presence of moderate iodine deficiency. Blood thyroglobulin level in patients of control group was 9.26 ± 0.99 ng/l, among patients with nodular goiter — 23.03 ± 4.70 ng/l. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level higher than 4.0 mIU/l was in 8.9 % of patients with nodular goiter and in 5.0 % of persons from the control group. The data of ultrasonic researches demonstrated that the average thyroid volume in patients of control group was 10.1 ± 0.3 cm3, among patients with nodular goiter — 18.6 ± 1.7 cm3. In the group of patients with nodular goiter, the decreased (p < 0.0001 level of macronutrients in blood plasma was detected: calcium was 67.26 ± 3.21 µg/l and magnesium — 14.88 ± 0.35 µg/l, as well as of microelements: zinc content was 0.72 ± 0.04 µg/l (p < 0.0001 and iron — 0.54 ± 0.06 µg/l (p < 0.05, in comparison with the results in the control group. Conclusions. The relative risk (χ2 criterion for the four-course table of connectivity with Fisher’s correction of nodular goiter development at subzero content of calcium was 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.58–2.61, the risk of nodular goiter development at subzero levels of magnesium — 2.56 (95% CI 1.77–3.03.

  7. Lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Alegre, M. L.; Casanova, A.; Delgado, J.; Relanzon, S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in a woman with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. the patient complained of constipation and episodes of abdominal pain, and examination revealed the presence of a large abdominal mass. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the initial radiological studies, but intestinal biopsy was necessary to rule out lymphomatous involvement. We point out the radiological features of this entity which, despite the fact that it may be a chance finding of no pathological significance, requires special attention, especially in immuno deficient individuals. (Author) 10 refs

  8. Intracranial investigation of a patient with nodular heterotopia and hippocampal sclerosis: dealing with a dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, Lady Diana; Dash, Chelsea; Wu, Adam; Tellez-Zenteno, Jose Francisco

    2017-06-01

    The pre-operative assessment and surgical management of patients with dual pathology is challenging. We describe a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and extensive periventricular nodular heterotopia in the same hemisphere. The semiology, scalp EEG, and imaging were divergent, but the presence of focal interictal and ictal epileptic discharges of the putative ictal onset zone resulted in successful localization of the epileptogenic zone. A less aggressive resection was performed based on intracranial EEG recording. The patient has been seizure-free for three years since resection. Electroclinical hypotheses and challenges in defining the epileptogenic network are discussed.

  9. Nodular Esophageal Xanthoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Dirweesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomas are localized nonneoplastic lesions within tissues that may manifest as papules, plaques, or nodules. These lesions can be found anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, commonly in the stomach and colon, and rarely in the small intestine and esophagus. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD with biopsy is the gold standard tool for diagnosis. Here, we report a rare case of a lower solitary nodular esophageal xanthoma in an elderly black female. Correspondingly, all cases of esophageal xanthomas reported in the English medical literature were reviewed and presented with the reported case.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of periventricular nodular heterotopia in borderline ventriculomegaly using sonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinoglu, Zeki; Yapicier, Ozlem; Ozcan, Nahit

    2016-10-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is usually missed on prenatal sonographic examinations, even on targeted scans. Irregular ventricular walls on axial view and irregular square-shaped lateral ventricles on coronal view are suggestive of PNH in the early third trimester. To achieve an early prenatal diagnosis, it is important to keep in mind the possible coexistence of PNH with brain malformations such as ventriculomegaly, posterior fossa anomalies, or agenesis of corpus callosum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:510-513, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cushing's Syndrome caused by pigmented adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia - A familial case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Segovia, I; Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Kumnig, G; Mikosch, P; Lind, P [Dept.of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, LKH Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2002-09-01

    Introduction: We present a Case of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in a 16 year old male adolescent. Adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia is a rare cause of CS. It mostly develops in the first two decades of life. In pathogenesis a stimulatory effect of circulating Immunoglobulins on adrenal steroidogenesis has been postulated. Familial cases have been reported in relation to Carney's Syndrome. We report the clinical case at first diagnosis and preoperative follow up of 1 year prior to treatment. The leading symptoms were severe bilateral (fibrotic) gynaecomastia, weight gain and growth retardation, without hypertension,but osteoporosis, secondary hypogonadism and glucose intolerance. Laboratory findings and the results of functional tests were diagnostic for CS. In addition LDH (I-131 Isotopes), CK, Lipoproteins, GPT, Androstendion, Prolactin were elevated. MRI abdomen revealed a slight enlargement of the adrenals, and suspected a bilateral micro nodular dysplasia. Iodo-cholesterol-scan under dexamethason suppression showed a diffuse bilateral Iodo-cholesterol uptake confirming the autonomous production of cortisol bilateral in the adrenals.Whole body bone scan showed a diffuse reduced diphosphonate uptake in the skeleton and the growth plates. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced.Radiologically osteoporosis was overt. The rapid increase of free urinary cortisol excretion/24h within one year of observation led to a total bilateral adrenalectomy. Postoperative 5 year follow up examinations. Documentation of the outcome and recovery of clinical signs,symptoms and laboratory findings, discussion about the most appropriate long-term substitution therapy. Familial anamnesis:affected family member was the father (micro nodular bilateral adrenocortical dysplasia), the aunt (pararenal incidentaloma, histologically lipoma) and a cousin (micro nodular adrenocortical dysplasia). Sequential analysis of the menin gene from the patient was negative.The detection of

  12. Hybrid Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Sulphur Colloid Scintigraphy in Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoil, Amit; Gayana, Shankramurthy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2013-01-01

    It is important to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), a benign condition of liver most commonly affecting women, from other neoplasm such as hepatic adenoma and metastasis. The functional reticuloendothelial features of FNH can be demonstrated by scintigraphy. We present a case of breast cancer in whom fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (CT) showed a homogenous hyperdense lesion in liver, which on Tc99m sulfur colloid single-photon emission computed tomography/CT was found to have increased focal tracer uptake suggestive of FNH

  13. Nodular fasciitis of the face diagnosed by US-guided core needle biopsy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a case of nodular fasciitis (NF) that was diagnosed by ultrasonography (US)-guided core needle biopsy in a 31-year-old man, and we include the US and computed tomographic (CT) findings and the histopathologic findings at US-guided core needle biopsy (CNB). We suggest that high-resolution US is useful for the detailed evaluation of NF in the superficial regions, such as the face, and US-guided CNB is useful for the definitive histologic diagnosis of NF without causing scarring

  14. Cushing's Syndrome caused by pigmented adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia - A familial case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Segovia, I.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Kumnig, G.; Mikosch, P.; Lind, P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: We present a Case of Cushing's syndrome (CS) in a 16 year old male adolescent. Adrenocortical micro nodular dysplasia is a rare cause of CS. It mostly develops in the first two decades of life. In pathogenesis a stimulatory effect of circulating Immunoglobulins on adrenal steroidogenesis has been postulated. Familial cases have been reported in relation to Carney's Syndrome. We report the clinical case at first diagnosis and preoperative follow up of 1 year prior to treatment. The leading symptoms were severe bilateral (fibrotic) gynaecomastia, weight gain and growth retardation, without hypertension,but osteoporosis, secondary hypogonadism and glucose intolerance. Laboratory findings and the results of functional tests were diagnostic for CS. In addition LDH (I-131 Isotopes), CK, Lipoproteins, GPT, Androstendion, Prolactin were elevated. MRI abdomen revealed a slight enlargement of the adrenals, and suspected a bilateral micro nodular dysplasia. Iodo-cholesterol-scan under dexamethason suppression showed a diffuse bilateral Iodo-cholesterol uptake confirming the autonomous production of cortisol bilateral in the adrenals.Whole body bone scan showed a diffuse reduced diphosphonate uptake in the skeleton and the growth plates. The bone mineral density was significantly reduced.Radiologically osteoporosis was overt. The rapid increase of free urinary cortisol excretion/24h within one year of observation led to a total bilateral adrenalectomy. Postoperative 5 year follow up examinations. Documentation of the outcome and recovery of clinical signs,symptoms and laboratory findings, discussion about the most appropriate long-term substitution therapy. Familial anamnesis:affected family member was the father (micro nodular bilateral adrenocortical dysplasia), the aunt (pararenal incidentaloma, histologically lipoma) and a cousin (micro nodular adrenocortical dysplasia). Sequential analysis of the menin gene from the patient was negative.The detection of

  15. Ultrasonic features and radionuclide correlation in liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperlasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, M A; Petrocelli, R D; Marks, D S; Lopez, R

    1980-05-01

    Ultrasonic features of three cases of liver cell adenoma (LCA) and two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented. These tumors have similar sonographic appearances presenting either as solid masses or containing sonolucent areas due to hemorrhage or necrosis. Although these ultrasonic features in patients with an area of decreased activity on 99mTc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans are not specific for LCA or FNH, such findings in the appropriate clinical setting are suggestive of these lesions. The combination of a solid mass on ultrasonography and a normal Tc-SC radioisotope liver study may be relatively specific for uncomplicated FNH.

  16. Ultrasonic features and radionuclide correlation in liver cell adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, M.A.; Petrocelli, R.D.; Marks, D.S.; Lopez, R.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic features of three cases of liver cell adenoma (LCA) and two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are presented. These tumors have similar sonographic appearances presenting either as solid masses or containing sonolucent areas due to hemorrhage or necrosis. Although these ultrasonic features in patients wth an area of decreased activity on /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) liver scans are not specific for LCA or FNH, such findings in the appropriate clinical setting are suggestive of these lesions. The combination of a solid mass on ultrasonography and a normal Tc-SC radioisotope liver study may be relatively specific for uncomplicated FNH

  17. [Analysis of predictors of malignancy of nodular goiters: about 500 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common and less than 10% of them are malignant. They pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem with respect to their benign or malignant nature. The study of some clinical and paraclinical factors for presumed malignancy makes it possible to codify appropriate therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of malignancy in nodular goiters and to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This retrospective study consisted of 500 cases of nodular goiter operated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat or ENT) and Head and Neck Surgery at Avicenne military hospital in Marrakech between 2006 and 2012. The percentage of cancers was 6,8%. The average age of our patients was 46 years, with a sex-ratio of 5 (F/H). The hard nature of the nodule was present in 94,4% of the cases of cancer by palpation; irregular boundaries were present in 64.70% of the cases of cancer. Three nodules were fixed and malignant. Cervical lymphadenopathy were observed in 8 patients, 7 of which had cancer. Ultrasound examination showed hypoechoic appearance in 61,8% of the malignant nodules, with smooth-edges in 88,24% of the cases. Intranodular vascularization was found in 35,3% of the cases of cancers, with microcalcifications in 55,9% of the cases. Perinodular hypoechoic halo was incomplete in 73,5% of the cases of cancer. Our patients were euthyroid in 84,6% of the cases. Predictors of malignancy in nodular goiters were present in our first clinical study: patients over the age of 60 years, hard consistency of nodule, fixity, irregular and poorly defined character by palpation, as well as presence of cervical adenopathy on examination; and echographic features: hypoechoic character, smooth-edges, presence of microcalcifications and visualization of intranodular vascularization with or without peri-nodular vascularization. Although some of these factors are highly predictive of malignancy, only

  18. Papulo-Nodular Reactions in Black Tattoos as Markers of Sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina; Serup, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sarcoidosis is, from historical data, suggested to be more prevalent among patients with tattoo reactions. We aimed to evaluate this association in a systematic study. METHODS: This is a consecutive study of patients with tattoo complications, diagnosed in the "Tattoo Clinic......" at Bispebjerg University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, from 2008 to 2015, based on clinical assessment and histology. From the overall group of 494 tattoo complications in 406 patients, 92 reactions in 72 patients showed a papulo-nodular pattern studied for local and systemic sarcoidosis, since sarcoidosis...

  19. Time-dependent deformation at elevated temperatures in basalt from El Hierro, Stromboli and Teide volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P. M.; Fahrner, D.; Harnett, C. E.; Fazio, M.

    2014-12-01

    Time dependent deformation describes the process whereby brittle materials deform at a stress level below their short-term material strength (Ss), but over an extended time frame. Although generally well understood in engineering (where it is known as static fatigue or "creep"), knowledge of how rocks creep and fail has wide ramifications in areas as diverse as mine tunnel supports and the long term stability of critically loaded rock slopes. A particular hazard relates to the instability of volcano flanks. A large number of flank collapses are known such as Stromboli (Aeolian islands), Teide, and El Hierro (Canary Islands). Collapses on volcanic islands are especially complex as they necessarily involve the combination of active tectonics, heat, and fluids. Not only does the volcanic system generate stresses that reach close to the failure strength of the rocks involved, but when combined with active pore fluid the process of stress corrosion allows the rock mass to deform and creep at stresses far lower than Ss. Despite the obvious geological hazard that edifice failure poses, the phenomenon of creep in volcanic rocks at elevated temperatures has yet to be thoroughly investigated in a well controlled laboratory setting. We present new data using rocks taken from Stromboli, El Heirro and Teide volcanoes in order to better understand the interplay between the fundamental rock mechanics of these basalts and the effects of elevated temperature fluids (activating stress corrosion mechanisms). Experiments were conducted over short (30-60 minute) and long (8-10 hour) time scales. For this, we use the method of Heap et al., (2011) to impose a constant stress (creep) domain deformation monitored via non-contact axial displacement transducers. This is achieved via a conventional triaxial cell to impose shallow conditions of pressure (<25 MPa) and temperature (<200 °C), and equipped with a 3D laboratory seismicity array (known as acoustic emission, AE) to monitor the micro

  20. Improvements on the seismic catalog previous to the 2011 El Hierro eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Precursors from the submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011 included 10,000 low magnitude earthquakes and 5 cm crustal deformation within 81 days previous to the eruption onset on the 10th October. Seismicity revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the North to the South of the island and depths ranging from 10 and 17 km with deeper events occurring further South. The earthquakes of the seismic catalog were manually picked by the IGN almost in real time, but there has not been a subsequent revision to check for new non located events jet and the completeness magnitude for the seismic catalog have strong changes during the entire swarm due to the variable number of events per day. In this work we used different techniques to improve the quality of the seismic catalog. First we applied different automatic algorithms to detect new events including the LTA-STA method. Then, we performed a semiautomatic system to correlate the new P and S detections with known phases from the original catalog. The new detected earthquakes were also located using Hypoellipse algorithm. The resulting new catalog included 15,000 new events mainly concentrated in the last weeks of the swarm and we assure a completeness magnitude of 1.2 during the whole series. As the seismicity from the original catalog was already relocated using hypoDD algorithm, we improved the location of the new events using a master-cluster relocation. This method consists in relocating earthquakes towards a cluster of well located events instead of a single event as the master-event method. In our case this cluster correspond to the relocated earthquakes from the original catalog. Finally, we obtained a new equation for the local magnitude estimation which allow us to include corrections for each seismic station in order to avoid local effects. The resulting magnitude catalog has a better fit with the moment magnitude catalog obtained for the strong earthquakes of this series in previous studies

  1. Procesado y propiedades de impacto de materiales compuestos laminados de base hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño, F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A seven layers steel based laminated composite (four ultra-high carbon steel, UHCS, layers and three mild steel, MS, layers has been processed by rolling bonding and its microstructure and impact properties have been studied. Suitable parameters of temperature and thickness reduction were selected to obtain a finer microstructure relative to the original material components. This finer microstructure induces improved mechanical properties. Charpy impact tests values in both "crack arrester" and "crack divider" orientations improve the values of the UHCS constituent material. Furthermore, the crack arrester orientation value exceed that of the MS material. The delamination, which is controlled by interface bonding, plays a key role deflecting the crack, absorbing energy and imposing the nucleation of new cracks in the next material layer.

    Se ha procesado un material compuesto laminado de base hierro, de 7 capas alternas de dos aceros diferentes (cuatro capas de acero de ultra-alto contenido en carbono, AUAC, y tres de acero suave, AS, mediante unión por laminación y se ha estudiado su microestructura y propiedades de impacto. Se eligieron los parámetros adecuados de temperatura y de reducción de espesor para obtener una microestructura más fina que la de los aceros constituyentes originales, lo que induce una mejora en las propiedades mecánicas. Los valores de energía absorbida en el ensayo Charpy, tanto en la dirección "en paralelo" como "en serie", han mejorado sustancialmente el valor asociado al AU AC monolítico. Además, el valor obtenido en la dirección "en serie" es superior al del AS. Se observa que la delaminación, que depende de la unión de las intercaras, juega un papel importante en la deflexión de las fisuras, absorbiendo energía e imponiendo sucesivas nucleaciones de grietas en las siguientes capas.

  2. Confluent focal nodular hyperplasia mimicking liver cancer: Value of liver-specific contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is the second most common benign hepatic tumor. Unlike adenoma as well as the malignant neoplasms, focal nodular hyperplasia can often be managed successfully without surgery. Use of liver-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging allows clinicians to confirm the diagnosis noninvasively in some patients, allowing select patients to avoid surgery. We report a case of a patient who presented with the rare profile of multiple, confluent lesions that were diagnosed, using magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-dimeglumine, as focal nodular hyperplasia. This complicated case was managed successfully and noninvasively based on algorithm found in the recent literature that allows patients to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  3. De Morsier syndrome associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia: case reporte Síndrome de De Morsier associada a heterotopia nodular periventricular: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Jaques Spinosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome is defined as the association between optic nerve hypoplasia, midline central nervous system malformations and pituitary dysfunction. CASE REPORT: Third child born to nonconsanguineous parents, female, adequate pre-natal medical care, cesarean term delivery due to breech presentation, Apgar score 3 at the first minute and 8 at 5 minutes, symptomatic hypoglycemia at 18 hours. Neurological follow-up identified a delay in acquisition of motor and language developmental milestones. Epileptic generalized seizures began at 12 months and were controlled with phenobarbital. EEG was normal. MRI revealed agenesis of the pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the optic chiasm and periventricular nodular heterotopia. Ophthalmologic evaluation showed bilateral optic disk hypoplasia. Endocrine function laboratory tests revealed primary hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia. CONCLUSION: The relevance of this case report relies on its uniqueness, since periventricular heterotopia had not been described in association with septo-optic dysplasia until 2006.INTRODUÇÃO: Displasia septo-óptica (síndrome de De Morsier é definida como a associação entre hipoplasia do nervo óptico, malformações de linha média do sistema nervoso central e disfunção pituitária. RELATO DE CASO: Terceiro filho, pais não consangüíneos, sexo feminino, pré-natal adequado, parto cesário a termo por apresentação pélvica, Apgar 3 no primeiro minuto e 8 no quinto minuto, hipoglicemia sintomática com 18 horas de vida. Durante o acompanhamento neurológico identificou-se atraso na aquisição dos marcos de desenvolvimento motor e linguagem. Crises epilépticas generalizadas iniciaram com 12 meses de vida sendo controladas com fenobarbital. EEG era normal. Ressonância magnética revelou agenesia de haste pituitária, hipoplasia de quiasma óptico e heterotopia nodular periventricular. Avaliação oftalmológica demonstrou

  4. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  5. Dynamic fracture toughness and evaluation of fracture in a ferritic nodular cast iron for casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaka, T.; Nakano, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of loading rate and temperature on fracture toughness of a ferritic nodular cast iron obtained from a thick-walled cylindrical casting has been investigated. Based upon this result, the cast iron is evaluated as a material for casks. (1) In the ductile fracture region, fracture toughness increases with increases in loading rate. (2) Ductile-brittle transition temperature is linearly related to the logarithm of stress intensity rate. (3) In the ductile fracture region, converted plain strain fracture toughness divided by yield stress can be adopted as a material constant which is independent of loading rate and temperature. From the result of a static fracture toughness test, the evaluation of fracture in high loading rate can be made. (4) In the ductile fracture region of the material investigated, the maximum allowable flaw depth exceeded the minimum detectable flaw size by a nondestructive inspection. Ferritic nodular cast iron can be used as a material for casks in the ductile fracture region at least. (J.P.N.)

