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Sample records for hierro iii titano

  1. Synthesis and properties of ansa-titano- and ansa-zirconocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churakov, A.V.; Nifant`ev, I.E. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation); Urazovskii, I.F. [Institute of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Nikonov, G.I.; Yufit, D.S.; Struchkov, Yu.T. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1993-11-01

    A series of methyl and allyl derivatives of ansa-titano- and ansa-zirconocenes with isopropylidene or dimethylsilyl bridging groups were synthesized. A dinuclear complex, [Me{sub 2}C(C{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}P{sub 2}, resulting from the thermal decomposition of the corresponding dimethyl derivative of ansa-titanocene in the air, was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  2. Sorption of samarium in iron (II) and (III) phosphates in aqueous systems; Sorcion de samario en fosfatos de hierro (II) y (III) en sistemas acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz F, J C

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive residues that are stored in the radioactive confinements its need to stay isolated of the environment while the radioactivity levels be noxious. An important mechanism by which the radioactive residues can to reach the environment, it is the migration of these through the underground water. That it makes necessary the investigation of reactive materials that interacting with those radionuclides and that its are able to remove them from the watery resources. The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry are very important because its characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption watery medium is necessary to use it in the environmental protection. In this work it was carried out the sorption study of the samarium III ion in the iron (II) and (III) phosphate; obtaining the sorption isotherms in function of pH, of the phosphate mass and of the concentration of the samarium ion using UV-visible spectroscopy to determine the removal percentage. The developed experiments show that as much the ferrous phosphate as the ferric phosphate present a great affinity by the samarium III, for what it use like reactive material in contention walls can be very viable because it sorption capacity has overcome 90% to pH values similar to those of the underground and also mentioning that the form to obtain these materials is very economic and simple. (Author)

  3. Precipitation of iron (III) using magnesium oxide in fluidized bed; Precipitacion de hierro (III) utilizando oxido de magnesio en lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Bocardo, P. A.; Ferreira-Rocha, S. D.

    2006-07-01

    A process for iron (III) removal by hydroxide precipitation from and acid synthetic inorganic effluent using magnesium oxide as an alternative precipitant agent in a fluidized bed was developed. An acid synthetic inorganic effluent containing 100 and 200 mg/l of ferric ions (pH=1.0) was continuously fed up to the acrylic column (30 cm high and 2 cm diameter) during 180 minutes. Magnesium oxide pulp (3% v/v) was injected at the beginning of the experiment in order to allow the iron hydroxides precipitation. The concentration and pH profiles agreed in their curves, while the pH profile rose,the concentration profile decreased and a high percentage of iron removal (higher to 99%) was reached. Extremely low iron concentrations have been reached, thus permitting to attend to the environmental standard of 10.0 mg/l for discharge of effluent containing ferric ions established by the law DN 10/86 of COPAM (Conselho de Politica Ambiental do Estado de Minas Gerais-Brazil). (Author)

  4. Ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes de instituciones educativas

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    Mabel Vila

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es un problema de salud pública. La baja ingesta de hierro dietario es una de sus causas. Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Instituciones educativas del distrito de Ancón. Participantes: Trescientos cincuenticinco mujeres adolescentes estudiantes del nivel secundario, elegidas en forma aleatoria. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado, se aplicó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos y bebidas semicuantitativo. Principales medidas de resultados: Ingesta dietaria diaria de hierro. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes fue 14 ± 1,69 años. La mediana de ingesta dietaria de hierro fue 10,4 mg/día (cuartil 1= 9 mg/día, cuartil 3 =12,1 mg/día y la mediana de adecuación, 38,4% (cuartil 1 = 33,45%; cuartil 3 = 45,56%. El 86,8% de las adolescentes no cubrieron ni el 50% de sus recomendaciones diarias de hierro. El hierro de alta biodisponibilidad representó la décima parte del total del hierro ingerido. El pan y el arroz fueron los alimentos que más hierro aportaron a la dieta. Conclusiones: El 86,8 % de las adolescentes evaluadas mostró riesgo alto de ingesta inadecuada de hierro. La ingesta de hierro de alta biodisponibilidad fue baja.

  5. Ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes de instituciones educativas

    OpenAIRE

    Mabel Vila; Margot Quintana

    2008-01-01

    Introducción: La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es un problema de salud pública. La baja ingesta de hierro dietario es una de sus causas. Objetivo: Estimar la ingesta de hierro dietario en mujeres adolescentes. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Lugar: Instituciones educativas del distrito de Ancón. Participantes: Trescientos cincuenticinco mujeres adolescentes estudiantes del nivel secundario, elegidas en forma aleatoria. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado, se aplicó un...

  6. EFECTO DEL CONSUMO DE PREBIOTICOS SOBRE LA BIODISPONIBILIDAD DE HIERRO

    OpenAIRE

    WEINBORN ASTUDILLO, VALERIE

    2009-01-01

    El hierro (Fe) es un elemento esencial para el ser humano, pero en exceso puede ser tóxico. La homeostasis de Fe es regulada por su absorción a través del enterocito. En la dieta el hierro se encuentra de dos formas: el hierro no hemínico (Fe-no hem) y el hierro hemínico (Fe-hem). La forma en que se encuentra el hierro en la dieta determina de cómo será absorbido. La absorción de Fe-no hem es influenciada por componentes intraluminales y dietarios: los taninos, fitatos y calcio disminuyen la ...

  7. Volviendo a pensar la Edad del Hierro

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    Hill, J. D.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues there is an urgent need to critically evaluate the basic assumptions used by Iron Age archaeologists across Europe. It suggests that the existing frameworks of explanation and interpretation are at best inadequate to understand the actual archaeological evidence for the period. At worst they are still unconsciously reproducing nineteenth century nationalist and racist ideologies (e. g. the preoccupations with the «Celts≫ or «Iberians≫, etc.. Drawing on examples from Britain, and the Czech and Slovak republics. We will argue that archaeological evidence Iron the Iron Age does not neatly fit our modernist and Eurocentric assumptions about what the period ought to have been like. It suggests Iron Age archaeology must recognise the difference of the past, that prehistoric societies in Europe may have had very different forms of social organisations, world views and economies than those in later European history. This means critically questioning archaeological evidence and being open to the possibility that existing interpretations are wrong (e. g. stressing the impact of the Mediterranean World Economy, that Oppidas were urban centres, or that settlement and subsistence data can be adequately understood in modern capitalist/functionalist terms, etc.. As such Iron Age studies can on/y be a «Contextual Archaeology≫.

    Este artículo defiende la urgente necesidad de evaluar críticamente las asunciones básicas manejadas por los arqueólogos de la Edad del Hierro en toda Europa. Sugiere que los marcos explicativos e interpretativos existentes son, en el mejor de los casos, inadecuados para comprender la evidencia arqueológica real sobre el período. En el peor, están reproduciendo todavía las ideologías nacionalistas y racistas decimonónicas (p. e. las preocupaciones por los “Celtas”, los “Iberos”, etc.. A partir de ejemplos de Gran Bretaña, y las Repúblicas Checa y Eslovaca, sostenemos que la evidencia

  8. Biomarcadores del metabolismo y nutrición de hierro

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    Carmen Gloria Sermini

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La anemia por deficiencia de hierro continúa siendo la deficiencia nutricional más abundante en el mundo, y son los lactantes, preescolares, mujeres en edad fértil y embarazadas los grupos de mayor susceptibilidad. Debido a esto es que se hace necesario el conocer los mecanismos de regulación de captación, transporte y absorción del metal a nivel celular, principalmente a nivel del enterocito y, una vez que el hierro entra a la circulación, conocer cuáles son los biomarcadores que permiten realizar un seguimiento del estatus del hierro corporal. En esta revisión mostramos, en primer lugar, cómo se regula la entrada de hierro a nivel de la célula del epitelio intestinal, mostrando las principales proteínas involucradas (transportadores de entrada y salida de hierro, oxido-reductasas, proteína de almacenamiento y, para finalizar, hacemos un recuento de los principales biomarcadores del metabolismo de hierro una vez que este ha entrado y circula por el organismo.

  9. Cyclic thermal behavior associated to the degassing process at El Hierro submarine volcano, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; González-Dávila, M.

    2016-12-01

    One year after the ceasing of magmatic activity in the shallow submarine volcano of the island of El Hierro, significant physical-chemical anomalies produced by the degassing process as: (i) thermal anomalies increase of +0.44 °C, (ii) pH decrease of -0.034 units, (iii) total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT increase by +43.5 µmol kg-1 and (iv) total alkalinity, AT by +12.81 µmol kg-1 were still present in the area. These evidences highlight the potential role of the shallow degassing processes as a natural ecosystem-scale experiments for the study of significant effects of global change stressors on marine environments. Additionally, thermal time series obtained from a temporal yo-yo CTD study, in isopycnal components, over one of the most active points of the submarine volcano have been analyzed in order to investigate the behavior of the system. Signal processing of the thermal time series highlights a strong cyclic temperature period of 125-150 min at 99.9% confidence, due to characteristic time-scales revealed in the periodogram. These long cycles might reflect dynamics occurring within the shallow magma supply system below the island of El Hierro.

  10. Biomarcadores del metabolismo y nutrición de hierro

    OpenAIRE

    Sermini, Carmen Gloria; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Nutricionista; Acevedo, María José; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Nutricionista; Arredondo, Miguel; Laboratorio de Micronutrientes, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile. Msc; Phd

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN La anemia por deficiencia de hierro continúa siendo la deficiencia nutricional más abundante en el mundo, y son los lactantes, preescolares, mujeres en edad fértil y embarazadas los grupos de mayor susceptibilidad. Debido a esto es que se hace necesario el conocer los mecanismos de regulación de captación, transporte y absorción del metal a nivel celular, principalmente a nivel del enterocito y, una vez que el hierro entra a la circulación, conocer cuáles son los biomarcadores que per...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of iron (II and III) phosphates by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy of high vacuum; Sintesis y caracterizacion de fosfatos de hierro (II, III) por difraccion de rayos X y microscopia electronica de barrido de alto vacio

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    Diaz F, J.C.; Solis M, L.; Garcia R, G.; Romero G, E.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The XRD and Sem techniques for determining the mineralogical and structural composition of iron II and III phosphates have been used. The mineralogical and structural composition of the materials revealed that they are the ferrous phosphate and the ferric phosphate. The contribution of the synthesis and characterization of these phosphates is that they can be used as components in the geological barriers capable to avoiding the dispersion from the hazardous radioactive materials to the environment. (Author)

  12. Causas y consecuencias de la deficiencia de hierro

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    Olivares Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de hierro es la deficiencia nutricional más prevalente y la principal causa de anemia a escala mundial. Además de las manifestaciones propias de la anemia, se han descrito otras manifestaciones no hematológicas tales como: disminución de la capacidad de trabajo físico y de la actividad motora espontánea, alteraciones de la inmunidad celular y de la capacidad bactericida de los neutrófilos, disminución de la termogénesis, alteraciones funcionales e histológicas del tubo digestivo, falla en la movilización de la vitamina A hepática, mayor riesgo de parto prematuro, bajo peso de nacimiento y de morbilidad perinatal, menor transferencia de hierro al feto, una disminución de la velocidad de crecimiento, alteraciones conductuales y del desarrollo mental y motor, velocidad de conducción más lenta de los sistemas sensoriales auditivo y visual, y reducción del tono vagal. La prevención de la deficiencia de hierro incluye cambios en los hábitos alimentarios, fortificación de los alimentos y la suplementación con hierro.

  13. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

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    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  14. Floating sandstones off El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain): the peculiar case of the October 2011 eruption

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    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F.; Berg, S.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.

    2011-12-01

    The eruption that started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, in October 2011 has emitted intriguing eruption products found floating in the sea. These specimens appeared as floating volcanic "bombs" that have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga) and exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Currently the nature and origin of these "floating stones" is vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have collected and analysed the structure and composition of samples and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the archipelago. Based on their high silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, and the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate relicts, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary rocks that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. They hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies in the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment/covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of these "restingolites" does therefore not indicate the presence of an explosive high-silica magma that is involved in the ongoing eruption.

  15. Efectos de la deficiencia de hierro en el funcionamiento intelectual

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    Ernesto Pollitt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar un análisis comparativo de los resultados de seis investigaciones en las cuales ha participado el autor sobre la relación entre la deficiencia de hierro y el funcionamiento intelectual. Las investigaciones fueron realizadas en Egipto, Estados Unidos, Guatemala, Indonesia y Tailandia entre niños de edad pre-escolar. La deficiencia de hierro con anemia está entre las dos deficiencias nutricionales más prevalentes en el mundo y es de esperar que su prevalencia sea alta en el Perú, particularmente entre los infantes y niños y entre las madres gestantes y lactantes. Una de las causas importantes es el limitado consumo de alimentos ricos en hierro hemínico que generalmente son muy costosos para los grupos más pobres de la sociedad. El análisis comparativo muestra que los resultados son consistentes a través de los seis estudios y que la deficiencia de hierro con anemia afecta el rendimiento en las pruebas de procesos cognoscitivos específicos y en las pruebas de rendimiento escolar. Los resultados también muestran que dichos efectos son reversibles con el tratamiento apropiado. A su vez, el análisis muestra que no hay evidencia suficiente para inferir que la deficiencia de hierro sin anemia afecta el cociente intelectual.   The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the results of six researches in which the author has participated, about the relation between iron deficiency and intellectual performance. The researches were carried out in Egypt, U.S.A., Guatemala, Indonesia and Thailand, with pre-school and school children. Iron deficiency with anemia are among the two nutritional deficiencies of major prevalence in the word and it must be expected that the same goes for Peru. One of the causes of the low consuming of food rich in iron is that these are too expensive for groups of low socioeconomic level. The comparative analysis shows consistent results in the six

  16. Absorción de hierro en "Maca" lepidum meyenii walp. (Brasicaceae

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    Mery L. Suni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium meyenii Walp (Brasicaceae “maca” es una planta andina apreciada por sus hipocótilos de alto valor medicinal y nutritivo, entre estos, su elevado contenido de hierro. Para determinar la posibilidad de incrementarlo se llevó a cabo un experimento en invernadero, en Lima, durante el periodo de mayo a noviembre de 1999, en el cual se proporcionó tres niveles de hierro natural (5, 15 y 25 ppm en soluciones nutritivas. Se utilizaron semillas, entrada ARB5441 (CIP. Se determinó el contenido de hierro a los 50 y 179 días después del tratamiento (ddt por el método de fenantrolina. Se encontró diferencias significativas en el contenido de hierro en hojas e hipocótilo a los 50 ddt, incrementado este en relación a la cantidad de hierro suministrada, mientras que a los 179 ddt esta misma respuesta se observa sólo a nivel de hojas. La concentración de hierro obtenida en el hipocótilo para cada tratamiento no incrementó en el tiempo mientras que en la hoja sí. En general los valores de concentración de hierro obtenidos son mayores a los reportados en la literatura. El peso de la planta tendió a disminuir en relación al nivel de hierro a los 50 ddt, pero a los 179 ddt tendió a incrementar. En función al tiempo, el peso de los hipocótilos en cada tratamiento incrementó notablemente; mientras que las hojas, ligeramente. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten señalar que un nivel de 5 ppm de hierro resulta adecuado y suficiente para obtener concentraciones altas de hierro en los hipocótilos de “maca”.

  17. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Ubide, Teresa; Sudo, Masafumi; Martí, Joan; Galindo, Inés; Galé, Carlos; Morales, Jose María; Yepes, Jorge; Lago, Marceliano

    2016-01-01

    New age data have been obtained to time constrain the recent Quaternary volcanism of El Hierro (Canary Islands) and to estimate its recurrence rate. We have carried out 40Ar/39Ar geochronology on samples spanning the entire volcanostratigraphic sequence of the island and 14C geochronology on the most recent eruption on the northeast rift of the island: 2280 ± 30 yr BP. We combine the new absolute data with a revision of published ages onshore, some of which were identified through geomorphological criteria (relative data). We present a revised and updated chronology of volcanism for the last 33 ka that we use to estimate the maximum eruptive recurrence of the island. The number of events per year determined is 9.7 × 10-4 for the emerged part of the island, which means that, as a minimum, one eruption has occurred approximately every 1000 years. This highlights the need of more geochronological data to better constrain the eruptive recurrence of El Hierro.

  18. Anemia y depleción de las reservas de hierro en adolescentes gestantes de una zona urbana y rural del estado Zulia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega F, Pablo Antonio; Leal M, Jorymar Yoselyn; Chávez, Carlos Javier; Mejías C, Lidia; Chirinos Q, Noraima; Escalona V, Carolina del Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de anemia y depleción de las reservas corporales de hierro (DRFe) en adolescentes gestantes urbanas (U) y rurales (R). Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 214 adolescentes gestantes (U=100 y R=114), de baja condición socio-económica. Se realizó una evaluación clínica-obstétrica, nutricional y bioquímica. Según recomendaciones de la OMS y el Grupo Consultivo Internacional de Anemia se consideró anemia en gestantes, I y III trimestre Hb≤110g/L, y II trimestre Hb≤105...

  19. Results of radical radiotherapy of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: experience at the clinical Puerta de Hierro (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regueiro, C.A.; Valcarcel, F.J.; Millan, I.; Romero, J.; Torre, A. de la; Polo, E.; Magallon, R.; Aragon, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have reviewed the records of 251 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology of Clinica Puerta de Hierro between 1964 and 1989. The 3-year actuarial local control probability was 85% for the 29 T1-staged patients, 59% for the 89 T2-staged patients, 45% for the 71 T3-staged patients, and 43% for the 62 T4-staged patients. The 3-year actuarial nodal control probability was 86% for the 103 NO-staged patients treated electively, 66% for the 42 N1-staged patients, 60% for the 77 N2-staged patients, and 51% for the 20 N3-staged patients. The actuarial adjusted survival was 68% for the 17 stage I patients, 69% for the 48 stage II patients, 34% for the 57 stage III patients, and 33% for the 129 stage IV patients. Author (50 refs.)

  20. Estado de nutrición en hierro en una población de 4 a 14 años, urbano marginal, de Lima

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    Alicia Fernández

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el estado de nutrición en hierro en una población de 4 a 14 años. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal y prospectivo. Lugar: Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Niños, entre 4 y 14 años. Intervenciones: Se estudió 349 niños, 170 de sexo masculino y 179 de sexo femenino, entre 4 y 14 años de edad, del Centro de Salud San Genaro de Villa, Chorrillos, entre setiembre 2001 y agosto 2002. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado de nutrición en hierro. Resultados: El 68,8% (240 no presentó alteración en el estado de nutrición en hierro (ENH, frente a 31,2% (109 que sí lo presentó. De los 109 niños con alteración en el ENH, 68,8% (75 clasificó en el estadio I de depleción latente (ferritina 400 ug/dL, y 8,3% (9, en el estadio III de anemia ferropénica (hemoglobina <11,5 g/100 mL para menores de 11 años y <12 g/100 mL para 12 a 14 años, hematocrito <34 para menores de 11 años y <36% para 12 a 14 años, volumen corpuscular medio <80 fl, y hemoglobina corpuscular media <27pg. Conclusiones: El alto porcentaje de niños con alteración en el estado de nutrición en hierro, estadio I, identifica a una población en riesgo de anemia ferropénica. Se recomienda que los estudios de deficiencia en hierro se restrinjan a niños en estadio I, con el fin de establecer políticas de participación ciudadana y establecer alianzas sectoriales y extrasectoriales (sector educación, para la promoción de la nutrición infantil.

  1. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  2. La funcionalidad de los óxidos de hierro

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    Castaño, J. G.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Some iron oxides have a great scientific and technological possibilities, not only for their importance in the present, but also for their great potential in the development of the future technologies. They have adequate properties to carry out several functions. They are plentiful in the nature and their synthetic obtention is not complex. This paper shows five of them (hematite, magnetite, maghemite, goethite and akaganeite and their utilization in fields like chemical industry, biotechnology, medicine, new materials and electromagnetism.

    Algunos óxidos de hierro tienen aplicaciones interesantes para las tecnologías actuales y futuras. Aparte de poseer propiedades adecuadas para cumplir diversas funciones, son relativamente abundantes en la naturaleza o su obtención en forma sintética no es complicada. En este artículo se presentan cinco de ellos (hematita, magnetita, maghemita, goethita y akaganeíta y su utilización en campos como la industria química, la biotecnología, la medicina, los nuevos materiales y el electromagnetismo.

  3. Graciela Hierro: Philosophy of Education in Gender Code

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    Georgina Aimé Tapia González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of feminist theory and gender studies in Mexico cannot be understood without the work of Graciela Hierro. The aim of this article is to show the lasting value of her ethical proposal for a feminist education, as well as recognizing her contributions. I will deal with this in three sections: in the first one I will present her feminist ethics as a foundation of an education for women; in the second I will carry out a brief historical review of the philosophy of education from the viewpoint of Mexican female philosophers, and in the third, I will show the practical implications of the ethics of pleasure in women formation, from childhood to old age. My principal thesis is that Hierro’s ethics constitute the fundamentals for a philosophy of education that originates from feminist geneaology to Mexican culture through the visibilization of the legacy of local thinkers, that, from different standpoints, have reflected upon the “female question”.

  4. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, V. R.; Klügel, A.; Longpré, M.-A.; Burchardt, S.; Deegan, F. M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Wiesmaier, S.; Kueppers, U.; Dahren, B.; Blythe, L. S.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freda, C.; Budd, D. A.; Jolis, E. M.; Jonsson, E.; Meade, F. C.; Harris, C.; Berg, S. E.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Pedroza, K.

    2012-03-01

    A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the

  5. Floating stones off El Hierro, Canary Islands: xenoliths of pre-island sedimentary origin in the early products of the October 2011 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Troll

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012. In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga, appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite, (ii remelted magmatic material (trachyte, (iii altered volcanic rock, or (iv reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies

  6. La arquitectura del hierro en España durante el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Navascués Palacio, Pedro; Calvo Serraller, Francisco

    1980-01-01

    Cuando el arquitecto neoclásico Silvestre Pérez, formado en la Academia de Bellas Artes y pensionado en Roma, recibe el encargo del ayuntamiento de Sevilla (1824) para hacer un proyecto de un puente sobre el Guadalquivir, éste se ve postergado al optarse por otro en hierro según se había experimentado ya en Inglaterra y Francia. Este hecho pone de relieve la forma violenta con que el hierro irrumpe en nuestra historia de la construcción, como fenómeno mimético, al margen de la lenta maduració...

  7. COMPUESTOS DE HIERRO PARA SUPLEMENTACIÓN ORAL: PRINCIPIOS Y AVANCES -REVISIÓN SISTEMATICA

    OpenAIRE

    PEREZ M, Lina J.; TOBÓN, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta una revisión que abarca los principales aspectos sobre la absorción oral del hierro (fuentes y captación) y sus funciones en el organismo, centrándose en la tendencia actual de utilizar complejos o quelatos de este metal con ligandos orgánicos para el tratamiento oral por deficiencia del mismo (monosacáridos, aminoácidos y ácidos carboxílicos de bajo peso molecular), ya que estos compuestos aumentan la biodisponibilidad del hierro y disminuyen los efectos adversos que presentan su...

  8. Can el Hierro be 100% electric-renewable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    This summer, the media have abundantly reported that the el-Hierro island in the Canaries could now count on a 100 % renewable electric mix. As a matter of fact, these reports were based on only two hours during which the Gorona del Viento (GdV) installation managed to reach the objectives announced in the project document. Full of enthusiasm, Segolene Royal, the French minister of environment and energy, rewarded the project on behalf of the 'Syndicat des energies Renouvelables' What is the situation today for this installation inaugurated in June 2014? a considerable investment, leading to a complex system with more than 34 MW of installed production power (diesel, wind and hydraulic turbines, each for about one third) when the peak electric demand is only 7.6 MW that is a factor four less. The reality of the performances after six months of effective exploitation: the renewable fraction for the three most favourable months, July to September, has been 42 %. For the half year, the figure is even more disappointing with only 30 % renewables. The reasons behind these very modest performances with respect to the announced goal, which, moreover for the year 2015, lead to a considerable cost of the renewable MWh which is going to cost four times more than the MWh produced by the diesel plant and a cost of the avoided CO 2 exceeding 1000 Euro/ton? As shown in this document, they are first the limited wind resource, which according to data could not have allowed a renewable fraction larger than 50 % and second, the nature of the contract signed by the Spanish state which does not encourage GdV to strive for the optimal environmental performances. To summarize: unrealistic objectives, deplorable governance and a technical semi-failure very costly for the Spanish citizen. (author)

  9. Tres nuevos poblados de la Edad del Hierro en la Protohistoria de Gipuzkoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Olaetxea

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el descubrimiento de tres nuevos poblados de la Edad del Hierro para la provincia de Gipuzkoa. Su importancia estriba en que hasta el presente sólamente se conocía uno, el de Intxur   (Tolosa - Albiztur, y en que han sido descubiertos dentro de un plan sistemático de prospecciones.