  6. Investigations of Ferritic Nodular Cast Iron Containing About 5-6% Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of investigations concerning the production of cast iron containing about 5-6% aluminium, with the ferritic matrix in the as-cast state and nodular or vermicular graphite precipitates. The examined cast iron came from six melts produced under the laboratory conditions. It contained aluminium in the amount of 5.15% to 6.02% (carbon in the amount of 2.41% to 2.87%, silicon in the amount of 4.50% to 5.30%, and manganese in the amount of 0.12% to 0.14%. After its treatment with cerium mixture and graphitization with ferrosilicon (75% Si, only nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were achieved in the examined cast iron. Moreover, it is possible to achieve the alloy of pure ferritic matrix, even after the spheroidizing treatment, when both the aluminium and the silicon occur in cast iron in amounts of about 5.2÷5.3%.

  7. A report of unusual diffuse nodular lesions in intestines of lambs with coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a.r Taghavi Razavizadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovine and caprine coccidiosis has always been regarded as one of the important diseases with high morbidity and economic losses such as weight loss, death and costs of treatment and control. In a sheep farm, 4 sick newborn lambs (out of 10 lambs with the age of 1 to 2 months died with clinical signs of weight loss, loss of appetite, yellowish diarrhea, fever, ruffled wool, contamination of tail and perineal area to diarrheic stool and abdominal pain at the touch of abdomen. At necropsy on one lamb, multiple and diffuse nodular hyperplastic lesions yellowish-white in color were seen in the mucosal surface of jejunum. Microscopically, in addition to hyperplasia of the small intestinal villi, various developmental stages of Eimeria were observed. Based on morphological characteristics and presence of numerous polyp like formations in small intestine, the involved protozoan species was determined as Eimeria bakuensis. The relatively high case fatality rate in this flock could be related to sever nodular lesions in the small intestines, age and immune status of the affected animals.

  8. Microstructure and erosion characteristic of nodular cast iron surface modified by tungsten inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Jaafar Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Local surface melting. ► Significant improvement in erosion resistance. ► The ductile behaviour was found. -- Abstract: The surface of nodular cast iron has been melted and rapidly solidified by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process to produce a chilled structure of high hardness and better erosion resistance. Welding currents of magnitude 100, 150, and 200 A at a constant voltage of 72 have been used to melt the surface of nodular cast iron. Microstructural characterization, hardness measurements, and erosion wear tests have been performed on these modified surfaces as well as on the untreated material. Microstructural characterization has shown that surface melting resulted in complete or partial dissolution of the graphite nodules and resolidification of primary austenite dendrites, which undergo further decomposition into ferrite and cementite, and interdendritic of acicular eutectic; their microhardness measured across the melted depth ranged between 600 and 800 Hv. The scale of the dendrites and the interdendritic eutectic became coarser when a higher current is used. The results also indicated that remelting process by TIG improved erosion resistance by three to four times. Eroded surface observations of the as-received and TIG melted samples showed a ductile behavior with a maximum erosion rate at 30°. The fine microstructures obtained by the rapid cooling and the formation of a large amount of eutectic cementite instead of the graphite have contributed greatly to the plastic flow and consequently to the better erosion resistance of the TIG surface melted samples.

  9. MRI-findings of nodular lesions in an enlarged spleen, associated with visceral Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeymaeckers, Steven, E-mail: Steven.Raeymaeckers@vub.ac.be [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Docx, Martine; Demeyere, Nathan [ZNA Middelheim, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: ► We confirm a previous report that infection with Leishmania can manifest multiple nodular lesions of the spleen. ► We confirm these lesions to be readily detectable with present imaging modalities. ► We affirm the fact that these lesions are hypoechoic on ultrasound, though in our case no hypoechoic halo was observed. ► We found these lesions to be hypodense on CT in the delayed phase after intravenous contrast administration. ► In addition to these previous findings we found that the spleen showed an inhomogeneous intensity on MRI; upon closer examination whilst scrolling through the T2-weighted sequences we can note multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. -- Abstract: We present a case of a 15-month-old Moroccan girl with fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenomegaly and multiple hypoechoic nodular splenic lesions that appear hypodense on CT. T2-weighted MRI sequences show a markedly inhomogeneous intensity of the parenchyma, seemingly caused by multiple ill-defined and heterogeneous hypointense nodules. Laboratory tests confirmed a recent infection with Leishmania, a parasite endemic to (sub)tropic regions. During and after therapy these lesions gradually resolved. To our knowledge this is the second published case in which different imaging modalities were able to demonstrate organ lesions associated with Leishmania. It is also the first report of MRI-findings associated with these lesions.

  10. Prevalence of malignancy in resected specimen of patients operated for benign nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosa, F.A.; Junaid, M.; Khan, F.W.; Afzal, Y.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of malignancy on histopathology amongst resected specimen of thyroid gland in patients, who had no evidence of malignancy pre-operatively on clinical grounds and investigations. A total of 190 patients who were operated for benign nodular thyroid disease during the study period; 100 cases had multinodular goitre and 90 solitary nodules. Biodata, clinical features, investigations, diagnosis, details of surgery, complications and histopathology reports of all the patients were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the 190 patients the mean age was 33.42+-12.4 years (range 17-45 years), while the male: female ratio was 1:6.6. Seven (3.6%) cases were found to be malignant on histopathology, with a frequency of 3% (3/100) amongst multinodular cases and 4.4% (4/90) amongst solitary nodules. Prevalence of malignancy in multinodular goitre does not differ significantly from solitary nodules. Hence, multinodularity should no longer be considered as an indicator of benign disease. Both varieties of nodular goitres should be considered for surgery even if there is no suspicion of malignancy. (author)

  11. Standard test method for determining nodularity and nodule count in ductile iron using image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method is used to determine the percent nodularity and the nodule count per unit area (that is, number of nodules per mm2) using a light microscopical image of graphite in nodular cast iron. Images generated by other devices, such as a scanning electron microscope, are not specifically addressed, but can be utilized if the system is calibrated in both x and y directions. 1.2 Measurement of secondary or temper carbon in other types of cast iron, for example, malleable cast iron or in graphitic tool steels, is not specifically included in this standard because of the different graphite shapes and sizes inherent to such grades 1.3 This standard deals only with the recommended test method and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability or fitness for purpose of the material tested. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address al...

  12. Solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: prediction of histology at high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Byun, Hong Sik; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Shin, Myung Hee; Kim, Sang Jin

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to descdribe the characteristic high-resolution (HR) CT findings of solitary nodular bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) of the lung which are valuable for specific diagnosis of the disease. HRCT scans of 46 patients (31 with malignant and 15 with benign lesion) with a solitary pulmonary nodule seen on chest radiograph were distributed in random order and analyzed retrospectively. Two blinded observers jointly analyzed the marginal and internal characteristics of nodules as seen on HRCT, and decisions on the findings were reached by consensus. Stepwise discriminant analysis for characteristic findings of BAC was performed. The most frequent CT findings of BAC (n=3D15) were internal bubble lucency (14/15, 93%)(p=3D0.001), area of ground-glass opacity (12/15, 80%; average 58% of tumor volume)(p=3D0.0001), pleural tag(12/15, 80%; p=3D0.097), and lobulated and spiculated margin(8/15, 53%; p=3D0.459). Findings of ground-glass opacity (p=3D0.0001) and bubble lucency (p=3D0.0187) appeared to be discriminant in the diagnosis of BAC. Peripheral pulmonary nodules containing an area of ground-glass opacity associated with internal bubble-lucency are characteristic of BAC. Specific histologic diagnosis of solitary nodular BAC can be suggested by careful analysis of HRCT findings.=20

  13. Responsabilidad Social Corporativa de la Empresas de Distribución Comercial Españolas. Evidencias Empíricas

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Heredia, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    En este Trabajo Fin de Máster se analiza la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa de las grandes empresas de distribución comercial en España. En él se trata el desarrollo teórico de la RSC, el sector de la distribución comercial y, por último, se realiza un estudio empírico para el análisis del grado de RSC on-line en las grandes empresas de distribución comercial.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: is it possible to reduce false negative rates by excluding patients with nodular melanoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrigan, M A

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the outcome of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with melanoma and to delineate whether patients with nodular melanoma are more likely to develop nodal recurrence despite negative SLNB. METHODS: Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma undergoing SLNB were identified from a departmental database between 1997 and 2005. Factors including demographic data, site, histological subtype, depth and outcome were examined. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, 103 were node negative and eligible for study. The median age was 53 (16-82) years with 46 patients being male (45%) and 57 female (55%). Primary melanoma sites included lower limb (49; 48%), upper limb (29; 28%), head (12; 11%), trunk (7; 7%) and back (6; 6%). The median Breslow thickness was 2mm. Superficial spreading accounted for 43% of melanoma with nodular accounting for 42%. Median follow-up was 40 (3-90) months. Of 20 relapses, seven recurred in the same nodal basin, three were satellite recurrences, one recurred with both satellite and nodal lesions simultaneously, and nine experienced haematogenous spread. Of the eight patients who developed recurrence in the same nodal basin, four were of nodular histological subtype (p=NS). All of the three patients with satellite lesions had nodular melanoma histologically (p=0.02). When nodal and satellite recurrences were combined, eight of 11 were histologically nodular (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that lymphatic recurrence occurs more often in SLNB negative patients with nodular melanoma. Further evaluation of the inclusion criteria for sentinel node biopsy is warranted.

  15. INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME OF NODULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE THYROID GLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvava, M; Dundua, T; Kobulia, M; Javashvili, L; Giorgadze, E

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of the thyroid gland is a widespread problem nowadays. Recently there has been a notable coincidence between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland. Hence, it is interesting to reveal the connection between these two diseases. It is possible that insulin-like growth factor system (IGF), namely IGF 1 is connecting link between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland, because IGF1 stimulates growth and proliferation of cells in the body. We have investigated18-82 years of age 71 patients. group 1 n27- subjects with thyroid nodular disease, and metabolic syndrome, group 2 n31- subjects with thyroid nodular disease and without metabolic syndrome. group 3 n13 - subjects with metabolic syndrome and no thyroid pathology. In all groups were assessed thyroid structural data, defined parameters of carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid function and blood concentration of IGF1. In patients with hyperinsulinemia IGF 1 was noted in normal or reduced concentration. In I group IGF1 was normal in 70,4% (n=19), decreased in 29,6% (n=8), In II group was normal in 77,4 % (n=24), decreased in 22,6% (n=7) and in III group was normal in 76,9% (n=10), decreased in 23,1% (n=3). Increase of IGF 1 in patients with thyroid nodular disease patients was not noted. Statistically significant connection between IGF1 and thyroid nodules was not revealed. For the further investigation of this connection we plan to measure IGF1 in the thyroid histological samples in the future studies.

  16. Los datos de prueba: entre las patentes y el secreto comercial. Perspectivas a partir del análisis económico del derecho en el contexto de procesos de integración comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jacobo Calderón-Villegas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El régimen de protección de los datos de prueba definido en algunos ordenamientos jurídicos domésticos e incorporado, asimismo, en los acuerdos de integración comercial, plantea la cuestión acerca del tipo de derechos que en realidad otorga o debería otorgar tal régimen. Esta pregunta se asocia con la definición acerca de si tales datos deben ser amparados por las garantías adscritas al derecho del secreto comercial o por aquellas vinculadas al derecho de patentes. Las normas que en la actualidad disciplinan tal materia sugieren la concurrencia de ambos sistemas de protección, y por esa vía y desde una perspectiva de análisis económico del derecho puede constatarse que existe una intensa acumulación de costos posiblemente ineficiente.

  17. Iron status in spanish junior soccer and basketball players. Status en hierro de jugadores de fútbol y baloncesto de la categoría junior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtueña , Jara

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: To assess the dietary iron intake and the iron status of Spanish junior athletes and its importance on performance, and to discuss abount the consequences of an iron deficiency. Material and methods: Forty six soccer and eleven basketball players aged 17-21 years (mean age 18.2 +1.1 who played in the Spanish national junior soccer and basketball league, respectively, who had neither drugs, medicines intake nor illness during the study which altered the appetite or some studies parameters, took part in the study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 7-day weighed food intake record. Iron status was evaluated by means of a complete hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and TIBC.Results: Mean iron intake was 19.24±4.58 mg/day. Mean analytical data were all between reference ranges. Basketball players had higher intake levels compared with soccer ones (22.1+6.4 and 19.2+3.9 mg/day, respectively; pConclusions: During adolescence, iron requirements are very high which could place adolescent athletes in a high risk group for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. In the current research, the population studied shows an acceptable iron status although there are 3% of iron deficiency anaemia cases.ResumenObjetivos: valorar la ingesta diaria y el estatus de hierro de los atletas junior españoles y su importancia sobre el rendimiento, así como lo que respecta a las consecuencias que tiene una deficiencia de hierro. Material y métodos: cuarenta y seis jugadores de fútbol y once de baloncesto con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 21 años (la media de edad 18.2 + 1.1 que jugaban en la liga junior nacional de fútbol y baloncesto, respectivamente, y que no tomaban drogas, medicinas ni presentaban ninguna enfermedad durante el desarrollo del estudio que pudiera alterar el apetito o algunos de los parámetros objeto de estudio, tomaron parte en este estudio. La ingesta dietética se cuantificó mediante la técnica de

  18. Paralelos arquitectónicos entre la meseta norte y el alto Tajo durante la II Edad del Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción BLASCO BOSQUED

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los autores que, al estudiar la II Edad del Hierro en la Meseta, han hecho referencia a la dificultad que existe para precisar unos límites exactos del mundo celtibérico, no existiendo ni siquiera un acuerdo unánime sobre qué tribus lo integran. La causa de este hecho estriba en que, generalmente, se utilizan para ello los datos históricos y éstos, sin ser despreciables, resultan muchas veces poco precisos. Por todo ello F. Wattenberg apuntaba que el problema fundamental «no es el de aceptar las valoraciones de algunas fuentes, sino el de justificarlas».

  19. Diffuse CO_{2} degassing monitoring of the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Norrie, Janice; Withoos, Yannick; García-Merino, Marta; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Even during repose periods, volcanoes release large amounts of gases from both visible (fumaroles, solfataras, plumes) and non-visible emanations (diffuse degassing). In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs, particularly in those volcanic areas where there are no visible volcanic-hydrothermal gas emissions. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. As CO2 travels upward by advective-diffusive transport mechanisms and manifests itself at the surface, changes in its flux pattern over time provide important information for monitoring volcanic and seismic activity. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island, the smallest and south westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago with an area of 278 km2. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become the most useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. The island experienced a volcano-seismic unrest that began in July 2011, characterized by the location of a large number of relatively small earthquakes (MHierro at depths between 8 and 15 km. On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption was confirmed during the afternoon of October 12, 2011 by visual observations off the coast of El Hierro, about 2 km south of the small village of La Restinga in the southernmost part of the island. During the pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second

  20. Results of radical radiotherapy of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: experience at the clinical Puerta de Hierro (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regueiro, C.A.; Valcarcel, F.J.; Millan, I.; Romero, J.; Torre, A. de la; Polo, E.; Magallon, R.; Aragon, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have reviewed the records of 251 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology of Clinica Puerta de Hierro between 1964 and 1989. The 3-year actuarial local control probability was 85% for the 29 T1-staged patients, 59% for the 89 T2-staged patients, 45% for the 71 T3-staged patients, and 43% for the 62 T4-staged patients. The 3-year actuarial nodal control probability was 86% for the 103 NO-staged patients treated electively, 66% for the 42 N1-staged patients, 60% for the 77 N2-staged patients, and 51% for the 20 N3-staged patients. The actuarial adjusted survival was 68% for the 17 stage I patients, 69% for the 48 stage II patients, 34% for the 57 stage III patients, and 33% for the 129 stage IV patients. Author (50 refs.)

  1. Formas de hierro y aluminio en suelos con diferentes usos en la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez Polo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron las diferentes formas de hierro (Fe y aluminio (Al presentes en suelos cultivados y en áreas de bosque de la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia. Se seleccionaron seis zonas de muestreo localizadas entre 0 y 1000 m.s.n.m. Se utilizaron tres técnicas selectivas de extracción de Fe y Al con los agentes extractantes: pirofosfato de sodio, oxalato ácido de amonio, y ditionito citrato bicarbonato. Los contenidos totales de Fe y Al fueron determinados mediante un ataque ácido y cuantificación por absorción atómica. El análisis de varianza multivariado mostró diferencias significativas (P 3% del Al total, lo que sugiere que un alto contenido de Al forma parte de estructuras cristalinas.

  2. Produção comercial de cultivares de alface em Bananeiras Marketable production of lettuce cultivars in Bananeiras, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djail Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto importante na escolha de cultivares para uma determinada condição ambiental é a determinação da produção comercial, que indica o potencial de produção por área. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção comercial de cultivares de alface nas condições de solo e clima de Bananeiras, Paraíba, durante a estação chuvosa. Foram avaliadas oito cultivares (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina, Summer Green e Verônica, no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As parcelas tinham 27 plantas, espaçadas de 30 cm entre fileiras e entre linhas. Aos 51 dias após o transplante, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto à massa fresca total e comercial, massa seca de folhas, número de folhas, diâmetro da planta, índice comercial e produção comercial. Os maiores valores de massa fresca total e comercial, de diâmetro da planta e produção comercial foram verificados para a cultivar Kaesar. Quanto à massa seca, 'Kaesar' e 'Elba' apresentaram os valores mais elevados. Os maiores números de folha foram obtidos com 'Mimosa', 'Elba', 'Sabrina' e 'Summer Green'. As cultivares Grand Rapids, Verônica e Kaesar mostraram-se mais suscetíveis à septoriose, principalmente nas folhas mais velhas. Considerando-se os resultados e a preferência dos consumidores, 'Kaesar' e 'Summer Green' foram as mais promissoras para introdução e testes em áreas de produção comercial de alface.An important issue when choosing cultivars for specific environmental conditions is to estimate the marketable production, which indicates the potential production per area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the marketable production of lettuce cultivars under the soil and climatic conditions of Bananeiras, Paraíba, Brazil, during the rainy season. The experiment was carried out as a complete randomized blocks design with eight cultivars (Cindy, Elba, Grand Rapids, Kaesar, Mimosa, Sabrina

  3. Apertura Comercial y Desarrollo Económico: la incansable búsqueda de un lazo conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Glatstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia los intentos por encontrar un vínculo común entre la apertura comercial y el desarrollo económico. Se revisan investigaciones anteriores y se advierte que no se han logrado encontrar elementos que permitan inferir una relación directa y significativa entre las variables analizadas. No obstante lo cual, desde diferentes organismos multilaterales se realizan recomendaciones asumiendo que dicha relación existe. Se concluye que la política comercial debe ser vista como un elemento más dentro de una estrategia general de desarrollo y no como una herramienta que por sí sola garantice resultados de manera independiente.Código JEL: F43, O24.

  4. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Lissencephaly in an Infant with Unbalanced t(12;17)(q24.31; p13.3) Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Salvatore; Fichera, Marco; Galesi, Ornella; Luciano, Daniela; Pucci, Lucia; Giardini, Francesca; Berardi, Rosario; Balestri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia and Miller-Dieker syndrome are two different disorders of brain development. Miller-Dieker syndrome exhibits classical lissencephaly and is related to defects in the lissencephaly gene ("LIS1"). Periventricular nodular heterotopia is characterized by aggregates of grey matter adjacent to the lateral ventricle…

  5. Diferentes Misturas de Substrato com Lodo de Esgoto Compostado Enriquecido e Substrato Comercial em Quaresmeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Figueiredo Lobo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tibouchina granulosa (Quaresmeira é utilizada em projetos de reflorestamento devido ao seu crescimento rápido. Para garantir melhores resultados, alternativas viáveis como o lodo de esgoto vêm sendo procurada, pois oferece qualidade às mudas, além disso, contribui para o ambiente por ser uma substância reutilizada. Avaliamos aqui os efeitos do substrato com lodo de esgoto. No delineamento experimental foram utilizados 5 tratamentos com diferentes misturas de substratos de lodo de esgoto compostado e comerciais e 4 repetições. A irrigação foi realizada 3 vezes ao dia, por período de 2,5 minutos. Os resultados revelaram que os melhores tratamentos em altura foram 75% LC + 25% SC, 50% LC + 50% SCe 25% LC + 75% BSC para o diâmetro do coleto foram 75% LC + 25% SCe 50% LC + 50% SCe na avaliação nutricional 75% LC + 25% SC. Para a produção de mudas de T. granulosa é recomendado a utilização da combinação de lodo de esgoto e substrato comercial.

  6. La regulación de los contratos en el Código Civil y Comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Junyent Bas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMARIO I. Introducción. II. La nueva articulación contractual en el nuevo Código Civil y Comercial de Código Único. II.1. La teoría general del contrato. II. 2. La ubicación metodológica. III. El contrato discrecional o paritario. III. 1. La conceptualización amplia del contrato. III. 2. Autonomía de la voluntad y eficacia vinculante del contrato. III. 3. La clasificación general de los contratos. III. 4. El consentimiento: oferta y aceptación. IV. Los contratos por adhesión. IV. 1. La redacción unilateral de las cláusulas predispuestas. IV. 2. El modo de redacción de las cláusulas generales. IV. 3. Las cláusulas particulares. IV. 4. Las cláusulas abusivas. V. Los contratos de consumo. V. 1. La relación de consumo. V. 2. El contrato de consumo. V. 3. El concepto de consumidor. V. 4. El proveedor en los contratos de consumo. V. 5. Interpretación y prelación normativa: "in dubio pro consumidor". V. 6. El deber de información, la publicidad y trato digno. V. 7. La facultad de revocar el contrato. V. 8. Cláusulas abusivas. V. 9. Directivas de integración. VI. Conclusión.

  7. Explotación sexual comercial infantil: las rutas de vida del maltrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Méndez Villamizar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la explotación sexual comercial infantil aportando a la comprensión de las situaciones de riesgo y favorecedoras para el ingreso y la permanencia de niños, niñas y adolescentes a partir de la reconstrucción de las rutas de vida de los sujetos sometidos a esta forma de maltrato infantil. Desde un enfoque etnográfico se lograron 6 rutas de vida: 4 niñas y 2 niños explotados sexualmente en la Comuna Centro de la ciudad de Bucaramanga (Colombia. Se destaca el análisis y documentación sobre el ámbito familiar y social, el contexto de interacción y las prácticas cotidianas de un problema complejo caracterizado por la exclusión, el maltrato y el estigma de los niños en esta situación.

  8. Explotación sexual comercial infantil: las rutas de vida del maltrato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Méndez Villamizar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la explotación sexual comercial infantil aportando a la comprensión de las situaciones de riesgo y favorecedoras para el ingreso y la permanencia de niños, niñas y adolescentes a partir de la reconstrucción de las rutas de vida de los sujetos sometidos a esta forma de maltrato infantil. Desde un enfoque etnográfico se lograron 6 rutas de vida, 4 niñas y 2 niños explotados sexualmente en la Comuna Centro de la ciudad de Bucaramanga (Colombia. Se destaca el análisis y documentación sobre el ámbito familiar y social, el contexto de interacción y las prácticas cotidianas de un problema complejo caracterizado por la exclusión, el maltrato y el estigma de los niños en esta situación.

  9. Casa comercial Uribe Ruiz Hermanos 1894 – 1916. El caso de una empresa familiar en Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Mesa Bedoya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el texto se describe el funcionamiento de la casa comercial Uribe Ruiz Hermanos que operó en Rionegro, Medellín y Manizales, localidades antioqueñas, desde 1894 hasta 1916. En Colombia desde medidos de siglo XIX las oportunidades para incrementar el comercio de exportación de materias primas e importación de manufacturas aumentaron. Antioquia fue una de las regiones más dinámicas del país en cuanto al desarrollo de relaciones comerciales e integración de mercados locales con centros urbanos gracias al comercio. Pedro y Estanislao Uribe Ruiz, fundadores de Uribe Ruiz Hermanos, organizaron su casa de comercio a través de la red parental con lo que aseguraron la continuidad del negocio y la confianza para invertir en diversos campos económicos, como era costumbre entre otros comerciantes antioqueños durante el siglo XIX. La principal fuente de consulta fue el archivo José María Uribe Uribe 1838-1921 en el que se encuentra información de las firmas comerciales José María Uribe e Hijos y Uribe Ruiz Hermanos.

  10. ESTRATÉGIA COMERCIAL PARA IMPULSAR EL TURISMO RURAL COMUNIDAD ABILLAL, COLIMA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchnudee Chaisatit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Abillal es una comunidad rural, ubicada en el municipio de Manzanillo, Estado de Colima. Cuenta con riquezas tanto naturales como culturales donde los pobladores están realizando la actividad turística rural pero no está dando buen resultado por la falta de conocimiento y asesoría del plan estratégica para un óptimo manejo integral del turismo. Objetivo: Mejorar el plan estratégico comercial para impulsar el turismo rural en la comunidad del Abillal. La investigación se desarrolló con la metodología deductiva a través del trabajo de campo y análisis de  los indicadores para conocer los factores de la demanda turística. Resultado Mediante un análisis para identificar las fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas (FODA le logro realizar un plan de acción con estrategias que permitieran el impulso turístico de la comunidad de Abillal entre las acciones implementadas se realizó el levantamiento del inventario turístico rural en la comunidad del Abillal, se incluyó e involucro a los ejidatarios en las actividades turísticas y se realizaron los primeros recorridos a la comunidad rural obteniendo muy buenos resultados y propiciando de esta manera la derrama económica  en la comunidad. Palabras Clave: Turismo Rural. Estrategia. Abillal. Mexico

  11. Centro comercial Daiei Nakamozu Sakal Osaka – Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Komuten Co., Ltd., Arquitectos e ingenieros

    1974-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the lay out and essential characteristics of this Shopping Centre in Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. It consists of two storeys and basement for the part to be used as a supermarket, shops and swimmingpool and of three storeys and basement in the bank section. The basement is used as a parking lot which together with the space above ground accommodates 1,200 units. A great contrasting effect is achieved by using reinforced concrete for the structure and glass for the roofs and the large vertical surfaces.Se describen brevemente en este artículo la distribución y características esenciales de este Centro Comercial, situado en Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. Está constituido por dos plantas y sótano en la parte de supermercado, tiendas y piscina, y por tres plantas y sótano en la zona destinada a banco. El sótano está ocupado por un aparcamiento que, con las plazas de superficie, alcanza las 1.200 unidades. La construcción se ha realizado con estructuras de hormigón armado, contrastando con cubiertas y grandes superficies verticales acristaladas.

  12. INTERCAMBIO COMERCIAL UNIÓN EUROPEA - COMUNIDAD ANDINA (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA GUERRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, analiza los intercambios comerciales entre la Unión Europea (UE y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN, con especial énfasis en la aplicación del Sistema de Preferencias Generalizado (SPG, en el periodo 1994 - 2007. Como resultado, se evidencia que el SPG andino, como política europea de cooperación internacional, no ha cumplido satisfactoriamente los objetivos primordiales de su formulación, principalmente por el grado de asimetrías y disfunciones que ha presentado a lo largo de su aplicación. También se analizó la institucionalidad de la CAN y las características del intercambio comercial intrarregional y la ampliación de su mercado en el mismo período. Finalmente como metodología para la elaboración de dicha investigación, se utilizó la descripción y análisis crítico basado en el estudio de estadísticas de fuentes oficiales y Organismos Internacionales, así como de teorías referidas al tema.

  13. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2017-02-01

    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  14. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

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    Jessica Riveros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La anemia se determinó tomando como punto de corte una concentración de hemoglobina <12 g/dL. La deficiencia de hierro se evaluó según la saturación de la transferrina. Además, se evaluó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y los hábitos nutricionales a través de una encuesta. La frecuencia de anemia fue de 15,1% (IC95% 8,7-23,8%, de éste el 33,3% (IC95% 12,8-61,6% correspondió a anemia ferropénica. Se observó asociación entre la presencia de anemia y los niveles disminuidos tanto del hematocrito (<38% como del número de glóbulos rojos (<4,2x 106/uL. Todas las mujeres con anemia ferropénica tenían peso <64 kg e IMC <24,5 kg/m2. Además, se detectó una alta frecuencia de sobrepeso y obesidad (45,4%, alto consumo de grasas, y bajo consumo de legumbres, frutas y verduras. A partir de estos resultados, se sugiere mantener la vigilancia e implementar programas que incluyan a estas mujeres, tanto para evitar deficiencias nutricionales como excesos.

  15. Quelato de hierro y agua de coco en la germinación in vitro de Rossioglossum grande (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay & G.C. Kenn es una orquídea nativa mexicana, considerada en peligro de extinción por la NOM-059-Semarnat-2010. Teniendo en cuenta que la germinación asimbiótica in vitro es una herramienta estratégica para la conservación de orquídeas amenazadas, en este estudio se generó información básica mediante la comparación de la germinación de R. grande en medios Knudson C (KC y Dalla Rosa y Laneri modificado con quelato de hierro y agua de coco (DR. Para el efecto se utilizaron un cultivo madre (CM y dos subcultivos (C1 y C2 y los tratamientos se dispusieron en un diseño experimental totalmente aleatorio. Los resultados se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza y comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (P < 0.05 y Chi-cuadrada. A 60 días en el CM el medio de cultivo DR favoreció el desarrollo, la tasa de sobrevivencia y disminuyó la clorosis de los protocormos. A los 12 meses se presentó mayor desarrollo y mayor regeneración de protocormos. En los subcultivos C1 y C2 se registraron resultados similares lo que confirma que el DR acelera el desarrollo de los protocormos e incrementa su tamaño y tasa de regeneración. En síntesis, el empleo de hierro-quelato y agua de coco promueven el desarrollo in vitro de protocormos de R. grande.

  16. FORMULACIÓN DE UNA BEBIDA LÁCTEA CON SABOR A AREQUIPE ENRIQUECIDA CON HIERRO Y ÁCIDO FÓLICO, DIRIGIDA A MUJERES GESTANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Bejarano Roncancio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Colombia se encuentra dentro de los países con prevalencia moderada de anemia en mujeres gestantes (20-40%; está comprobado que los niveles séricos de folato y hierro en la madre son factores bioquímicos relevantes para la formación del bebé. Dichas aseveraciones, justifican la formulación de un producto alimenticio enriquecido con hierro y ácido fólico,  específico para mujeres gestantes y que contribuya a mejorar sus condiciones nutricionales. Objetivo. Desarrollar una bebida láctea enriquecida con hierro y ácido fólico, endulzada y con sabor a arequipe, organolépticamente aceptable. Materiales y métodos. Para su desarrollo, se cumplieron dos etapas básicas: formulación del patrón y formulación del producto. El enriquecimiento del producto inicial  se hizo con hierro y ácido fólico y luego se determinó  la aceptación organoléptica final. Resultados. La formulación de la bebida láctea Mamá vitae sabor a arequipe, tuvo 86% de aceptación, e incluyó 10 mg de hierro aminoquelado y 230 µg de pteroilmonoglutamato por porción de 200 mL de leche; aportó el 17% de las recomendaciones de hierro y el 33% del ácido fólico para una mujer en gestación. Conclusión. Las características del producto favorecen unas mejores condiciones nutricionales a la gestante y a las mujeres fértiles que quieren planificar una gestación viable. Este tipo de productos son epidemiológicamente necesarios para poblaciones vulnerables como las mujeres gestantes y lactantes.

  17. Aplicación de la identidad visual corporativa: desarrollo de soportes de comunicación comercial para La Maquinista Valenciana

    OpenAIRE

    Calpe Ruano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calpe Ruano, R. (2010). Aplicación de la identidad visual corporativa: desarrollo de soportes de comunicación comercial para La Maquinista Valenciana. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/9915. Archivo delegado

  18. Amiloidose pulmonar: relato de caso de achado radiológico da apresentação nodular em grande fumante Pulmonary amyloidosis: radiographic finding of nodular opacities in a heavy smoker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montessi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A amiloidose pulmonar é uma doença rara, caracterizada pelo depósito extracelular de proteínas fibrilares no pulmão. Amiloidose é um termo genérico para grupos heterogêneos de doenças, incluindo doença de Alzheimer e diabetes mellitus tipo II. Apresenta-se no aparelho respiratório sob as formas traqueobrônquica, nodular pulmonar e septal alveolar (parenquimatosa difusa. Relata-se o caso de uma mulher, tabagista (20 anos/maço, portadora de amiloidose nodular pulmonar, diagnosticada através de exames pré-operatórios à realização de colecistectomia videolaparoscópica.Pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary protein in the lungs. Amyloidosis is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the respiratory system, it appears in various forms: tracheobronchial; nodular pulmonary; and alveolar septal (diffuse parenchymal. We present the case of a woman who was a 20 pack-year smoker and had nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, as diagnosed through tests performed prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  19. La gestión comercial y su influencia en el crecimiento de las PYME hoteleras de Manabí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Edison Ponce Andrade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestión comercial y el crecimiento empresarial son dos variables que deben estar intimamente relacionadas para lograr el éxito de las organizaciones, sobre ello muchos teoricos han generado sus aportes. Identificados los problemas de las pequeñas y medianas empresas hoteleras de Manabi-Ecuador en esta investigacion, se planteo el objetivo de establecer que la gestión comercial tiene influencia en el crecimiento de las PYME del sector estudiado. Se aplicaron 246 encuestas a los gerentes/administradores de estas empresas. El metodo de investigación es lógico inductivo completo, a través de la validación de una hipótesis general y tres específicas, utilizando el software estadístico SPSS 21. La prueba de Alfa de Cronbach para validar el instrumento arrojo un 0.994, significando que existe un alto nivel de confiabilidad en los datos recabados; el Rho de Spearman en la hipótesis general es de 0,966 evidenciando un nivel de correlación positiva significativa, con confiabilidad cercana a 1. Palabras clave: gestión comercial, crecimiento empresarial, PYME, marketing, turismo.

  20. Los niños(as económicamente aventajados en el espacio del centro comercial

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    Salomón Magendzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se basó en el supuesto que la transmisión cultural y social de los adultos y los centros comerciales repercutiría en los comportamientos y los rituales que los niños(as (que en el caso de este estudio pertenecían a la clase alta y media alta desplegarían en los espacios de consumo, en especial cuando éste es el centro comercial. Sin embargo, y en contradicción con lo anterior, también se postuló que dada la etapa del desarrollo en que estos niños(as se encuentran (9 a 11 años, se re-apropiarían del espacio en los términos de Certeaux (1996. La metodología fue de carácter descriptivo, exploratorio y cuantitativa, utilizando la técnica de la observación no participante. Los resultados dieron cuenta de diversos comportamientos de los niños(as dentro del centro comercial, cuyo análisis permitió sustentar lo postulado respecto a la transmisión cultural de los adultos y del espacio comercial, pero no así la hipótesis de la re-apropiación.

  1. Perturabation of nodular operation under salt and water deficit stress in rhizobium common bean symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzalli Jebara, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    This work aims at the search for markers of tolerance to the osmotic stress and nodular efficiency of symbiosis Haricot Rhizobium. Thus, after having fixed the best period of hydroponic culture, we showed that a severe salt treatment generated an inhibition of the parameters of growth and nodulation. These inhibitions are accompanied by an inhibition of the enzymatic activities: ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), but an activation of peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), suggesting that these two antioxydants can be biochemical markers of the tolerance to salinity. To check the validity of these markers and to see the participation of the vegetable genotype in the response to the stress, we compared the effect of two concentrations salt 25 and 50 mM NaCe at two contrasting genotypes BAT477 tolerant and sensitive COCOT. This study illustrates the role of the vegetable genotype in the tolerance and efficiency and emphasize a significant result that SOD and POX constitute biochemical markers of tolerance to salinity. In order to ensure itself of the validity of this assumption in the event of water deficit stress, a treatment of 50 mM mannitol is applied to 16 symbioses formed by four genotypes of bean BAT477, COCOT, Flamingo and BRB17 inoculated by four strains of rhizobium CIAT899, 12 to 3, 1 to 6 and 8 to 3. This study permits us to make a screening of these symbioses according to their efficiency and their tolerance based on parameters of growth, of fixing and extent of the antioxydant enzymatic activities. It gets clear that the response of enzymatic antioxydants is in relation to the intrinsic potentialities of the partners of symbioses and appears to act as of the first stages of recognition plants bacterium. It will be retained that activities POX and SOD are markers of nodular tolerance. The CAT is the enzyme most connected to each partner of symbiosis and the APX would play a rather functional role. The heterogeneity of found answer

  2. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and molecular studies in paediatric Cushing's syndrome due to primary nodular adrenocortical hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr, Helen L; Mitchell, J H; Swords, F M

    2004-01-01

    0.2-0.8 years) from diagnosis. Hypercortisolaemia was treated preoperatively by metyrapone alone 0.50-0.75 g/day (n = 4), metyrapone 0.75-1.50 g/day + o'p'DDD/mitotane 1-2 g/day (n = 1), or ketoconazole (n = 1). Adrenal histology showed nodular cortical hyperplasia with shrinkage of intervening...

  3. Clinical, pathological, and molecular data on desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma: case studies and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Aurore; Bertozzi, Anne Isabelle; Bourdeaut, Franck; Sevely, Annick; Loukh, Najat; Grison, Camille; Miquel, Catherine; Lafon, Delphine; Sevenet, Nicolas; Pietsch, Torsten; Dufour, Christelle; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better define the clinical and biopathological features of patients with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) and to further characterize this subgroup. 17 children aged 3 years, and residual tumor may also have been an explanation for recurrence.

  4. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule treated with bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule and provide a brief overview of the existing literature. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Department with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. Its cause was initially considered a left adrenocortical adenoma based on computer tomography imaging. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Evaluation for the presence of Carney complex was negative. Six months later recurrence of hypercortisolism was documented and a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed further establishing the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. After a nine-year follow-up there is no evidence of residual disease. Conclusions Even though primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome, especially because adrenal imaging can be misleading mimicking other adrenocortical diseases. Bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy is the preferred treatment in these subjects.

  5. Intratumoral steatosis in focal nodular hyperplasia coinciding with diffuse hepatic steatosis : CT and MRI findings with histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortele, KJ; Stubbe, J; Praet, M; Van Langenhove, P; De Bock, G; Kunnen, M

    2000-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumorlike condition that is thought to be a hyperplastic response to increased blood flow in an arterial malformation rather than a true neoplasm. Radiologically, FNH usually shows typical findings on unenhanced and enhanced computed tomography (CT) and

  6. Association of the M1V PRKAR1A mutation with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in two large families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Alberto M.; Hes, Frederik J.; Horvath, Anelia; Woortman, Sanne; Greene, Elizabeth; Bimpaki, Eirini; Alatsatianos, Anton; Boikos, Sosipatros; Smit, Johannes W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2010-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a familial multiple neoplasia syndrome frequently associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a bilateral form of micronodular adrenal hyperplasia that leads to Cushing's syndrome (CS). Germline PRKAR1A mutations cause CNC and only rarely

  7. Radiological Findings in a Case of Multiple Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Associated with Portal Vein Atresia and Portopulmonary Hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Joon; Jeong, Sook Hyang; Choi, Jin Woo; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Hae Ryoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    We present here the radiological findings of a rare case of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia that was associated with portal vein atresia and portopulmonary hypertension in a young woman. This case illustrates and supports the pathophysiological hypotheses that were previously proposed for the coexistence of these three abnormalities

  8. Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia and Portal Hypertension in a Patient with Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Biecker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH of the liver is often associated with rheumatologic or lymphoproliferative disorders and a cause of portal hypertension in some patients. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with celiac disease and unexplained portal hypertension. Biopsy of the liver revealed NRH as the underlying cause. The patient did not suffer from an autoimmune, rheumatologic or lymphoproliferative disease. A thrombophilic disorder that might cause NRH was ruled out. Celiac disease is often associated with mild elevation of liver enzymes and steatosis of the liver, but the association with NRH was described in only a few patients. We discuss the possible relationship of celiac disease and NRH.