  10. Estudio de la adición de estabilizantes y vitamina B12 al complejo inyectable de hierro dextrana

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Michelena; Antonio Bell; Graciela Cerutti; Emilia Carrera; Mónica Coronel; Gracia Rivas Monte

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó el estudio de adición de estabilizantes al complejo hierro dextrana mediante un diseño experimental 33 tipo mezcla con el objetivo de aumentar la fijación del hierro en el proceso de síntesis y disminuir su viscosidad, lo que incide favorablemente en la tecnología al obtener un producto de mayor filtrabilidad y con alto contenido de hierro. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron con la variante de adición en iguales relaciones de ácido cítrico y sorbitol y tres veces la cantidad en d...

  11. Aumento de los depósitos de hierro y su relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Meroño; Patricia Sorroche; Fernando D. Brites

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años, se ha avanzado considerablemente en el control de varios de los denominados factores de riesgo aterogénico tradicionales, a pesar de lo cual la incidencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) continúa siendo elevada. Entre las diversas condiciones asociadas a ECV, podría ubicarse también a la sobrecarga de hierro. Su estudio ha cobrado relevancia desde que se planteó la "hipótesis del hierro", la cual postula que bajos niveles de hierro ejercerían un efecto protector del...

  12. Full-Vector Geomagnetic Field Records for the Late Quaternary from El Hierro and the Eifel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monster, M.; de Groot, L. V.; Dekkers, M. J.; van Galen, J. P.; Kuiper, K.; Langemeijer, J.; Wiarda, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight flows in the age range of c. 100 to c. 500 ka were sampled on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) and twelve in the Eifel (Germany). All sites from the Eifel had been previously dated, whereas the ages of the El Hierro flows were approximated by stratigraphic and directional coherency with a dated section c. 4 km to the north-east. Additionally, seven flows were dated using the ThermoFisher Helix multi-collector mass spectrometer at VU University Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The rocks were subjected to standard rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic experiments. Palaeodirections were obtained using both thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation techniques. Apart from two sites that appear to have been struck by lightning, all sites yielded reliable palaeodirections. Absolute palaeointensities were obtained using three different methods: IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen protocol and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier technique. Nineteen sites from El Hierro and all twelve sites from the Eifel passed the selection criteria for one or more of these methods, with the pseudo-Thellier technique having the highest success rate (c. 35% for El Hierro and 55% for the Eifel). The palaeointensities obtained for El Hierro were mostly between 20 and 40 μT and for the Eifel between 20 and 50 μT, both with a tendency to be somewhat low compared to the present-day field of c. 39 μT and c. 49 μT, respectively. The pseudo-Thellier and multispecimen methods generally yielded lower palaeointensities than IZZI-Thellier, but no clear trend was visible.

  13. Spatial vent opening probability map of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Laura; Cappello, Annalisa; Galindo, Inés; Neri, Marco; Del Negro, Ciro

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of the probable spatial distribution of new eruptions is useful to manage and reduce the volcanic risk. It can be achieved in different ways, but it becomes especially hard when dealing with volcanic areas less studied, poorly monitored and characterized by a low frequent activity, as El Hierro. Even though it is the youngest of the Canary Islands, before the 2011 eruption in the "Las Calmas Sea", El Hierro had been the least studied volcanic Island of the Canaries, with more historically devoted attention to La Palma, Tenerife and Lanzarote. We propose a probabilistic method to build the susceptibility map of El Hierro, i.e. the spatial distribution of vent opening for future eruptions, based on the mathematical analysis of the volcano-structural data collected mostly on the Island and, secondly, on the submerged part of the volcano, up to a distance of ~10-20 km from the coast. The volcano-structural data were collected through new fieldwork measurements, bathymetric information, and analysis of geological maps, orthophotos and aerial photographs. They have been divided in different datasets and converted into separate and weighted probability density functions, which were then included in a non-homogeneous Poisson process to produce the volcanic susceptibility map. Future eruptive events on El Hierro is mainly concentrated on the rifts zones, extending also beyond the shoreline. The major probabilities to host new eruptions are located on the distal parts of the South and West rifts, with the highest probability reached in the south-western area of the West rift. High probabilities are also observed in the Northeast and South rifts, and the submarine parts of the rifts. This map represents the first effort to deal with the volcanic hazard at El Hierro and can be a support tool for decision makers in land planning, emergency plans and civil defence actions.

  14. Aumento de los depósitos de hierro y su relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Meroño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha avanzado considerablemente en el control de varios de los denominados factores de riesgo aterogénico tradicionales, a pesar de lo cual la incidencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV continúa siendo elevada. Entre las diversas condiciones asociadas a ECV, podría ubicarse también a la sobrecarga de hierro. Su estudio ha cobrado relevancia desde que se planteó la "hipótesis del hierro", la cual postula que bajos niveles de hierro ejercerían un efecto protector del sistema cardiovascular. No obstante, hasta el presente, los resultados de los estudios diseñados para probar esta hipótesis han sido controversiales. Por otro lado, se lograron numerosos avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo del hierro a partir del descubrimiento de la hormona reguladora hepcidina. Los estudios sobre las funciones fisiológicas de esta hormona permitieron elaborar nuevas hipótesis que explican los resultados de los estudios clínicos anteriormente concebidos como contradictorios. El objetivo de la presente actualización es exponer, a la luz de los últimos avances sobre la regulación del metabolismo del hierro y su vinculación con la inflamación, el estado actual del conocimiento sobre el posible rol del exceso de hierro como factor de riesgo de ECV.

  15. Eficacia del hierro aminoquelado en comparación con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro, Medellín, 2011

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    Maylen Liseth Rojas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La disminución de los depósitos de hierro constituye el primer eslabón de la cadena conducente a la deficiencia de hierro, la carencia nutricional más prevalente y principal causa de anemia en todo el mundo, situación que puede prevenirse mediante la fortificación de alimentos. Objetivo. Comparar la eficacia del hierro aminoquelado con el sulfato ferroso como fortificante de un complemento alimentario en preescolares con deficiencia de hierro. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un ensayo clínico triple ciego con distribución aleatoria de grupos. Se analizaron 56 preescolares con deficiencia de hierro (ferritina menor de 24 ng/ml a los que se les dio diariamente 13 g de leche con 12,5 mg de hierro. Después de dos meses se midieron los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica. Resultados. En el grupo con sulfato ferroso la concentración de ferritina sérica aumentó de 18,8 a 24,1ng/ml, mientras que dicha variación fue de 18,4 a 29,7 ng/ml con el hierro aminoquelado, en ambos casos con diferencias significativas. El nivel de ferritina final difirió según el grupo de estudio, siendo mayor en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado (p=0,022. La hemoglobina y el hematocrito no variaron después de la intervención. Las reacciones adversas en el grupo con sulfato ferroso fueron de 35,7 %, en contraste con el 42,9 % en el grupo con hierro aminoquelado; cinco niños presentaron infección delas vías respiratorias, sin diferencias estadísticas. Conclusiones. Los dos compuestos aumentan los niveles de ferritina, siendo mayor el aumento entre quienes toman leche con hierro aminoquelado. No fue diferente la incidencia de reacciones adversas o de infecciones entre los grupos. Identificador en Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01412723 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i3.775

  16. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011–2012 El Hierro eruption

    OpenAIRE

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2016-01-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and geodetic data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region (including the NW African margin) and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary I...

  17. Melt inclusion study of the most recent basanites from El Hierro and Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ulla, Alejandra; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Huertas, Maria Jose; Ancochea, Eumenio

    2015-04-01

    The latest eruptions of both Lanzarote (one of the oldest and easternmost of the Canary Island archipelago) and El Hierro (the youngest and westernmost) produced basanite lavas. Major, volatile and trace element concentrations of melt inclusion (MI) hosted in olivine for both eruptions have been analysed. The basanites display primitive mantle normalized trace element spectra suggesting a magma source largely composed of recycled oceanic crust. In addition, beneath Lanzarote an interaction with a carbonatitic fluid phase or metasome would explain eccentric Ba/U and other trace element ratios. Contribution of carbonatitic component would readily account for extremely volatile-rich (Cl, F, S) MI from Lanzarote (Cl=1577-2500 ppm) whereas the maximum for El Hierro is 1080 ppm. The submarine character of the 2011-12 eruption off El Hierro appears to have affected the degassing behavior, whereas estimated sulfur emission to the atmosphere during the historical Lanzarote eruptions are amongst the highest observed so far. An estimated magma volume (VDRE) of 0.02 km3 yields atmospheric mass loading of 0.2 Mt SO2 from the 1824 Lanzarote eruption. Scaling the volume of the 1824 Lanzarote eruption to that of the previous Timanfaya eruption (1730-6; 5 km3) results in estimated 12 Mt SO2, an atmospheric mass loading only outnumbered by the historical Laki and Eldgjá eruptions in Iceland. The significantly greater volatile budget of basanites from Lanzarote compared to El Hierro is thus controlled by more fertile source composition closer to the African continent.

  18. Rosario Castellanos y Graciela Hierro: La reconfiguración de arquetipos femeninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Naranjo Zavala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974 y Graciela Hierro (1928-2003 sobresalieron en el feminismo en México. Ambas reflexionan que, a lo largo de la historia, las mujeres han sido representadas de manera peyorativa, carentes de voz propia y envueltas en ideas románticas. Referencias que han forjado concepciones en torno a la condición femenina; sin embargo, a través de la literatura y la filosofía, pueden ser replanteadas. El artículo se propone establecer un diálogo entre sus respectivos trabajos, Castellanos en la poesía y Hierro en la filosofía, tomando como base: Mujer que sabe latín (1973, el poema “La muerte de Dido” (1953-1955 y planteamientos de Ética y Feminismo (1985, De la domesticación a la educación de las mexicanas (1993, Ética de la libertad (1993 a fin de identificar la reconfiguración de arquetipos femeninos. Rosario Castellanos (1925-1974 and Graciela Hierro (1928-2003 stand out in feminism in Mexico. Both reflect that, throughout history, women have been represented pejoratively, with no voice, and wrapped in romantic ideas. References that have shaped ideas around the female condition; however through literature and philosophy, can be reframed. This paper aims to establish a dialogue between their respective works, Castellano´s in poetry and Hierro´s in philosophy, in order to identify the reconfiguration of female, religious and mythical archetypes in Mujer que sabe latín (1973, the poem “La muerte de Dido” (1953-1955; for this purpose it will be used the approaches on which Ética y Feminismo (1985, De la domesticación a la educación de las mexicanas (1993, and Ética de la libertad (1993 are based.

  19. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro: estrategias de la OPS/OMS para combatirla

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    FREIRE WILMA B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es uno de los problemas nutricionales de mayor magnitud en el mundo. A pesar de conocer su etiología y tener a disposición el conocimiento de cómo enfrentarla y de saber que las intervenciones son de bajo costo, aún no se ha podido superar este problema. Este documento parte de una estimación de la magnitud del problema y plantea los elementos necesarios para el diseño, la ejecución y la medición del impacto de la suplementación con hierro y la fortificación, como las intervenciones más efectivas para disminuir considerablemente la dimensión de la anemia por falta de hierro. Propone una lista de pasos a seguir previos a la elaboración de un proyecto y recomienda una serie de elementos a considerar en ello. Define, asimismo, los aspectos que se deben incluir en una propuesta de fortificación y en otra de suplementación. El documento concluye con un listado de actividades complementarias que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud ofrece dentro de su paquete de cooperación técnica.

  20. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  1. Early signs of geodynamic activity before the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Martí, Joan; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The potential relation between mantle plume dynamics, regional tectonics and eruptive activity in the Canary Islands has not been studied yet through the analysis of long-time series of geophysical observational data. The existence of highly reliable seismic and GNSS data has enabled us to study from 1996 to 2014 the geodynamic evolution of the North Atlantic Azores-Gibraltar region and its relationship with recent volcanic activity in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). We compiled a new and unified regional seismic catalog and used long time-series of surface displacements recorded by permanent GNSS stations in the region. A regional- and local-scale analysis based on these data enabled us to identify signs of anomalous tectonic activity from 2003 onwards, whose intensity increased in 2007 and finally accelerated three months before the onset of the volcanic eruption on El Hierro in October 2011. This activity includes a regional extension and an uplift process that affects the southern Iberian Peninsula, NW Africa, and the Canary Islands. We interpret these observations as early signs of the geodynamic activity, which led to El Hierro eruption and the subsequent episodes of magma intrusion. Results point to the significant contribution of the mantle plume dynamics (i.e. external forces) in this renewed volcanic activity in the Canary Islands and emphasize the role of mantle dynamics in controlling regional tectonics.

  2. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  3. Relación entre las reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez-Molina María Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la relación de los valores hematológicos maternos y neonatales en casos de reservas maternas de hierro bajas, moderadas y normales. Material y métodos. Diseño transversal en el que se incluyó a 163 mujeres embarazadas y sus neonatos de término, derechohabientes del Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en Chihuahua, Chih., México. Se analizaron antecedentes maternos. Se determinaron niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica en muestras maternas y de cordón umbilical. Se definieron reservas de hierro maternas de acuerdo a ferritina (µg /l: bajas o = 20.1. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis para establecer diferencias entre grupos, ji cuadrada para diferencia de proporciones y r de Pearson para establecer la relación entre reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido. Resultados. Se determinó una débil correlación entre la ferritina materna y neonatal r=0.14 (p=0.07. Las medias geométricas de ferritina neonatal respecto a las reservas maternas bajas, moderadas y normales fue de 4.77, 4.85 y 5.02, respectivamente (p=0.12. Las reservas de hierro maternas se modificaron con el suplemento de hierro (p=0.01. Conclusiones. Las reservas de hierro en el recién nacido están en estrecha relación con las maternas. Las mujeres que toman suplementos con hierro durante la gestación tienen reservas mayores al final del embarazo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  4. Efecto del Hierro en el Desarrollo de las Raíces de las Plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Velásquez Jairo

    1964-08-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del hierro en el desarrollo de las raíces del cacao, el café y el fríjol. También se observó la velocidad de recuperación de la clorofila en plantas cloróticas de cacao y café, al agregarles cantidades crecientes de hierro, y el efecto de dicha recuperación sobre el desarrollo radical. Además, se estudió el grado de absorción y movilización de Fe50 en plantas de cacao, y el efecto de distintas dosis de hierro en el crecimiento de raíces aisladas cacao, café y fríjol. Las plantas fueron cultivadas en el invernadero en solución HoagIand N° 2 sin Fe y las raíces para cultivo se obtuvieron de semillas germinadas en el laboratorio. Se usaron plantas de cacao del clon uf 668 de 3 meses y de café (variedad caturra con la misma edad. El hierro radiactivo utilizado fue en forma de cloruro (Fe59 cl 3 y el agregado a la solución o al follaje, en forma de quelato (Fe E. D. T. A.. Las adiciones de este elemento se hicieron cuando las plantas mostraban síntomas característicos de su deficiencia. Hubo una recuperación casi total de la clorosis y tanto el volumen como la longitud radical aumentaron con las aplicaciones crecientes de hierro, aunque la longitud relativa de los tallos mostró una tendencia decreciente. En las hojas de cacao se presentó una acumulación del Fe y su movilización hacia los demás órganos de la planta fue lenta y en proporción reducida en relación con el total absorbido. Igual cosa sucedió con el Fe50 suministrado a las raíces. No se pudieron observar los efectos del Fe en el crecimiento de raíces aisladas de cacao, café y fríjol, pues el desarrollo fue muy reducido, debido a que la rápida oxidación de los tejidos (al separar aquéllas del resto de la planta redujo la viabilidad a unos pocos días.

  5. From 3D to 4D seismic tomography at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Yeguas, A.; Koulakov, I.; Jakovlev, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we are going to show the advantages of a dynamic tomography 4D, versus a static image 3D related with a volcanic reactivation and eruption at El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). In this process a high number of earthquakes before and during the eruptive processes have been registered. We are going to show a 3D image as an average of the velocity structure and then the characteristics and physical properties on the medium, including the presence or not of magma. This image will be complemented with its evolution along the time, observing its volcanic dynamic and its influence over the medium properties, including its power as an important element on early warnings protocols. After more than forty years of quiet at Canary Islands, since 1971 with Teneguía eruption at La Palma Island, and more than 200 years on El Hierro Island (The last eruption known at El Hierro took place in 1793, volcán de Lomo Negro), on 19th July on 2011 the Spanish seismic national network, administered by IGN (Instituto Geográfico Nacional), detected an increase of local seismic activity below El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). Since this moment an intense swarm took place, with more than 11000 events, until 11th December, with magnitudes (MLg) from 0.2 to 4.4. In this period two eruptive processes have been declared in front of the South coast of El Hierro island, and they have not finished yet. This seismic swarm has allowed carrying out a 3D seismic tomography, using P and S waves traveltimes. It has showed a low velocity from the North to the South. On the other hand, we have performed a 4D seismic tomography, taking the events occurred at different intervals of time. We can observe the evolution of the negative anomaly along the time, from the North to the South, where has taken place La Restinga submarine eruption. 4D seismic tomography is an innovative and powerful tool able to show the evolution in time of a volcanic process.

  6. Psychological aspects in a volcanic crisis: El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.; Llinares, A.; Garcia, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    The recent eruption on the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has shown that Psychology plays an important role in the emergence management of a natural phenomenon. However, Psychology continues to have no social coverage it deserves in the mitigation of the effects before, during and after the occurrence of a natural phenomenon. Keep in mind that an unresolved psychological problem involves an individual and collective mismatch may become unrecoverable. The population of El Hierro has been under a state of alert since July 2011, when seismic activity begins, until the occurrence of submarine eruption in October 2011 that is held for more than three months. During this period the inhabitants of the small island have gone through different emotional states ranging from confusion to disappointment. A volcanic eruption occurs not unexpectedly, allowing to have a time of preparation / action before the disaster. From the psychological point of view people from El Hierro Island have responded to different stages of the same natural process. Although the island of El Hierro is of volcanic origin, the population has no historical memory since the last eruption occurred in 1793. Therefore, the educational system does not adequately address the formation in volcanic risk. As a result people feel embarrassment when the seismovolcanic crisis begins, although no earthquakes felt. As an intermediate stage, when the earthquakes are felt by the population, scientists and operational Emergency Plan care to inform and prepare actions in case of a possible eruption. The population feel safe despite the concerns expressed by not knowing where, how and when the eruption will occur. Once started the submarine eruption, taking into account that all the actions (evacuation, relocation, etc.) have worked well and that both their basic needs and security are covered there are new states of mind. These new emotional states ranging from disenchantment with the phenomenology of the

  7. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  8. Recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y manejo de la anemia por déficit de hierro en la mujer embarazada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ernst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es una condición altamente prevalente a nivel mundial y, el déficit de hierro, la causa más frecuente, sin excepción; la mujer embarazada está particularmente en riesgo dada la mayor demanda de hierro que la gestación significa. La anemia se asocia a mayor morbilidad y mortalidad materno-perinatal. En mujeres embarazadas sin anemia, la prevención, mediante el uso de multivitamínicos que contienen hierro en dosis de 30-60 mg de hierro elemental, ha demostrado ser efectiva y se recomienda durante todo el embarazo. En casos de anemia, el diagnóstico de déficit de hierro se establece cuando la ferritina es menor a 30 ug/L y/o la saturación de transferrina es menor a 20%. La severidad de la anemia y la situación temporal en el embarazo, son factores modificantes del tratamiento. En mujeres embarazadas, con hemoglobina ≥9.0 g/dL y que tengan <34 semanas de embarazo, la indicación es tratamiento con hierro oral, en dosis de 100 mg al día, en días alternos, hasta normalizar los parámetros antes mencionados. Si la hemoglobina es <9.0 g/dL, o el embarazo es ≥34 semanas, el uso de hierro intravenoso ha demostrado ser más efectivo en corregir la anemia y el déficit de hierro y en disminuir la morbilidad materno-perinatal. En estos casos, sugerimos el uso del hierro carboximaltosa, dado su perfil de seguridad y efectividad favorable. Recomendamos conocer y practicar estas recomendaciones para el diagnóstico y manejo de la anemia por déficit de hierro durante el embarazo.

  9. Origin and significance of the 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek-Pedroza, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi; Carracedo, Juan C.; Klügel, Andreas; Harris, Chris; Wiesmaier, Sebastian; Berg, Sylvia E.; Barker, Abigail K.

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of the 2011/2012 submarine eruption off El Hierro (Canary Islands), peculiar light-coloured pumiceous rocks (xeno-pumice) were found floating on the sea. The appearance of these rocks led to a potentially inappropriate response from the authorities, because the rocks were viewed as likely indicators of high-silica magma and possible explosive eruptive behaviour. However, the eruption remained a relatively minor and dominantly effusive event and the origin and significance of these peculiar xeno-pumice rocks for volcanic monitoring remains unresolved. Three contrasting models have been put forward, describing them as: a) recycled hydrothermally altered felsic magmatic rocks (Meletlidis et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39:L17302), b) sediment-contaminated high-silica magma (Sigmarsson et al., 2013, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 165:601-622) or c) frothy xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary strata that were melted while immersed in magma (Troll et al., 2012, Solid Earth, 3:97-110). Here, we combine the three available datasets to assess the origin of El Hierro xeno-pumice in the light of texture, mineralogy, major and trace element composition, and oxygen isotope characteristics in order to discuss their significance. We note that: 1) Sedimentary relicts occur frequently in xeno-pumice samples with occasionally observed relict bedding. 2) Vesicle sizes are extremely variable, which documents multiple degassing events. The vesicles are biggest especially close to sedimentary relicts, likely the result of a complex mix of minerals and porewaters originally present. 3) The mineral assemblage of xeno-pumice includes quartz, smectite, illite, wollastonite, jasper and mica (XRD) and is akin to marine sedimentary rocks in the region (Hoernle, 1998, J. Petrol.,39:859-880; Robertson & Stillman, 1979, J. Geol. Soc., 136:47 -60; Aparicio et al., 2006, Geol. Mag. 143:181 -193). 4) CIPW norms calculated from xeno-pumice major element compositions show the

  10. Precursory diffuse CO2 emission signature of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, N. M.; Padilla, G. D.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village, indicating the occurrence of a submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km far the coast line of La Restinga. Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. In order to improve the volcanic surveillance program of El Hierro Island and to provide a multidisciplinary approach, a continuous geochemical station to measure CO2 efflux was installed on September 2003 in Llanos de Guillen, the interception center of the three volcanic-rift zones of the island, with the aim of detecting changes in the diffuse emission of CO2 related to the seismic or volcanic activity. The station measures on an hourly basis the CO2 and H2S efflux, the CO2 and H2S air concentrations, the soil water content and temperature and the atmospheric parameters: wind speed and direction, air temperature and humidity and barometric pressure. The meteorological parameters together with the air CO2 concentration are measured 1 m above the ground and the soil water content and soil temperature

  11. Nuevos conocimientos sobre el metabolismo del hierro New knowledge of iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Forrellat Barrios

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El hierro es un mineral de elevada importancia para el organismo y su regulación requiere de una red molecular compleja. Hasta hace unos años solo se conocían 3 proteínas que intervenían en el metabolismo del hierro, pero en la última década, se han descubierto de forma secuencial, y a partir del estudio de algunas enfermedades genéticas como la hemocromatosis hereditaria, nuevas proteínas que participan en la homeostasia del hierro y que están implicadas en su transporte, absorción, reciclaje y balance en el organismo. La identificación y aislamiento de estas proteínas lleva inevitablemente a la modificación de los modelos clásicos de regulación de la homeostasia de este importante mineral. En este trabajo se realizó una revisión de los elementos esenciales conocidos hasta la actualidad de cada una de estas nuevas proteínas y la interacción entre ellasIron is a very important mineral for the organism and its regulation requires a complex molecular network. Only 3 proteins that took part in iron metabolism were known a few years ago, but in the last decade, new proteins that participate in iron homeostasis and that are involved in its transportation, absorption, recycling and balance in the organism have been discovered in a sequential way, starting from the study of some genetical diseases, such as hereditary hemochromatosis. The identification and isolation of these proteins lead inevitably to the modification of the classical models of regulation of the homeostasis of this powerful mineral. A review of the esential elements known up to now of each of these new proteins and the interaction among them was made in this paper

  12. Dissolved gas geochemical signatures of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Pérez, N. M.; Sumino, H.; Melián, G. V.; Padilla, G. D.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island is the south westernmost and the youngest island of the Canary archipelago (Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of dissolved gases on four different observation points (vertical and horizontal wells) of El Hierro. Three wells are located on the north of the island (where the seismic activity occurred at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south. At each observation point the concentration of dissolved helium, CO2, N2, O2 and Ar and the isotopic composition of He, C-CO2 and Ar have been measured three times per week. Significant increases on the dissolved gases content, mainly on CO2 and He/CO2 ratio, have been measured at all the observation points prior to the increasing of released seismic energy. Isotopic composition of dissolved helium, measured as 3He/4He ratio, showed an significant increase (from 1-3 RA up to 7.2 RA, being RA the isotopic 3He/4He ratio on air) at all the observation points 20 days before the occurrence of the submarine eruption and these relatively high 3He/4He values have been maintained along the volcanic unrest period. The isotopic composition of CO2 has showed also significant changes in relation to the release of seismic energy. The results observed on this dissolved gases study have been tremendously beneficial on the volcanic surveillance tools to study and forecast the evolution of the seismic-volcanic crisis.