  9. Escleritis nodular posterior gigante compatible con sarcoidosis ocular simulando un melanoma de la coroides

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Campagne, E.; Guex-Crosier, Y.; Schalenbourg, A.; Uffer, S.; Zografos, L.

    2007-01-01

    Caso clínico: Un paciente de 30 años fue enviado a nuestro servicio oncológico de referencia con el diagnóstico de melanoma amelanótico de la coroides del ojo izquierdo. Se hicieron los siguientes exámenes: oftalmoscopía, angiografía fluoresceínica, angiografía con verde de indocianina, ecografía, resonancia magnética y biopsia. Discusión: El diagnóstico de escleritis nodular posterior gigante basado en la ecografía se confirmó mediante una biopsia. Se realizó un examen médico completo buscán...

  10. First case report of locally advanced malignant nodular hidradenoma of the scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Binay K; Qamruzzaman, Yusuf; Serban, Karina; Hire, Ervin; Ying, Shan-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH) is a malignant tumor of the eccrine glands, and most commonly involves the head, trunk, and extremities. To the best of our knowledge, MNH of the scrotum has not yet been described in the English literature. Despite the use of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy, optimal treatment of MNH is unclear. We describe the case of a 30-year-old African American man who was diagnosed with locally advanced MNH of the scrotum and treated with surgery. More than 2 years after surgery, the patient is without evidence of disease. This is the first case report of MNH of the scrotum. Surgery alone may be sufficient for the treatment of localized or locally advanced MNH. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Diagnostic imaging of focal nodular hyperplasis of the liver developing during nitrofurantoin therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttinen, H.; Ahonen, A.; Leinonen, A.; Kallioinen, M.; Heikkinen, E.S. (University of Oulu (Finland))

    1982-01-01

    An asymptomatic palpable liver tumor developed in a six-year-old girl seven months after commencement of prophylactic nitrofurantoin therapy for recurrent urinary tract infections. The tumor was examined by /sup 99/ sup (m) Tc colloid radionuclide scan, compound ultrasonography and angiography. Ultrasonography demonstrated a large, solid tumor (5x5x8 cm) in the right lobe of the liver which had an echogenic central core surrounded by an area giving low-amplitude echoes. Angiography disclosed that the tumor was well demarcated and hypervascular, containing large tortuous arteries. The uptake of radionuclide in the tumor was normal. The tumor was resected and the pathological findings were typical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver. The combination of the findings of these three diagnostic imaging methods is probably specific for uncomplicated (FNH), a benign and innocuous tumor of the liver.

  12. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Cipolla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. Case Description. We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. Conclusions. SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way.

  13. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Calogero; Florena, Ada Maria; Ferrara, Gabriella; Di Gregorio, Riccardo; Unti, Elettra; Giannone, Antonino G; Lazzaro, Luigi A; Graceffa, Giuseppa; Pantuso, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way.

  14. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease associated with Carney complex: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Torres Gonçalves

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carney complex (CNC, a familial multiple neoplasm syndrome with dominant autosomal transmission, is characterized by tumors of the heart, skin, endocrine and peripheral nervous system, and also cutaneous lentiginosis. This is a rare syndrome and its main endocrine manifestation, primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD, is an uncommon cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing's syndrome. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 20-year-old patient with a history of weight gain, hirsutism, acne, secondary amenorrhea and facial lentiginosis. Following the diagnosing of CNC and PPNAD, the patient underwent laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, and she evolved with decreasing hypercortisolism. Screening was also performed for other tumors related to this syndrome. The diagnostic criteria, screening and follow-up for patients and affected family members are discussed.

  15. Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Yürekli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graves’ disease (GD may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG. We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient’s serum free triiodothyronine (fT3 and free thyroxine (fT4 levels gradually increased. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb, antithyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb were also positive. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse intense uptake after four months of RAIT. Radiation-induced GD should be considered in patients with aggravated hyperthyroidism 3-4 months after therapy.

  16. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, M Faulkner; Stacy, Brian A; Kyles, Andrew E; Moore, Peter F; Vernau, William; Smarick, Sean D; Rasor, Liberty A

    2004-04-15

    A 7-year-old castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was examined because of labored breathing and episodes of respiratory distress that progressed to collapse. On cervical radiographs, a focal soft tissue mass in the caudal cervical portion of the trachea was observed, and during tracheoscopy, a 1 x 1 cm, pedunculated, multinodular, pink, intraluminal mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane and obstructing approximately 80% of the tracheal lumen was seen. Tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed to remove the mass, and the dog recovered without complications. On histologic examination, the mass consisted of a large accumulation of homogeneous, faintly fibrillar eosinophilic material admixed with a predominantly plasma cell infiltrate; examination of sections stained with thioflavin T and Congo red stain confirmed that the eosinophilic material was amyloid. A diagnosis of nodular, immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis was made. Seventeen months after surgery, the dog had a relapse of respiratory distress because of an extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the trachea.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia. Report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menu, Y.; Arrive, L.; Grenier, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatic Adenoma (HA) and Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) are rare benign tumors of the liver, occurring mostly in females between 25 and 40 years old. HA is clearly related to oral contraceptive intake. Detection of such tumors may be assessed by Ultrasonography (US). Computed Tomography (CT) or Angiography. These examinations usually allow differenciation with hepatic angiomas but it is much more difficult to rule out a well-differenciated primary liver cancer. MR proved to be a valuable technique for detection of liver tumors. Initial experience suggested that T1 and T2 relaxation times had little value for tissue characterization. The aim of this study is to show the presentation of HA and FNH and to evaluate the possibility for this method to characterize these lesions [fr

  18. Early-stage focal nodular hyperplasia: US/CT/MR features correlated with histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfieri, R.; Giampalma, E.; Berardi, R.; Caputo, M.; Lalli, A.; Grazi, G.; Mazziotti, A.; Gozzetti, G.; D'Errico, A.; Grigioni, W.; Gavelli, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), in which ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) studies detected an atypical hemorrhagic pattern associated with an intrahepatic arterio venous malformation (AVM) around the growths, are presented. In both cases, histology demonstrated a very early regenerative stage and necrotic-hemorrhagic areas within the lesions. In these cases, the analysis of radiological findings, surgical specimens and histology seemed to confirm the pathogenetic hypothesis suggested by Wanless: in normal liver parenchyma, a ''blood steal'' phenomenon due to congenital or acquired intrahepatic AVM could cause ischemic damage, appearing as a hemorrhagic necrotic area, the extent of which depends on the degree of residual portal supply. (orig.)

  19. Reactive Retinal Astrocytic Tumor (Focal Nodular Gliosis): Report of the Clinical Spectrum of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D; Soto, Hansell; Bellerive, Claudine; Biscotti, Charles V

    2017-09-01

    To report 3 cases providing insight into clinical progression of reactive retinal astrocytic tumor. The clinical, imaging, and when available, the cytologic features of 3 cases of reactive retinal astrocytic tumor (focal nodular gliosis) were reviewed. A 6-year-old female, a 49-year-old man, and a 39-year-old man each developed a white retinal mass associated with laser photocoagulation, lattice degeneration, and treatment of a presumed vascular tumor, respectively. All tumors were white, circumscribed retinal masses that tended to be associated with exudation and either initially or eventually minimal vascularity. Reactive retinal astrocytic tumor can be observed in response to a degenerative, inflammatory, or ischemic retinal insult. Such tumors may progress after therapeutic intervention.

  20. Elastosonography in the diagnosis of the nodular breast lesions: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuseppetti, Gian Marco; Di Cioccio, Barbara; Baldassarre, Silvia; Martegani, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of elastography in characterising nodular breast lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 82 patients who received mammographic, ultrasonographic and elastographic evaluation in a single session at two Italian centres (Dept of Radiology, Az. Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, and Ospedale Valduce, Corno, Italy) between January and August 2004 according to identical protocols exhibited 91 nodules that were subjected to cytological/histological examination. Lesions were classified and scored and the sensitivity of elastography calculated. Results. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 89%, respectively. However, sensitivity was 86% and 65% and specificity 100% and 62% for lesions 2 cm in diameter, respectively. Despite the small sample and the fact that it does not include the full range of cell types, tumour cell composition seemed to affect accuracy. Conclusions. Elastography is easy and rapid to perform. Larger studies are needed to establish semiological patterns; despite the small patient sample, these data provide an interesting contribution [it

  1. Cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity in a child: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiphithak, Raywat; Yindeedej, Vich; Thamwongskul, Chatchai

    2017-05-01

    Cerebellar medulloblastomas (MBs) are one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in children but rarely occur in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Only 39 cases of CPA MBs were reported in the literature, and most of them were classic and desmoplastic MBs. A 22-month-old girl presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large tumor in the right CPA and obstructive hydrocephalus. Surgical resection was performed and achieved total tumor removal. Microscopic examination and immunohistochemical staining revealed the diagnosis of MB with extensive nodularity. The patient recovered from her symptoms during follow-up and was transferred for adjuvant chemotherapy. MB should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a lesion in the CPA. The treatment and outcome of CPA MBs are similar to cerebellar MBs.

  2. The unique entity of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: current approaches to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Eliza A; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Cunningham, David

    2012-03-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare disease constituting only 3-8% of all Hodgkin lymphoma. It has a distinct histological and clinical presentation as well as significantly different natural history compared to the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma. Presenting most often as early-stage disease, NLPHL is characterized by frequent relapses, but paradoxically an overall good prognosis. The approach to management should therefore reflect this pattern and focus on attaining prolonged remissions, with long-term follow-up paramount. Due to the rarity of the disease, few prospective data exist. Options for treatment include radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and targeted anti-CD20 antibody therapy, as well as observation in selected patients.

  3. Consideraciones sobre la aplicación del principio iura novit curia en el arbitraje comercial internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Blackaby

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de su reconocimiento en diferentes jurisdicciones, la apli­cación del principio iura novit curia al arbitraje comercial internacional ha sido objeto de debate. Desde el punto de vista más liberal, el principio es absolutamente aplicable al arbitraje comercial internacional, tal y como sería aplicado por un juez al dictar sentencia conforme a su derecho nacional, mientras que desde la postura más estricta, cualquier manifestación de este principio que permita a los árbitros tomar la iniciativa de traer nuevas cues­tiones de derecho al proceso debe ser rechazada por completo. Partiendo de la premisa de que, por lo general, los miembros de un tribunal arbitral inter­nacional no conocen el derecho aplicable a las controversias que se someten a su conocimiento, ni tienen experiencia o manejo práctico respecto a dicho derecho, la aplicación del principio iura novit curia de forma pura y simple no resultaría adecuada en el contexto del arbitraje comercial internacional en razón de su naturaleza contractual y los intereses involucrados. Por otra parte, rechazar de plano la aplicabilidad del principio en el arbitraje comercial internacional implicaría atar de manos a los árbitros y crearía el riesgo de que se emitan laudos que ignoren o contradigan normas y principios del derecho aplicable, lo que podría afectar su validez y dar pie a que su validez y ejecución posterior se vean cuestionadas. En razón de lo anterior, para que el principio iura novit curia pueda ser aplicado en el contexto del arbitraje comercial inter­nacional, dicho principio debe ser abordado desde una postura intermedia y sufrir una importante adaptación de forma que ciertas manifestaciones del mismo puedan ser aceptadas en casos excepcionales como una herramienta para que los árbitros puedan cumplir cabalmente con los deberes inheren­tes a su función decisoria, incluyendo el deber de no exceder la jurisdicción que les ha sido conferida, de dictar

  4. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-11-01

    Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as thyroid nodular disease and its associated morbidity (hyperthyroidism). For the estimation of direct, indirect, medical, and nonmedical costs related to thyroid nodular diseases in Belgium, data from the Federal Public Service of Public Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment, the National Institute for Disease and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI), the Information Network about the prescription of reimbursable medicines (FARMANET), Intercontinental Marketing Services, and expert opinions were used. These costs translate into savings after implementation of the iodization program and are defined as costs due to thyroid nodular disease throughout the article. Costs related to the iodization program are referred to as program costs. Only figures dating from before the start of the intervention were exploited. Only adult and elderly people (≥18 years) were taken into account in this study because thyroid nodular diseases predominantly affect this age group. The yearly costs due to thyroid nodular diseases caused by mild iodine deficiency in the Belgian adult population are ∼€38 million. It is expected that the iodization program will result in additional costs of ∼€54,000 per year and decrease the prevalence of thyroid nodular diseases by 38% after a 4-5-year period. The net savings after establishment of the program are therefore estimated to be at least €14 million a year. Optimization of iodine intake in Belgium should be quite cost effective, if only considering its impact on

  5. Sporadic periventricular nodular heterotopia: Classification, phenotype and correlation with Filamin A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyu; Yan, Bo; An, Dongmei; Xiao, Jiahe; Hu, Fayun; Zhou, Dong

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better delineate the clinical spectrum of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in a large patient population after long term follow up. Specifically, this study aimed to relate PNH subtypes to clinical or epileptic outcomes, epileptic discharges and underlying Filamin A (FLNA) mutations by analyzing anatomical features. The study included 100 patients with radiologically confirmed nodular heterotopia. Patients' FLNA gene sequences and medical records were analyzed. Two-sided Chi-square test and Fisher's exact t-test were used to assess associations between the distribution of PNHs and specific clinical features. Based on imaging data, patients were subdivided into three groups: (a) classical (bilateral frontal and body, n=41 patients), (b) bilateral asymmetrical or posterior (n=16) and (c) unilateral heterotopia (n=43). Most patients with classical heterotopia were females (P=0.033) and were likely to have arachnoid cysts (P=0.025) and cardiac abnormalities (P=0.041), but were mostly seizure-free. Additionally, hippocampal abnormalities (P=0.022), neurological deficits (P=0.028) and cerebellar abnormalities (P=0.005) were more common in patients with bilateral asymmetrical heterotopia. Patients with unilateral heterotopia were prone to develop refractory epilepsy (P=0.041). FLNA mutations were identified in 8 patients. Each group's distinctive genetic mutations, epileptic discharge patterns and overall clinical outcomes confirm that the proposed classification system is reliable. These findings could not only be an indicator of a more severe morphological and clinical phenotype, but could also have clinical implications with respect to the epilepsy management and optimization of therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Late follow up results after J - 131 therapy of toxic multi-nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze success of radioiodine therapy in patients with toxic multi-nodular goiter (TMG). Methods: The group of 43 patients (36 females / 7 males, aged 47 ± 11 yrs, range 27 - 75 yrs) with TMG were treated with radioiodine. 28 patients were treated with one dose, 12 patients with two doses and 7 patients with three and more doses according to Marinelli's formula. The administered activity of J -131 was established basing on radioiodine uptake and goiter size ( median 555 MBq, range: 370 - 1100 MBq). Patients were evaluated by clinical and thyroid examination of TSH, FT4, FT3 after 1 - 3 months. Thyroid scintigraphy was performed 3 months after radioiodine therapy. Prior to treatment with J -131 all patients were treated with antithyroid medications, who were suspended 4 - 7 days and restarted one week after J - 131 therapy. Results: in 76,8% (33/43) patients there was control of disease after the first J -131 dose and in 95,2% (40/43) patients after the second and more doses. At 20 years of follow up, there were 84,4% (36/43) patients euthyroid, 13,9% (6/43) patients hypothyroid and 4,6% (2/43) patients hyperthyroid. Reduction of gland weight were in 74,4% (32/43) patients. During 20 years of follow up no adverse side effects were observed after J - 131 therapy. Conclusion: radioiodine therapy is the right choice of treatment for toxic multi-nodular goiter and single dose of J -131 is successful in most of the cases. A single higher radioiodine dose diminishes the need for additional J -131 therapy, without increasing of developing hypothyroidism. (authors)

  7. [Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis: Two post-traumatic complications mimicking cellulitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, C; Barthélémy, I; Emering, C; D'Incan, M

    Dermal and subcutaneous inflammation following direct trauma is initially evocative of soft-tissue infection. However, two differential diagnoses must be considered: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Case 1: a 51-year-old woman fell off her motorbike and had dermabrasions on her right and left tibial ridges that rapidly developed into dermo-hypodermitis of the entire limb. There was no improvement after 3 weeks of antibiotics. The patient was apyretic. She had a soft, non-inflammatory tumefaction on the inner aspect of her left knee. Ultrasound revealed subcutaneous collection in both legs. The surgeons confirmed a diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée syndrome and drained the two collections. Progress was good and the patient healed without major consequences. Case 2: following a fall on her stairs, a 40-year-old woman presented dermabrasions and haematomas on her left leg. Antibiotic therapy failed to prevent the progression of dermo-hypodermitis. The patient remained apyretic and there was no inflammatory syndrome. A CT scan showed thickening of a subcutaneous fat and fluid collection, resulting in diagnosis of post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Management was surgical and the outcome was good. These two cases show two post-traumatic cutaneous complications: Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis. Morel-Lavallée syndrome occurs after tangential trauma next to richly vascularized tissue. Post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis is defined as necrosis of adipocytes. In both cases, diagnosis is confirmed by imagery (Ultrasonography, tomography). Our two case reports show that inflammatory presentation of both Morel-Lavallée syndrome and post-traumatic nodular fat necrosis can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic errors while a surgical procedure is necessary since tissue necrosis can occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  9. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  10. Efeito de Humoativo comercial na produtividade da couve-flor no Estado de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo da Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O Humoativo comercial é um substrato registrado como produto orgânico, proveniente do tratamento anaeróbico dos resíduos de celulose em lagoas de decantação e posterior compostagem aeróbica, com alta concentração em nutrientes. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar, a campo, o efeito da aplicação de doses de Humoativo sobre a produtividade e a absorção de metais pesados por plantas de couve-flor. Foi utilizado delineamento em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com três repetições e sete tratamentos que corresponderam às doses de Humoativo de 17, 34, 51, 68, 85 e 102 t.ha-1, em base seca. O uso do produto como fertilizante para a cultura da couve-flor proporcionou aumentos crescentes das produtividades com o aumento das doses aplicadas. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre os teores de macro e micronutrientes analisados nos tecidos foliares da couve-flor.Effects of Humoativo commercial in cauliflower productivity in Santa Catarina StateAbstract:  Humoativo commercial is a substrate organic derived from the anaerobic treatment of waste cellulose into settling ponds, with high concentrations of nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate, in field, the effect of doses of Humoativo on productivity and on heavy metal uptake by plants of cauliflower. Design was used randomized blocks with three replications and seven treatments that corresponded to doses of Humoativo of 17, 34, 51, 68, 85 and 102 t.ha-1 in dry basis. The use of the product as fertilizer for the cultivation of cauliflower provided increases in the yield of culture with increasing doses applied. There was no effect of treatments on the concentrations of macro and micronutrients analyzed in the leaves of cauliflower.

  11. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  12. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village. The Canary Government raised the alert level from green to yellow on 10 October (3 colour basis: green, yellow, and red). Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. During the whole eruptive period, The Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands and the Helicopter Unit of the Spanish Civil Guard have carried out regularly thermal surveys with a hand held FLIR Thermal Camera P65. The images have been collected taking care of avoiding solar reflection (with cloudy weather) or at times of the day without direct sun light. Air temperature and humidity were measured with a handled thermo-hygrometer every time before the thermal image collection, and measurements were always performed at two fixed heights: 2000 and 1000 feet, and images were collected as perpendicular as possible to the surface. Together with thermal images, digital photos of the surface have

  13. La erupción submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez-Torrado, F. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1 ascent of magma and migration of hypocentres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2 onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736. This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN. Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted

  14. Migración de hierro y níquel, y estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de soja calentado en utensilios culinarios de diversos materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka Maritza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cookware may release some inorganic components into foods during cooking, some of which have undesirable consequences. In fried foods, for instance, oil oxidation is favored by metals. The present study evaluated oxidative stability (AOCS method and iron and nickel migration (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry into refined soybean oil in four cycles, with intervals of 24 hours. The cookware materials were glass, aluminum, stainless steel, iron and soapstone. The results demonstrated that the lowest metal migration occurred from glass and aluminum pans while the oil heated in these pans showed the highest oxidative stability. The highest migration of Fe and Ni into the oil occurred from the soapstone and iron pots (3.94 and 3.21 mg _ kg-1, respectively.Nevertheless, increasing loss of oxidative stability was evident in the oils heated in the soapstone, stainless steel and iron cookware, in this order. Since iron migration was lower from glass and aluminum pans, these were considered the best type of materials for fryingDurante la elaboración de alimentos los utensilios culinarios pueden liberar componentes inorgánicos ocasionalmente no deseables. La oxidación del aceite es durante la fritura es favorecida por la presencia de metales. Fue evaluada la migración de hierro y níquel (espectrometría de emisión óptica y la estabilidad oxidativa (método AOCS del aceite de soja sometido a cuatro calentamientos con intervalos de 24 horas en cazuelas de vidrio, aluminio, acero inoxidable, hierro y piedra-jabón. La mayor migración de hierro al aceite ocurrió en las cazuelas de hierro (3,94 mg•kg–1 y piedra (3,21 mg _ kg–1, sin diferencia estadística entre ellas. La pérdida progresiva de estabilidad oxidativa fue acentuada en los aceites calentados en utensilios de piedra, acero inoxidable e hierro, en tal orden. Vidrio y aluminio fueron considerados los mejores materiales para la fabricación de cazuelas

  15. Efecto de adición de iones hierro y zinc sobre la producción de etanol de dos cepas recombinantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Peña Serna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de etanol por fermentación es influenciada por la presencia de iones metálicos como hierro y zinc dado que son cofactores de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa. El estudio de este efecto permitiría identificar el comportamiento de los microorganismos fermentadores en sustratos industriales que contienen altas concentraciones de este tipo de iones. Este trabajo evaluó la producción de biomasa, los azúcares residuales y la producción de etanol por fermentación de tres cepas de S. cerevisiae, CBS8066, recombinantes GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII, bajo el efecto de la adición de hierro a 0, 50 y 150 M, y zinc a 0 y 50 M. Las cepas presentaron inhibición en la producción de biomasa y etanol bajo efecto de iones de hierro y zinc, siendo dicha inhibición mayor al estar en presencia de zinc o alta concentración de hierro. GG570-CIBI mostró disminución en producción de biomasa de 4 g/L y una caída en producción de etanol de 40% en el tratamiento 150 M hierro-50 M zinc (con respecto al tratamiento basal. GG570-CIBII fue la menos afectada con inhibición en la producción de etanol inferior a 11% a las 20 h de fermentación. Adicionalmente, presentó la mayor producción de etanol cuando hubo adición de 150 M Fe con o sin adición de zinc, siendo dicha producción entre un 9 y 14% superior a la de las cepas CBS8066 y GG570-CIBI respectivamente, bajo las mismas condiciones. Posteriormente, GG570-CIBII será evaluada en sustratos industriales debido a su menor inhibición en la producción de etanol, permitiendo así obtener mejores rendimientos.

  16. PREVALENCIA DE LA DEFICIENCIA DE HIERRO EN DONANTES DE SANGRE. REVISIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA DEL PERÍODO 2001- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La donación de sangre se asocia con disminución de las reservas de hierro de los donantes, lo que puede afectar el desarrollo de sus funciones fisiológicas y al estado general de salud. Estudios previos reportan una gran divergencia en la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en dicha población (1% a 62%. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en donantes de sangre a partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura. Métodos: Búsqueda exhaustiva y reproducible de la literatura en 7 bases de datos con base en un protocolo de búsqueda de estudios en 4 idiomas y publicados entre el 2001 y el 2011 con criterios de inclusión, exclusión y extracción de información. El análisis se realizó con base en el cálculo de la prevalencia global y específica por sexo y número de donaciones, con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza, utilizando los programas Excel y Epidat 3.0. Resultados: Se obtuvo una población total de 16.979 donantes, 5.096 de repetición, con una proporción de hombres del 59%. Se halló una prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro del 13% (IC 95% 12,4-13,4, con una rango entre 1% y 62%, siendo estadísticamente significativa la mayor frecuencia en mujeres (19,56% IC 95%: 18,59 - 20,53 y donantes repetidores (20,36% IC 95%: 19,25 - 21,48. Conclusión: Se obtuvo una prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en donantes de sangre por encima de grupos de mayor riesgo como los niños, siendo mayor en donantes del sexo femenino y de repetición.

  17. Estado de nutrición en hierro en una población de 4 a 14 años, urbano marginal, de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fernández

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el estado de nutrición en hierro en una población de 4 a 14 años. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal y prospectivo. Lugar: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Niños, entre 4 y 14 años. Intervenciones: Se estudió 349 niños, 170 de sexo masculino y 179 de sexo femenino, entre 4 y 14 años de edad, del Centro de Salud San Genaro de Villa, Chorrillos, entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado de nutrición en hierro. Resultados: El 68,8% (240 no presentó alteración en el estado de nutrición en hierro (ENH, frente a 31,2% (109 que sí lo presentó. De los 109 niños con alteración en el ENH, 68,8% (75 clasificó en el estadio I de depleción latente (ferritina 400 ug/dL, y 8,3% (9, en el estadio III de anemia ferropénica (hemoglobina <11,5 g/100 mL para menores de 11 años y <12 g/100 mL para 12 a 14 años, hematocrito <34 para menores de 11 años y <36% para 12 a 14 años, volumen corpuscular medio <80 fl, y hemoglobina corpuscular media <27pg. Conclusiones: El alto porcentaje de niños con alteración en el estado de nutrición en hierro, estadio I, identifica a una población en riesgo de anemia ferropénica. Se recomienda que los estudios de deficiencia en hierro se restrinjan a niños en estadio I, con el fin de establecer políticas de participación ciudadana y establecer alianzas sectoriales y extrasectoriales (sector educación, para la promoción de la nutrición infantil.

  18. Emissions of Fe(II) and its kinetic of oxidation at Tagoro submarine volcano, El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dávila, M.; Santana-González, C.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The eruptive process that took place in October 2011 in the submarine volcano Tagoro off the Island of El Hierro (Canary Island) and the subsequent degasification stage, five months later, have increased the concentration of TdFe(II) (Total dissolved iron(II)) in the waters nearest to the volcanic edifice. In order to detect any variation in concentrations of TdFe(II) due to hydrothermal emissions, three cruises were carried out two years after the eruptive process in October 2013, March 2014, May 2015, March 2016 and November 2016. The results from these cruises confirmed important positive anomalies in TdFe(II), which coincided with negatives anomalies in pHF,is (pH in free scale, at in situ conditions) located in the proximity of the main cone. Maximum values in TdFe(II) both at the surface, associated to chlorophyll a maximum, and at the sea bottom, were also observed, showing the important influence of organic complexation and particle re-suspension processes. Temporal variability studies were carried out over periods ranging from hours to days in the stations located over the main and two secondary cones in the volcanic edifice with positive anomalies in TdFe(II) concentrations and negative anomalies in pHF,is values. Observations showed an important variability in both pHF,is and TdFe(II) concentrations, which indicated the volcanic area was affected by a degasification process that remained in the volcano after the eruptive phase had ceased. Fe(II) oxidation kinetic studies were also undertaken in order to analyze the effects of the seawater properties in the proximities of the volcano on the oxidation rate constants and t1/2 (half-life time) of ferrous iron. The increased TdFe(II) concentrations and the low associated pHF,is values acted as an important fertilization event in the seawater around the Tagoro volcano at the Island of El Hierro providing optimal conditions for the regeneration of the area.

  19. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  20. Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.

    2012-04-01

    On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an

  1. Relación entre las reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido Relationship between maternal and neonatal iron stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Vásquez-Molina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la relación de los valores hematológicos maternos y neonatales en casos de reservas maternas de hierro bajas, moderadas y normales. Material y métodos. Diseño transversal en el que se incluyó a 163 mujeres embarazadas y sus neonatos de término, derechohabientes del Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en Chihuahua, Chih., México. Se analizaron antecedentes maternos. Se determinaron niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica en muestras maternas y de cordón umbilical. Se definieron reservas de hierro maternas de acuerdo a ferritina (µg /l: bajas o = 20.1. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis para establecer diferencias entre grupos, ji cuadrada para diferencia de proporciones y r de Pearson para establecer la relación entre reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido. Resultados. Se determinó una débil correlación entre la ferritina materna y neonatal r=0.14 (p=0.07. Las medias geométricas de ferritina neonatal respecto a las reservas maternas bajas, moderadas y normales fue de 4.77, 4.85 y 5.02, respectivamente (p=0.12. Las reservas de hierro maternas se modificaron con el suplemento de hierro (p=0.01. Conclusiones. Las reservas de hierro en el recién nacido están en estrecha relación con las maternas. Las mujeres que toman suplementos con hierro durante la gestación tienen reservas mayores al final del embarazo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To establish the relationship of normal, low, and moderate blood iron values in mothers and their newborns. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 163 pregnant women and their newborns, users of Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, from Chihuahua, Mexico. The mothers' clinical histories were collected and analyzed; hemoglobin

  2. Balanço comercial numa analise quantitativa Trade balance in quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martus Antonio Rodrigues Tavares

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Tentativa de comprovação da validade do modelo econométrico utilizado por Lemgruber no período 1965-1974. Procedeu-se ao teste do modelo, utilizando-se o período de 1965-1977 a fim de realizar a comprovação pretendida, face a nova conjuntura internacional de elevados preços do petróleo, de desvalorização do dólar frente às moedas de alguns países industrializados e de baixo crescimento da economia mundial, bem como das mudanças na política econômica de comércio exterior do Brasil. Procedeu-se também a um teste de modelo alternativo para melhor aplicação econométrica a conjuntura atual de comércio exterior. Ao final observou-se que os modelos estudados são suficientes para mostrar que a melhora do nosso balanço comercial está sujeita às variáveis externas como, renda mundial, preços de importações e exportações, não se desprezando também a variável interna — taxa de câmbio.Attempt to confirm the validity of the econometric model utilized by Lemgruber for the period 1965-1974. This model was applied to the period 1965-1977, in order to test it in the face of a new set of international crisis, such as the increase of petroleum prices, the devaluation of the dollar in relation to the currencies of other industrial countries, and the low growth-rate of the world economy, as well as in the face of the changes in Brazil's foreign economic policy. An alternative model was also tested for econometric applicability to the actual situation of foreign trade. It was observed, in the end, that the models studied sufficiently demonstrated that the improvement of our balance of trade is subject to such external variables as world income and import-export prices, as well as to the internal variable of exchange rate.

  3. Medición del desgaste laboral en el ramo comercial

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    Marianna Barrios León

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El desempeño del capital humano se ve influido por múltiples factores; uno de ellos es el desgaste laboral. Esta investigación tiene por objeto identificar las dimensiones fundamentales que participarían en la medición del desgaste percibido por los trabajadores que laboran en el ramo comercial. La profundidad de este estudio lo clasifica como explicativo con diseño de campo, usándose una muestra de 64 personas de una empresa comercializadora, donde se realizaron entrevistas estructuradas y se aplicó una adaptación del Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. El instrumento fue validado por contenido, criterio y constructo, y el cálculo del alfa de cronbach indicó una fiabilidad adecuada. Por otra parte, el Análisis de Factores, la Extracción de Componentes Principales y el contraste de los resultados con otras aplicaciones en el área, permitieron determinar la existencia de cinco dimensiones: 1 Sensación de Desgaste, 2 Manejo Emocional, 3 Manejo de las Relaciones Laborales, 4 Afinidad en las Relaciones Laborales, y 5 Despersonalización, donde resalta que las relaciones laborales son un factor clave para percibir el desgaste y se mantiene la subescala de despersonalización como en el instrumento inicial. A partir de estas dimensiones se pueden definir estrategias organizacionales para la mejora de la productividad. The human capital performance is influenced by many factors, one of them is burnout. This research aims to identify the key dimensions that participate in the exhasut measurement perceived by employees working in the trade sector. The depth of this study was classified as explanatory design field, using one sample of 64 people in a trading company where structured interviews were conducted and applied an adaptation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. The instrument was validated by content, and criterion construct and calculation of Cronbach’s alpha indicated adequate reliability. Moreover, Factor Analysis, Principal

  4. Hiperplasia nodular focal do fígado: apresentação de um caso e revisão da literatura Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a case report and review of the literature

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    Marise Silva Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um caso de hiperplasia nodular focal que foi diagnosticado aos seis anos de idade e que está sendo acompanhado até o momento presente. Para o diagnóstico foram imprescindíveis as técnicas de imagem, tendo importância de realce a cintilografia hepatoesplênica e a tomografia computadorizada. Apresentamos, também, revisão da literatura sobre o assunto.In this case report we discuss a focal nodular hyperplasia diagnosed in a female, six-year old patient, as well as her follow-up from the diagnosis to the present time. Imaging techniques, particularly hepatosplenic scintigraphy and computed tomography, are essential for the diagnosis. Also, a literature review is presented.

  5. Sistema de apoyo a la toma de decisiones en el proceso de negociación comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Karel Manuel Domínguez-Rodríguez; Lino Téllez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Se abordaron aspectos relacionados con el apoyo a la toma de decisiones en el proceso de negociación comercial teniendo en cuenta que ese proceso es una herramienta informática cuya finalidad es dinamizarlo, mediante la generación y evaluación sistemática de diferentes alternativas y escenarios de negocios, que permiten demostrar la viabilidad de la propuesta. El sistema asesora la actuación profesional en correspondencia con la necesidad que durante el proceso de negociación se anticipen est...

  6. Análisis de la apertura comercial en México mediante modelos multisectoriales, 1970-93.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapa Cantú, Joana Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    En esta tesis se analiza y calcula el impacto de la apertura comercial mexicana y el efecto marginal del TLCAN sobre la estructura productiva, niveles de actividad y redistribución de recursos. Esta política es analizada en un entorno de interdependencia general, implementando tres modelos multisectoriales y estáticos: Modelo Input-Output, Modelo Lineal SAM o de Multiplicadores Contables y un Modelo de Equilibrio General Computable (MEGC). El Modelo Input-Ouput permite calcular indicadores de...

  7. DIAGNÓSTICO POR PROCESOS DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD COMERCIAL EN LA EMPRESA PROPES

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    Pedro Blas Arteaga Gómez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En el presente artículo se expone el resultado de un diagnóstico por proceso realizado en la organización de la actividad comercial de la Empresa Importadora y Proveedora de Productos para la Pesca, PROPES, determinándose la cadena de valor, las características de cada proceso y sus deficiencias y problemas. Por último, se propone un conjunto de soluciones que se encuentran en vías de implementación.

  8. Publicidade, necessidades e decrescimento. Para uma comunicação publicitária menos comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Javier García López

    2017-01-01

    O atual sistema de produção e consumo utiliza a comunicação publicitária para transmitir aos receptores-consumidores a necessidade de uma economia de crescimento exponencial. A publicidade comercial convencional produz realidades que devem ser objeto de desejo e, em última instância, necessidade. Contudo, tais necessidades não dão lugar a uma vida boa de ser vivida. Ao contrário, as narrativas publicitárias mercantilizadas provocam distâncias sociais, agravam os efeitos prejudiciais da econom...

  9. El centro comercial : una teoría tipológica : claves para el reconocimiento de una arquitectura ignorada

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Cervera, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Existe en el panorama edificado un patrimonio construido que se reconoce como Centro Comercial. Un conjunto entendido, en sentido genérico, como familia arquitectónica que tiene características propias y específicas que la identifican. El objeto de la presente tesis doctoral consiste en argumentar que este conjunto constituye un nuevo tipo en el panorama de las tipologías arquitectónicas. Un tipo con entidad propia, que se conecta a una forma diferente de entender la idea de modelo. Un concep...

  10. Proposta d'ús de realitat augmentada per a aplicació comercial en catàlegs corporatius

    OpenAIRE

    Losada Sanjuán, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    El present projecte busca aplicar funcions de realitat augmentada en catàlegs comercials d'una companyia real. Es pretén donar més màrqueting als catàlegs augmentant l'apreciació de l'empresa coma referent tecnològic punter en el seu camp. Per a realitzar el projecte s'utilitzarà principalment tecnologia Unity per a configurar l'entorn tridimensional i programar les aplicacions, l'API de Vuforia per a gestionar els marcadors que s'utilitzaran per fixar els elements virtuals, 3DS Max ...

  11. Plan de mejoramiento del área comercial de la empresa cartonería Mosquera S. A.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Mora, Claudia Patricia; Mosquera Ortega, Camilo Andrés; Moreno Bustos, David Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Cartonería Mosquera S.A. es una empresa familiar, que se encarga de la producción y distribución de diferentes empaques de cartón. La compañía pertenece al sector de artes gráficas colombiano, que se desagrega en las siguientes categorías: empaques y etiquetas; publicidad y comercial; editoriales, periódicos y revistas. Cartonería Mosquera S.A. se encuentra en la categoría de empaques y etiquetas. A 2016 la empresa cuenta con un área que administra tanto el mercadeo como la parte comercia...

  12. Costos empresariales de la violencia contra las mujeres en el emporio comercial de Gamarra en Lima- Perú: 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asencios Gonzalez, Zaida Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    En el Emporio Comercial de Gamarra (ECG), las mujeres cumplen un papel fundamental conformando el 60% de la Población Económicamente Activa ocupada en las Micro y Pequeñas empresas (MYPES). En el Perú no existen estudios que estimen los costos empresariales de la violencia contra las mujeres (VcM) en las MYPES; no obstante, 2 de cada 10 mujeres que trabajan en las medianas y grandes empresas han sido víctima de algún tipo de violencia por parte de sus parejas o ex parejas durante los últimos ...

  13. Rentabilidad comercial en el desarrollo sostenible de los productores de quinua en la región de Puno

    OpenAIRE

    Jilapa Humpiri, Ruben Wilfredo

    2009-01-01

    La implantación de proyectos de alta rentabilidad para la exportación pude tener un impacto importante en la economía y contribuir a generar negocios rentables para los involucrados en la cadena productiva; que permita un crecimiento económico sostenible. En la presente investigación se reporta el análisis de la situación real de los agricultores de quinua, cuyo objeto general fue "evaluar la rentabilidad comercial en relación al desarrollo sostenible de los productores de quinua en la región...

  14. Caracteriza??o da frota e do desembarque da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Maria Ang?lica Corr?a

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo, foi avaliado o potencial da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil, por meio da caracteriza??o da frota que atua na regi?o e do desembarque pesqueiro realizado no per?odo de 1 de Dezembro de 2007 a 30 de Novembro de 2008. A frota foi caracterizada com base nas entrevistas de 217 pescadores e donos de embarca??o, os quais identificaram a atua??o de 41 barcos e 176 canoas motorizadas. Estas embarca??es apresentaram um padr?o com rela??o ao comprimen...