  13. Actualidades de las características del hierro y su uso en pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Tostado-Madrid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan diversos aspectos del hierro: datos epidemiológicos y fisiológicos recientes, factores que regulan su absorción y que aumentan o reducen su biodisponibilidad; se evalúa el contenido y porcentaje de biodisponibilidad del hierro de diferentes alimentos y productos a través de tablas comparativas. Se destaca la importancia y la razón de un adecuado suplemento y la elección apropiada de fuentes alimentarias.

  14. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población infantil de Cuba. Brechas por cerrar

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Rodríguez, Gisela; Jiménez-Acosta, Santa

    2011-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud mundial que afecta tanto a los países desarrollados como a aquellos en desarrollo. Sus causas pueden ser multifactoriales y frecuentemente pueden coexisitir varias de ellas; la principal es la baja ingestión de alimentos con fuentes adecuadas de hierro, tanto en cantidad como en calidad. En Cuba se está trabajando desde el año 1987 en el desarrollo de programas de intervención para la prevención de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población, pero a p...

  15. Estado nutricional del hierro en niños de comunidades indígenas de Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños-Gallardo, María Victoria; Flórez Echeverry, Ofelia; Bermúdez Escobar, Amparo; Hernández Sampayo, Luzmila; Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los escolares son susceptibles a padecer anemia y deficiencia de micronutrientes. No hay reportes del estado del hierro en indígenas del sector urbano. Objetivo: Establecer el estado del hierro en niños de 5 a 14 años de edad de seis comunidades indígenas residentes en la ciudad de Cali-Colombia. Sujetos y métodos: Se estudiaron 62 niños indígenas de 5 a 14 años de edad, sin antecedentes febriles. Se les midió hemoglobina, hematocrito, volumen corpuscular medio, ferritina y tran...

  16. Soil gas radon and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Padron, E.; Perez, N.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Nolasco, D.; Dionis, S.; Rodriguez, F.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez, I.

    2012-12-01

    El Hierro is the youngest and southernmost island of the Canarian archipelago and represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since July 16, 2011, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. Volcanic tremor started at 05:15 hours on October 10, followed on the afternoon of October 12 by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing indicating the initial stage of submarine volcanic eruption at approximately 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, El Hierro. Soil gas 222Rn and 220Rn activities were continuously measured during the period of the recent volcanic unrest occurred at El Hierro, at two different geochemical stations, HIE02 and HIE03. Significant increases in soil 222Rn activity and 222Rn/220Rn ratio from the soil were observed at both stations prior the submarine eruption off the coast of El Hierro, showing the highest increases before the eruption onset and the occurrence of the strongest seismic event (M=4.6). A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data corresponded closely to the seismic energy released during the volcanic unrest. The observed increases of 222Rn are related to the rock fracturing processes (seismic activity) and the magmatic CO2 outflow increase, as observed in HIE03 station. Under these results, we find that continuous soil radon studies are important for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil radon to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future

  17. Efecto de la estacionalidad sobre el estado nutricional de Hierro, Zinc y Cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda D, Melissa; Olivares G, Manuel; Araya Q, Magdalena; Pizarro A, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El consumo de alimentos y por lo tanto el estado de nutrición de los micronutrientes está condicionado por diferentes factores como la estacionalidad. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto de la estacionalidad sobre el estado nutricional de hierro, zinc y cobre de sujetos adultos habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Un estudio longitudinal en 50 sujetos de ambos sexos se realizó entre los meses de septiembre del 2005 y agosto del 2006. Durante la primera semana ...

  18. Physico-chemical changes of the ground waters related to the 2011 El Hierro magmatic reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, S.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Padilla, G.; Nolasco, D.; Rodríguez, F.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, D.; Barrancos, J.; Hernández, P.; Calvo, D.; Pérez, N.

    2012-04-01

    The island of El Hierro (278 Km2), is the smallest, the southwesternmost and the youngest island (˜1.12 My) of the Canarian archipelago. The main geological characteristics of El Hierro consist on the presence of three convergent ridges of volcanic cones on a truncated trihedron shape and giant landslides between the three rift zones, being the most recent El Golfo on the northwest flank of the island. On July 2011 an anomalous seismic activity at Hierro Island started and suggested the initial stage of a volcanic unrest in the volcanic system. On October 10, after the occurrence of more than 10,000 earthquakes, a submarine eruption started. Evidences of this submarine volcanic eruption were visible on the sea surface to the south of La Restinga village, at the south of the island, in the form of large light-green coloured area, turbulent gas emission and the appearance of steamy volcanic fragments three days later. As part of its volcanic surveillance activities, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) started a hydrogeochemical monitoring program on August 2011 in order to evaluate the temporal evolution of several physico-chemical parameters of the ground water system of El Hierro. Four observation sites were selected: three wells on the north of the island, where the seismic activity was located at the beginning of the volcano-seismic unrest (SIMO, FRON and PADO) and one horizontal well (gallery) in the south (TACO). Ground water sampling is being regularly collected, three times per week, at each observation site, and in-situ measurements of pH, conductivity and temperature measurements are performed. After 6 month of monitoring, no significant changes have been observed on pH and temperature measurements from all the observation sites. However, clear sharp decrease of conductivity was observed at SIMO on October 10 when the seismic tremor started. In addition, the strongest conductivity decrease pattern was observed later on at SIMO and PADO on

  19. El Hierro's floating stones as messengers of crust-magma interaction at depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchardt, S.; Troll, V. R.; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.; Blythe, L. S.; Longpré, M. A.; Deegan, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the early stages of the submarine eruption that started on October 10 2011 south of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface. These centimetre- to decimetre-sized "bombs" have been termed "restingolites" after the nearby village La Restinga and consist of a basaltic rind and a white to light grey core that resembles pumice in texture. According to Troll et al. (2011; see also Troll et al. EGU 2012 Abstracts), this material consists of a glassy matrix hosting extensive vesicle networks, which results in extremely low densities allowing these rocks to float on sea water. Mineralogical and geochemical analyses reveal that the "restingolites" originate from the sedimentary rocks (sand-, silt-, and mudstones) that form layer 1 of the oceanic crust beneath El Hierro. During the onset and early stages of the eruption, magma ponded at the base of this sedimentary sequence, breaking its way through the sedimentary rocks to the ocean floor. The textures of the "restingolites" reveal that crust-magma interaction during fragmentation and transport of the xenoliths involved rapid partial melting and volatile exsolution. Xenoliths strikingly similar to those from El Hierro are known from eruptions on other Canary Islands (e.g. La Palma, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote). In fact, they resemble in texture xenoliths of various protoliths from volcanic areas worldwide (e.g. Krakatao, Indonesia, Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, Laacher See, Germany). This indicates that the process of partial melting and volatile exsolution, which the "restingolites" bear witness of, is probably occurring frequently during shallow crustal magma emplacement. Thermomechanical numerical models of the effect of the density decrease associated with the formation of vesicle networks in partially molten xenoliths show that xenoliths of crustal rocks initially sink in a magma chamber, but may start to float to the chamber roof once they start to heat up

  20. Perdida de carga en conductos de hierro galvanizado conduciendo agua residual de instalaciones de gallinas ponedoras

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES DE SOUZA, José ANTONIO; ASTONI MOREIRA, DÉBORA; OLIVEIRA BATISTA, RAFAEL; OSORIO S., JAIRO ALEXANDER; ZAPATA MARÍN, OLGA LUCÍA

    2011-01-01

    Las operaciones relacionadas con la producción de aves de corral pueden generar efluentes procedentes de fuentes distintas, incluida la escorrentía originada en las jaulas, alimentación y abastecimiento de agua de las aves y de las instalaciones de almacenamiento y manejo de residuos. En todo proyecto de explotación de aves de corral, se debe tener en cuenta el manejo de residuos y aguas residuales, las cuales pueden ser conducidas en tuberías de hierro galvanizado. El objetivo de este trabaj...

  1. Nannofossils in 2011 El Hierro eruptive products reinstate plume model for Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Kirsten; Troll, Valentin R.; Cachao, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Deegan, Frances M.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Soler, Vicente; Meade, Fiona C.; Burchardt, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    The origin and life cycle of ocean islands have been debated since the early days of Geology. In the case of the Canary archipelago, its proximity to the Atlas orogen led to initial fracture-controlled models for island genesis, while later workers cited a Miocene-Quaternary east-west age-progression to support an underlying mantle-plume. The recent discovery of submarine Cretaceous volcanic rocks near the westernmost island of El Hierro now questions this systematic age-progression within the archipelago. If a mantle-plume is indeed responsible for the Canaries, the onshore volcanic age-progression should be complemented by progressively younger pre-island sedimentary strata towards the west, however, direct age constraints for the westernmost pre-island sediments are lacking. Here we report on new age data obtained from calcareous nannofossils in sedimentary xenoliths erupted during the 2011 El Hierro events, which date the sub-island sedimentary rocks to between late Cretaceous and Pliocene in age. This age-range includes substantially younger pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks than the Jurassic to Miocene strata known from the older eastern islands and now reinstate the mantle-plume hypothesis as the most plausible explanation for Canary volcanism. The recently discovered Cretaceous submarine volcanic rocks in the region are, in turn, part of an older, fracture-related tectonic episode.

  2. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  3. Driving magma to the surface: The 2011-2012 El Hierro Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Martí, Joan; del-Fresno, Carmen; García-Cañada, Laura; Albert, Helena; Lamolda, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    We reanalyzed the seismic and deformation data corresponding to the preeruptive unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011. We considered new information about the internal structure of the island. We updated the seismic catalog to estimate the full evolution of the released seismic energy and demonstrate the importance of nonlocated earthquakes. Using seismic data and GPS displacements, we characterized the shear-tensile type of the predominant fracturing and modeled the strain and stress fields for different time periods. This enabled us to identify a prolonged first phase characterized by hydraulic tensile fracturing, which we interpret as being related to the emplacement of new magma below the volcanic edifice on El Hierro. This was followed by postinjection unidirectional migration, probably controlled by the stress field and the distribution of the structural discontinuities. We identified the effects of energetic magmatic pulses occurring a few days before the eruption that induced shear seismicity on preexisting faults within the volcano and raised the Coulomb stress over the whole crust. We suggest that these magmatic pulses reflect the crossing of the Moho discontinuity, as well as changes in the path geometry of the dyke migration toward the surface. The final phase involved magma ascent through a prefractured crust.

  4. Volcanic alert system (VAS) developed during the 2011-2014 El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alicia; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, José M.; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-06-01

    The 2011 volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island illustrated the need for a Volcanic Alert System (VAS) specifically designed for the management of volcanic crises developing after long repose periods. The VAS comprises the monitoring network, the software tools for analysis of the monitoring parameters, the Volcanic Activity Level (VAL) management, and the assessment of hazard. The VAS presented here focuses on phenomena related to moderate eruptions, and on potentially destructive volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides. We introduce a set of new data analysis tools, aimed to detect data trend changes, as well as spurious signals related to instrumental failure. When data-trend changes and/or malfunctions are detected, a watchdog is triggered, issuing a watch-out warning (WOW) to the Monitoring Scientific Team (MST). The changes in data patterns are then translated by the MST into a VAL that is easy to use and understand by scientists, technicians, and decision-makers. Although the VAS was designed specifically for the unrest episodes at El Hierro, the methodologies may prove useful at other volcanic systems.

  5. Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. E.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Burchardt, S.; Krumbholz, M.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Soler, V.; Arzilli, F.; Brun, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material (`xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

  6. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  7. Repeated magmatic intrusions at El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, Maria A.; Parks, Michelle M.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; García-Cañada, Laura

    2017-09-01

    After more than 200 years of quiescence, in July 2011 an intense seismic swarm was detected beneath the center of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands), culminating on 10 October 2011 in a submarine eruption, 2 km off the southern coast. Although the eruption officially ended on 5 March 2012, magmatic activity continued in the area. From June 2012 to March 2014, six earthquake swarms, indicative of magmatic intrusions, were detected underneath the island. We have studied these post-eruption intrusive events using GPS and InSAR techniques to characterize the ground surface deformation produced by each of these intrusions, and to determine the optimal source parameters (geometry, location, depth, volume change). Source inversions provide insight into the depth of the intrusions ( 11-16 km) and the volume change associated with each of them (between 0.02 and 0.13 km3). During this period, > 20 cm of uplift was detected in the central-western part of the island, corresponding to approximately 0.32-0.38 km3 of magma intruded beneath the volcano. We suggest that these intrusions result from deep magma migrating from the mantle, trapped at the mantle/lower crust discontinuity in the form of sill-like bodies. This study, using joint inversion of GPS and InSAR data in a post-eruption period, provides important insight into the characteristics of the magmatic plumbing system of El Hierro, an oceanic intraplate volcanic island.

  8. Significant discharge of CO2 from hydrothermalism associated with the submarine volcano of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Walker, S. L.

    2016-05-01

    The residual hydrothermalism associated with submarine volcanoes, following an eruption event, plays an important role in the supply of CO2 to the ocean. The emitted CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. The submarine volcano of El Hierro, in its degasification stage, provided an excellent opportunity to study the effect of volcanic CO2 on the seawater carbonate system, the global carbon flux, and local ocean acidification. A detailed survey of the volcanic edifice was carried out using seven CTD-pH-ORP tow-yo studies, localizing the redox and acidic changes, which were used to obtain surface maps of anomalies. In order to investigate the temporal variability of the system, two CTD-pH-ORP yo-yo studies were conducted that included discrete sampling for carbonate system parameters. Meridional tow-yos were used to calculate the amount of volcanic CO2 added to the water column for each surveyed section. The inputs of CO2 along multiple sections combined with measurements of oceanic currents produced an estimated volcanic CO2 flux = 6.0 105 ± 1.1 105 kg d-1 which is ~0.1% of global volcanic CO2 flux. Finally, the CO2 emitted by El Hierro increases the acidity above the volcano by ~20%.

  9. PERDIDA DE CARGA EN CONDUCTOS DE HIERRO GALVANIZADO CONDUCIENDO AGUA RESIDUAL DE INSTALACIONES DE GALLINAS PONEDORAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO RODRIGUES DE SOUZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las operaciones relacionadas con la producción de aves de corral pueden generar efluentes procedentes de fuentes distintas, incluida la escorrentía originada en las jaulas, alimentación y abastecimiento de agua de las aves y de las instalaciones de almacenamiento y manejo de residuos. En todo proyecto de explotación de aves de corral, se debe tener en cuenta el manejo de residuos y aguas residuales, las cuales pueden ser conducidas en tuberías de hierro galvanizado. El objetivo de este trabajo, fue el ajustar ecuaciones para estimar la perdida de carga continua en conductos de hierro galvanizado en los diámetros comerciales, variando de 50 a 150 mm, operando con agua residual de gallinas ponedoras en diferentes concentraciones de sólidos totales. Los resultados indicaron que las metodologías de Duffy & Titchener y HazenWilliams modificadas presentaron ajustes cuyo coeficiente de determinación fue superior a 0,95, por lo que es considerado apropiado para el dimensionamiento de proyectos hidráulicos.

  10. Origin of three-armed rifts in volcanic islands: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Jiménez, Inés; Becerril Carretero, Laura; Martí Molist, Joan; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Rifts zones in volcanic oceanic islands are common structures that have been explained through several theories/models. However, despite all these models it is as yet unclear whether it is the intense intrusive activity or the sector collapses that actually control the structural evolution and geometry of oceanic-island rift zones. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the origin and characteristics of the feeding system of oceanic-island rift zones based on the analysis of more than 1700 surface, subsurface (water galleries), and submarine structural data from El Hierro (Canary Islands). El Hierro's geological structure is primarily controlled by a three-armed rift-zone, the arms striking NE, WSW and S. Between the rift axes there are three valleys formed during huge landslides: El Golfo, El Julan, and Las Playas. Our results show: (1) a predominant NE-SW strike of structural elements, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary Archipelago as a whole; (2) a clear radial strike distribution of structural elements for the whole volcanic edifice (including submarine flanks) with respect to the centre of the island; (3) that the rift zones are mainly subaerial structures and do not propagate through the submarine edifice; (4) that it is only in the NE rift that structures have a general strike similar to that of the rift as a whole, and; (5) that in the W and S rifts there is not clear main direction, showing the structural elements in the W rift a fan distribution coinciding with the general radial pattern in the island as a whole. Based on these data, we suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields that operated during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice, that is, the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures, reflect local stress fields related

  11. Lithospheric magma dynamics beneath the El Hierro Volcano, Canary Islands: insights from fluid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Tiraboschi, C.; Principe, C.; Groppelli, G.; Villa, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    At active volcanoes, petrological studies have been proven to be a reliable approach in defining the depth conditions of magma transport and storage in both the mantle and the crust. Based on fluid inclusion and mineral geothermobarometry in mantle xenoliths, we propose a model for the magma plumbing system of the Island of El Hierro (Canary Islands). The peridotites studied here were entrained in a lava flow exposed in the El Yulan Valley. These lavas are part of the rift volcanism that occurred on El Hierro at approximately 40-30 ka. The peridotites are spinel lherzolites, harzburgites, and dunites which equilibrated in the shallow mantle at pressures between 1.5 and 2 GPa and at temperatures between 800 and 950 °C (low-temperature peridotites; LT), as well as at higher equilibration temperatures of 900 to 1100 °C (high-temperature peridotites; HT). Microthermometry and Raman analyses of fluid inclusions reveal trapping of two distinct fluid phases: early type I metasomatic CO2-N2 fluids ( X N2 = 0.01-0.18; fluid density (d) = 1.19 g/cm3), coexisting with silicate-carbonate melts in LT peridotites, and late type II pure CO2 fluids in both LT (d = 1.11-1.00 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) and HT ( d = 1.04-1.11 and 0.75-0.65 g/cm3) peridotites. While type I fluids represent metasomatic phases in the deep oceanic lithosphere (at depths of 60-65 km) before the onset of magmatic activity, type II CO2 fluids testify to two fluid trapping episodes during the ascent of xenoliths in their host mafic magmas. Identification of magma accumulation zones through interpretation of type II CO2 fluid inclusions and mineral geothermobarometry indicate the presence of a vertically stacked system of interconnected small magma reservoirs in the shallow lithospheric mantle between a depth of 22 and 36 km (or 0.67 to 1 GPa). This magma accumulation region fed a short-lived magma storage region located in the lower oceanic crust at a depth of 10-12 km (or 0.26-0.34 GPa). Following our model

  12. El uso del hierro en la Casa Milá de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila Rodríguez, Rafael

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The materials and construction systems, even the conception of the general structure, were for Gaudí no more than mediums at the service of the formal and spatial expression of his architectural imagination. Sometimes, the use of certain materials was indiscriminate or without sufficient guarantees. The Casa Milá is a good example. The use of laminated iron in the Pedrera, which allowed Gaudí to conceive a story independent of the façades —wall-screens of stone which seem to defy the law of gravity—, have been, at the same time, the main cause of the deterioration of these façades. In the case of the structure, the conceptual solution based on the use of iron has responded well to the static needs. This has not occured with the solutions —no less ingeneous but too improvlsed and risky— foreseen, also based on iron, to hold up the façade. Here, the material, subjected to the effects of humidity —favored by the form given to the stone—, has not resisted the passage of time very well.

    Los materiales y los sistemas constructivos, incluso la concepción de la estructura general, no eran para Gaudí más que medios al servicio de la expresividad formal y espacial de su imaginativa arquitectura. A veces, la utilización de algunos materiales se hizo de forma indiscriminada o sin suficientes garantías. La Casa Milá es un buen ejemplo. La utilización del hierro laminado en la Pedrera, que permitió a Gaudí concebir una planta libre independiente de las fachadas —muros-cortina de piedra que parecen desafiar la ley de la gravedad—, ha sido, al mismo tiempo, la causa principal del deterioro de estas fachadas. En el caso de la estructura, la solución conceptual basada en el uso del hierro ha respondido bien a las solicitudes estáticas. No ha ocurrido así con las soluciones —no menos ingeniosas pero excesivamente improvisadas y arriesgadas— previstas, también en base al hierro, para la sustentación de la fachada. Aqu

  13. Estudio de la deficiencia de hierro en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva: una práctica clínica que precisa mayor atención

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Belmar Vega

    2016-05-01

    Conclusión: La ICC se asocia con alta frecuencia a anemia, deficiencia de hierro e insuficiencia renal. El estudio de los parámetros férricos en los pacientes que ingresan con ICC, pese a que la corrección de la deficiencia de hierro se asocia a mejoría de la sintomatología, no se realiza con la frecuencia necesaria.

  14. Geologic-radiometric techniques applied for uranium prospection at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Olivera, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using geologic-radiometric techniques uraniferous anomalies were evaluated at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area located in Pinar del Rio province. During the uranium prospection works at most promising areas, geologic itineraries and gamma ray, radon emanation spectrometric survey were done. Trenches were made and some boreholes were drilled (up to 20-30 m depth). In addition a lot of samples were taken in order to determine the amount of U, Ra, Th, y K by spectrometric techniques. As result of this investigation, a geological placing, a mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of uraniferous mineralization was possible to find out. The appropriate prospection indications for uranium exploration at Esperanza geologic zone were defined

  15. Figuras zoomorfas de barro de la Edad del Hierro en la Meseta Norte

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    Pablo ALONSO HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el yacimiento de Las Cogotas, durante la campaña de excavaciones arqueológicas de 1986 apareció una cabeza de caballo, en barro cocido. Es de destacar su interés al igual que el de otras piezas aparecidas en las antiguas excavaciones de este yacimiento (cabeza de serpiente y bóvido. Se trata de importantes ejemplos de figuración zoomorfa en el marco de la Meseta Norte, realizados durante la Segunda Edad del Hierro.ABSTRACT: A horse's head in clay was discovered in the archaeological excavations at Las Cogotas settlement in 1986. This figure and others recovered in the excavations of the 20's (serpent and ox are remarkable in the context of zoomorphic representations of the Meseta Iron Age. They are important examples of the sculpture elaborated by Late Iron Age communitties of the Central Meseta.

  16. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  17. Observations of coupled seismicity and ground deformation at El Hierro Island (2011-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    New insights into the magma storage and evolution at oceanic island volcanoes are now being achieved using remotely sensed space geodetic techniques, namely satellite radar interferometry. Differential radar interferometry is a technique tracking, at high spatial resolution, changes in the travel-time (distance) from the satellites to the ground surface, having wide applications in Earth sciences. Volcanic activity usually is accompanied by surface ground deformation. In many instances, modelling of surface deformation has the great advantage to estimate the magma volume change, a particularly interesting parameter prior to eruptions. Jointly interpreted with petrology, degassing and seismicity, it helps to understand the crustal magmatic systems as a whole. Current (and near-future) radar satellite missions will reduce the revisit time over global sub-aerial volcanoes to a sub-weekly basis, which will increase the potential for its operational use. Time series and filtering processing techniques of such streaming data would allow to track subsurface magma migration with high precision, and frequently update over vast areas (volcanic arcs, large caldera systems, etc.). As an example for the future potential monitoring scenario, we analyze multiple satellite radar data over El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) to measure and model surface ground deformation. El Hierro has been active for more than 3 years (2011 to 2014). Initial phases of the unrest culminated in a submarine eruption (late 2011 - early 2012). However, after the submarine eruption ended, its magmatic system still active and affected by pseudo-regular energetic seismic swarms, accompanied by surface deformation without resumed eruptions. Such example is a great opportunity to understand the crustal magmatic systems in low magma supply-rate oceanic island volcanoes. This new approach to measure surface deformation processes is yielding an ever richer level of information from volcanology to

  18. Eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana del hierro en la Región Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo J. Pico F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la investigación fue analizar la eficiencia productiva de la industria venezolana de Hierro de Reducción Directa (HRD en la Región Guayana en el periodo 2005 al 2009. La investigación fue explicativa. El método aplicadofue el hipotético deductivo con un diseño no experimental de corte transversal. La recolección de datos fue documental y la población fueron los reactores ubicados en la Región Guayana, ya que allí es donde se concentra toda la producción de HRD de Venezuela. La técnica de análisis de los datos aplicada fue Análisis Envolvente de Datos. Los resultados, indican que la producción de HRD está en descenso por la disminución de oferta de insumos (factores externos y la ineficiencia del manejo de insumos (factores internos, siendo la más significativa los factores externos que representa un 74% de la producción y una perdida de 17.569 miles de toneladas, lo que significa un descenso de 1,02 miles de Toneladas anuales en los niveles de producción equivale una pérdida de 23.330 miles de toneladas en el lapso 2005-2009, un 38,7% de producción. Se concluye que es ineludible un cambio de actitud con criterio de competitividad en la conducción de la gestión de los procesos de producción de reducción directa de hierro

  19. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogentic volcanic field during magmatic reactivation: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ocaña, C.; Feldman, R. C.; Pointer, Z. R.; Rodríguez, F.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    El Hierro (278 km2), the younger, smallest and westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago, is a 5-km-high edifice constructed by rapid constructive and destructive processes in 1.12 Ma, with a truncated trihedron shape and three convergent ridges of volcanic cones. It experienced a submarine eruption from 12 October, 2011 and 5 March 2012, off its southern coast that was the first one to be monitored from the beginning in the Canary Islands. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. Diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island since 1998 in a yearly basis, with much higher frequency in the period 2011-2012. At each survey, about 600 sampling sites were selected to obtain a homogeneous distribution. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ following the accumulation chamber method. During pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced significant increases before the onset of the submarine eruption and the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest (Melián et al., 2014. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, 6976-6991). The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 53.1 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 77.6% and 22.4% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 1.8 and 9.2 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the interception center of the three convergent ridges and the north of the island. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by El Hierro was at 1,150 ± 42 t d-1, value higher than the

  20. Forecasting the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption (Canary Islands) on the basis of soil He degassing surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, E.; Pérez, N. M.; Hernández, P. A.; Melián, G. V.; Padilla, G. D.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Peraza, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island is the southwesternmost and the youngest island of the Canary archipelago. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor was recorded since 05:15 of the October 10, by all of the seismic stations on the island, with highest amplitudes recorded in the southernmost station. During the afternoon of 12 October a large light-green coloured area was observed in the sea to the souht of La Restinga village (at the southernmost part of El Hierro island), suggesting the existence of a submarine eruption. Since October 12, frequent episodes of, turbulent gas emission and foaming, and the appearance of steamy lava fragments has been observed on the sea surface. As part of the volcanic surveillance of the island, the Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) geochemical monitoring program is carrying out diffuse helium surveys on the surface environment of El Hierro (soil atmosphere). This nobel gas has been investigated because it has been considered an almost ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, nonbiogenic, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable. At each survey, 600 sampling sites covering the whole island and following an homogeneous distribution are selected for helium measurements in the soil gases, The helium concentration gradients with respect to its value on air (5.24 ppm) allow us to estimate a pure diffusive emission rate of helium throughout the island. The first survey was carried out on the summer of 2003, when the island was on a quiescence period. At this survey, the amount of helium released by the volcanic system of El Hierro was estimated in 6 kg/d. Since the beginning of the seismic unrest, 13 helium emission surveys have been carried out. The helium emission rate has shown an excellent agreement with the evolution of the volcanic

  1. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  2. Biodisponibilidad de diferentes compuestos de hierro añadidos a un néctar de frutas funcional. Interacción con las vitaminas y Fructo-oligosacáridos

    OpenAIRE

    Haro Vicente, Juan Francisco

    2006-01-01

    El enriquecimiento de los alimentos con hierro es considerado una de las estrategias más eficaces en la prevención de la deficiencia en hierro. El éxito del enriquecimiento de los alimentos depende tanto del tipo de alimento como del compuesto de hierro seleccionado. En nuestro estudio se seleccionó un néctar de frutas y varios compuestos de hierro: Pirofosfato férrico micronizado (PFM), Bisglicinato ferroso (BF) y Sulfato ferroso (SF), éste último como referencia, junto con las vitaminas C, ...

  3. Efecto de la concentracion de hidrogeno en la red de hierro bcc por calculos ab-initio

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Javier; Andrés, Pedro L. de; Fullea, J.; Andrade, C.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizando cálculos mecano-cuánticos de primeros principios hemos estudiado la interacción del hidrógeno con la red cúbica centrada en el cuerpo del hierro. El hidrógeno intersticial puede ocupar dos posiciones de alta simetría en la red: el hueco octaédrico y el tetraédrico. Nuestros cálculos nos proporcionan barreras de difusión entre ambos huecos, que analizamos para entender la propagación del hidrogeno a través de la red de hierro. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la concentración de hidróge...

  4. Time lag between deformation and seismicity along monogenetic volcanic unrest periods: The case of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamolda, Héctor; Felpeto, Alicia; Bethencourt, Abelardo

    2017-07-01

    Between 2011 and 2014 there were at least seven episodes of magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island, but only the first one led to a submarine eruption in 2011-2012. In order to study the relationship between GPS deformation and seismicity during these episodes, we compare the temporal evolution of the deformation with the cumulative seismic energy released. In some of the episodes both deformation and seismicity evolve in a very similar way, but in others a time lag appears between them, in which the deformation precedes the seismicity. Furthermore, a linear correlation between decimal logarithm of intruded magma volume and decimal logarithm of total seismic energy released along the different episodes has been observed. Therefore, if a future magmatic intrusion in El Hierro Island follows this behavior with a proper time lag, we could have an a priori estimate on the order of magnitude the seismic energy released would reach.

  5. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  6. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vásquez-Garibay Edgar Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis en niños que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (Inadej, Arandas, Jalisco, México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre 1997 y 1999 con 432 niños de 12 a 120 meses de edad, de nuevo ingreso al Inadej. Se determinaron variables hematológicas, yodo en orina y presencia de parásitos. Se utilizaron las pruebas Ji cuadrada y t de Student en variables no paramétricas y paramétricas. Resultados. Hubo más anemia (20 vs 7.4% p=0.007 y deficiencia de hierro (60.9 vs 44.4% p=0.02 en prescolares que en escolares. El 29% presentaron deficiencia de yodo (10.5% moderada o grave y 47.2% parasitosis. Predominaron G. lamblia y E. histolytica. Bajo salario, sexo masculino y no tener seguridad social se asociaron con parasitosis. Conclusiones. La elevada prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis obliga al sector salud estatal a ejecutar medidas eficaces para abatir estas enfermedades prevenibles.

  7. The 2011 submarine volcanic eruption of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C.; Blanco, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    On 10 October 2011 a submarine volcanic eruption began 2 km SW of La Restinga village in the South coast of El Hierro Island (Spain). It became the first submarine eruption reported in 500 years of historical record in the Canary Islands. The eruption took place after three months of intensive seismic activity and ground deformation. The first signal evidencing the eruption was a harmonic tremor signal, located somewhere in the South sector of El Hierro Island and registered in every seismic station on the island. On the following day, the tremoŕs amplitude increased up enough to be felt by the residents of La Restinga. The first visual evidence of the eruption was observed during the afternoon of 12 October, a large light-green coloured area on the sea surface, 2 km to the SW of La Restinga. Three days later, steaming lava fragments were observed floating on the sea, in the area where the vent was supposed to be located. These fragments had a bomb-like shape and their sizes ranged between 10 and 40 cm long. They were bicoloured, a black outer part with a basaltic composition, and a white inner part, highly vesiculated and rich in silica content (>60%). This type of fragments was only observed during the first days of the eruption. Within the next two months further emission episodes have been observed with turbulent water, foam rings and large bubbles on the sea surface. On the 27th of November new lava fragments were observed while floating and degassing on the sea surface. Most of them were "lava balloons" or hollow fragments of lavas, with sizes between 30 and 200 cm, and highly vesiculated outer crust of basaltic-basanitic and sideromelane composition. The emission of these products continues intermitently up to date (January 2012) During the eruption, the GPS monitoring network detected episodes of inflation-deflation and a maximum vertical deformation of 4 cm. The horizontal deformation, which had reached up to 5 cm before the eruption, remains stable. The

  8. Hierro libre, transferrina y ferritina séricas de niños con desnutrición grave en terapia de recuperación nutricional. Turbo-Antioquia 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Velásquez R.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El hierro libre contribuye a la producción de sustancias oxidativas que alteran la permeabilidad de la membrana celular y originan el edema característico del kwashiorkor (1. La OMS recomienda la suplementación con hierro para niños desnutridos, una vez recuperan el apetito.

  9. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  10. Long-term volcanic hazard assessment on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Bartolini, S.; Sobradelo, R.; Martí, J.; Morales, J. M.; Galindo, I.

    2014-07-01

    Long-term hazard assessment, one of the bastions of risk-mitigation programs, is required for land-use planning and for developing emergency plans. To ensure quality and representative results, long-term volcanic hazard assessment requires several sequential steps to be completed, which include the compilation of geological and volcanological information, the characterisation of past eruptions, spatial and temporal probabilistic studies, and the simulation of different eruptive scenarios. Despite being a densely populated active volcanic region that receives millions of visitors per year, no systematic hazard assessment has ever been conducted on the Canary Islands. In this paper we focus our attention on El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands and the most recently affected by an eruption. We analyse the past eruptive activity to determine the spatial and temporal probability, and likely style of a future eruption on the island, i.e. the where, when and how. By studying the past eruptive behaviour of the island and assuming that future eruptive patterns will be similar, we aim to identify the most likely volcanic scenarios and corresponding hazards, which include lava flows, pyroclastic fallout and pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Finally, we estimate their probability of occurrence. The end result, through the combination of the most probable scenarios (lava flows, pyroclastic density currents and ashfall), is the first qualitative integrated volcanic hazard map of the island.

  11. Volcanic signatures in time gravity variations during the volcanic unrest on El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza Aparicio, S.; Arnoso Sampedro, J.; Gonzalez Montesinos, F.; Martí Molist, J.

    2014-06-01

    Gravity changes occurring during the initial stage of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption are interpreted in terms of the preeruptive signatures during the episode of unrest. Continuous gravity measurements were made at two sites on the island using the relative spring gravimeter LaCoste and Romberg gPhone-054. On 15 September 2011, an observed gravity decrease of 45 μGal, associated with the southward migration of seismic epicenters, is consistent with a lateral magma migration that occurred beneath the volcanic edifice, an apparently clear precursor of the eruption that took place 25 days later on 10 October 2011. High-frequency gravity signals also appeared on 6-11 October 2011, pointing to an occurring interaction between a magmatic intrusion and the ocean floor. These important gravity changes, with amplitudes varying from 10 to -90 μGal, during the first 3 days following the onset of the eruption are consistent with the northward migration of the eruptive focus along an active eruptive fissure. An apparent correlation of gravity variations with body tide vertical strain was also noted, which could indicate that concurrent tidal triggering occurred during the initial stage of the eruption.

  12. Searching for structural medium changes during the 2011 El Hierro (Spain) submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar S.; Schimmel, Martin; López, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are often difficult to study due to their restricted access that usually inhibits direct observations. That happened with the 2011 El Hierro eruption, which is the first eruption that has been tracked in real time in Canary Islands. For instance, despite the real-time tracking it was not possible to determine the exact end of the eruption. Besides, volcanic eruptions involve many dynamic (physical and chemical) processes, which cause structural changes in the surrounding medium that we expect to observe and monitor through passive seismic approaches. The purpose of this study is to detect and analyse these changes as well as to search for precursory signals to the eruption itself using ambient noise auto and cross-correlations. We employ different correlation strategies (classical and phase cross-correlation) and apply them to field data recorded by the IGN network during 2011 and 2012. The different preprocessing and processing steps are tested and compared to better understand the data, to find the robust signatures, and to define a routine work procedure. One of the problems we face is the presence of volcanic tremors, which cause a varying seismic response that we can not attribute to structural changes. So far, structural changes could not be detected unambiguously and we present our ongoing research in this field.

  13. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  14. The submarine eruption of La Restinga (El Hierro, Canary Islands): October 2011-March 2012; La erupcion submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torrado, F J; Carracedo, J C; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Soler, V; Troll, V R; Wiesmaier, S

    2012-11-01

    The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1) ascent of magma and migration of hypo centres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo) towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2) onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed) and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736). This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN). Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted pyroclasts and

  15. Tecnología y sociedad en el abastecimiento tradicional de agua en la isla de El Hierro. Canarias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Martín Fernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Son conocidas las penurias históricas y recientes sufridas en El Hierro para disponer de agua. Los recursos acuíferos herreños, en cantidad y disponibilidad, han sido histórica­mente insuficientes para cubrir la demanda in­sular, siendo éste un factor limitante de prime­ra magnitud en su desarrollo socioeconómico. Hasta la década de 1970 la innova­ción tecnológica en materia hidráulica es nula. Unas pocas fuentes, un número aún menor de pozos y cierta cantidad de charcos formaban los pilares del sistema de abastecimiento co­tidiano de agua. En este artículo, se estudian estos sistemas en conjunción con la dinámica social herreña, planteando la idea de que han sido causas sociales las que explican la se­cular y estrecha dependencia de tecnologías populares para el abastecimiento de agua en El Hierro.There are known the historical and recent penuries suffered in El Hierro to have water. Subsoil’s water, in quantity and availa­bility, has been historically insufficient to cover the insular demand, being this one a limiting factor of first magnitude in his socioeconomic development. Up to the decade of 1970 the techno­logical innovation in hydraulic matter is void. A few fountains, a still minor number of wells and certain quantity of puddles were forming the props of the system of daily water supplying. In this article, these systems are studied in conjunction with the insular’s social dynamics, locating in social causes the explanation of the strait and secular dependency of popular tech­nologies for the water supply.

  16. Seismic tomography model reveals mantle magma sources of recent volcanic activity at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Koulakov, Ivan; Jakovlev, Andrey; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Prudencio, Janire

    2014-12-01

    We present a 3-D model of P and S velocities beneath El Hierro Island, constructed using the traveltime data of more than 13 000 local earthquakes recorded by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN, Spain) in the period from 2011 July to 2012 September. The velocity models were performed using the LOTOS code for iterative passive source tomography. The results of inversion were thoroughly verified using different resolution and robustness tests. The results reveal that the majority of the onshore area of El Hierro is associated with a high-velocity anomaly observed down to 10-12-km depth. This anomaly is interpreted as the accumulation of solid igneous rocks erupted during the last 1 Myr and intrusive magmatic bodies. Below this high-velocity pattern, we observe a low-velocity anomaly, interpreted as a batch of magma coming from the mantle located beneath El Hierro. The boundary between the low- and high-velocity anomalies is marked by a prominent seismicity cluster, thought to represent anomalous stresses due to the interaction of the batch of magma with crust material. The areas of recent eruptions, Orchilla and La Restinga, are associated with low-velocity anomalies surrounding the main high-velocity block. These eruptions took place around the island where the crust is much weaker than the onshore area and where the melted material cannot penetrate. These results put constraints on the geological model that could explain the origin of the volcanism in oceanic islands, such as in the Canaries, which is not yet clearly understood.

  17. Estudio del metabolismo del hierro en lactantes de una alta y perenne transmisión de malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Gómez, Nuria Pilar

    2003-01-01

    [spa] La malaria y la anemia se encuentran entre los principales problemas de la salud pública mundial. Los recién nacidos y los niños pequeños son uno de los grupos de la población más afectados por ambas patologías. En áreas endémicas de malaria, la frecuente coexistencia de ferropenia, procesos inflamatorios y malaria dificulta la interpretación de las magnitudes bioquímicas utilizadas para valorar el metabolismo del hierro. Otra dificultad añadida en la interpretación de los resultados e...

  18. Estudio del metabolismo del hierro en lactantes de una alta y perenne transmisión de malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Gómez, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    La malaria y la anemia se encuentran entre los principales problemas de la salud pública mundial. Los recién nacidos y los niños pequeños son uno de los grupos de la población más afectados por ambas patologías. En áreas endémicas de malaria, la frecuente coexistencia de ferropenia, procesos inflamatorios y malaria dificulta la interpretación de las magnitudes bioquímicas utilizadas para valorar el metabolismo del hierro. Otra dificultad añadida en la interpretación de los resultados es la f...

  19. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Riveros; Gloria Echagüe; Santiago Evers; Laura Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La a...

  20. Emporion y las mutaciones de la arquitectura ibérica a la primera Edad de Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre MORET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de las recientes excavaciones de la palaia polis de Empúries, se discute la posibilidad de influjos cruzados entre arquitecturas griega e indígena durante la primera Edad de Hierro en el Languedoc y costas orientales de la península Ibérica.ABSTRACT: Recent excavations at the palaia polis of Emporion (Empúries, Spain give way to a discussion about possible cross-influences between greek domestic architecture and native architecture in Western Languedoc and along the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

  1. Eighteen years of geochemical monitoring at the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Alonso, Mar; Sharp, Emerson; Woods, Hannah; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    We report herein the latest results of a diffuse CO2 efflux survey at El Hierro volcanic system carried out during the summer period of 2015 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area a during post-eruptive period. El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island. On October 10, 2011, the dominant character of seismicity changed dramatically from discrete earthquakes to continuous tremor, a clear indication that magma was rapidly approaching the surface immediately before the onset of the eruption, October 12. Eruption was declared over on 5 March, 2012. In order to monitor the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island, from 1998 to 2015 diffuse CO2 emission studies have been performed at El Hierro volcanic system in a yearly basis (˜600 observation sites) according to the accumulation chamber method. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. To quantify the total CO2 emission from the studied area, 100 simulations for each survey have been performed. During the eruption period, soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 457 g m-2 d-1, reaching in November 27, 2011, the maximum CO2 output estimated value of all time series, 2,398 t d-1, just before the episodes of maximum degassing observed as vigorous bubbling at the sea surface and an increment in the amplitude of the tremor signal. During the 2015 survey, soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 41 g m-2 d-1. The spatial distribution of diffuse CO2 emission values seemed to be controlled by the main volcano structural features of the island. The total diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere was estimated at 575 ± 24 t d-1, value slightly higher that the background CO2 emission estimated at 422 t d-1 (Melián et

  2. Suplementación y metabolismo de hierro en neonatos bovinos en condiciones de trópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Páez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del suministro de hierro en la dinámica hemática y su metabolismo en terneros; para el efecto se seleccionaron 72 neonatos bovinos pertenecientes a tres grupos raciales: dos de origen Bos taurus (Hartón de Valle y Holstein Friesian y uno de origen Bos indicus (Cebú Brahmán para un total de 24 animales por raza y ocho animales por grupo experimental. Los animales del grupo 1 recibieron 500 mg de hierro dextran intramuscular (T1, al grupo 2 se le suministraron 100 mg de espirulina oral (T2 y el grupo 3 permaneció como control (T3. El suministro de hierro se hizo cada mes desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 meses de edad de los terneros, mensualmente se tomaron muestras de sangre mediante venipunción yugular y sistema vacutainer en tubos con y sin anticoagulante (EDTA. El promedio de ganancia de peso vivo animal fue 509 ± 0.40 g/día. El número de leucocitos/mm³ fue de 16,059. El promedio de hemoglobina en sangre fue de 12.11 ± 2.8 g/dl, el hematocrito presentó un valor de 38.4% ± 7.6 y la concentración promedio de hemoglobina corpuscular fue de 31.62% ± 4.7. La proteína sérica presentó un valor promedio de 5.55 ± 0.7 g/dl, el valor promedio de hierro sérico fue de 18.70± 11.8 µmol/lt. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron que el factor mes de muestreo y raza fueron significativos para los valores séricos de los metabolitos analizados, mientras que los valores de la concentración promedio de hemoglobina corpuscular lo fueron para tratamiento (P < 0.01.

  3. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez-Garibay Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde Enrique; Nápoles-Rodríguez Francisco; Nuño-Cosío María Eugenia; Trujillo-Contreras Francisco; Sánchez-Mercado Oscar

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis en niños que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (Inadej), Arandas, Jalisco, México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre 1997 y 1999 con 432 niños de 12 a 120 meses de edad, de nuevo ingreso al Inadej. Se determinaron variables hematológicas, yodo en orina y presencia de parásitos. Se utilizaron las pruebas Ji cuadrada y t de Student en variables no paramétricas y paramétric...

  4. Multi-event behavior of El Golfo landslide (El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Ricardo; Biain, Ander; Urgeles, Roger; Somoza, Luis; Ferrer, Mercedes; García-Crespo, Jesús; Francisco Mediato, José; Galindo, Inés; Yepes, Jorge; Gimenez-Moreno, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Based on the re-interpretation of a vast onshore-offshore data set, a new morpho-structural characterization of the El Golfo giant landslide in the island of El Hierro (Canary Archipelago, Spain) is presented. Offshore multibeam echosounder data, chirp sub-bottom profiles, multichannel seismic reflection data and onshore information from water wells and galleries have been analyzed to determine the nature of the event. The subaerial headscarp shows a non-continuous arcuate profile formed by two nested semi-circular amphitheaters that extend offshore along a smooth chute, suggesting the occurrence of at least two large retrogressive events. Channels/gullies and escarpments developed along the submarine sector of the scar also indicate smaller-scale events and predominance of sediment bypass. At the base of submerged island, two subunits within the related submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) are identified on multichannel seismic reflection profiles confirming the multi-event nature of the landslide. The MTD, identified as a debris avalanche, has a total estimated volume of 318 km3: 84 km3 and 234 km3, for the lower and upper subunits respectively. Data from wells and galleries show abrasion platforms with beach deposits at sea-level (0 masl) formed after the landslide scar and buried by the El Golfo post-collapse infill lavas, suggesting an age at least older than 23.5-82.5 ka for the landslide. This work has been supported by the projects IGCP-640 S4SLIDE, High resolution seabed mapping EASME/EMFF/2016/005 and CTM2010-09496-E. Keywords: Submarine landslides, volcanic islands, debris avalanche, Canary Islands

  5. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  6. The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

    2013-12-01

    On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

  7. Diffuse degassing He/CO2 ratio before and during the 2011-12 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David

    2015-04-01

    El Hierro Island (278 km2) is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands. On July 16, 2011, a seismic-volcanic crisis started with the occurrence of more than 11,900 seismic events and significant deformation along the island, culminating with the eruption onset in October 12. Since at El Hierro Islands there are not any surface geothermal manifestation (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Between July 2011 to March 2012, seventeen diffuse CO2 and He emissions soil gas surveys were undertaken at El Hierro volcanic system (600 observation sites) with the aim to investigate the relationship between their temporal variations and the volcanic activity (Padrón et al., 2013; Melián et al., 2014). Based on the diffuse He/CO2 emission ratio, a sharp increase before the eruption onset was observed, reaching the maximum value on September 26 (6.8×10-5), sixteen days before the occurrence of the eruption. This increase coincided with an increase in seismic energy release during the volcanic unrest and occurred together with an increase on the 3He/4He isotopic ratio in groundwaters from a well in El Hierro Island (Padrón et al., 2013; from 2-3 RA to 7.2 RA where RA = 3He/4He ratio in air), one month prior to the eruption onset. Early degassing of new gas-rich magma batch at depth could explain the observed increase on the He/CO2 ratio, causing a preferential partitioning of CO2 in the gas phase with respect to the He, due to the lower solubility of CO2 than that of He in basaltic magmas. During the eruptive period (October 2011-March 2012) the prevalence of a magmatic CO2-dominated component is evident, as indicated by the generally lower He/CO2 ratios and high 3He/4He values (Padrón et al., 2013). The onset of the submarine eruption might have produced a sudden release of volcanic gases, and consequently, a decrease in the volcanic gas pressure of the magma bodies moving beneath the island, reflected by a drastic decrease in

  8. Estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes, Medellín, Colombia / Nutritional status of iron in pregnant adolescents, Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz E. Parra S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia de anemia fue 17,1% en el tercer trimestre de gestación y por deficiencia de hierro, 51%. La mediana de ferritina sérica fue 13,3 µg/L (RQ: 7,7 µg/L-17,9 µg/L; sólo el 5,6% (n = 9 presentó valores adecuados de ferritina. Las madres que tomaron suplemento de hierro diariamente presentaron mejores concentraciones de hemoglobina y ferritina, frente a aquellas que no lo hicieron, Hb 12,1g/dL vs. 11,7 g/dL (p = 0,019 y ferritina sérica 14,6 µg/L vs. 7,0 µg/L (p = 0,000. Discusión: hubo altas prevalencias de anemia y ferropenia en las gestantes, asociadas con la no adherencia al suplemento de hierro Objetivo: analizar el estado nutricional del hierro en gestantes adolescentes de tercer trimestre. Metodología: estudio analítico de corte transversal con 276 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años, en tercer trimestre de gestación de la Empresa Social del Estado (ese Metrosalud (Medellín, 2011-2012, con datos de hemoglobina, volumen corpuscular medio, concentración de hemoglobina corpuscular media e ingesta de suplemento de hierro. La ferritina sérica se analizó en 178 gestantes, controlada por proteína C-reactiva. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central, dispersión, porcentajes y pruebas de Chi2 , anova, Kruskal-Wallis y U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: la prevalencia

  9. Time-dependent deformation at elevated temperatures in basalt from El Hierro, Stromboli and Teide volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, P. M.; Fahrner, D.; Harnett, C. E.; Fazio, M.