  15. Efficacy of percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for nodular hepatic tumor : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Hee; Bang, Sun Woo; Baek, Seung Il; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Seok [Dongguk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) uses a new energy source, microwave, in the treatment of solid neoplasms. We evaluated the efficacy of PMCT for nodular hepatic tumors in nine patients. Between December 1998 and June 1999, we performed PMCT in six patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), two with one and three metastatic nodules each from colon cancer, and one with adenomatous hyperplasia. Four patients were female and five were male, and their age ranged between 44 and 71 (mean, 58.8) years. Under sonographic guidance a 14-gauge guiding needle was inserted percutaneously toward the lesion, and within it a needle electrode was precisely positioned. Microwave 2450MHz in frequency and with 60 or 80-watt emission was generated for 80{approx}90 seconds. We evaluated the ultrasound findings obtained during the procedure, pre-PMCT and follow-up CT images, changes in tumor marker(AFP or CA19-9) levels and the results of liver function tests, and complications arising during the six-month period following PMCT. Immediately after microwave emission, characteristic hyperechogenicity appeared on the real-time sonogram. Two patients with HCC underwent CT before PMCT, and typical enhancement during the arterial phase and washout during the portovenous phase was observed. In one patient, two metastatic lesions from colon cancer showed delayed enhancement on pre-PMCT CT. Initial follow-up CT, performed between I and 4 weeks after the PMCT procedure, showed that eight lesions-including two HCCs which were highly enhanced on CT before PMCT-showed no contrast enhancement, and three others showed delayed enhancement. Two of the eight lesions which showed no contrast enhancement at initial follow-up CT were markedly decreased in size (from 2.9 and 4.0 cm to 1.0 and 2.0 cm, respectively) at subsequent follow-up 3 months and 6 months later, respectively. One of the three lesions showing delayed enhancement had increased in size from 4.1 to 5.5 cm at subsequent

  16. Progression from an Immature Teratoma with Miliary Gliomatosis Peritonei to Growing Teratoma Syndrome with Nodular Gliomatosis Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Lin Hsieh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A 4½-year-old girl presented with an incompletely resected, huge, immature abdominal teratoma, elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and numerous miliary gliomatosis peritonei (GP. Two courses of chemotherapy resulted in normalization of her AFP level and marked tumor shrinkage. Further chemotherapy was interrupted by complications. During treatment for these complications, ascites increased and the tumor enlarged, but serum AFP remained within the normal range. Second-look surgery revealed that the tumor had changed histologically to a mature teratoma, and GP had enlarged to nodular size, causing massive ascites. The still incompletely resected, growing mature teratoma was reduced with inter-feron. Nodular GP and ascites slowly regressed with interferon use, and finally disappeared after several months. One residual mass thought to be GP was reduced by gamma-knife surgery 3 years later.

  17. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding presenting as nodular purpura in infancy: A rare and life-threatening entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Gahalaut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB disorder is an uncommon entity, which occurs due to inadequate activity of vitamin K-dependant coagulation factors. An 8-months-old exclusively breast-fed male infant presented with multiple, purpuric and nodular non-collapsible swellings on trunk of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed raised activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombintime. Fibrinogen level and platelet counts were normal. Late VKDB usually presents as intra-cranial or mucosal hemorrhages. [1] Though skin and mucosal bleeding may occur in 1/3 rd of infants with VKDB, ′nodular purpura′ is not the common presenting feature. Earlier recognition of VKDB and immediate investigation/treatment helps prevent the potentially fatal outcome of the disease. Very little is mentioned about this entity in dermatology literature.

  18. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bové, Kira Bang; Watt, Torquil; Vogel, Asmus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Graves' disease has been associated with an increased psychiatric morbidity. It is unclarified whether this relates to Graves' disease or chronic disease per se. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Graves......' disease compared to patients with another chronic thyroid disease, nodular goitre, and to investigate determinants of anxiety and depression in Graves' disease.METHODS: 157 cross-sectionally sampled patients with Graves' disease, 17 newly diagnosed, 140 treated, and 251 controls with nodular goitre......'/probable 'depression'. Determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in Graves' disease were examined using multiple linear regression.RESULTS: In Graves' disease levels of anxiety (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.014) were significantly higher than in controls. The prevalence of depression was 10% in Graves...

  19. Managing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. The results of the "Gestiona hierro-EII" survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas Jordá, Francesc; Vera Mendoza, Isabel; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Vázquez Morón, Juan María; López Román, Javier; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier

    2018-03-01

    iron deficiency anemia is a common and very relevant manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although clinical practice guidelines have been published and updated on this subject, the management in the daily practice of this complication is far from optimal. to determine the actual management, needs and limitations of anemia in IBD by means of a survey of gastroenterology specialists. a self-administered telematic survey was carried out between April and May 2017 and was sent to SEPD members. The survey included four sections: participant demographics, monitoring, treatment and limitations/needs. a total of 122 evaluable surveys were received from all Spanish autonomous communities. Iron deficiency anemia is considered as a frequent manifestation of IBD and is monitored in all patients via the measurement of hemoglobin and ferritin. In the case of anemia, the survey respondents found it necessary to rule out the presence of IBD activity. However, only 14.8% prescribed intravenous iron when IBD was active. The required dose of intravenous iron is mainly calculated according to patient needs but only 33.1% of clinicians infused doses of 1 g or more. the "Gestiona Hierro EII" survey on the management of anemia in IBD demonstrated a high quality of care, even though some aspects need to be improved. These included the prescription of intravenous iron for patients with disease activity, the use of high-dose intravenous iron and the implementation of algorithms into clinical practice.

  20. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  1. Different deformation patterns using GPS in the volcanic process of El Hierro (Canary Island) 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; José García-Arias, María; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Lamolda, Héctor; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Ground deformation is one of the most important parameter in volcano monitoring. The detected deformations in volcanic areas can be precursors of a volcanic activity and contribute with useful information to study the evolution of an unrest, eruption or any volcanic process. GPS is the most common technique used to measure volcano deformations. It can be used to detect slow displacement rates or much larger and faster deformations associated with any volcanic process. In volcanoes the deformation is expected to be a mixed of nature; during periods of quiescence it will be slow or not present, while increased activity slow displacement rates can be detected or much larger and faster deformations can be measure due to magma intrusion, for example in the hours to days prior a eruption beginning. In response to the anomalous seismicity detected at El Hierro in July 2011, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) improved its volcano monitoring network in the island with continuous GPS that had been used to measure the ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest since summer 2011, submarine eruption (October 2011-March 2012) and the following unrest periods (2012-2013). The continuous GPS time series, together with other techniques, had been used to evaluate the activity and to detect changes in the process. We investigate changes in the direction and module of the deformation obtained by GPS and they show different patterns in every unrest period, very close to the seismicity locations and migrations.

  2. VISIÓN ESTRATÉGICA DE LA INDUSTRIA MINERA DE HIERRO Y EL ACERO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue primero, determinar el resultado de la visión estratégica aplicada a industria minera de hierro y el acero de Venezuela y segundo, la construcción de la visión estratégica de estas industrias de acuerdo a las actuales realidades. Para ello, primero se revisó la evolución de la visión estratégica de ambas industrias y sus resultados. Segundo, se revisó la situación actual, identificando las principales características del entorno externo e interno, sus capacidades, limitaciones y situación económico – financiera, que afectan sus opciones y oportunidades estratégicas. El estudio concluye que ambas industrias han presentado resultados precarios desde 2006, en cuanto a producción, productividad, tasa de uso de la capacidad instalada y margen de utilidad, producto de un cambio radical en la visión estratégica. Finalmente se obtienen los lineamientos de la visión estratégica, como imagen a futuro de ambas industrias, como un aporte para mejorar estas importantes industrias.

  3. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in patients with graves' disease than in patients with nodular goitre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bové, Kira Bang; Watt, Torquil; Vogel, Asmus; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bjoerner, Jakob Bue; Groenvold, Mogens; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2014-09-01

    Graves' disease has been associated with an increased psychiatric morbidity. It is unclarified whether this relates to Graves' disease or chronic disease per se. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with Graves' disease compared to patients with another chronic thyroid disease, nodular goitre, and to investigate determinants of anxiety and depression in Graves' disease. 157 cross-sectionally sampled patients with Graves' disease, 17 newly diagnosed, 140 treated, and 251 controls with nodular goitre completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The differences in the mean HADS scores between the groups were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for socio-demographic variables. HADS scores were also analysed dichotomized: a score >10 indicating probable 'anxiety'/probable 'depression'. Determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in Graves' disease were examined using multiple linear regression. In Graves' disease levels of anxiety (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.014) were significantly higher than in controls. The prevalence of depression was 10% in Graves' disease versus 4% in nodular goitre (p = 0.038), anxiety was 18 versus 13% (p = 0.131). Symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.04) and depression (p = 0.01) increased with comorbidity. Anxiety symptoms increased with duration of Graves' disease (p = 0.04). Neither thyroid function nor autoantibody levels were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms were more severe in Graves' disease than in nodular goitre. Symptoms were positively correlated to comorbidity and duration of Graves' disease but neither to thyroid function nor thyroid autoimmunity.

  4. The prevalence of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Sert Bektaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Iodine deficiency is still considered to be the major etiological factor for endemic goiter. The pathogenesis of the goiter in iodine deficient area caries different characteristics. The aim of this study investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancers and type of thyroid cancers in surgically treated patients with nodular goiter in Şırnak city where is iodine deficiency region.Materials and methods: Thyroid surgical materials which were sent to our department were screened retrospectively from the archives between the years 2009-2010. Thyroid resection was performed on 241 patients with nodular goiter in one year. We evaluated patients who received the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma with histhopatological examination.Results: 222 of our patients (92.1% female and 19 (7.9% were male. The youngest patient 16 and the oldest patient was 80 years old and the average age is 40.9 ± 12.8. Histopathological examination of 197 (81.7% cases of nodular goiter, 31 (12.9% cases lymphocytic thyroiditis, 13 (5.4% patients had thyroid tumors. The three tumors on the 2 cases (0.8% benign, 11 (4.6% were malignant. As a type of cancer 1 (0.4% patients, follicular carcinoma-oncocytic variant, 10 (4.2% cases were papillary carcinoma.Conclusions: Iodine deficiency area in the province of Şırnak in patients with nodular goiter who underwent surgery for thyroid cancer rate of 4.6%, and most cancers is seen as a type of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

  5. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  6. Three-dimensional shape of the early stages of fatigue cracks nucleated in nodular cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, C. [GEMPPM, UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)], E-mail: catherine.verdu@insa-lyon.fr; Adrien, J.; Buffiere, J.Y. [GEMPPM, UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2008-06-15

    High resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography has been used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) images of the early stages of fatigue crack nucleation in a nodular cast iron. Microcracks were observed to initiate at casting defects (microshrinkage) and graphite nodules. The 3D observations have shown that the microcracks form in the material ligament comprised between the specimen surface and the defect. The probability of a defect to initiate a crack was correlated with the size of the defect and its position with respect to the surface. This correlation has been explained on the basis of local stress concentrations in the vicinity of the defect. The 3D observations of samples submitted to different fatigue cycles revealed that a large part of the fatigue life consisted in the progressive fracture of the ligament. The majority of the observed cracks stopped after this fracture process and, therefore, their size did not exceed the initiating defect size even if the crack seemed larger than the defect on the optical surface observations. Only few microcracks, nucleated on the largest defects, continued to grow with short-crack behaviour.

  7. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia associated with common variable immunodeficiency and other comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Rafael; Sánchez-Martínez, Rosario; Palazón, José M; Payá, Artemio; Ramos, José M; Pinargote, Héctor

    2016-03-18

    Currently, there are not many data on the evolution of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) associated or not with underlying diseases and in particular that associated with common variable inmunodeficiency (CVID). Twenty cases of NRH are presented, and the differences between the cases associated with CVID and those related to other diseases are analysed. Retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 14 years. Twelve out of the 20 patients were men; the median age was 51 years. CVID was the main illness associated with NRH. In patients with CVID and NRH, gastrointestinal haemorrhage was more common, all the patients had high gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase and none had altered albumin and bilirubin levels compared to the patients without CVID. On follow-up, 50% of patients with CVID (2/4) had died compared to 33.3% (5/15) without CVID. NRH in patients with CVID seems to have more biochemical data of anicteric cholestasis and portal hypertension and could be associated with lower survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Fuentes, C; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Torregrosa, A; Del Val, A; Martínez, C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the size of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) during long-term magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up. We reviewed 44 FNHs in 30 patients studied with MRI with at least two MRI studies at least 12 months apart. We measured the largest diameter of the lesion (inmm) in contrast-enhanced axial images and calculated the percentage of variation as the difference between the maximum diameter in the follow-up and the maximum diameter in the initial study. We defined significant variation in size as variation greater than 20%. We also analyzed predisposing hormonal factors. The mean interval between the two imaging studies was 35±2 months (range: 12-94). Most lesions (80%) remained stable during follow-up. Only 9 of the 44 lesions (20%) showed a significant variation in diameter: 7 (16%) decreased in size and 2 (4%) increased, with variations that reached the double of the initial size. The change in size was not related to pregnancy, menopause, or the use of birth control pills or corticoids. Changes in the size of FNHs during follow-up are relatively common and should not lead to a change in the diagnosis. These variations in size seem to be independent of hormonal factors that are considered to predispose. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Coexisting Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the Spleen with Multiple Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumors in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chieh Lee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary tumor or tumor-like lesions of the spleen are rare. Among them, vascular lesions are the most common. Vascular tumor of the spleen is different from the usual hemangioma of soft tissue because the vascular structure of the spleen is unique. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT is a recently described vascular lesion of the spleen. Grossly, it is a multinodular, well-circumscribed tumor containing a hypervascular core. Microscopically, it comprises three types of vessels, and each type recapitulates the immunohistochemical characteristics of the normal vascular elements of the splenic red pulp, i.e. capillaries, sinusoids, and small veins, respectively. Because of the rarity of this entity, its actual pathogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of SANT occurring in a 43-year-old woman, in whom there were also multiple calcifying fibrous pseudotumors (CFPTs in the abdominal cavity. Both SANT and CFPT are thought to be variants of inflammatory pseudotumor. Coexistence of these two rare entities in a patient has never been reported, and this fact suggests that there might be a common mechanism contributing to the formation of these two types of lesions. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:234-239

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  11. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p thyroid cell proliferation. The differences between ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant thyroid tumors could support the theory of alternative transcription of the preproghrelin gene and independent production of ghrelin and obestatin.

  12. Identification of a duplication of Xq28 associated with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J M; Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R; Hirsch, B A

    1997-01-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) is a malformation of neuronal migration and is characterized by nodules of heterotopic gray matter lining the lateral ventricles of the brain. The majority of BPNH patients are female and have epilepsy as a sole clinical manifestation of their disease. Familial BPNH has been mapped to Xq28 by linkage analysis. A multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome (BPNH/MR) was recently delineated in three unrelated boys with BPNH, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, epilepsy, and syndactyly. High-resolution chromosome analysis revealed a subtle abnormality of Xq28 in one of the boys with BPNH/MR syndrome. FISH with cosmids and YACs from Xq28 further characterized this abnormality as a 2.25-3.25-Mb inverted duplication. No abnormality of Xq28 was detected by G-banding or FISH in the other two boys. These data support the linkage assignment of BPNH to band Xq28 and narrow the critical region to the distal 2.25-3.25 Mb of Xq28. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9311743

  13. De novo and inherited private variants in MAP1B in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzen, Erin L; O'Neill, Adam C; Zhu, Xiaolin; Allen, Andrew S; Bahlo, Melanie; Chelly, Jamel; Dobyns, William B; Freytag, Saskia; Guerrini, Renzo; Leventer, Richard J; Poduri, Annapurna; Robertson, Stephen P; Walsh, Christopher A; Zhang, Mengqi

    2018-05-08

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) is a malformation of cortical development commonly associated with epilepsy. We exome sequenced 202 individuals with sporadic PVNH to identify novel genetic risk loci. We first performed a trio-based analysis and identified 219 de novo variants. Although no novel genes were implicated in this initial analysis, PVNH cases were found overall to have a significant excess of nonsynonymous de novo variants in intolerant genes (p = 3.27x10-7), suggesting a role for rare new alleles in genes yet to be associated with the condition. Using a gene-level collapsing analysis comparing cases and controls, we identified a genome-wide significant signal driven by four ultra-rare loss-of-function heterozygous variants in MAP1B, including one de novo variant. In at least one instance, the MAP1B variant was inherited from a parent with previously undiagnosed PVNH. The PVNH was frontally predominant and associated with perisylvian polymicrogyria. These results implicate MAP1B in PVNH. More broadly, our findings suggest that detrimental mutations likely arising in immediately preceding generations with incomplete penetrance may also be responsible for some apparently sporadic diseases.

  14. A de novo frameshift in HNRNPK causing a Kabuki-like syndrome with nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Pagnamenta, A T; Lise, S; Clasper, S; Stewart, H; Akha, E S; Quaghebeur, G; Knight, S J L; Keays, D A; Taylor, J C; Kini, U

    2016-09-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a heterogeneous condition characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and a range of organ malformations. Although at least two major causative genes have been identified, these do not explain all cases. Here we describe a patient with a complex Kabuki-like syndrome that included nodular heterotopia, in whom testing for several single-gene disorders had proved negative. Exome sequencing uncovered a de novo c.931_932insTT variant in HNRNPK (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K). Although this variant was identified in March 2012, its clinical relevance could only be confirmed following the August 2015 publication of two cases with HNRNPK mutations and an overlapping phenotype that included intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism and skeletal/connective tissue abnormalities. Whilst we had attempted (unsuccessfully) to identify additional cases through existing collaborators, the two published cases were 'matched' using GeneMatcher, a web-based tool for connecting researchers and clinicians working on identical genes. Our report therefore exemplifies the importance of such online tools in clinical genetics research and the benefits of periodically reviewing cases with variants of unproven significance. Our study also suggests that loss of function variants in HNRNPK should be considered as a molecular basis for patients with Kabuki-like syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in patients with filamin-1 gene mutations: neuroimaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, T.Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Fox, J.W.; Walsh, C.A. [Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dept. of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Dobyns, W.B. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Radtke, R. [Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Scheffer, I.E.; Berkovic, S.F. [Department of Neurology, University of Melbourne, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg (Australia); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Huttenlocher, P.R. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Background. The filamin-1 (FLN-1) gene is responsible for periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), which is an X-linked dominant neuronal migration disorder. Objective. To review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with documented filamin-1 mutations. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of the medical records and MR studies of a series of patients with PNH and confirmed FLN-1 mutations was done. There were 16 female patients (age range:.67-71 years; mean = 28.6) with filamin-1 gene mutations. Results. In six of the patients the same mutation was inherited in four generations in one pedigree. In a second pedigree, a distinct mutation was found in two patients in two generations. In a third pedigree, a third mutation was found in four patients in two generations. The remaining four patients had sporadic de novo mutations that were not present in the parents. Ten patients had seizures, and all patients had normal intelligence. In all 16 patients MR demonstrated bilateral near-continuous PNH. There were no consistent radiographic or clinical differences between patients carrying different mutations. Conclusion. Patients with confirmed FLN-1 gene mutations are usually female and have a distinctive MR pattern of PNH. Other female patients with this same MR pattern probably harbor FLN-1 mutations and risk transmission to their progeny. This information is important for genetic counseling. (orig.)