    2014-12-01

    Time dependent deformation describes the process whereby brittle materials deform at a stress level below their short-term material strength (Ss), but over an extended time frame. Although generally well understood in engineering (where it is known as static fatigue or "creep"), knowledge of how rocks creep and fail has wide ramifications in areas as diverse as mine tunnel supports and the long term stability of critically loaded rock slopes. A particular hazard relates to the instability of volcano flanks. A large number of flank collapses are known such as Stromboli (Aeolian islands), Teide, and El Hierro (Canary Islands). Collapses on volcanic islands are especially complex as they necessarily involve the combination of active tectonics, heat, and fluids. Not only does the volcanic system generate stresses that reach close to the failure strength of the rocks involved, but when combined with active pore fluid the process of stress corrosion allows the rock mass to deform and creep at stresses far lower than Ss. Despite the obvious geological hazard that edifice failure poses, the phenomenon of creep in volcanic rocks at elevated temperatures has yet to be thoroughly investigated in a well controlled laboratory setting. We present new data using rocks taken from Stromboli, El Heirro and Teide volcanoes in order to better understand the interplay between the fundamental rock mechanics of these basalts and the effects of elevated temperature fluids (activating stress corrosion mechanisms). Experiments were conducted over short (30-60 minute) and long (8-10 hour) time scales. For this, we use the method of Heap et al., (2011) to impose a constant stress (creep) domain deformation monitored via non-contact axial displacement transducers. This is achieved via a conventional triaxial cell to impose shallow conditions of pressure (<25 MPa) and temperature (<200 °C), and equipped with a 3D laboratory seismicity array (known as acoustic emission, AE) to monitor the micro

  10. Improvements on the seismic catalog previous to the 2011 El Hierro eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Precursors from the submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands) in 2011 included 10,000 low magnitude earthquakes and 5 cm crustal deformation within 81 days previous to the eruption onset on the 10th October. Seismicity revealed a 20 km horizontal migration from the North to the South of the island and depths ranging from 10 and 17 km with deeper events occurring further South. The earthquakes of the seismic catalog were manually picked by the IGN almost in real time, but there has not been a subsequent revision to check for new non located events jet and the completeness magnitude for the seismic catalog have strong changes during the entire swarm due to the variable number of events per day. In this work we used different techniques to improve the quality of the seismic catalog. First we applied different automatic algorithms to detect new events including the LTA-STA method. Then, we performed a semiautomatic system to correlate the new P and S detections with known phases from the original catalog. The new detected earthquakes were also located using Hypoellipse algorithm. The resulting new catalog included 15,000 new events mainly concentrated in the last weeks of the swarm and we assure a completeness magnitude of 1.2 during the whole series. As the seismicity from the original catalog was already relocated using hypoDD algorithm, we improved the location of the new events using a master-cluster relocation. This method consists in relocating earthquakes towards a cluster of well located events instead of a single event as the master-event method. In our case this cluster correspond to the relocated earthquakes from the original catalog. Finally, we obtained a new equation for the local magnitude estimation which allow us to include corrections for each seismic station in order to avoid local effects. The resulting magnitude catalog has a better fit with the moment magnitude catalog obtained for the strong earthquakes of this series in previous studies

  11. Procesado y propiedades de impacto de materiales compuestos laminados de base hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreño, F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A seven layers steel based laminated composite (four ultra-high carbon steel, UHCS, layers and three mild steel, MS, layers has been processed by rolling bonding and its microstructure and impact properties have been studied. Suitable parameters of temperature and thickness reduction were selected to obtain a finer microstructure relative to the original material components. This finer microstructure induces improved mechanical properties. Charpy impact tests values in both "crack arrester" and "crack divider" orientations improve the values of the UHCS constituent material. Furthermore, the crack arrester orientation value exceed that of the MS material. The delamination, which is controlled by interface bonding, plays a key role deflecting the crack, absorbing energy and imposing the nucleation of new cracks in the next material layer.

    Se ha procesado un material compuesto laminado de base hierro, de 7 capas alternas de dos aceros diferentes (cuatro capas de acero de ultra-alto contenido en carbono, AUAC, y tres de acero suave, AS, mediante unión por laminación y se ha estudiado su microestructura y propiedades de impacto. Se eligieron los parámetros adecuados de temperatura y de reducción de espesor para obtener una microestructura más fina que la de los aceros constituyentes originales, lo que induce una mejora en las propiedades mecánicas. Los valores de energía absorbida en el ensayo Charpy, tanto en la dirección "en paralelo" como "en serie", han mejorado sustancialmente el valor asociado al AU AC monolítico. Además, el valor obtenido en la dirección "en serie" es superior al del AS. Se observa que la delaminación, que depende de la unión de las intercaras, juega un papel importante en la deflexión de las fisuras, absorbiendo energía e imponiendo sucesivas nucleaciones de grietas en las siguientes capas.

  12. On the relation between crustal deformation and seismicity during the 2012-2014 magmatic intrusions in El Hierro island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; García-Cañada, Laura; Ángeles Benito Saz, María; Del Fresno, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    The last volcanic eruption in the Canary Islands took place in 2011 less than 2 km offshore El Hierro island, after 3 months of measuring surface deformation (up to 5 cm) and locating more than 10 000 earthquakes. In the two years following the end of the submarine eruption on 5 March 2012, six deep magmatic intrusions were recorded beneath the island. Despite the short time duration of these intrusions, these events have been more energetic that the 2011 pre-eruptive intrusive event but none of them ended in a new eruption. These post-eruptive reactivations are some of the few examples in the world of well monitored magmatic intrusions related with monogenetic volcanism. In order to understand these processes we have analyzed the geodetic and seismic data with different techniques. First, we did a joint hypocentral relocation of the six seismic swarms, including more than 6 300 events, to analyze the relative distribution of the earthquakes from different intrusions. The uncertainties of the earthquakes relocations was reduced to an average value of 300 m. New earthquakes' distribution shows the alignments of the different intrusions and a temporal migration of the events to larger depths. Moreover, we show the results of the ground deformation using GPS data from the network installed on the island (for each of the six intrusive events) and their inversion considering spherical models. In most of the intrusions the optimal source model was shallower and southern than the corresponding seismicity hypocenters. The intruded magma volume ranges from 0.02 to 0.13 km3. Finally, we also computed the b value from the Gutenberg Richter equation by means of a bootstrap method. The spatial and temporal evolution of the b value for the seismicity show a clear correlation with the temporal evolution of the crustal deformation. The six magma intrusions can be grouped, depending on their location, in three pairs each one associated with each of the three active rifts of El

  13. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  14. Iron status in spanish junior soccer and basketball players. Status en hierro de jugadores de fútbol y baloncesto de la categoría junior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtueña , Jara

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: To assess the dietary iron intake and the iron status of Spanish junior athletes and its importance on performance, and to discuss abount the consequences of an iron deficiency. Material and methods: Forty six soccer and eleven basketball players aged 17-21 years (mean age 18.2 +1.1 who played in the Spanish national junior soccer and basketball league, respectively, who had neither drugs, medicines intake nor illness during the study which altered the appetite or some studies parameters, took part in the study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 7-day weighed food intake record. Iron status was evaluated by means of a complete hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and TIBC.Results: Mean iron intake was 19.24±4.58 mg/day. Mean analytical data were all between reference ranges. Basketball players had higher intake levels compared with soccer ones (22.1+6.4 and 19.2+3.9 mg/day, respectively; pConclusions: During adolescence, iron requirements are very high which could place adolescent athletes in a high risk group for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. In the current research, the population studied shows an acceptable iron status although there are 3% of iron deficiency anaemia cases.ResumenObjetivos: valorar la ingesta diaria y el estatus de hierro de los atletas junior españoles y su importancia sobre el rendimiento, así como lo que respecta a las consecuencias que tiene una deficiencia de hierro. Material y métodos: cuarenta y seis jugadores de fútbol y once de baloncesto con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 21 años (la media de edad 18.2 + 1.1 que jugaban en la liga junior nacional de fútbol y baloncesto, respectivamente, y que no tomaban drogas, medicinas ni presentaban ninguna enfermedad durante el desarrollo del estudio que pudiera alterar el apetito o algunos de los parámetros objeto de estudio, tomaron parte en este estudio. La ingesta dietética se cuantificó mediante la técnica de

  15. PARDISEKO III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.; Sack, C.

    1975-05-01

    This report gives a detailed description of the latest version of the PARDISEKO code, PARDISEKO III, with particular emphasis on the numerical and programming methods employed. The physical model and its relation to nuclear safety as well as a description and the results of confirming experiments are treated in detail in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre report KFK-1989. (orig.) [de

  16. Paralelos arquitectónicos entre la meseta norte y el alto Tajo durante la II Edad del Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción BLASCO BOSQUED

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los autores que, al estudiar la II Edad del Hierro en la Meseta, han hecho referencia a la dificultad que existe para precisar unos límites exactos del mundo celtibérico, no existiendo ni siquiera un acuerdo unánime sobre qué tribus lo integran. La causa de este hecho estriba en que, generalmente, se utilizan para ello los datos históricos y éstos, sin ser despreciables, resultan muchas veces poco precisos. Por todo ello F. Wattenberg apuntaba que el problema fundamental «no es el de aceptar las valoraciones de algunas fuentes, sino el de justificarlas».

  17. Diffuse CO_{2} degassing monitoring of the oceanic active volcanic island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Pedro A.; Norrie, Janice; Withoos, Yannick; García-Merino, Marta; Melián, Gladys; Padrón, Eleazar; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Even during repose periods, volcanoes release large amounts of gases from both visible (fumaroles, solfataras, plumes) and non-visible emanations (diffuse degassing). In the last 20 years, there has been considerable interest in the study of diffuse degassing as a powerful tool in volcano monitoring programs, particularly in those volcanic areas where there are no visible volcanic-hydrothermal gas emissions. Historically, soil gas and diffuse degassing surveys in volcanic environments have focused mainly on CO2 because it is, after water vapor, the most abundant gas dissolved in magma. As CO2 travels upward by advective-diffusive transport mechanisms and manifests itself at the surface, changes in its flux pattern over time provide important information for monitoring volcanic and seismic activity. Since 1998, diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island, the smallest and south westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago with an area of 278 km2. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become the most useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. The island experienced a volcano-seismic unrest that began in July 2011, characterized by the location of a large number of relatively small earthquakes (MHierro at depths between 8 and 15 km. On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption was confirmed during the afternoon of October 12, 2011 by visual observations off the coast of El Hierro, about 2 km south of the small village of La Restinga in the southernmost part of the island. During the pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second

  18. Formas de hierro y aluminio en suelos con diferentes usos en la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Vásquez Polo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron las diferentes formas de hierro (Fe y aluminio (Al presentes en suelos cultivados y en áreas de bosque de la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia. Se seleccionaron seis zonas de muestreo localizadas entre 0 y 1000 m.s.n.m. Se utilizaron tres técnicas selectivas de extracción de Fe y Al con los agentes extractantes: pirofosfato de sodio, oxalato ácido de amonio, y ditionito citrato bicarbonato. Los contenidos totales de Fe y Al fueron determinados mediante un ataque ácido y cuantificación por absorción atómica. El análisis de varianza multivariado mostró diferencias significativas (P 3% del Al total, lo que sugiere que un alto contenido de Al forma parte de estructuras cristalinas.

  19. Mantle to surface degassing of carbon- and sulphur-rich alkaline magma at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpré, Marc-Antoine; Stix, John; Klügel, Andreas; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2017-02-01

    Basaltic volcanoes transfer volatiles from the mantle to the surface of the Earth. The quantification of deep volatile fluxes relies heavily on estimates of the volatile content of primitive magmas, the best archive of which is provided by melt inclusions. Available data from volcanoes producing mafic alkaline lavas in a range of tectonic settings suggest high volatile fluxes, but information remains sparse, particularly for intraplate ocean islands. Here we present measurements of volatile and trace element concentrations, as well as sulphur speciation, in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and matrix glasses from quenched basanite lava balloon samples from the 2011-2012 submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands. The results reveal remarkably high concentrations of dissolved volatiles and incompatible trace elements in this magma, with ∼80 ppm Nb and up to 3420 ppm CO2, 3.0 wt.% H2O and 5080 ppm S. Reconstructed primitive CO2 contents, considering CO2/Nb systematics and possible CO2 sequestration in shrinkage bubbles, reach weight percent levels, indicating that carbon is a major constituent of Canary Island magmas at depth and that exsolution of a CO2-rich fluid begins in the mantle at pressures in excess of 1 GPa. Correlations between sulphur concentration, sulphur speciation and water content suggest strong reduction of an initially oxidised mantle magma, likely controlled by coupled H2O and S degassing. This late-stage redox change may have triggered sulphide saturation, recorded by globular sulphide inclusions in clinopyroxene and ulvöspinel. The El Hierro basanite thus had a particularly high volatile-carrying capacity and released a minimum of 1.3-2.1 Tg CO2 and 1.8-2.9 Tg S to the environment, causing substantial stress on the local submarine ecosystem. These results highlight the important contribution of alkaline ocean island volcanoes, such as the Canary Islands, to volatile fluxes from the mantle.

  20. Anemia y deficiencia de hierro en mujeres en edad reproductiva usuarias del Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Riveros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Paraguay, existen datos limitados sobre la frecuencia de anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva no gestantes. Este estudio piloto descriptivo de corte transverso tuvo como objetivo determinar la frecuencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, el estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios y tóxicos en 99 mujeres no gestantes en edad reproductiva de 18 a 48 años que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Villa Hayes en Octubre del 2.014. La anemia se determinó tomando como punto de corte una concentración de hemoglobina <12 g/dL. La deficiencia de hierro se evaluó según la saturación de la transferrina. Además, se evaluó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y los hábitos nutricionales a través de una encuesta. La frecuencia de anemia fue de 15,1% (IC95% 8,7-23,8%, de éste el 33,3% (IC95% 12,8-61,6% correspondió a anemia ferropénica. Se observó asociación entre la presencia de anemia y los niveles disminuidos tanto del hematocrito (<38% como del número de glóbulos rojos (<4,2x 106/uL. Todas las mujeres con anemia ferropénica tenían peso <64 kg e IMC <24,5 kg/m2. Además, se detectó una alta frecuencia de sobrepeso y obesidad (45,4%, alto consumo de grasas, y bajo consumo de legumbres, frutas y verduras. A partir de estos resultados, se sugiere mantener la vigilancia e implementar programas que incluyan a estas mujeres, tanto para evitar deficiencias nutricionales como excesos.

  1. Quelato de hierro y agua de coco en la germinación in vitro de Rossioglossum grande (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bertolini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rossioglossum grande (Lindl. Garay & G.C. Kenn es una orquídea nativa mexicana, considerada en peligro de extinción por la NOM-059-Semarnat-2010. Teniendo en cuenta que la germinación asimbiótica in vitro es una herramienta estratégica para la conservación de orquídeas amenazadas, en este estudio se generó información básica mediante la comparación de la germinación de R. grande en medios Knudson C (KC y Dalla Rosa y Laneri modificado con quelato de hierro y agua de coco (DR. Para el efecto se utilizaron un cultivo madre (CM y dos subcultivos (C1 y C2 y los tratamientos se dispusieron en un diseño experimental totalmente aleatorio. Los resultados se analizaron mediante análisis de varianza y comparación de medias con la prueba de Tukey (P < 0.05 y Chi-cuadrada. A 60 días en el CM el medio de cultivo DR favoreció el desarrollo, la tasa de sobrevivencia y disminuyó la clorosis de los protocormos. A los 12 meses se presentó mayor desarrollo y mayor regeneración de protocormos. En los subcultivos C1 y C2 se registraron resultados similares lo que confirma que el DR acelera el desarrollo de los protocormos e incrementa su tamaño y tasa de regeneración. En síntesis, el empleo de hierro-quelato y agua de coco promueven el desarrollo in vitro de protocormos de R. grande.

  2. FORMULACIÓN DE UNA BEBIDA LÁCTEA CON SABOR A AREQUIPE ENRIQUECIDA CON HIERRO Y ÁCIDO FÓLICO, DIRIGIDA A MUJERES GESTANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Bejarano Roncancio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Colombia se encuentra dentro de los países con prevalencia moderada de anemia en mujeres gestantes (20-40%; está comprobado que los niveles séricos de folato y hierro en la madre son factores bioquímicos relevantes para la formación del bebé. Dichas aseveraciones, justifican la formulación de un producto alimenticio enriquecido con hierro y ácido fólico,  específico para mujeres gestantes y que contribuya a mejorar sus condiciones nutricionales. Objetivo. Desarrollar una bebida láctea enriquecida con hierro y ácido fólico, endulzada y con sabor a arequipe, organolépticamente aceptable. Materiales y métodos. Para su desarrollo, se cumplieron dos etapas básicas: formulación del patrón y formulación del producto. El enriquecimiento del producto inicial  se hizo con hierro y ácido fólico y luego se determinó  la aceptación organoléptica final. Resultados. La formulación de la bebida láctea Mamá vitae sabor a arequipe, tuvo 86% de aceptación, e incluyó 10 mg de hierro aminoquelado y 230 µg de pteroilmonoglutamato por porción de 200 mL de leche; aportó el 17% de las recomendaciones de hierro y el 33% del ácido fólico para una mujer en gestación. Conclusión. Las características del producto favorecen unas mejores condiciones nutricionales a la gestante y a las mujeres fértiles que quieren planificar una gestación viable. Este tipo de productos son epidemiológicamente necesarios para poblaciones vulnerables como las mujeres gestantes y lactantes.

  3. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  4. Fermilab III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding.

  5. Xenopumice erupted on 15 October 2011 offshore of El Hierro (Canary Islands): a subvolcanic snapshot of magmatic, hydrothermal and pyrometamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moro, S.; Di Roberto, A.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.; Bertagnini, A.; Agostini, S.; Ridolfi, F.; Renzulli, A.

    2015-06-01

    On 15 October 2011, a submarine eruption offshore of El Hierro Island gave rise to floating volcanic products, known as xenopumices, i.e., pumiceous xenoliths partly mingled and coated with the juvenile basanitic magma. Over the last few years, no consensus in the scientific community in explaining the origin of these products has been reached. In order to better understand the formation of xenopumice, we present a textural, mineralogical, and geochemical study of the possible magmatic, hydrothermal, and pyrometamorphic processes, which usually operate in the plumbing systems of active volcanoes. We carried out a comprehensive SEM investigation and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analyses on some samples representative of three different xenopumice facies. All the data were compared with previous studies, new data for El Hierro extrusives and a literature dataset of Canary Islands igneous and sedimentary rocks. In the investigated xenopumices, we emphasize the presence of restitic magmatic phases as well as crystallization of minerals (mainly olivine + pyroxene + magnetite aggregates) as pseudomorphs after pre-existing mafic phenocrysts, providing evidence of pyrometamorphism induced by the high-T juvenile basanitic magma. In addition, we identify veins consisting of zircon + REE-oxides + mullite associated with Si-rich glass and hydrothermal quartz, which indicate the fundamental role played by hydrothermal fluid circulation in the xenopumice protolith. The petrological data agree with a pre-syneruptive formation of the xenopumice, when El Hierro basanite magma intruded hydrothermally altered trachyandesite to trachyte rocks and triggered local partial melting. Therefore, the El Hierro xenopumice represents a snapshot of the transient processes at the magma-wall rock interface, which normally occurs in the feeding system of active volcanoes.

  6. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  7. HIERRO ELEMENTAL PARA REMOCIÓN DE NÍQUEL, COMÚNMENTE ENCONTRADO EN DRENAJE ÁCIDO DE MINAS

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    Maria A. Liendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la remoción del Ni2+ con partículas de hierro comercial, pues este catión se encuentra frecuentemente en los drenajes ácidos de minas (DAM, que es uno de los problemas ambientales más serios en la industria minera que afecta fuentes de aguas naturales. Fueron realizados ensayos en laboratorio con hierro comercial y soluciones sintéticas que contienen Ni2+, para observar tanto la cinética de remoción como los datos de equilibrio. Los resultados, mostraron que estos siguen el modelo de la isoterma de adsorción de Langmuir y que los datos cinéticos se ajustaron con la ecuación del modelo de adsorción de pseudo segundo orden. Se concluye del presente estudio que la remoción de níquel con hierro en estado elemental (HEE es posible y ocurre de manera rápida.

  8. Diffuse H_{2} emission: a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity at El Hierro volcano system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Melián, Gladys; González-Santana, Judit; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of interfering processes affecting reactive gases as CO2 during its ascent from magmatic bodies or hydrothermal systems toward the surface environment hinders the interpretation of their enrichments in the soil atmosphere and fluxes for volcano monitoring purposes (Marini and Gambardella, 2005). These processes include gas scrubbing by ground-waters and interaction with rocks, decarbonatation processes, biogenic production, etc. Within the rest of the soil gases, particularly interest has been addressed to light and highly mobile gases. They offer important advantages for the detection of vertical permeability structures, because their interaction with the surrounding rocks or fluids during the ascent toward the surface is minimum. H2 is one of the most abundant trace species in volcano-hydrothermal systems and is a key participant in many redox reactions occurring in the hydrothermal reservoir gas (Giggenbach, 1987). Although H2 can be produced in soils by N2-fixing and fertilizing bacteria, soils are considered nowadays as sinks of molecular hydrogen (Smith-Downey et al., 2006). Because of its chemical and physical characteristics, H2 generated within the crust moves rapidly and escapes to the atmosphere. These characteristics make H2 one of the best geochemical indicators of magmatic and geothermal activity at depth. El Hierro is the youngest and the SW-most of the Canary Islands and the scenario of the last volcanic eruption of the archipelago, a submarine eruption that took place 2 km off the southern coast of the island from October 2011 to March 2012. Since at El Hierro Island there are not any surface geothermal manifestations (fumaroles, etc), we have focused our studies on soil degassing surveys. Here we show the results of soil H2 emission surveys that have been carried out regularly since mid-2012. Soil gas samples were collected in ˜600 sites selected based on their accessibility and geological criteria. Soil gases were sampled at ˜40

  9. The 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption: estimation of erupted lava flow volume on the basis of helicopter thermal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P. A.; Calvari, S.; Calvo, D.; Marquez, A.; Padron, E.; Pérez, N.; Melian, G.; Padilla, G.; Barrancos, J.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Hernández, I.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro represents the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the surrounding seafloor at depth of 4000 m to up to 1501 m above sea level. The island is believed to be near the present hotspot location in the Canaries with the oldest subaerial rocks dated at 1.12 Ma. The subaerial parts of the El Hierro rift zones (NE, NW and S Ridges) are characterized by tightly aligned dyke complexes with clusters of cinder cones as their surface expressions. Since 16 July, an anomalous seismicity at El Hierro Island was recorded by IGN seismic network. After the occurrence of more than 10,000 seismic events, volcanic tremor started at 05:15 on 10 October, followed on the afternoon of 12 October by a green discolouration of seawater, strong bubbling and degassing, and abundant bombs on a decimetre scale found floating on the ocean surface offshore, southwest of La Restinga village. The Canary Government raised the alert level from green to yellow on 10 October (3 colour basis: green, yellow, and red). Further episodes have occurred during November, December 2011 and January 2012, with turbulent water, foam rings, and volcanic material again reaching the sea surface. Colour of the discoloured area has changed frequently from light green to dark brown, depending on the eruptive activity. During the whole eruptive period, The Volcanological Institute of Canary Islands and the Helicopter Unit of the Spanish Civil Guard have carried out regularly thermal surveys with a hand held FLIR Thermal Camera P65. The images have been collected taking care of avoiding solar reflection (with cloudy weather) or at times of the day without direct sun light. Air temperature and humidity were measured with a handled thermo-hygrometer every time before the thermal image collection, and measurements were always performed at two fixed heights: 2000 and 1000 feet, and images were collected as perpendicular as possible to the surface. Together with thermal images, digital photos of the surface have

  10. La erupción submarina de La Restinga en la isla de El Hierro, Canarias: Octubre 2011-Marzo 2012

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    Perez-Torrado, F. J.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The first signs of renewed volcanic activity at El Hierro began in July 2011 with the occurrence of abundant, low-magnitude earthquakes. The increasing seismicity culminated on October 10, 2011, with the onset of a submarine eruption about 2 km offshore from La Restinga, the southernmost village on El Hierro. The analysis of seismic and deformation records prior to, and throughout, the eruption allowed the reconstruction of its main phases: 1 ascent of magma and migration of hypocentres from beneath the northern coast (El Golfo towards the south rift zone, close to La Restinga, probably marking the hydraulic fracturing and the opening of the eruptive conduit; and 2 onset and development of a volcanic eruption indicated by sustained and prolonged harmonic tremor whose intensity varied with time. The features monitored during the eruption include location, depth and morphological evolution of the eruptive source and emission of floating volcanic bombs. These bombs initially showed white, vesiculated cores (originated by partial melting of underlying pre-volcanic sediments upon which the island of El Hierro was constructed and black basanite rims, and later exclusively hollow basanitic lava balloons. The eruptive products have been matched with a fissural submarine eruption without ever having attained surtseyan explosiveness. The eruption has been active for about five months and ended in March 2012, thus becoming the second longest reported historical eruption in the Canary Islands after the Timanfaya eruption in Lanzarote (1730-1736. This eruption provided the first opportunity in 40 years to manage a volcanic crisis in the Canary Islands and to assess the interpretations and decisions taken, thereby gaining experience for improved management of future volcanic activity. Seismicity and deformation during the eruption were recorded and analysed by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN. Unfortunately, a lack of systematic sampling of erupted

  11. Migración de hierro y níquel, y estabilidad oxidativa del aceite refinado de soja calentado en utensilios culinarios de diversos materiales

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    Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka Maritza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cookware may release some inorganic components into foods during cooking, some of which have undesirable consequences. In fried foods, for instance, oil oxidation is favored by metals. The present study evaluated oxidative stability (AOCS method and iron and nickel migration (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry into refined soybean oil in four cycles, with intervals of 24 hours. The cookware materials were glass, aluminum, stainless steel, iron and soapstone. The results demonstrated that the lowest metal migration occurred from glass and aluminum pans while the oil heated in these pans showed the highest oxidative stability. The highest migration of Fe and Ni into the oil occurred from the soapstone and iron pots (3.94 and 3.21 mg _ kg-1, respectively.Nevertheless, increasing loss of oxidative stability was evident in the oils heated in the soapstone, stainless steel and iron cookware, in this order. Since iron migration was lower from glass and aluminum pans, these were considered the best type of materials for fryingDurante la elaboración de alimentos los utensilios culinarios pueden liberar componentes inorgánicos ocasionalmente no deseables. La oxidación del aceite es durante la fritura es favorecida por la presencia de metales. Fue evaluada la migración de hierro y níquel (espectrometría de emisión óptica y la estabilidad oxidativa (método AOCS del aceite de soja sometido a cuatro calentamientos con intervalos de 24 horas en cazuelas de vidrio, aluminio, acero inoxidable, hierro y piedra-jabón. La mayor migración de hierro al aceite ocurrió en las cazuelas de hierro (3,94 mg•kg–1 y piedra (3,21 mg _ kg–1, sin diferencia estadística entre ellas. La pérdida progresiva de estabilidad oxidativa fue acentuada en los aceites calentados en utensilios de piedra, acero inoxidable e hierro, en tal orden. Vidrio y aluminio fueron considerados los mejores materiales para la fabricación de cazuelas

  12. Efecto de adición de iones hierro y zinc sobre la producción de etanol de dos cepas recombinantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Carolina Peña Serna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de etanol por fermentación es influenciada por la presencia de iones metálicos como hierro y zinc dado que son cofactores de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa. El estudio de este efecto permitiría identificar el comportamiento de los microorganismos fermentadores en sustratos industriales que contienen altas concentraciones de este tipo de iones. Este trabajo evaluó la producción de biomasa, los azúcares residuales y la producción de etanol por fermentación de tres cepas de S. cerevisiae, CBS8066, recombinantes GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII, bajo el efecto de la adición de hierro a 0, 50 y 150 M, y zinc a 0 y 50 M. Las cepas presentaron inhibición en la producción de biomasa y etanol bajo efecto de iones de hierro y zinc, siendo dicha inhibición mayor al estar en presencia de zinc o alta concentración de hierro. GG570-CIBI mostró disminución en producción de biomasa de 4 g/L y una caída en producción de etanol de 40% en el tratamiento 150 M hierro-50 M zinc (con respecto al tratamiento basal. GG570-CIBII fue la menos afectada con inhibición en la producción de etanol inferior a 11% a las 20 h de fermentación. Adicionalmente, presentó la mayor producción de etanol cuando hubo adición de 150 M Fe con o sin adición de zinc, siendo dicha producción entre un 9 y 14% superior a la de las cepas CBS8066 y GG570-CIBI respectivamente, bajo las mismas condiciones. Posteriormente, GG570-CIBII será evaluada en sustratos industriales debido a su menor inhibición en la producción de etanol, permitiendo así obtener mejores rendimientos.

  13. PREVALENCIA DE LA DEFICIENCIA DE HIERRO EN DONANTES DE SANGRE. REVISIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA DEL PERÍODO 2001- 2011

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    Carmen Yulieth Mantilla-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La donación de sangre se asocia con disminución de las reservas de hierro de los donantes, lo que puede afectar el desarrollo de sus funciones fisiológicas y al estado general de salud. Estudios previos reportan una gran divergencia en la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en dicha población (1% a 62%. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en donantes de sangre a partir de una revisión sistemática de la literatura. Métodos: Búsqueda exhaustiva y reproducible de la literatura en 7 bases de datos con base en un protocolo de búsqueda de estudios en 4 idiomas y publicados entre el 2001 y el 2011 con criterios de inclusión, exclusión y extracción de información. El análisis se realizó con base en el cálculo de la prevalencia global y específica por sexo y número de donaciones, con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza, utilizando los programas Excel y Epidat 3.0. Resultados: Se obtuvo una población total de 16.979 donantes, 5.096 de repetición, con una proporción de hombres del 59%. Se halló una prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro del 13% (IC 95% 12,4-13,4, con una rango entre 1% y 62%, siendo estadísticamente significativa la mayor frecuencia en mujeres (19,56% IC 95%: 18,59 - 20,53 y donantes repetidores (20,36% IC 95%: 19,25 - 21,48. Conclusión: Se obtuvo una prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en donantes de sangre por encima de grupos de mayor riesgo como los niños, siendo mayor en donantes del sexo femenino y de repetición.

  14. Comportamiento del hierro nodular austemperizado en condiciones de corrosión y desgaste // Behavior of austempered ductile iron under wear and corrosion conditions

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    L. Goyos Pérez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Los hierros nodulares en general y los austemperizados en particular han sido usados con cada vez mayor frecuencia debido asus relevantes propiedades mecánicas en comparación con su costo.En el presente trabajo se valora el comportamiento del hierro nodular ante el trabajo en condiciones de desgaste y corrosión,luego de ser sometido a diferentes tratamientos de austemperizado.Fueron usados un hierro nodular aleado con níquel y molibdeno y otro no aleado. Ambos hierros fueron sometidos a diferentestratamientos de austemperización con mantenimientos isotérmicos a temperaturas entre 250°C y 425°C por tiempos entre 15 y180 minutos.Las muestras tratadas fueron sometidas a ensayos de desgaste por fricción en condiciones no lubricadas determinando laspendientes de desgaste uniforme para cada caso. La resistencia a la corrosión fue determinada mediante el métodopotenciométrico usando como medio el jugo de caña sintético.A partir de los resultados obtenidos se valora la influencia de los diferentes tratamientos sobre las propiedades estudiadas y sedeterminan los más efectivos desde el punto de vista técnico económico.Palabras claves: Hierro nodular, corrosión, desgaste, austemperizado.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractNodular irons and particularly austempered ductile iron has been used more and more due to their excellent mechanicalproperties in comparison with their cost.Presently work deals on behavior of nodular iron working under wear and corrosion conditions, after being submitted todifferent austempered treatments.A nodular iron alloyed with nickel and molybdenum were used as well as a not alloyed one. Both irons were treated underdifferent austempered treatment combinations using isothermal maintenance to temperatures between 250°C and 425°C andspending times between 15 and 180 minutes.Samples were submitted to non-lubricated wear using a “pin on disk” method evaluating the

  15. Estudio de la reoxidación y carburización de pelets reducidos de mineral de hierro

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    Lemus R., J.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carburization on the reoxidation of commercial iron ore pellets was studied. The pellets were H2-reduced up to 88 % and then carburized in H2/CO/CO2 gas mixture, for 0, 12, 18, 25 and 32 min, at 700, 800, 900 and 1000°C. After the reduction-carburization process, the pellets were reoxidized at 250, 300, 350 and 400°C. It was found out that the higher reduction temperature, the lower was the reoxidation degree. This effect was stronger at the reoxidation temperatures of 250 and 300°C. The presence of iron carbide (Fe3C was more notorious when the reduction was carried out at 700 and 800°C, and the carburization time was increased. Finally, it was observed that the higher the reoxidation temperature, the higher was the reoxidation degree.

    Se estudió la influencia de la carburización en la reoxidación de pelets de mineral de hierro de grado comercial. Los pelets fueron reducidos en hidrógeno hasta un 88 % y carburizados en una mezcla de gas H2-CO-CO2, por 0, 12, 18, 25 y 32 min a 700, 800, 900 y 1000°C. Después del proceso de reducción-carburización, los pelets se reoxidaron a 250, 300, 350 y 400°C. Se encontró que el grado de reoxidación disminuye con el incremento de la temperatura de reducción. Este efecto es más marcado a las temperaturas de reoxidación de 250°C y 300°C. La presencia de carburo de hierro (Fe3C fue más clara al incrementarse el tiempo de carburización cuando la reducción se llevó a cabo a 700 y 800°C. Finalmente, se observó que el grado de reoxidación es mayor a medida que se incrementa la temperatura de reoxidación .

  16. Emissions of Fe(II) and its kinetic of oxidation at Tagoro submarine volcano, El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Dávila, M.; Santana-González, C.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The eruptive process that took place in October 2011 in the submarine volcano Tagoro off the Island of El Hierro (Canary Island) and the subsequent degasification stage, five months later, have increased the concentration of TdFe(II) (Total dissolved iron(II)) in the waters nearest to the volcanic edifice. In order to detect any variation in concentrations of TdFe(II) due to hydrothermal emissions, three cruises were carried out two years after the eruptive process in October 2013, March 2014, May 2015, March 2016 and November 2016. The results from these cruises confirmed important positive anomalies in TdFe(II), which coincided with negatives anomalies in pHF,is (pH in free scale, at in situ conditions) located in the proximity of the main cone. Maximum values in TdFe(II) both at the surface, associated to chlorophyll a maximum, and at the sea bottom, were also observed, showing the important influence of organic complexation and particle re-suspension processes. Temporal variability studies were carried out over periods ranging from hours to days in the stations located over the main and two secondary cones in the volcanic edifice with positive anomalies in TdFe(II) concentrations and negative anomalies in pHF,is values. Observations showed an important variability in both pHF,is and TdFe(II) concentrations, which indicated the volcanic area was affected by a degasification process that remained in the volcano after the eruptive phase had ceased. Fe(II) oxidation kinetic studies were also undertaken in order to analyze the effects of the seawater properties in the proximities of the volcano on the oxidation rate constants and t1/2 (half-life time) of ferrous iron. The increased TdFe(II) concentrations and the low associated pHF,is values acted as an important fertilization event in the seawater around the Tagoro volcano at the Island of El Hierro providing optimal conditions for the regeneration of the area.

  17. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  18. Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.

    2012-04-01

    On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an

  19. Relación entre las reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido Relationship between maternal and neonatal iron stores

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    María Eugenia Vásquez-Molina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la relación de los valores hematológicos maternos y neonatales en casos de reservas maternas de hierro bajas, moderadas y normales. Material y métodos. Diseño transversal en el que se incluyó a 163 mujeres embarazadas y sus neonatos de término, derechohabientes del Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en Chihuahua, Chih., México. Se analizaron antecedentes maternos. Se determinaron niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito y ferritina sérica en muestras maternas y de cordón umbilical. Se definieron reservas de hierro maternas de acuerdo a ferritina (µg /l: bajas o = 20.1. Se utilizó la prueba de Kruskal Wallis para establecer diferencias entre grupos, ji cuadrada para diferencia de proporciones y r de Pearson para establecer la relación entre reservas de hierro maternas y del recién nacido. Resultados. Se determinó una débil correlación entre la ferritina materna y neonatal r=0.14 (p=0.07. Las medias geométricas de ferritina neonatal respecto a las reservas maternas bajas, moderadas y normales fue de 4.77, 4.85 y 5.02, respectivamente (p=0.12. Las reservas de hierro maternas se modificaron con el suplemento de hierro (p=0.01. Conclusiones. Las reservas de hierro en el recién nacido están en estrecha relación con las maternas. Las mujeres que toman suplementos con hierro durante la gestación tienen reservas mayores al final del embarazo. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To establish the relationship of normal, low, and moderate blood iron values in mothers and their newborns. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 163 pregnant women and their newborns, users of Hospital de Ginecología y Obstetricia número 15, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, from Chihuahua, Mexico. The mothers' clinical histories were collected and analyzed; hemoglobin

  20. Managing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in inflammatory bowel disease. The results of the "Gestiona hierro-EII" survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas Jordá, Francesc; Vera Mendoza, Isabel; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Vázquez Morón, Juan María; López Román, Javier; Júdez Gutiérrez, Javier

    2018-03-01

    iron deficiency anemia is a common and very relevant manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although clinical practice guidelines have been published and updated on this subject, the management in the daily practice of this complication is far from optimal. to determine the actual management, needs and limitations of anemia in IBD by means of a survey of gastroenterology specialists. a self-administered telematic survey was carried out between April and May 2017 and was sent to SEPD members. The survey included four sections: participant demographics, monitoring, treatment and limitations/needs. a total of 122 evaluable surveys were received from all Spanish autonomous communities. Iron deficiency anemia is considered as a frequent manifestation of IBD and is monitored in all patients via the measurement of hemoglobin and ferritin. In the case of anemia, the survey respondents found it necessary to rule out the presence of IBD activity. However, only 14.8% prescribed intravenous iron when IBD was active. The required dose of intravenous iron is mainly calculated according to patient needs but only 33.1% of clinicians infused doses of 1 g or more. the "Gestiona Hierro EII" survey on the management of anemia in IBD demonstrated a high quality of care, even though some aspects need to be improved. These included the prescription of intravenous iron for patients with disease activity, the use of high-dose intravenous iron and the implementation of algorithms into clinical practice.

  1. A new Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn (VERDI): Application to El Hierro Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, S.; Becerril, L.; Martí, J.

    2014-11-01

    One of the most important issues in modern volcanology is the assessment of volcanic risk, which will depend - among other factors - on both the quantity and quality of the available data and an optimum storage mechanism. This will require the design of purpose-built databases that take into account data format and availability and afford easy data storage and sharing, and will provide for a more complete risk assessment that combines different analyses but avoids any duplication of information. Data contained in any such database should facilitate spatial and temporal analysis that will (1) produce probabilistic hazard models for future vent opening, (2) simulate volcanic hazards and (3) assess their socio-economic impact. We describe the design of a new spatial database structure, VERDI (Volcanic managEment Risk Database desIgn), which allows different types of data, including geological, volcanological, meteorological, monitoring and socio-economic information, to be manipulated, organized and managed. The root of the question is to ensure that VERDI will serve as a tool for connecting different kinds of data sources, GIS platforms and modeling applications. We present an overview of the database design, its components and the attributes that play an important role in the database model. The potential of the VERDI structure and the possibilities it offers in regard to data organization are here shown through its application on El Hierro (Canary Islands). The VERDI database will provide scientists and decision makers with a useful tool that will assist to conduct volcanic risk assessment and management.

  2. Different deformation patterns using GPS in the volcanic process of El Hierro (Canary Island) 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; José García-Arias, María; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Lamolda, Héctor; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Ground deformation is one of the most important parameter in volcano monitoring. The detected deformations in volcanic areas can be precursors of a volcanic activity and contribute with useful information to study the evolution of an unrest, eruption or any volcanic process. GPS is the most common technique used to measure volcano deformations. It can be used to detect slow displacement rates or much larger and faster deformations associated with any volcanic process. In volcanoes the deformation is expected to be a mixed of nature; during periods of quiescence it will be slow or not present, while increased activity slow displacement rates can be detected or much larger and faster deformations can be measure due to magma intrusion, for example in the hours to days prior a eruption beginning. In response to the anomalous seismicity detected at El Hierro in July 2011, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) improved its volcano monitoring network in the island with continuous GPS that had been used to measure the ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest since summer 2011, submarine eruption (October 2011-March 2012) and the following unrest periods (2012-2013). The continuous GPS time series, together with other techniques, had been used to evaluate the activity and to detect changes in the process. We investigate changes in the direction and module of the deformation obtained by GPS and they show different patterns in every unrest period, very close to the seismicity locations and migrations.

  3. VISIÓN ESTRATÉGICA DE LA INDUSTRIA MINERA DE HIERRO Y EL ACERO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue primero, determinar el resultado de la visión estratégica aplicada a industria minera de hierro y el acero de Venezuela y segundo, la construcción de la visión estratégica de estas industrias de acuerdo a las actuales realidades. Para ello, primero se revisó la evolución de la visión estratégica de ambas industrias y sus resultados. Segundo, se revisó la situación actual, identificando las principales características del entorno externo e interno, sus capacidades, limitaciones y situación económico – financiera, que afectan sus opciones y oportunidades estratégicas. El estudio concluye que ambas industrias han presentado resultados precarios desde 2006, en cuanto a producción, productividad, tasa de uso de la capacidad instalada y margen de utilidad, producto de un cambio radical en la visión estratégica. Finalmente se obtienen los lineamientos de la visión estratégica, como imagen a futuro de ambas industrias, como un aporte para mejorar estas importantes industrias.

  4. Submarine seismic monitoring of El Hierro volcanic eruption with a 3C-geophone string: applying new acquisition and data processing techniques to volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lopez, Carmen; Blanco, Maria Jose; Crespo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2011 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. Right after the eruption onset, in October 2011 a geophone string was deployed by the CSIC-IGN to monitor seismic activity. Monitoring with the seismic array continued till May 2012. The array was installed less than 2 km away from the new vol¬cano, next to La Restinga village shore in the harbor from 6 to 12m deep into the water. Our purpose was to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. Each geophone consists on a 3-component module based on 3 orthogonal independent sensors that measures ground velocity. Some of the geophones were placed directly on the seabed, some were buried. Due to different factors, as the irregular characteristics of the seafloor. The data was recorded on the surface with a seismometer and stored on a laptop computer. We show how acoustic data collected underwater show a great correlation with the seismic data recorded on land. Finally we compare our data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing). This evidence is disclosing new and innovative tecniques on monitoring submarine volcanic activity. Reference Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), "Serie El Hierro." Internet: http://www.ign.es/ign/resources /volcanologia/HIERRO.html [May, 17. 2013

  5. Seismic hydraulic fracture migration originated by successive deep magma pulses: The 2011-2013 seismic series associated to the volcanic activity of El Hierro Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Ibáñez, J. M.; De Angelis, S.; García-Yeguas, A.; Prudencio, J.; Morales, J.; Tuvè, T.; García, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this manuscript we present a new interpretation of the seismic series that accompanied eruptive activity off the coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, during 2011-2013. We estimated temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b value throughout the period of analysis, and performed high-precision relocations of the preeruptive and syneruptive seismicity using a realistic 3-D velocity model. Our results suggest that eruptive activity and the accompanying seismicity were caused by repeated injections of magma from the mantle into the lower crust. These magma pulses occurred within a small and well-defined volume resulting in the emplacement of fresh magma along the crust-mantle boundary underneath El Hierro. We analyzed the distribution of earthquake hypocenters in time and space in order to assess seismic diffusivity in the lower crust. Our results suggest that very high earthquake rates underneath El Hierro represent the response of a stable lower crust to stress perturbations with pulsatory character, linked to the injection of magma from the mantle. Magma input from depth caused large stress perturbations to propagate into the lower crust generating energetic seismic swarms. The absence of any preferential alignment in the spatial pattern of seismicity reinforces our hypothesis that stress perturbation and related seismicity, had diffusive character. We conclude that the temporal and spatial evolution of seismicity was neither tracking the path of magma migration nor it defines the boundaries of magma storage volumes such as a midcrustal sill. Our conceptual model considers pulsatory magma injection from the upper mantle and its propagation along the Moho. We suggest, within this framework, that the spatial and temporal distributions of earthquake hypocenters reflect hydraulic fracturing processes associated with stress propagation due to magma movement.

  6. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo

    2012-08-01

    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  7. Contenido de ß-caroteno, hierro y zinc en genotipos de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) durante el almacenamiento, cocción y elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Ramos, Rosmery Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El camote es uno de los alimentos básicos que han sido asignados para combatir la deficiencia de micronutrientes en especial la deficiencia de vitamina A, hierro y zinc. El presente estudio pretende contribuir con la selección de genotipos para el mejoramiento de la calidad nutricional del camote principalmente en el contenido de β-caroteno, materia seca, hierro y zinc, ayudando a reducir los p...

  8. Estudio caso-control de marcadores de estrés oxidativo y metabolismo del hierro plasmático en la enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larumbe Ilundáin Rosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento:- Existe cada vez más evidencia de la implicación de mecanismos de estrés oxidativo en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Se han descrito en la sustancia negra niveles menores de GSH, aumento del depósito de hierro, aumento de los productos derivados de la peroxidación lipídica y alteraciones del complejo I mitocondrial. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios de niveles de antioxidantes en sangre periférica y de la influencia del consumo de nutrientes en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. Métodos: Se estudia en un grupo de 79 pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson idiopática y en un grupo control de 107 sujetos, equiparados por edad, sexo y lugar de residencia, los niveles plasmáticos de: Glutatión reducido (GSH, Malonildialdehído (MDA, ácido úrico, tocoferol, b-caroteno, licopeno y diversos parámetros del metabolismo del hierro. Así mismo, se estima el consumo de ciertos antioxidantes a partir de una encuesta dietética. Resultados: Hemos encontrado diferencias significativas (p<=0,001 en los niveles plasmáticos de GSH entre casos (0,10 mmol/ml ± 0,06 y controles (0,29 mmol/ml ± 0,12. De igual modo, los niveles de ácido úrico en plasma fueron más bajos (p<=0,05 en los casos (4,96 mg/ml ± 1,96 que en los controles (5,39 mg/ml±1,13. No hemos encontrado diferencias significativas de los niveles plasmáticos de MDA, tocoferol, b-caroteno y licopeno. Respecto al metabolismo del hierro, en los pacientes con EP encontramos valores de ferritina y de transferrina significativamente mayores que en los controles, con un índice de saturación de la transferrina menor (p<=0,05. El hierro no mostró cambios significativos entre casos y controles. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio apoyan la posible implicación del estrés oxidativo en la patogénesis de la enfermedad de Parkinson y, a la vez, evidencian alteraciones de algunos parámetros en sangre periférica en concordancia con hallazgos conocidos en la sustancia negra.

  9. ESTUDIO CASOS-CONTROL DE MARCADORES DE ESTRÉS OXIDATIVO Y METABOLISMO DEL HIERRO PLASMÁTICO EN LA ENFERMEDAD DE PARKINSON

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    Rosa Larumbe Ilundáin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Existe cada vez m s evidencia de la implicaci n de mecanismos de estr s oxidativo en la enfermedad de Parkinson. Se han descrito en la sustancia negra niveles menores de GSH, aumento del dep sito de hierro, aumento de los productos derivados de la peroxidaci n lip dica y alteraciones del complejo I mitocondrial. Sin embargo, son escasos los estudios de niveles de antioxidantes en sangre perif rica y de la influencia del consumo de nutrientes en el desarrollo de la enfermedad. M todos: Se estudia en un grupo de 79 pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson idiop tica y en un grupo control de 107 sujetos, equiparados por edad, sexo y lugar de residencia, los niveles plasm ticos de: Glutati n reducido (GSH, Malonildialdeh do (MDA, cido rico, tocoferol, -caroteno, licopeno y diversos par metros del metabolismo del hierro. As mismo, se estima el consumo de ciertos antioxidantes a partir de una encuesta diet tica. Resultados: Hemos encontrado diferencias significativas (p 0,001 en los niveles plasm ticos de GSH entre casos (0,10 mol/ml 0,06 y controles (0,29 mol/ml 0,12. De igual modo, los niveles de cido rico en plasma fueron m s bajos (p 0,05 en los casos (4,96 mg/ml 1,96 que en los controles (5,39 mg/ml 1,13. No hemos encontrado diferencias significativas de los niveles plasm ticos de MDA, tocoferol, -caroteno y licopeno. Respecto al metabolismo del hierro, en los pacientes con EP encontramos valores de ferritina y de transferrina significativamente mayores que en los controles, con un ndice de saturaci n de la transferrina menor (p 0,05. El hierro no mostr cambios significativos entre casos y controles. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio apoyan la posible implicaci n del estr s oxidativo en la patog nesis de la enfermedad de Parkinson y, a la vez, evidencian alteraciones de algunos par metros en sangre perif rica en concordancia con hallazgos conocidos en la sustancia negra.

  10. Aportaciones a la transición del hiero I al hierro II en el centro de la cuenca del udero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel GARCÍA ALONSO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En la diversidad de publicaciones que se ponen al alcance del investigador, y que son referidas a la Edad del Hierro, entendida de una manera amplia, se viene observando, en el manejo terminológico más bien, una serie de cuestiones que quedan latentes entre las diferentes tomas de postura; pero que, salvo excepciones, no dan pie a una discusión o puesta en común de las mismas, y que entendemos son de capital importancia para la zona objeto de la presente comunicación.