  16. Periventricular nodular heterotopia in patients with filamin-1 gene mutations: neuroimaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussaint, T.Y.; Fox, J.W.; Walsh, C.A.; Dobyns, W.B.; Radtke, R.; Scheffer, I.E.; Berkovic, S.F.; Barnes, P.D.; Huttenlocher, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Background. The filamin-1 (FLN-1) gene is responsible for periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH), which is an X-linked dominant neuronal migration disorder. Objective. To review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with documented filamin-1 mutations. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of the medical records and MR studies of a series of patients with PNH and confirmed FLN-1 mutations was done. There were 16 female patients (age range:.67-71 years; mean = 28.6) with filamin-1 gene mutations. Results. In six of the patients the same mutation was inherited in four generations in one pedigree. In a second pedigree, a distinct mutation was found in two patients in two generations. In a third pedigree, a third mutation was found in four patients in two generations. The remaining four patients had sporadic de novo mutations that were not present in the parents. Ten patients had seizures, and all patients had normal intelligence. In all 16 patients MR demonstrated bilateral near-continuous PNH. There were no consistent radiographic or clinical differences between patients carrying different mutations. Conclusion. Patients with confirmed FLN-1 gene mutations are usually female and have a distinctive MR pattern of PNH. Other female patients with this same MR pattern probably harbor FLN-1 mutations and risk transmission to their progeny. This information is important for genetic counseling. (orig.)

  17. Limited value of delayed radiothallium image in the diagnosis of nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Yagi, Kanji; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Koh, Toshikiyo; Shimbo, Shin-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    To test whether delayed thallium image can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid tumor, we have reviewed 35 patients with cold nodules of proven histopathology. Early and delayed images were taken 10-20 min and 3-4 hr postinjection, respectively. In this study, a thyroid nodule was interpreted as malignant if it had normal or increased uptake on early scan and more residual radioactivity than paranodular tissue on delayed scan. In the eighteen patients who had carcinoma, a disappointing 44% false negative rate was observed. No significant difference was seen between retention-positive and negative cases in tumor size or histological type of cancer. Nor could any demographic bias explain the low sensitivity. Of the six false negatives, macroscopic cystic degeneration was seen in two cases, but tumors in the other four were grossly solid. Considering the histological heterogeneity often seen within a thyroid tumor, the portion with increased retention of radiothallium may be too small to be detected in the false negative cases. Furthermore, 3 false positive readings were obtained in 17 patients with benign conditions. We conclude that the contribution of the delayed thallium image was quite limited in predicting or ruling out malignancy in nodular goiters. (author)

  18. Paternal inheritance of classic X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Burkhard S; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Chang, Bernard S; Pauli, Elisabeth; Hamer, Hajo M; Winkler, Jürgen; Hehr, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a developmental disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by heterotopic nodules of gray matter resulting from disturbed neuronal migration. The most common form of bilateral PNH is X-linked dominant inherited, caused by mutations in the Filamin A gene (FLNA) and associated with a wide variety of other clinical findings including congenital heart disease. The typical patient with FLNA-associated PNH is female and presents with difficult to treat seizures. In contrast, hemizygous FLNA loss of function mutations in males are reported to be perinatally lethal. In X-linked dominant traits like FLNA-associated PNH the causal mutation is commonly inherited from the mother. Here, we present an exceptional family with paternal transmission of classic bilateral FLNA-associated PNH from a mildly affected father with somatic and germline mosaicism for a c.5686G>A FLNA splice mutation to both daughters with strikingly variable clinical manifestation and PNH extent in cerebral MR imaging. Our observations emphasize the importance to consider in genetic counseling and risk assessment the rare genetic constellation of paternal transmission for families with X-linked dominant inherited FLNA-associated PNH. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Calorimetric analysis of heating and cooling process of nodular cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bińczyk F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations of the thermal effects which take place during heating and cooling of samples of the nodular graphite cast iron taken from the stepped test casting of the wall thicknesses amounting to 5, 10, 15 and 20 mm. For investigations, a differential scanning calorimeter, type Multi HTC S60, was used. During heating, three endothermic effects related with pearlite decomposition, phase transformation α → γ, and carbon dissolution in austenite were observed on a DSC diagram. During cooling, two exothermic effects related with phase transformation γ→ α and pearlite formation were observed to consecutively take place on a DSC diagram. The values of the enthalpy of these processes differ and depend on the initial microstructure of the examined samples. The metallic matrix in 5 mm sample after the process of heating and cooling changes totally in favour of ferrite. The same effect, though less advanced in intensity, takes place in 10 mm sample, while in 15 and 20 mm samples the matrix constitution remains unchanged. The higher is the content of ferrite in samples, the stronger is the endothermic effect of the α → γ transformation and the weaker is the endothermic effect related with carbon dissolution in austenite. The total of the endothermic effects (heating is reduced, while that of the exothermic effects (cooling increases along with the increasing thickness of walls in a stepped test casting, from which samples for the investigations were taken.

  20. OBSERVATION OF FATIGUE CRACK PATHS IN NODULAR CAST IRON AND ADI MICROSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bubenko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When speaking about quality of construction materials, fatigue crack propagation resistance is one of the most important considered properties. That is essentially influenced by character of matrix. Here presented contribution deals with the fatigue crack propagation mode through the matrix of as-cast nodular cast iron (NCI and austempered ductile iron (ADI, whereas influence of microstructure has been considered and discussed. Experimental materials used in presented contribution were pearlitc-ferritic NCI and heat treated ADI 800. Pearlitic-ferritic NCI was used as the base for ADI production. Experiments were performed on mini round compact tension (RCT specimens using an Amsler vibrophore. Fatigue crack paths in both materials were investigated and compared. Light microscopy was used to analyze the microstructure, crack initiation and propagation within broken specimens. In both tested materials fatigue cracks always initiated at graphite-matrix interface, while graphite nodules remained generally unbroken, eventually only surface of nodules was damaged. Though, comparing two materials with different microstructures, the diversity of fatigue crack propagation modes at high deltaK and low deltaK was observed.

  1. Some peculiarities of the relationship between uranium and phosphate of nodular phosphorites of the Russian Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A A [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Geofiziki i Geokhimii, Moscow (USSR)

    1976-02-01

    In nodular phosphorites of the Cenomanian stage of the central regions of the Russian platform the uranium content of phosphate ranges within 20 to 50x10/sup -4/%. The maximum concentrations of uranium are found in amorphous phosphates, the richest in humic colloid. Uranium found in the bone phosphate of fossil reptiles is uniformly distributed throughout the bone tissue area, its content amounting to 30 to 40x10/sup -4/%. As bone phosphate reaches its holocrystalline modification, the uranium compounds are substituted and the uranium concentration decreases to 0.2x10/sup -4/%, i.e. it becomes 200 times lower. The most intensive sorption of uranium by phosphate occurs under the reducing conditions of diagenesis which is characterized by the most comprehensive combination of uranium-sorption factors: the existence of various uranium compounds in solution, isomorphic substitutions of all kinds, adsorption of uranium compounds and organic matter on the surfaces of submicron crystalline phosphate compounds. A decrease in the intensity of sorption factors leads to a decrease in the uranium content of phosphate. Under the oxidative conditions prevailed during the formation of Khoperian silicophosphorites, uranium has been sorbed by the phosphate only in negligible amounts (0.1x10/sup -4/%) due to the lack of organic colloids and uranium compounds capable of isomorphic substitution.

  2. An Electron Microscopy Study of Graphite Growth in Nodular Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, L.; Jday, R.; Lacaze, J.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of graphite during solidification and high-temperature solid-state transformation has been investigated in samples cut out from a thin-wall casting which solidified partly in the stable (iron-graphite) and partly in the metastable (iron-cementite) systems. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize graphite nodules in as-cast state and in samples having been fully graphitized at various temperatures in the austenite field. Nodules in the as-cast material show a twofold structure characterized by an inner zone where graphite is disoriented and an outer zone where it is well crystallized. In heat-treated samples, graphite nodules consist of well-crystallized sectors radiating from the nucleus. These observations suggest that the disoriented zone appears because of mechanical deformation when the liquid contracts during its solidification in the metastable system. During heat-treatment, the graphite in this zone recrystallizes. In turn, it can be concluded that nodular graphite growth mechanism is the same during solidification and solid-state transformation.

  3. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  4. Cavernous angioma after chemotherapy for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Masao; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-02-01

    While cavernous angioma (CVA) after cranial irradiation has been documented, its development after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has not. We present a patient with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) who developed CVA 2 years after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSCT. A 1-year-old boy with ingravescent vomiting was admitted to our institute. He presented with a large head, a depressed nasal bridge, low-set ears, thick lips with peg-shaped teeth, hypohidrosis, sparse hair, thin atrophic skin, scaly dermatitis with frontal bossing, and a bulging anterior fontanel. Neuroradiological examination revealed multiple cerebellar masses with heterogeneous enhancement and speckled calcifications and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. The histological diagnosis of surgical specimens was DNMB, and he underwent postoperative multiple-drug chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT. The outcome was favorable and he did not undergo radiotherapy. After 2 years, intracranial hemorrhage was detected at his regular radiological check-up and he again underwent surgery. The histological diagnosis was CVA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AED-associated DNMB and CVA.

  5. Nucleation and growth of intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 and correlation to nodular corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maussner, G.; Steinberg, E.; Tenckhoff, E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects in the history of the development of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications is the corrosion behavior under in-pile conditions. In boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) the zirconium alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are the most commonly used materials, permitting attainment of a very high level of integrity and reliability. Nevertheless, efforts are required to optimize these well-established alloys with regard to their resistance to nodular corrosion, where improvements will give long-term advantages in fuel integrity and fuel economy. Phenomenological studies allow correlation of the nodular corrosion behavior with the morphological appearance of precipitated intermetallic phases in the microstructures of Zry-2 and Zry-4. To understand the fundamental processes of precipitation, particle nucleation-and-growth studies were made with Zry-2 and Zry-4 in different fabrication dimensions and with variations in β-quenching rates followed by isothermal and isochronical heat treatments. The microstructural characteristics of the precipitates were investigated by optical and transmission-electron microscopy. The macroscopic behavior was studied by electrical-resistivity measurements and hardness measurements. The nodular-corrosion susceptibility was determined by weight-gain and nodule distribution measurements after a 500 0 C laboratory-autoclave test

  6. Ultrasound-based scores as predictors for nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a prospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiasda, Jill; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Müller, Jörg A; Serttas, Michaela; Scheumann, Georg W F; Schrem, Harald; Jäger, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Former studies evaluated echostructural and vascular patterns in ultrasound of the parathyroid gland to identify nodular hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease. This prospective study aims to externally validate suggested ultrasound classifications. Parathyroid glands of 27 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy were prospectively analyzed. Ultrasound including Doppler imaging was performed 1 day prior to surgery. Ultrasound data were available for 70 parathyroid glands. Echostructural and vascular scores according to previous studies were applied calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Overall correctness, sensitivity, and specificity of the investigated scores were assessed with the Youden index method. The Doppler score introduced by Vulpio and colleagues based on characteristic blood flow patterns in parathyroid glands showed an AUROC of 0.749 for the prediction of nodular hyperplasia with an overall correctness of 72.8%. Other ultrasound classifications based on blood flow patterns, as well as echostructure of the parathyroid gland displayed AUROCs of secondary hyperparathyroidism was externally validated for the first time. Other ultrasound scores fail as prognostic models in this study population. Doppler sonography of the parathyroid gland has prognostic capability to identify nodular hyperplasia as surrogate marker for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism indicating the need for ablative or surgical treatment when failing conservative therapy.

  7. Periventricular nodular and subcortical neuronal heterotopia in adult epileptic patients Heterotopía neuronal nodular y subcortical en pacientes adultos con epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián E. Consalvo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental malformations are brain abnormalities that occur during embryogenesis. Neuronal migration disorders, including heterotopic lesions, constitute one type of such abnormalities. The aim of the study was to compare the epileptic clinical patterns of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH (G1 with those affected by subcortical heterotopia (SCH (G2 looking for differences between both groups which, eventually, might suggest the type of the underlying malformation. The variables studied in both groups were: type of the heterotopia depicted on MRI studies, sex, age, age at seizure onset, annual seizure frequency, localization of the ictal symptomatogenic zone, characteristics of the EEG, other associated anomalies on the magnetic resonance images (MRI besides the heterotopia, and response to treatment. The only difference found between both groups was the type of heterotopia as shown by MRI studies. The other assessed variables did not significantly (p>0.05 differ between groups. No differences in the clinical features characterizing epilepsy could be found in patients with PNH or SCH, being the images the only tool able to differentiate them.Las malformaciones de la corteza cerebral son un grupo de entidades que se producen durante las etapas del desarrollo embrionario y cuya manifestación clínica puede ser la epilepsia. Estas malformaciones pueden ser diagnosticadas in vivo a través de las imágenes por resonancia magnética (IRM. Un subtipo particular de éstas lo constituyen los trastornos en la migración neuronal, dentro de los cuales se ubican las heterotopías (HT. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar enfermos portadores de HT periventriculares (G1 con aquellos portadores de HT subcorticales (G2. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad y edad de inicio de la epilepsia (EI en años, antecedentes familiares (AF o prenatales (AP, frecuencia anual de crisis (FAC y características semiológicas de las crisis

  8. Análise do padrão de especialização comercial brasileiro entre 1990 a 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Róger

    2013-01-01

    O trabalho analisa o padrão de especialização comercial brasileiro, entre 1990 a 2012. São apresentadas as teorias de comércio internacional e os indicadores de vantagens comparativas, contemplando o escopo teórico e empírico da análise. É avaliada a política comercial brasileira, das últimas décadas, e seus desdobramentos. A análise utilizou os indicadores de vantagens comparativas, os coeficientes de exportação e penetração e os índices de preços e quantidades, a partir de...

  9. Estudio sobre la utilización y efctividad del Comercio Electronico (E-comerce) y propuesta para su Implementacion en las Pymes del Sector Comercial de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Peñafiel Espinoza, Maritza M.; Lopez Chila, Roberto D.

    2012-01-01

    TESIS A TEXTO COMPLETO El comercio electrónico ha ido evolucionando cada vez más, porque el mundo de los negocios se mueve tan rápido que las empresas deben de estar siempre en la vanguardia tecnológica; pero esto no implica que un canal electrónico solucione la vida de una PYME (Pequeña y Mediana Empresa), si no hay una estrategia comercial bien definida. Las PYMES del sector comercial de Guayaquil podrían utilizar el comercio electrónico como una herramienta que dinamic...

  10. Modelo de gestión para cambio de plataforma tecnológica en entidades financieras.Caso específico Banco mediano del sector comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Sinmaleza Ramírez, Geoconda

    2014-01-01

    176 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 2163 La presente tesis corresponde a la implementación del Modelo de Gestión para el cambio de plataforma tecnológica en entidades financieras. Caso específico Banco mediano del sector comercial. El Banco en Análisis es una institución del sistema financiero nacional, clasificada por la Superintendencia de Bancos como un Banco mediano del segmento comercial, el mismo mantiene una alianza estratégica con un Banco de Alianza del sistema fina...

  11. Análisis de la relación comercial entre la República de Colombia y la República de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Escobar, Juán Sebastián; Bermudez Monroy, María Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dadas las relaciones de cooperación internacional que presentan las Repúblicas de Colombia y Costa Rica, que se evidencia en los fuertes vínculos comerciales existentes entre las dos naciones, Proexport por medio de su oficina comercial en Costa Rica, ha mantenido al tanto la situación en la que se desenvuelve la alianza comercial entre Colombia y Costa Rica. Él último de estos informes, demuestra la potencialidad de Costa Rica como un mercado para los bienes colombianos y una posibilidad par...

  12. Sistema de gestión del área comercial del sector tecnológico. Caso de estudio empresa Andean-Trade S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvopiña Limaico, Edwin Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene el propósito de analizar el actual sistema de gestión comercial de la empresa Andean-Trade S.A., y determinar sus limitaciones y la forma en que puede ser mejorado, teniendo como meta un nuevo sistema de gestión para el área comercial, que se adapte fácilmente a los constantes cambios de los factores que influyen en el sector tecnológico. Andean-Trade S.A. Una empresa cuyo giro del negocio es la comercialización de productos y servicios tecnológicos, la iniciativa de...

  13. Motivos y consecuencias de la evasión tributaria en las MYPES en el emporio comercial Gamarra, La Victoria Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Gonzales, Eva Dajaida

    2017-01-01

    “La presente investigación fue realizada bajo el enfoque cualitativo de un nivel etnográfico, en donde el trabajo fue hecho con una muestra de 15 empresarios o administradores de las MYPES del emporio comercial Gamarra, que experimentan Evasión Tributaria. “El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los motivos y consecuencias de la Evasión Tributaria en las MYPES en el emporio comercial Gamarra dedicadas a la comercialización de productos textiles ”. En conclusión, ...

  14. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  15. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  16. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo

    2012-08-01

    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  17. Contenido de ß-caroteno, hierro y zinc en genotipos de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) durante el almacenamiento, cocción y elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Ramos, Rosmery Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El camote es uno de los alimentos básicos que han sido asignados para combatir la deficiencia de micronutrientes en especial la deficiencia de vitamina A, hierro y zinc. El presente estudio pretende contribuir con la selección de genotipos para el mejoramiento de la calidad nutricional del camote principalmente en el contenido de β-caroteno, materia seca, hierro y zinc, ayudando a reducir los p...

  18. Estudio caso-control de marcadores de estrés oxidativo y metabolismo del hierro plasmático en la enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larumbe Ilundáin Rosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento:- Existe cada vez más evidencia de la implicación de mecanismos de estrés oxidativo en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Se han descrito en la sustancia negra niveles menores de GSH, aumento del depósito de hierro, aumento de los productos derivados de la peroxidación lipídica y alteraciones del complejo I mitocondrial. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios de niveles de antioxidantes en sangre periférica y de la influencia del consumo de nutrientes en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se estudia en un grupo de 79 pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson idiopática y en un grupo control de 107 sujetos, equiparados por edad, sexo y lugar de residencia, los niveles plasmáticos de: Glutatión reducido (GSH, Malonildialdehído (MDA, ácido úrico, tocoferol, b-caroteno, licopeno y diversos parámetros del metabolismo del hierro. Así mismo, se estima el consumo de ciertos antioxidantes a partir de una encuesta dietética. Resultados: Hemos encontrado diferencias significativas (p<=0,001 en los niveles plasmáticos de GSH entre casos (0,10 mmol/ml ± 0,06 y controles (0,29 mmol/ml ± 0,12. De igual modo, los niveles de ácido úrico en plasma fueron más bajos (p<=0,05 en los casos (4,96 mg/ml ± 1,96 que en los controles (5,39 mg/ml±1,13. No hemos encontrado diferencias significativas de los niveles plasmáticos de MDA, tocoferol, b-caroteno y licopeno. Respecto al metabolismo del hierro, en los pacientes con EP encontramos valores de ferritina y de transferrina significativamente mayores que en los controles, con un índice de saturación de la transferrina menor (p<=0,05. El hierro no mostró cambios significativos entre casos y controles. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio apoyan la posible implicación del estrés oxidativo en la patogénesis de la enfermedad de Parkinson y, a la vez, evidencian alteraciones de algunos parámetros en sangre periférica en concordancia con hallazgos conocidos en la sustancia negra.