  11. Proyecto para la implementación del taller de fundición de hierro y acero PROFUNCA, en el sector de El Descanso Km. 20

    OpenAIRE

    Armijos Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Ludeña Carrión, Oscar Andrés

    2008-01-01

    DIAGNOSTICO ACTUAL DEL TALLER. PROFUNCA, Productos Fundidos Cañizares, Taller artesanal que se dedica a la fundición de hierro, para la elaboración de poleas, tapas de alcantarillado y rejillas para sumideros, según el pedido del cliente, que con el pasar de los años ha ido aumentando su producción, instalaciones y sus colaboradores… IDENTIFICACIÓN DE PROCESOS PRODUCTIVO Producción por lotes y producción bajo encargo. ANÁLISIS DE SITUACIÓN ACTUAL Mediante el FODA, el taller se ...

  12. Diversidad de los sistemas de adquisición de hierro mediante sideróforos en Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes Corral, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae es una bacteria Gram-negativa, de la familia Vibrionaceae, que causa un tipo de vibriosis en una amplia variedad de especies marinas, y puede afectar también a animales homeotermos. El hierro desempeña un papel fundamental en el metabolismo y la virulencia de esta bacteria, pero los mecanismos que utiliza para su adquisición, y especialmente los basados en la síntesis de sideróforos, son todavía en gran medida desconocidos. Por tanto, en este trabajo no...

  13. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  14. CO2-SO3-rich (carbonate-sulfate) melt/fluids in the lithosphere beneath El Hierro, Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglialoro, E.; Ferrando, S.; Malaspina, N.; Villa, I. M.; Frezzotti, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle xenoliths from the island of El Hierro, the youngest of the Canary Islands, have been studied to characterize fluxes of carbon in the lithosphere of an OIB volcanism region. Fifteen xenoliths (4-10 cm in diameter) were collected in a rift lava flow (15-41 ka) at a new xenolith locality in El Julan cliff (S-SW of the island). Peridotites consist of protogranular to porphyroblastic spinel harzburgites, lherzolites, and subordinate dunites. One spinel clinopyroxenite, and one olivine-websterite were also analyzed. Ultramafic xenoliths were classified as HEXO (harzburgite and dunite with exsolved orthopyroxene), HLCO (harzburgite and lherzolite containing orthopyroxene without visible exsolution lamellae), and HTR (transitional harzburgite with exsolved orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, and poikilitic orthopyroxene) following [1]. While HLCO and HTR peridotites contain mostly CO2 fluid inclusions, HEXO peridotites preserve an early association of melt/fluid inclusions containing dominantly carbonate/sulfate/silicate glass, evolving to carbonate/sulfate/phosphate/spinel aggregates, with exsolved CO2 (± carbonates, anhydrite and H2O). Chemical and Raman analyses identify dolomite, Mg-calcite, anhydrite, sulfohalite [Na6(SO4)2FCl] (± other anhydrous and hydrous alkali-sulfates), apatite, and Cr-spinel in the inclusions. Sulfides are noticeably absent. The microstructure and chemical composition of the metasomatic fluids indicate that the peridotites were infiltrated by a carbonate-sulfate-silicate melt/fluid enriched in CO2, H2O, and P. A mantle origin for this fluid is supported by high densities of CO2inclusions (> 1g/cm3), determined by Raman microspectroscopy and cross-checked by microthermometry. Consequently, El Julan peridotites provide the first evidence for liberating oxidized C and S fluxes from the Earth lithosphere in an OIB source region, and suggest that oxidation of sulfide to sulfate can occur during small-degree partial melting of the upper mantle

  15. Assessing the vulnerability of the evacuation emergency plan: the case of the El Hierro, Canary Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. M.; Garcia, A.; Llinares, A.; Lopez, P.; Ortinz, R.

    2012-04-01

    On July 17, 2011 an unrest was detected in the El Hierro island. A serretian submarine eruption started on October 10th in the southern area of the island, two miles away from La Restinga village. The analysis and interpretation of seismic and deformation data show a large volume of intruded magma. These data also show a high probability of a new vent opening. One of the most complex volcanic hazard scenarios is a new open vent in the El Golfo Valley, in the north slope of the island, where more than 5,000 people live. In this area there are only two possible terrestrial evacuation routes: 1) HI-1 road NE direction, the fastest but most vulnerable one, very near a 1,000 meters height cliff and through a 2 km tunnel with a structural deficiency that had to be closed during high energy periods of seismic activity; and 2) HI-1 road SW direction, a mountain road with many curves, frequent small landslides and fog. The Emergency Plan of the island takes into account the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley in case of eruption. This process will be carried out by means of an assisted evacuation. The evacuees will be transported to a temporally regrouping shelter outside the valley to organize the transport to Tenerife Island. Only those people who have a second residence or relatives outside the affected area will be able to remain in the island. The evacuation time estimated by authorities for the entire evacuation of El Golfo Valley is of about 4 hours. This is extremely low considering: the complexity of the area; the number of evacuees; the lack of preparedness by the population; and adverse weather conditions. To evaluate the Evacuation Plan vulnerability, a series of evacuation scenarios have been simulated: self-evacuation; assisted evacuation; both terrestrial evacuation routes. The warning time, the response time by the population and the evacuation time have been taken into account.

  16. Crustal Deformation During the 2011 Volanic Crisis of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Revealed by Continuous GPS Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiya, T.; Barrancos Martinez, J.; Calvo, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, G. H.; Hernández, P. A.; Perez Rodriguez, N.; Suárez, J. M. P.

    2012-04-01

    Seismo-volcnic activity of El Hierro started in the middle of July of 2011 and resulted in the active submarine eruption after October 12 south off La Restinga, the southern tip of the island. We have been operating one continuous GPS site on the island since 2004. Responding to the activity, we quickly installed 5 more GPS sites. Including another site operated by the Canary Islands Cartograhical Service (GRAFCAN) for a cartographic purpose, we have been monitoring 7 GPS sites equipped with dual-frequency receivers. We present the result of our crustal deformation monitoring and the magmatic activity inferred from the deformation data. In accordance with the deformation pattern, we divide the volcanic activity in 2011 into 4 stages. The first stage is from the middle of July to middle of September, during which steady magmatic inflation is estimated at the center of the island. The inflated volume of the first stage is estimated to be about 1.3 X 107 m3 at the depth of about 5km. The second stage, which continued until the first submarine eruption on October 12, is characterized by the accelerated deformation due to the upward as well as southward migration of magma. Additional inflation of about 2.1 X 107 m3 occurred in the depth range of 1-2km. The third stage continued for about 3 weeks after the first submarine eruption. During this stage, submarine eruption continues while no significant surface deformation is observed. It is considered magma supply from a deeper magma chamber continued during this 3 weeks period. Therefore, the total inflation volume during the first two stages gives the minimum estimate for the total magma volume. Since the beginning of November 2011, many GPS sites started subsiding. However, this deflation pattern is quite different from those in the shallow inflation stages. Horizontal deformation during this 4th stage is not significant, implying that deflation is occurring below the moho.

  17. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing at El Hierro volcanic system: Relation to the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Barrancos, José; Padilla, Germán.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dacil

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the results of extensive diffuse CO2 emission surveys performed on El Hierro Island in the period 1998-2012. More than 17,000 measurements of the diffuse CO2 efflux were carried out, most of them during the volcanic unrest period that started in July 2011. Two significant precursory signals based on geochemical and geodetical studies suggest that a magma intrusion processes might have started before 2011 in El Hierro Island. During the preeruptive and eruptive periods, the time series of the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced two significant increases. The first started almost 2 weeks before the onset of the submarine eruption, reflecting a clear geochemical anomaly in CO2 emission, most likely due to increasing release of deep-seated magmatic gases to the surface. The second one, between 24 October and 27 November 2011, started before the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest. The data presented here demonstrate that combined continuous monitoring studies and discrete surveys of diffuse CO2 emission provide important information to optimize the early warning system in volcano monitoring programs and to monitor the evolution of an ongoing volcanic eruption, even though it is a submarine eruption.

  19. Determinación de materia orgánica y hierro en rocas pizarrosas mediante medición de su coloración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encinas, M.

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of several Palaeozoic shales has allowed to establish a definite correlation between organic matter, or iron content, and colour (as determined with a reflectometer. Hyperbolic curves obtained by plotting the data, show correlation coefficients above 0.9. Colour in rocks is inf!uenced by carbonate content whereas reflectivity is increased by it. Use of a reflectometer, or the Munsell chart of colours, is then proposed as an easy, fast and accurate enough method of estimating organic matter or iron content on this type of pelitic rocks.El análisis de diferentes pizarras paleozoicas ha permitido establecer una correlación positiva entre el contenido en materia orgánica, así como en hierro, y su coloración, medida con un reflectómetro. . Las curvas que mejor se ajustan a los datos obtenidos son las de tipo hiperbólico, con coeficientes de correlación superiores a 0,9. La presencia de carbonatos influye notablemente en el color de las rocas, aumentando los valores de reflectividad. Se propone la utilización de un reflectómetro, o de la carta de colores de Munsell, como un método fácil, rápido y bastante preciso para estimar el porcentaje de materia orgánica y de hierro en este tipo de rocas pelíticas.

  20. Structure and mechanical properties of ductile iron GJS-500-7; Estructura y propiedades mecánicas del hierro dúctil GJS-500-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuryloa, P.; Tertela, E.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the results of research on mechanical properties (hardness distribution along the cross section towards the cast’s core) and on the structures of ductile iron GJS-500-7. The study defines the range and form of the surface layer of cast iron. It has been shown that the surface layer of the working surface of the cast may be shaped within its transition zone. [Spanish] El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación sobre propiedades mecánicas (distribución de la dureza a lo largo de la sección transversal del núcleo de la fundición) y de las estructuras de hierro dúctil GJS-500-7. El estudio define el rango y la forma de la capa superficial de hierro fundido. Se ha mostrado que la capa superficial de la superficie del molde trabajado puede estar conformada dentro de su zona de transición.

  1. Caracterización estructural de vidrios con altos contenidos de óxidos de hierro obtenidos a partir de un residuo de la hidrometalurgia del zinc

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    Romero, M.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been carried out the structural characterization of high oxide content glasses obtained by melting of a goethite industrial waste from the zinc hydrometallurgy with other raw materials as dolomite and glass cullet. The structural characterization has been carried out by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, X-Ray Diffraction by Amorphous Dispersion (RDF and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It has been determined the interatomic distance, the oxidation state and the coordination of iron atoms in these glasses.

    En este trabajo se ha llevado a cabo la caracterización estructural de vidrios con altos contenidos de óxidos de hierro obtenidos por fusión de un residuo industrial de goethita procedente de la hidrometalurgia del zinc con otras materias primas (dolomita y casco de vidrio. El estudio estructural se ha realizado por difracción de rayos-X (DRX, difracción de rayos-X por dispersión amorfa (RDF y espectroscopia Mössbauer, determinándose las distancias interatómicas, el estado de oxidación y la coordinación de los átomos de hierro en este nuevo tipo de vidrios.

  2. Tecnología de desulfuración de fundiciones grises con el fin de obtener hierro con grafito esferoidal // A desulfuration technology for gray iron in order to obtain spheroidal graphite iron

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    A. Batista Cabrera

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se describe una tecnología de desulfuracíon del hierro fundido gris, tomando como base el ya conocidométodo de Volianik (1. En este caso se modificaron algunos parámetros del citado método, adecuándolos a las condicionesexistentes en la Empresa de Fundición de Hierro y Acero de Holguín.( E.F. H. A.Como agente desulfurante se empleó carburo de calcio empleado por Volianik. Como agente activador del desulfurante seutilizó aire comprimido seco. El desulfurante con la granulometría apropiada fue introducido en la cazuela con hierro fundido a1460 oC, por medio de un dispositivo diseñado y construido para este fin.Una gráfica con la dependencia entre el tiempo de soplado y el rendimiento fue obtenida. Como resultado se logró estableceruna tecnología de desulfuración que permite disminuir el contenido de azufre en el hierro fundido desde 0,067 hasta 0,0148%para un rendimiento de 78%.Palabras claves: Hierro gris, desul furación, hierro nodular._____________________________________________________________________AbstractA desulfuration technology for gray cast iron is shown based on the well-known Volianik’s desulfuration method. In this casesome of its parameters were modified, for fitting them to the existent conditions in the Empresa de Hierro Fundido y Acero deHolguín (E.F. H. A..As desulfuration agent calcium carbide was used instead of lime, as it is usually employed by Volianik.Dry compressed air was used as activating agent for the calcium carbide. This one, with the proper grain size it was introducedin a ladle containing 160 RG of melted gray iron at 1460 oC, by means of a mixing device designed and constructed by theauthors.A graphic dependence between air compressed blowing time and desulfuration efficiency was obtained.As a result, a desulfuration technology which permits decrease melted gray iron sulfur contain, from 0,067 till 0,0148 %, wasobtained for a yield of 78 %.Key words: Gray iron, desul

  3. Control del avance del frente de llama en el lecho de sinterización de minerales de hierro

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    Cores, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A sintering pan of 40 cm cubed is loaded with a mixture of iron ores, limestone and coke weighing 110 kg in a sintering pilot plant. In this sintering pan, a series of thermocouples have been introduced at different depths. Tests have been carried out to study the width of the combustion zone and the maximum temperature of the flame front across the sintering bed. For the analysis of the results, a data acquisition system was used. This consisted of two modules connected in serie, for performing the analogue-digital conversion. The analogue entry point is the exit point of the thermocouples and the digital exit point was the temperature average. A computer was used for conserving and storing the data and for carrying out interpolations, simulating the state and evolution of the flame front across the bed.

    En una planta piloto de sinterización se cargan, en la paila cúbica de 40 cm de lado, 110 kg de una mezcla de minerales de hierro, caliza y coque, donde se han introducido una serie de termopares a diferentes profundidades. Se realizan ensayos para estudiar la evolución del ancho de la zona de combustión y de la temperatura máxima del frente de llama a través del lecho de sinterización. Para el análisis de los resultados se utiliza un sistema de adquisición de datos formado por dos módulos conectados en serie, encargados de realizar la conversión analógico-digital. La entrada analógica es la salida de los termopares y la salida digital es la medida de la temperatura. Se dispone de un ordenador para la conservación y almacenamiento de los datos y para realizar interpolaciones que simulan el estado y evolución del frente de llama a través del lecho.

  4. La “botiga” del hierro. Fiscalidad y producción industrial en Navarra (1362-1404

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    Mugueta Moreno, Iñigo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the iron industry in the north region of the Kingdom of Navarre was recorded in the fiscal accounts of the royal administration since the second half of the XIII century. However, the Kingdom of Navarre, will not look at this industrial development as a fiscal resource until the second half of the XIV century, with Charles II. The growing needs of his political strategies forced him to increase the fiscal pressure on his citizens, specially since 1362, in the uptake of indirect taxation. The disposed actions of this King will lead him to significantly increase the income earned on the iron industry: first, he seized lordships that were rich in mineral resources and forestry; later he developed a complex tax policy, which even led him to create a monopoly on the iron production in the Kingdom since 1376.

    El origen de la actividad siderúrgica en el norte de Navarra se detecta en los libros de cuentas de la administración real a partir de la segunda mitad del siglo XIII. Sin embargo, no será hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XIV cuando los reyes de Navarra (en concreto Carlos II, vea en este desarrollo industrial una fuente de recursos fiscales. Las crecientes necesidades de sus estrategias políticas le llevaron a un incremento de la presión fiscal sobre sus súbditos, con un especial énfasis desde 1362 en la captación de impuestos indirectos. La acción decidida de este monarca le permitió aumentar notablemente los ingresos percibidos sobre la industria siderúrgica, primero tras la incautación de señoríos nobiliarios ricos en recursos mineros y forestales, y más tarde por medio del desarrollo de un complejo programa fiscal, que incluyó la creación de un monopolio sobre la producción de hierro en el reino desde 1376.

  5. Geología y vulcanología de La Palma y El Hierro, Canarias Occidentales

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    Pérez Torrado, F. J.

    2001-12-01

    important role played by the mobility of the general feeding system of the volcanism in shaping the form and structure of the island. If the volcanism had not continually migrated southward since the final stages of construction of the northern shield, the island of La Palma would probably have taken on a similar configuration to that of the islands of El Hierro or Tenerife, in the shape of a triangular pyramid, with triple-armed rifts and landslide lobes between the rifts. The southward migration of volcanism in La Palma left the northern shield extinct, the rifts incomplete and finally configured an island lengthened in a N-S direction. Another point of interest is that the islands of La Palma and El Hierro are the first of the Canaries to form simultaneously, with possibly alternating eruptive activity, at least in the most recent period. This separation in a «dual line» of islands and the greater depth of its oceanic basement account for the long time they have required to emerge since the formation of the prior island of La Gomera. The island of El Hierro is geologically somewhat younger than La Palma and, because it formed over a stationary source of magma, it presents, in comparison, a perfect, concentric development, with superimposed volcanoes and a regular three-armed rift geometry. The activity of the subaerial volcanism began in El Hierro with the development of Tiñor volcano on the NE flank of the island (approximately from 1.12 to 0.88 ma, with the emission of massive typical basalts. The volcano developed quickly, with different stages of growth, the eruption of Ventejís volcano being the terminal explosive stage, and probably the precursor of the collapse of the NW flank of the edifice some 882 ka ago. The emissions of the new volcano -El Golfo, approximately 545 to 176.000 ka- totally filled the depression of the lateral collapse of Tiñor volcano, the lava flows of which then spilled over the flanks of the earlier volcano. The beginning of the

  6. Efecto del conteo de nódulos en la resistencia al desgaste por abrasión de los hierros dúctiles austemperados

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    C. J. Diez Cicero

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre los materiales metálicos de mayor demanda, la producción de hierro con grafito nodular, ocupa en la actualidad, uno de los lugares más importantes entre los hierros fundidos de alta resistencia, y con la introducción del tratamiento térmico de austemperado, aplicado a estas fundiciones, se da lugar a una nueva familia de materiales, caracterizados por su alta resistencia mecánica y elevada tenacidad, que mantienen la economía y facilidad de producción de las fundiciones nodulares.Este trabajo, hace una valoración del comportamiento de hierros nodulares, con diferentes conteos de nódulos, a los que les fue aplicado el tratamiento de austemperado, y posteriormente se les sometió a ensayos de desgaste abrasivo. Con los resultados obtenidos, se hace un análisis de la influencia del conteo de nódulos en dichas propiedades, así como también, de la interrelación del conteo de nódulos, con las variables de tratamiento térmico utilizadas en las muestras ensayadas.Between the metallic materials of greater demand, the iron production with nódular graphite occupies at the present time, one of the most important places between fused irons of high resistance, and with the introduction of the austemperado heat treatment of, applied to these smeltings, gives rise to a new family of materials, characterized by its high resistance mechanical and elevated tenacity, that the economy and facility of production of the smeltings maintain nodulares. This work, makes a valuation of the iron behavior nodulares, with different counts from nodules, to which the austemperado was applied treatment to them of, and later it was put under to them tests of abrasive wearing down. Of the obtained results, an analysis takes control of the influence of the count of nodules in these properties, as well as, of the interrelation of the count of nodules, with the used variables of heat treatment in the tried samples.

  7. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro: estrategias de la OPS/OMS para combatirla Iron deficiency anemia: PAHO/WHO strategies to fight anemia

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    WILMA B FREIRE

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available La anemia por deficiencia de hierro es uno de los problemas nutricionales de mayor magnitud en el mundo. A pesar de conocer su etiología y tener a disposición el conocimiento de cómo enfrentarla y de saber que las intervenciones son de bajo costo, aún no se ha podido superar este problema. Este documento parte de una estimación de la magnitud del problema y plantea los elementos necesarios para el diseño, la ejecución y la medición del impacto de la suplementación con hierro y la fortificación, como las intervenciones más efectivas para disminuir considerablemente la dimensión de la anemia por falta de hierro. Propone una lista de pasos a seguir previos a la elaboración de un proyecto y recomienda una serie de elementos a considerar en ello. Define, asimismo, los aspectos que se deben incluir en una propuesta de fortificación y en otra de suplementación. El documento concluye con un listado de actividades complementarias que la Organización Panamericana de la Salud/Organización Mundial de la Salud ofrece dentro de su paquete de cooperación técnica.Iron deficiency anemia is among the greatest nutritional problems in the world. Although its etiology is understood and intervention at low cost is available, the problem persists. The present review begins with a general estimate of the dimensions of the problem. It suggests the necessary elements for the design, implementation, and measurement of the impact of iron supplementing and fortification as the most effective forms to intervene and diminish iron deficiency anemia. Several preliminary steps are proposed previous to the preparation of a project and several recomendations are made to be included in a project for fortification and iron supplementing. A list of complementary activities offered by PAHO/WHO as part of the package of technical cooperation is included.

  8. Ecotoxicidad de nanopartículas metálicas y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro en dos especies

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    Yordanka Domínguez Linares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la nanotecnología y el empleo de materiales a nano escala son un área relativamente nueva de la ciencia y la tecnología con un gran crecimiento en el mercado global. Muchos de los productos no cuentan con estudios que garanticen su uso seguro, tanto para el hombre como para los ecosistemas. Los estudios ecotoxicológicos permiten evaluar los efectos de un determinado xenobiótico sobre especies representativas de los diferentes compartimentos ambientales. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos tóxicos de nanopartículas de Ag, Au, Ag/Ag y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro, en dos especies bioindicadoras de los ecosistemas terrestre y acuático. Métodos: como parte de los estudios de seguridad se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda por contacto en lombriz de tierra de la especie Eisenia andrei, con una duración de 96 horas y estudios en anfibios de la especie Osteopillus septentrionales en diferentes etapas del desarrollo (embrionario y larval. Se evaluó la ocurrencia de mortalidad y de efectos tóxicos, en el caso del ensayo en lombriz de tierra; se determinó además la viabilidad celular. Resultados: los efectos tóxicos más significativos en el caso de la lombriz de tierra fueron, la ocurrencia de alteraciones fisiológicas y conductuales al ser expuesta a NPs de Ag de 3 nm y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro, estas últimas provocaron citotoxicidad a la concentración 1,38 mg/mL. En el caso de los anfibios se evidenció toxicidad en NPs de Ag 3 nm y superparamagnéticas de óxido de hierro. Conclusiones: todas las nanopartículas mostraron efectos tóxicos en las especies bioindicadoras evaluadas.

  9. Evaluación del contenido de hierro total en alimentos de la canasta básica de consumo de los costarricenses

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    Pulina Silva Trejos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el contenido de hierro total en 35 alimentos de la canasta básica de consumo de los costarricenses. Los alimentos se escogieron de acuerdo con una encuesta realizada por el comité de usuarios de COSTA RICA FOODS en el 2001. En la muestra se consideraron alimentos de las siguientes categorías: A. Cereales y derivados B. Vegetales y derivados C. Grasas y aceites D. Pescados y productos del mar F. Carnes y derivados E. Leche y derivados J. Huevos y derivados Q. Productos infantiles y R. Productos manufacturados. Las muestras se tomaron trimestralmente durante un año (2005, en los principales supermercados. Los alimentos que requirió cocción, se cocinaron sin aditivos de ninguna clase, tales como aceite y sal; cuando se requirió agua, se utilizó agua desionizada; en todo caso, se utilizaron recipientes de teflón o bien plásticos cuando se cocinaron, en horno de microondas. Una vez cocinados se tomaron muestras por duplicado para la determinación de humedad; el resto se liofilizó y se guardó en recipientes plásticos para la determinación de minerales. La digestión de las muestras se realizó en recipientes cerrados en horno de microondas con ácido nítrico al 65% en masa. El método analítico utilizado para la cuantificación del hierro fue espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama: como mecanismo de control de calidad, se corrió un SRM de la NIST de matriz similar a la clase de alimento, cada 30 muestras analizadas. Los niveles de hierro total encontrados estuvieron entre 0,3 y 11 mg por 100 g de porción comestible.

  10. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  11. The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities

    KAUST Repository

    Ariza, Alejandro

    2014-07-21

    The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. © 2014 Ariza et al.

  12. Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes

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    Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Hernandez, Luis E.; Viñas, Ronaldo; Pérez, Nemesio; Hernandez, Pedro; Melián, Gladys; Martinez-Frías, Jesús; Romero-Ruiz, M. Carmen; Coello-Bravo, Juan Jesús

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the main physical, petrological and geochemical features of the floating fragments that were emitted in the initial stages of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption off the coast of the Canarian island of El Hierro, located 380 km from the Northwest African Coast. It attempts to assess the potential of radiometric analyses to discern the intriguing origin of the floating fragments and the differences between their constituent parts. In this regard, the material that conforms the core of the fragments contains the largest concentration of uranium (U) ever found in volcanic rocks of the Canary Islands. This enrichment in U is not found in the content of thorium (Th), hence the floating fragments have an unusual U/Th ratio, namely equal to or larger than 3. Although the origin of this material is under discussion, it is proposed that the enrichment in U is the result of hydrothermal processes.