  19. ESTUDIO CASOS-CONTROL DE MARCADORES DE ESTRÉS OXIDATIVO Y METABOLISMO DEL HIERRO PLASMÁTICO EN LA ENFERMEDAD DE PARKINSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Larumbe Ilundáin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Existe cada vez m s evidencia de la implicaci n de mecanismos de estr s oxidativo en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Se han descrito en la sustancia negra niveles menores de GSH, aumento del dep sito de hierro, aumento de los productos derivados de la peroxidaci n lip dica y alteraciones del complejo I mitocondrial. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios de niveles de antioxidantes en sangre perif rica y de la influencia del consumo de nutrientes en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. M todos: Se estudia en un grupo de 79 pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson idiop tica y en un grupo control de 107 sujetos, equiparados por edad, sexo y lugar de residencia, los niveles plasm ticos de: Glutati n reducido (GSH, Malonildialdeh do (MDA, cido rico, tocoferol, -caroteno, licopeno y diversos par metros del metabolismo del hierro. As mismo, se estima el consumo de ciertos antioxidantes a partir de una encuesta diet tica. Resultados: Hemos encontrado diferencias significativas (p 0,001 en los niveles plasm ticos de GSH entre casos (0,10 mol/ml 0,06 y controles (0,29 mol/ml 0,12. De igual modo, los niveles de cido rico en plasma fueron m s bajos (p 0,05 en los casos (4,96 mg/ml 1,96 que en los controles (5,39 mg/ml 1,13. No hemos encontrado diferencias significativas de los niveles plasm ticos de MDA, tocoferol, -caroteno y licopeno. Respecto al metabolismo del hierro, en los pacientes con EP encontramos valores de ferritina y de transferrina significativamente mayores que en los controles, con un ndice de saturaci n de la transferrina menor (p 0,05. El hierro no mostr cambios significativos entre casos y controles. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio apoyan la posible implicaci n del estr s oxidativo en la patog nesis de la enfermedad de Parkinson y, a la vez, evidencian alteraciones de algunos par metros en sangre perif rica en concordancia con hallazgos conocidos en la sustancia negra.

  20. Anemia y depleción de las reservas de hierro en adolescentes gestantes de una zona urbana y rural del estado Zulia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega F, Pablo Antonio; Leal M, Jorymar Yoselyn; Chávez, Carlos Javier; Mejías C, Lidia; Chirinos Q, Noraima; Escalona V, Carolina del Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de anemia y depleción de las reservas corporales de hierro (DRFe) en adolescentes gestantes urbanas (U) y rurales (R). Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 214 adolescentes gestantes (U=100 y R=114), de baja condición socio-económica. Se realizó una evaluación clínica-obstétrica, nutricional y bioquímica. Según recomendaciones de la OMS y el Grupo Consultivo Internacional de Anemia se consideró anemia en gestantes, I y III trimestre Hb≤110g/L, y II trimestre Hb≤105...

  1. Aportaciones a la transición del hiero I al hierro II en el centro de la cuenca del udero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel GARCÍA ALONSO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En la diversidad de publicaciones que se ponen al alcance del investigador, y que son referidas a la Edad del Hierro, entendida de una manera amplia, se viene observando, en el manejo terminológico más bien, una serie de cuestiones que quedan latentes entre las diferentes tomas de postura; pero que, salvo excepciones, no dan pie a una discusión o puesta en común de las mismas, y que entendemos son de capital importancia para la zona objeto de la presente comunicación.

  2. Proyecto para la implementación del taller de fundición de hierro y acero PROFUNCA, en el sector de El Descanso Km. 20

    OpenAIRE

    Armijos Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Ludeña Carrión, Oscar Andrés

    2008-01-01

    DIAGNOSTICO ACTUAL DEL TALLER. PROFUNCA, Productos Fundidos Cañizares, Taller artesanal que se dedica a la fundición de hierro, para la elaboración de poleas, tapas de alcantarillado y rejillas para sumideros, según el pedido del cliente, que con el pasar de los años ha ido aumentando su producción, instalaciones y sus colaboradores… IDENTIFICACIÓN DE PROCESOS PRODUCTIVO Producción por lotes y producción bajo encargo. ANÁLISIS DE SITUACIÓN ACTUAL Mediante el FODA, el taller se ...

  3. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  4. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012. In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga, appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies

  5. Diversidad de los sistemas de adquisición de hierro mediante sideróforos en Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes Corral, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae es una bacteria Gram-negativa, de la familia Vibrionaceae, que causa un tipo de vibriosis en una amplia variedad de especies marinas, y puede afectar también a animales homeotermos. El hierro desempeña un papel fundamental en el metabolismo y la virulencia de esta bacteria, pero los mecanismos que utiliza para su adquisición, y especialmente los basados en la síntesis de sideróforos, son todavía en gran medida desconocidos. Por tanto, en este trabajo no...

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, Y.-H.; Wang, J.-H.; Lu, S.-N.; Chen, T.-Y.; Changchien, C.-S.; Chen, C.-H.; Hung, C.-H.; Lee, C.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS

  7. Understanding the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia in the liver with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halankar, Jaydeep A; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Khalili, Korosh; Masoom, Haider A

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of natural growth or regression of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in the liver. We retrospectively included 120 consecutive patients who were diagnosed to have FNH on MRI. The mean follow-up duration was 19 months (range: 6–64 months). There were 25 men and 95 women (age range: 18–80 years; mean: 45 years). There were 167 FNH lesions in the 120 patients. MRI images were retrospectively reviewed for interval growth or regression of FNH. The maximum size of the lesions was measured on axial arterial-phase images of the initial and the last MRI examinations. An interval increase or decrease in diameter of over 10% of the initial diameter was considered as positive growth or regression, respectively. The use of Oral contraceptives was also documented. Interval growth was seen in 25/167 nodules (15%) over 7-48 months (mean: 21 months), with increase in size of 0.2-1.7 cm (mean: 0.6 cm) and percentage change of 10.5-340% (mean: 64%). Interval regression was seen in 13/167 (8%) of nodules over 7-63 months (mean: 22 months), with decrease in size of 0.2-0.9 cm (mean: 0.5 cm) and percentage change of 10.4-60% (mean: 24%).Five of 17 (29%) female patients with growing FNH and 25/78 (32%) female patients with non-growing FNH had a history of intake of oral contraceptives (P=0.83). Although FNH is benign and of no clinical significance, a substantial percentage of FNH shows interval growth or regression on long-term follow-up with MRI

  8. Stereo-EEG: Diagnostic and therapeutic tool for periventricular nodular heterotopia epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Laura; Mai, Roberto F; Francione, Stefano; Pelliccia, Veronica; Gozzo, Francesca; Sartori, Ivana; Nobili, Lino; Cardinale, Francesco; Cossu, Massimo; Meletti, Stefano; Tassi, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopias (PNHs) are malformations of cortical development related to neuronal migration disorders, frequently associated with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) is considered a very effective step of the presurgical evaluation, providing the recognition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). At the same time, via the intracerebral electrodes it is possible to perform radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RF-TC) with the aim of ablating and/or disrupting the EZ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both the relationships between PNH and the EZ, and the efficacy of SEEG-guided RF-TC. Twenty patients with DRE related to PNHs were studied. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) patients with epilepsy and PNHs (unilateral or bilateral, single or multiple nodules) diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) SEEG recordings available as part of the presurgical investigations, with at least one intracerebral electrode inside the heterotopia; (3) complete surgical workup with SEEG-guided RF-TC and/or with traditional neurosurgery, with a follow-up of at least 12 months. Complex and heterogenic epileptic networks were found in these patients. SEEG-guided RF-TC both into the nodules and/or the cortex was efficacious in the 76% of patients. Single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral PNHs are the most suitable for this procedure, whereas patients with PNHs associated with complex cortical malformations obtained excellent outcome only with traditional resective surgery. Each patient had a specific epileptogenic network, independent from the number, size, or location of nodules and from the cortical malformation associated with. SEEG-guided RF-TC appears as a new and very effective diagnostic and therapeutic approach for DRE related to PNHs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Integrity of the corpus callosum in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia related epilepsy by FLNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyu; An, Dongmei; Niu, Running; Gong, Qiyong; Zhou, Dong

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the quantitative diffusion properties of the corpus callosum (CC) in a large group of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) related epilepsy and to further investigate the effect of Filamin A ( FLNA ) mutation on these properties. Patients with PNH (n = 34), subdivided into FLNA -mutated (n = 11) and FLNA -nonmutated patients (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 34), underwent 3.0 T structural MRI and diffusion imaging scan (64 direction). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured in the three major subdivisions of the CC (genu, body and splenium). Correlations between DTI metric changes and clinical parameters were also evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of FLNA mutation on structural integrity of the corpus callosum was examined. Patients with PNH and epilepsy had significant reductions in FA for the genu and splenium of the CC, accompanied by increases in MD for the splenium, as compared to healthy controls. There were no correlations between clinical parameters of epilepsy and MD. The FA value in the splenium negatively correlated with epilepsy duration. Interestingly, FLNA -mutated patients showed significantly decreased FA for all three major subdivisions of the CC, and increased MD for the genu and splenium, as compared to HCs and FLNA -nonmutated patients. These findings support the conclusion that patients with epilepsy secondary to PNH present widespread microstructural changes found in the corpus callosum that extend beyond the macroscopic MRI-visible lesions. This study also indicates that FLNA may affect white matter integrity in this disorder.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic spoke-wheel sign in hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Y.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wajing@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Lu, S.-N. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, T.-Y. [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Changchien, C.-S. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Hung, C.-H. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-15

    Background: To determine the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in assessing hepatic tumors with central feeding arteries found by color/power Doppler ultrasonograophy (CDUS/PDUS). Methods: We prospectively studied 37 hepatic tumors (34 patients), with a mean size of 2.9 cm and each having a central feeding artery, by CDUS/PDUS. The CEUS was performed with a galactose-based microbubble contrast agent. The detection of a spoke-wheel sign was interpreted as evidence of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). All patients underwent tumor biopsies or surgical resection. Results: CEUS showed a central feeding artery with a spoke-wheel sign in 36 tumors, including 34 FNHs and 2 hepatocellular carcinomas. The remaining tumor was demonstrated to be FNH despite the absence of a spoke-wheel sign as detected by CEUS. The sensitivity of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar for FNH was 97.1% (34/35), 40% (14/35), 28.6% (10/35), 50% (8/16) and 0% (0/15) for CEUS, CDUS/PDUS, dynamic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy, respectively. The two hepatocellular carcinomas showed scirrhous changes histologically. Conclusions: CEUS is more sensitive than CDUS/PDUS, dynamic CT, MRI, hepatic angiography and liver scintigraphy in the detection of the spoke-wheel sign or central scar in FNH. Scirrhous hepatocellular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for liver tumors with spoke-wheel sign detected by CEUS.

  11. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a unique disease deserving unique management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Engert, Andreas

    2017-12-08

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity with an incidence of 0.1 to 0.2/100 000/y. Compared with the more common subtypes of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, NLPHL is characterized by distinct pathological and clinical features. Histologically, the disease-defining lymphocyte predominant cells consistently express CD20 but lack CD30. Clinically, NLPHL mostly has a rather indolent course, and patients usually are diagnosed in early stages. The prognosis of early-stage NLPHL is excellent, with progression-free survival and overall survival rates exceeding 90% after involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) alone (stage IA) or combined modality treatment consisting of a brief chemotherapy with 2 cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy followed by IF-RT (early stages other than stage IA). In contrast, patients with advanced disease at diagnosis tend to relapse either with NLPHL histology or with histological transformation into aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma despite more aggressive first-line treatment with 6 to 8 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy. However, even NLPHL patients with multiple relapses successfully respond to salvage therapy in many cases. Salvage therapies range from single-agent anti-CD20 antibody treatment to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Treatment at disease recurrence should be chosen on the basis of various factors, including histology at relapse, time to relapse, extent of disease at relapse, and prior treatment. Because death among NLPHL patients is more often caused by therapy-related late effects than lymphoma-related complications, optimizing the risk-benefit ratio of treatment by decreasing toxicity whenever possible is the major goal of clinical research in this disease. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  13. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  14. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  15. Crustal Deformation During the 2011 Volanic Crisis of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Revealed by Continuous GPS Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiya, T.; Barrancos Martinez, J.; Calvo, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, G. H.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez Rodriguez, N.; Suárez, J. M. P.

    2012-04-01

    Seismo-volcnic activity of El Hierro started in the middle of July of 2011 and resulted in the active submarine eruption after October 12 south off La Restinga, the southern tip of the island. We have been operating one continuous GPS site on the island since 2004. Responding to the activity, we quickly installed 5 more GPS sites. Including another site operated by the Canary Islands Cartograhical Service (GRAFCAN) for a cartographic purpose, we have been monitoring 7 GPS sites equipped with dual-frequency receivers. We present the result of our crustal deformation monitoring and the magmatic activity inferred from the deformation data. In accordance with the deformation pattern, we divide the volcanic activity in 2011 into 4 stages. The first stage is from the middle of July to middle of September, during which steady magmatic inflation is estimated at the center of the island. The inflated volume of the first stage is estimated to be about 1.3 X 107 m3 at the depth of about 5km. The second stage, which continued until the first submarine eruption on October 12, is characterized by the accelerated deformation due to the upward as well as southward migration of magma. Additional inflation of about 2.1 X 107 m3 occurred in the depth range of 1-2km. The third stage continued for about 3 weeks after the first submarine eruption. During this stage, submarine eruption continues while no significant surface deformation is observed. It is considered magma supply from a deeper magma chamber continued during this 3 weeks period. Therefore, the total inflation volume during the first two stages gives the minimum estimate for the total magma volume. Since the beginning of November 2011, many GPS sites started subsiding. However, this deflation pattern is quite different from those in the shallow inflation stages. Horizontal deformation during this 4th stage is not significant, implying that deflation is occurring below the moho.

  16. La explotación sexual comercial de adolescentes desde la perspectiva de la bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Marín, Gabriel Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    La explotación sexual comercial de adolescentes (ESCA) es una forma contemporánea de esclavitud, que incluye la trata de personas, el turismo sexual y el uso de menores de edad en pornografía; afecta a los adolescentes en su libertad, autonomía, dignidad y cuidado. Esta situación requiere para su profundidad analítica de una comprensión más completa, desde lo jurídico, lo ético y lo Bioético. A partir de uno de los pensadores más grandes del siglo XX: Michel Foucault (1926-1984) se hace un an...

  17. Fascitis nodular cervical en paciente gestante: revisión de la literatura y presentación de un caso Cervical nodular fasciitis in a pregnant woman: Review of the literature and presentation of a new case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Acosta-Feria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La fascitis nodular es una lesión benigna rara, de crecimiento rápido, cuya patogenia es aún desconocida. Si bien a nivel de cabeza y cuello aparece en un 20% de los casos, su aparición en pacientes gestantes es extremadamente rara. Presentamos el segundo caso descrito en la literatura en el cual está presente dicha asociación. Mujer de 25 años y gestante de 13 semanas, con una tumoración retroauricular derecha de 3 cm de diámetro, 3 meses de evolución y rápido crecimiento. No presentaba parálisis facial ni dolor en la exploración inicial. Tras la exéresis quirúrgica de la lesión, el diagnóstico anatomopatológico definitivo de ésta, fue de fascitis nodular. Tras 2 años desde la intervención quirúrgica no se ha evidenciado recidiva de la tumoración, llevándose el embarazo a término sin presentar complicaciones ni para la madre ni para el feto.The nodular fasciitis is a rare benign lesion of rapid growth, whose pathogenesis is still unknown. While at the head and neck appeared in 20% of cases, its occurrence in pregnant patients is extremely rare. We report the second case described in the literature in which this association is present. Woman of 25 years and 13 weeks pregnant, who had a right auricular tumour 3 cm in diameter, 3 months of development and rapid growth. No facial paralysis or pain in the initial exploration. After surgical resection of the lesion, the final pathological diagnosis of the same was nodular fasciitis. After two years since the surgery, there was no evidence of recurrence of the tumour, taking ad términun pregnancy without complications or the mother or the fetus.

  18. Estímulos auditivos en prácticas de neuromarketing. Caso: Centro Comercial Unicentro, Cúcuta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Avendaño Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El actual entorno competitivo de mercados involucra la aplicación estratégica del neuromarketing como ayuda al aumento del consumismo y prevalencia de marcas y productos. La estimulación sensorial se usa como técnica valiosa en el contexto empresarial, es decir marketing sensorial. Esta investigación propone realizar una evaluación de las prácticas de marketing auditivo a través de los estímulos sonoros en 52 establecimientos comerciales del Centro Comercial Unicentro, uno de los más destacados en la ciudad de Cúcuta, Norte de Santander, Colombia. El tamaño muestral comprende 30 establecimientos dedicados a textiles, 15 a comidas, 2 a diversión, 2 a libros y 3 a tecnología. Se recopiló la información mediante la aplicación de una matriz de captación sensorial auditiva destacando las características sonoras del centro comercial y de los establecimientos, además reacciones de los visitantes por estímulos sonoros y su ubicación. Los resultados evidencian el uso inadecuado de marketing auditivo por parte de un número representativo de establecimientos y la ausencia del mismo en otros, lo que refleja la necesidad de implementar estrategias auditivas eficaces que permitan la atracción de clientes y por lo tanto, la inducción de compra a través de su permanencia en los espacios comerciales

  19. A ATIVIDADE COMERCIAL E A CONSTITUIÇÃO DO MOCAMBINHO COMO NOVA CENTRALIDADE URBANA EM TERESINA – PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Santos Ferraz de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Este artículo tiene como objeto de estudio el Mocambinho, un barrio periférico de la zona Norte de Teresina, capital del estado de Piauí, donde se analizó la actividad comercial y su papel en la constitución del dicho barrio como una de los nuevos centros urbanos de Teresina. Él trató de comprender el papel de las actividades comerciales para la producción de un nuevo centro urbano, identificando sus dinámicas y desarrollos comerciales y sus contribuciones para el proceso de valoración del dicho barrio. La propuesta vino del análisis de concentración de actividades comerciales en áreas centrales y su expansión en las últimas décadas para áreas periféricas de la ciudad. El artículo ha sido producido a partir de la realización de investigaciones bibliográficas, documental y de campo, con la aplicación de cuestionarios y entrevistas. Es evidente que el crecimiento comercial del distrito reúne parcial y en algunos casos totalmente, a las necesidades comerciales de sus habitantes, si evitando el desplazamiento al centro de Teresina. Por lo tanto se espera que contribuya para los estudios urbanos de la ciudad de Teresina y con comprensión de las nuevas dinámicas de la urbanización en la capital de Piauí. Palabras claves: Centro Urbano; Comercio; Mocambinho.

  20. Tratamento descentralizado de esgotos de empreendimentos comercial e residencial empregando a ecotecnologia dos wetlandsconstruídos

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    Camila Maria Trein

    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o desempenho dos wetlandsconstruídos de fluxo vertical (WCFV submetidos a diferentes carregamentos orgânicos e hidráulicos, a fim de incorporar esta tecnologia como opção no tratamento descentralizado de esgotos em empreendimentos comercial e residencial. Avaliou-se ao longo de dois anos dois sistemas de tratamento: (i sistema 1 - empreendimento comercial: composto por um Reator Aneróbio Compartimentado (RAC seguido de WCFV (área superficial total de 189 m2; (ii sistema 2 - condomínio residencial: composto pela sequência RAC e WCFV com fundo saturado (área superficial total de 3.141 m2. Com o monitoramento operacional e analítico junto aos wetlands, determinaram-se taxas hidráulicas aplicadas variando de 130 a 12 mm.d-1 e carregamentos médios aplicados variando de 87 a 1,9 gDQO m-2.d-1 para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. Os distintos carregamentos foram resultantes da demanda atual dos empreendimentos, sendo que os sistemas 1 e 2 apresentaram eficiências médias globais de remoção em termos de concentração de 75% e 93% para DQO, de 88% e 97% para DBO e de 83% e 94% para SS, respectivamente. A partir dos resultados obtidos, recomenda-se a utilização dos WCFV como alternativa tecnológica de tratamento de esgoto sob o contexto da descentralização.