  13. Restos de oso pardo en estructuras de la Edad del Hierro del yacimiento de Can Roqueta/Can Revella (Vallés Occidental

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    Albizuri, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La excepcional recuperación de tres restos de oso pardo en tres estructuras de la primera Edad del Hierro del yacimiento de Can Roqueta, Sector Can Revella, nos llevó a realizar este trabajo de documentación sobre la evidencia de la captura y aprovechamiento del gran carnívoro en un yacimiento del Holoceno catalán. Los restos aparecieron mezclados con desechos de alimentación en el interior de estructuras que han aportado gran cantidad de huesos, y que a priori fueron utilizadas como silos. Una vez inutilizados como contenedores de grano fueron reutilizados como basureros acumulando detritus domésticos entre los que destacan los provocados por la limpieza de hogares (carbones, huesos quemados, piedras, etc....

  14. Obtención de materiales antifricción hierro-arrabio-latón utilizando residuos de virutas de arrabio

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    Nasamov, S. N.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Parts based on iron and steel powders are widely used in the manufacture of automobile and domestic equipment. This work was done to study the anti-friction properties of iron-pig iron-brass compositions of materials which were obtained by pressing and sintering from a mix of iron powders and industrial by products of cast-iron turnings, brass, talc and technical sulphur. Experiments were performed using cold pressure technology in the flowing matrix of the powder composite without solid lubricants. The subsequent sintering was carried out at 1200 ºC under isothermal conditions in a nitrogen atmosphere in the sintering zone during 1 h. The physical-mechanical and anti-friction properties were almost doubled by the active drainage of the gases from the compression mould. The study of the microstructure of the sintered materials showed that free cementite existed between the particle limits and around the pores. Large agglomerations of dark inclusions could be observed, consisting of graphite, zinc and iron oxides, which were points of tension in the material that reduce its durability and, therefore, its wear resistance to dry friction.

    Las piezas base hierro y acero, obtenidas por pulvimetalurgia, tienen gran utilización en la industria del automóvil y de equipos domésticos. El presente trabajo está dedicado al estudio de las propiedades antifricción de materiales de composición hierro-arrabio-latón, aglomerados mediante prensado y sinterización, obtenidos con mezclas de polvos de hierro, residuos industriales de virutas de arrabio, latón, talco y azufre. Los experimentos fueron hechos utilizando la tecnología de prensado en frío, utilizando una matriz fluida, sin empleo de lubricante sólido. Posteriormente, se realizó una sinterización a temperatura de 1.200 °C en condiciones isotérmicas, en atmósfera de nitrógeno, en la zona de sinterización durante una hora. Las propiedades físico-mecánicas y antifricci

  15. Separación selectiva de hierro y cromo de las lejías agotadas del decapado de acero inoxidable

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    Gálvez, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel spent pickling baths are very complex solutions of metals and acids (HNO3 and HF and are a very important environmental concern. Several processes have been developed for acid recovery (free and bounded acid with techniques like acid retardation, solvent extraction, evaporation and dialysis diffusion. In these processes, metallic content is precipitated and treated for its disposal. We have developed a process that permits the separation of metals by means of a selective precipitation, induced by adding free fluoride. Iron (Fe and chromium (Cr precipitate as pentafluorides and nitrogennickel (Ni remains in solution. After this stage, complex fluorides can be hydrolized with alkali to give iron and chromium hydroxides, releasing fluoride in solution

    Los baños ácidos agotados del decapado de acero inoxidable son disoluciones muy complejas debido al alto contenido de metales y ácidos (HNO3 y HF, por lo que constituyen un grave problema medioambiental. Existen tratamientos comerciales para la recuperación del ácido (libre o complejado que se basan en técnicas de retardo ácido, extracción con disolventes, evaporación o membranas. En estos procesos el contenido metálico es precipitado y tratado como un residuo. El grupo de investigación formado por los autores del presente trabajo ha desarrollado un procedimiento que permite el aprovechamiento de dichos metales mediante su recuperación selectiva con una técnica de precipitación modificada inducida por fluoruro libre. Se consigue la precipitación de hierro (Fe y cromo (Cr como pentafluoruros (pH 3-4,5 dejando el níquel en disolución. Posteriormente, los fluoruros complejos son hidrolizados con álcali dando lugar a hidróxidos de hierro y cromo, mientras que el fluoruro es redisuelto.

  16. Processes of Compression-Expansion and Subsidence-Uplift detected by the Spatial Inclinometer (IESHI) in the El Hierro Island eruption (October, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, G.; Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; García, A.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has undergone a submarine eruption a few kilometers to its southeast, detected October 10, on the rift alignment that cuts across the island. However, the seismicity level suddenly increased around July 17 and ground deformation was detected by the only continuously observed GNSS-GPS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems - Global Positioning System) benchmark FRON in the El Golfo area. Based on that information several other GNSS-GPS benchmarks were installed, some of which continuously observed as well. A normal vector analysis was applied to these collected data. The normal vector magnitude variation identified local extension-compression regimes, while the normal vector inclination showed the relative height variation between the three benchmarks that define the plan to which normal vector is analyzed. To accomplish this analysis the data was previously processed to achieve positioning solutions every 30 minutes using the Bernese GPS Software 5.0, further enhanced by a Discrete Kalman Filter, giving an overall millimeter level precision. These solutions were reached using the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid orbits and the double-differenced ionosphere-free combination. With this strategy the positioning solutions were attained in near real-time. Later with the IGS rapid orbits the data was reprocessed to provide added confidence to the solutions. Two triangles were then considered, a smaller one located in the El Golfo area within the historically collapsed caldera, and a larger one defined by benchmarks placed in Valverde, El Golfo and La Restinga, the town closest to the eruption's location, covering almost the entire Island's surface above sea level. With these two triangles the pre-eruption and post-eruption deformation suffered by El Hierro's surface will be further analyzed.

  17. Ocre, hematites y óxido de hierro: el problema terminológico = Ochre, Hematite and Iron Oxid: The Terminological Issue

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    Alfredo Cortell Nicolau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los óxidos de hierro son prácticamente omnipresentes al analizar contextos, no solo referentes al arte rupestre, sino también en relación con toda una serie de actividades que podríamos considerar cotidianas en ambientes prehistóricos. Sin embargo, su estudio sistemático no ha comenzado hasta tiempos muy recientes. Fruto de ello, podría decirse que una parte de la literatura arqueológica no especializada en el campo de la pigmentología muestra, en ocasiones, cierta inexactitud terminológica. Con este documento pretendemos, a través de un análisis tanto de su funcionamiento, como de las propiedades geoquímicas y mineralógicas del ocre, la hematites y los propios óxidos de hierro, exponer la necesidad de propiedad en su nomenclatura, así como los problemas que podrían derivarse de la falta de precisión. Por último, establecemos algunas propuestas que tal vez pudieran ayudar en esta normativización. Iron oxides are virtually omnipresent when analyzing contexts, not only referring to rock art, but also related to a whole series of activities, which we could consider as quotidian for prehistoric environments. Nevertheless, a systematic study of these has not started until recent times. As a result, it could be argued that a part of archaeological literature, not specialized on pigmentology, shows sometimes a certain lack of terminological accurateness. With this document we mean to, through an analysis both of the functioning and the geochemical and mineralogical properties of ochre, hematite and iron oxides themselves, expose the need for an appropriate terminology, as well as to show the problems derived from an inadequate naming. Finally, we bring some proposals, which could maybe help on an appropriate terminological standardization.

  18. Anemia y anemia por déficit de hierro en niños menores de cinco años y su relación con el consumo de hierro en la alimentación. Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia Anemia and iron deficit anemia in children under five years of age and their relation with iron consumption in alimentation, Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia

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    Gloria Margarita Alcaraz López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de anemia y de anemia por deficiencia de hierro y su relación con el contenido de hierro en la alimentación en niños de 6 meses a 5 años. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el que se estudiaron 113 niños que asistieron a la consulta de crecimiento y desarrollo y al programa de vacunación de la ESE Hospital Francisco Valderrama de Turbo entre el mes de septiembre de 2001 y el mes de junio de 2002. Las pruebas de laboratorio empleadas fueron Hb, ferritina, coprológico directo y sangre oculta en heces. El hierro dietario se estudió con una encuesta semiestructurada. Resultados y discusión: Promedio de Hb 11,3 g/dl (DE 1,4; presentan anemia 48,7%, los más afectados fueron los menores de un año. Promedio de ferritina 47,1 µg/L (DE 58,7, mediana 23,3 µg/L.; 50,4% presentan ferritina baja y de estos, 23,9% presentan agotamiento en los depósitos de hierro. De los 55 niños con anemia 23,6% presentan anemia con deficiencia de hierro. Promedio en el consumo de hierro 7,1 mg/día (DE 3,96; promedio de hierro hemínico de 3,9 mg/día. Promedio de lactancia materna exclusiva: 3 meses. La lactancia se alterna con leche de vaca pasteurizada. De cada 10 menores de un año, 6 tienen anemia con déficit de hierro. Conclusiones: La anemia, la ferritina baja y el bajo consumo de hierro en los niños estudiados perfilan un grave problema de salud pública. Se requiere una política clara y articulada a la cultura de la población para prevenir este problema y sus secuelas en el crecimiento, el desarrollo y en la capacidad cognitiva de los niños.Objective: to determine the frequency of anemia and iron deficit anemia in relation to the iron content in the alimentation of children from 6 months to five years in Turbo. Methodology and materials: transversal descriptive study of 113 children attending the growth, development and vaccination program clinic, from September 2001 to June 2002

  19. The 2011 volcanic crisis at El Hierro (Canary Islands): monitoring ground deformation through tiltmeter and gravimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoso, J.; Montesinos, F. G.; Benavent, M.; Vélez, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro is an ocean island located at the western end of the Canary Islands, and along with Tenerife and La Palma islands have been the most geologically active in the recent past. The island has a triple armed rift and, presently, is at the stage of growth, representing the summit of a volcanic shield elevating from the seafloor at depth of 4000 m up to 1501 m above the sea level (Münn et al., 2006; Carracedo et al., 1999). Since July 19th, 2011 seismic activity has produced more than 11950 events up to date. The seismic crisis resulted in a volcanic eruption that began on October 10th, being still currently active. The new volcano is located 2 km off the coast and about 300 m depth, in the submarine flank of the southern rift of the island, which is extended some 40 km length. Since September 2004 until November 2010 two continuous tilt stations were installed at the north, Balneario site (BA), and at the center of the island, Aula de la Naturaleza (AU) site. Both stations were used to assess the pattern of local ground movements in the island. When seismic swarm started on past July 2011, we have reinstalled both tilt stations (BA and AU) and 2 new ones located at the south of the island, namely Montaña Quemada (MQ) and Restinga (RE) sites. We have used short base platform tiltmeters that measure ground tilts with resolutions varying from 0.1 up to 0.01 microradians (µrad). On October 8th, a 4.4 magnitude earthquake took place and is supposed that fractured the ocean crust at some 8-10 km off the south coast of the island and about 1000 m depth. Typical spike signals were observed at the tilt stations. Two days after, the eruption onset was recorded also at tilt stations through a remarkable increase of the high frequency signal, being of large amplitude the components (radial) orientated towards the new volcano edifice. When compared with previous tiltmeter records in the island, tilt pattern were clearly modified several times at the stations when strong

  20. Síntesis de nanopartículas magnéticas de óxido de hierro para la remoción de arsénico del agua de consumo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Starbird-Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio consiste en proveer un material de alta área de contacto, para ser empleado en el tratamiento de aguas contaminadas con arsénico. Se reporta la síntesis de nanopartículas de hierro con propiedades superparamagnéticas, estabilizadas con ácido esteárico, así como su respectiva caracterización a través de técnicas espectrofotométricas, termogravimétricas y trasmisión electrónica, siendo evidente que la presencia de un emulsificante es determinante para la estabilización de la fase del óxido de hierro (maghemita o magnetita con propiedades magnéticas. El material obtenido muestra adecuadas propiedades para ser utilizado en el tratamiento de agua de consumo humano.

  1. ·En la carne desnuda la escarcha". Modalización lírica y construcción simbólica en la poesía de José Hierro

    OpenAIRE

    Saneleuterio Temporal, Elia

    2011-01-01

    En la Tesis Doctoral “En la carne desnuda la escarcha”. Modalización lírica y construcción simbólica en la poesía de José Hierro se lleva a cabo un recorrido por la obra poética del santanderino de adopción Pepe Hierro (1922-2002) mediante el cual se confirma la hipótesis de que su poesía puede dividirse en dos épocas creativas diferenciadas, correspondientes a dos poéticas también diferentes. Para ello, se analiza la obra del poeta desde dos perspectivas básicas en todo discurso lírico: la m...

  2. Evaluation of iron phosphate (III) as reactive material for removal of uranium in water; Evaluacion del fosfato de hierro (III) como material reactivo para la remocion de uranio en agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis M, L

    2004-02-01

    The levels of toxic metals in the atmosphere are topic of growing interest. This has provoked that the legislation is stricter, for that that the industry and centers of investigation has worried and busy of to look for and to develop more effective methods for the control of the contamination, with the purpose of being inside this levels. The phosphate compounds are being investigated for the removal of pollutants of the water and soil. In this work, it was synthesized to the ferric phosphate in a simple way in the laboratory, obtaining high grade of purity and yield. The characterization of this product was in a physicochemical way and of surface, through diverse analytical techniques. In the first place, the physicochemical characterization was carried out for Scanning Electron Microscopy of High Vacuum, X-ray diffraction, Infrared Spectroscopy with Fourier Transform, and Thermal gravimetric Analysis, the surface characterization was carried out for analysis of the surface area, determination of the isoelectric point by potentiometric and of mass titrations. The previous techniques allowed to identify the ferric phosphate synthesized as a compound amorphous beige color, with a relationship of atoms Fe:1, P:1, O:4, which showed connections P-O and went stable to changes of temperature. The surface area it was of 21 g / m{sup 2}, the isoelectric point corresponded to a p H of 1.5, which coincided so much by potentiometric like by mass titration. The number of active sites was of 106 sites /nm{sup 2}. After the characterization of the ferric phosphate the compound was evaluated as reactive material for the removal of uranyl ions through sorption tests. The kinetics of hydration showed that the product requires of 24 hours to saturate the sites capable of to be hydrated. The sorption kinetics required 22 hours of contact to reach the maximum sorption of uranyl ions for the ferric phosphate. The sorption isotherms showed that not significant difference exists when using 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 g of ferric phosphate, for that 0.1 g of material was used. The isotherms were carried out in function of the p H of the uranyl solutions and of the mass of the ferric phosphate where is observed that to p H 3.5-5 the percentage of removal is the highest reaching bigger values to 90%. Finally the data of the sorption of uranium was adjusted to the pattern of Langmuir. (Author)

  3. Sorption of Fe{sup 3+} , Co{sup 2+} , Ce{sup 3+} , Cs{sup +} and Ba{sup 2+} in zeolite X.; Sorcion de Hierro (III), Cobalto (II), Cerio (III), Cesio (I), Bario (II) en Zeolita X.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez M, V

    1994-12-31

    The sorption behavior of Fe{sup 3+} , Co{sup 2+} , Ce{sup 3+} , Cs{sup +} , and Ba{sup 2+} in aqueous solutions, was studied in presence of zeolite X. Solutions of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} . 9 H{sub 2} O, Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} . 6 H{sub 2} O, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} . 6 H{sub 2} O, Cs NO{sub 3} and Ba(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} were labelled with the respectively radioactive isotopes Fe{sup 59} , Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 134}, Ba{sup 139} and Ce{sup 141}. 20 ml. of each solution was left in contact with 200 mg. of zeolite for different periods. Later the zeolites were separated by centrifugation from the aqueous solutions and the radioactivity of the aqueous phases was measured with a NaI(Tl) solid-state well detector coupled to a single-channel Picker analyzer or with a Gel hyper pure solid-state detector coupled to a 2048 channel pulse height analyzer. When Cs{sup +} in the aqueous solutions was left in contact with zeolite X it was found that it does not occupy all cationic sites in the zeolite due to the ionic radium effect. A similar behavior was found for the divalent ions. In all cases, when the pH was not controlled, the zeolite lost part of its crystallinity and when the divalent ions were exchanged again by Na{sup +}, the zeolite recovered completely its crystallinity. During the sorption, the ionic radius, and the charge are important parameters as well as the pH. When the pH of the solution was adjusted between 6.5 - 7.0 the crystallinity was maintained in some cases. For Fe{sup 3+} the crystallinity after the ion exchange was 94 % and when the pH was not adjusted the crystallinity was completely lost. It was found as well that the zeolite X induces the formation of H{sub 3} O{sup +} which competes with the cations for the sites in the zeolite. (Author).

  4. Estado de los micronutrientes hierro y vitamina A, factores de riesgo para las deficiencias y valoración antropométrica en niños preescolares del municipio de Funza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidia Poveda

    2007-03-01

    Conclusión. Existe la necesidad de fortalecer programas fundamentados en las condiciones existentes para mejorar la situación nutricional de los preescolares del municipio de Funza. Es importante indagar si se presenta anemia nutricional relacionada con ácido fólico y vitamina B12, así como sobre otros factores de riesgo asociados con la deficiencia nutricional por hierro y vitamina A.

  5. Relación entre las formas solubles de hierro y manganeso y la presencia de bacterias oxidadoras de ambos elementos en el embalse Riogrande II- Don Matías (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilet Arcos Arango

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 2006 y marzo de 2008 se determinó la presencia de bacterias asociadas a la oxidación de hierro y manganeso en el límite de zona fótica (LZF y en el fondo del hipolimnio (FH en siete estaciones del Embalse Riogrande II en función de la disponibilidad de estos metales. Se realizaron mediciones in situ de temperatura del agua, oxígeno disuelto, pH, potencial redox y conductividad eléctrica. En el fondo del hipolimnio con niveles de oxígeno disuelto ≤ 4mgL-1 solo se encontró presencia de las bacterias oxidantes de hierro compatibles con Gallionella sp, Sphaerotilus sp, Beggiatoa sp y estructuras compatibles con bacterias prostecadas. El mayor número de estas bacterias se observó en el brazo de Río Grande (E4 en donde los niveles de hierro soluble fueron superiores a 1,4 mgL-1 . No se encontró presencia de bacterias dependientes de la oxidación del manganeso.

  6. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...... the putative differences between the rat brain MT isoforms, namely MT-I+II and MT-III, in the freeze lesion model of brain damage, and for developing an ELISA for MT-III suitable for brain samples. In the normal rat brain, MT-III was mostly present primarily in astrocytes. However, lectin staining indicated...

  7. Comportamiento del hierro sérico y la inmunidad celular en ancianos institucionalizados en el hogar "Santovenia" Behavior of serum iron and the cellular immunity in elderlies institutionalized in "Santovenia" old people home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez Grau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: relacionado con el estado nutricional, el hierro (Fe es un nutriente esencial para la mayor parte de los tejidos. Objetivo: relacionar la anemia por déficit de hierro con la inmunidad celular en adultos mayores institucionalizados en el hogar de ancianos «Santovenia». Métodos: se realizó un estudio en 41 individuos mayores de 60 años de edad procedentes del hogar de ancianos «Santovenia», 21 portadores de anemia por déficit de hierro y 20 controles normales, a los cuales se les determinó la concentración de hemoglobina (Hb, hematocrito (Hto, hierro sérico (Fe, y se les realizó estudio de la inmunidad celular, roseta activa y roseta espontánea. Resultados: se compararon los resultados del grupo control con los del grupo muestra, para estas variables. Se realizó un estudio estadístico por el test T de Student de comparación de medias, y los resultados fueron una disminución de Hb, Hto, hierro sérico y de la roseta activa y roseta espontánea en el grupo muestra con relación al control, con una diferencia significativa para a = 0,01. Conclusiones: los ancianos que presentaban los valores de Hb más bajos (£ 9, tenían valores de Fe disminuido y la inmunidad celular afectada.Introduction: Related to nutritional status, iron (Fe is an essential nutrient for most of tissues. Objective: To relate the iron-deficiency anemia with the cellular immunity in elderlies institutionalized in "Santovenia" old people home. Methods: Authors conducted a study in 41 subjects aged over 60 from the above mentioned old people home, 21 had iron-deficiency anemia and 20 normal controls, in which we determined the hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hto, and serum iron (Fe concentrations and also a cellular immunity study, active and spontaneous rosettes. Results: For these variables, results from control and sample group were compared. A statistical study was conducted by Student T test of means comparisons, and results showed a decrease of Hb

  8. Tendencias del uso del suelo en el Valle Amblés (Ávila, España: de la Edad del Hierro al Medievo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BLANCO GONZÁLEZ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available : Este trabajo constituye la continuación de otro previo (Blanco González, 2008 con el que comparte objetivos, área de estudio y metodología. Ambos pretenden ofrecer una visión diacrónica de la ocupación humana antigua del Valle Amblés (Ávila, abarcando aquí desde la Segunda Edad del Hierro hasta la plena Edad Media (mediados s. XIII d.C.. En concreto, el análisis territorial se ha enfocado sobre un aspecto económico primordial del poblamiento: el acceso de los productores directos a los recursos agrarios desde los núcleos residenciales. Para ello se ha cuantificado el potencial agrológico de los suelos dentro de los territorios de explotación de una selección de sitios arqueológicos y localidades actuales. La información sobre los yacimientos considerados –de presumible funcionalidad habitacional– procede tanto de prospecciones sistemáticas extensivas e intensivas, como de algunas excavaciones. La calidad agrológica de los suelos de su entorno se ha medido mediante la rutina de un Sistema de Información Geográfica que calcula las superficies de terrenos accesibles en 30 minutos y 1 hora de marcha pedestre desde los sitios. Los resultados, ordenados por épocas, se expresan en hectáreas de las distintas clases agrológicas y se presentan mediante resúmenes gráficos. La mayor discontinuidad se establece en el Hierro II, que actúa como bisagra entre una tendencia prehistórica de fuerte descompensación en los tipos de suelos representados –condicionada por factores de localización de tipo tecnológico o simbólico/políticos– y la tendencia histórica –de clara orientación económica– caracterizada por un estricto equilibrio entre suelos. Se plantea una lectura del proceso histórico que, aunque discontinua –por falta de datos–, informa de los distintos ritmos de intensificación agraria, diversificación productiva e integración sociopolítica en la zona, llegando a su momento álgido al final de la

  9. Evaluación de resinas de intercambio iónico para el control del hierro en soluciones de electro-obtención de cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parada, F.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial resins were evaluated for the extraction of iron from a copper electrowinning solution. Both resins efficiently extract iron. TheMonophosphonic resin has a greater charge capacity than the Diphonix resin and the Diphonix resin shows faster kinetics. Experimental results of the interrupted test and tests with different particle size of resins have demonstrated that extraction kinetics is controlled by diffusion into the particle in both resins. A good agreement with Fick’s model for diffusion inside the particles confirms the proposed mechanism. Finally, temperature favors the process kinetics and its effect on the diffusion coefficient follows Arrhenius law, obtaining a value of 4,89 kcal/mol for theMonophosphonic resin and 4,94 kcal/mol for the Dphonix resin. The aforementioned values are close to typical values for the proposed diffusional control which are 6 to 10 kcal/mol.

    Se evaluaron dos resinas comerciales para la extracción del hierro desde una solución de electro-obtención de cobre. Ambas resinas extraen en forma eficiente el hierro, pero se diferencian en que la resina Monophosphonic tiene una mayor capacidad de carga que la resina Diphonix, mientras que la Diphonix muestra una cinética más rápida. Los resultados de la prueba interrumpida y de las pruebas para determinar el efecto del tamaño de partícula permiten concluir que el control más probable para la cinética de extracción es por la difusión en la partícula en ambas resinas. Un buen ajuste al modelo de Fick para difusión en la partícula confirman el tipo de control propuesto. Finalmente, la temperatura favorece la cinética del proceso de extracción y su efecto en el coeficiente de difusión sigue la ley de Arrhenius obteniendo un valor para la energía de activación de 4,89 kcal/mol para la resina Monophosphonic y 4,94 kcal/mol para la resina Diphonix. Estos valores están cercanos al valor típico para el control propuesto que es de 6 a

  10. Prácticas de manipulación contable de la Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España en el periodo 1900-1923 = Accounting handling practices of la Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España in the period 1900-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Villacorta Hernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es analizar si la Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España (NORTE realizó manipulación de la información contable en el periodo 1900-1923. La conclusión fundamental es que para el desarrollo ordinario de su proceso productivo necesitaba los anticipos del personal por parte del Estado, por lo que de forma continuada ofrecía unos resultados económicos inferiores a los que tendría sin manipulación de la información contable. No obstante, puntualmente la empresa necesitó la obtención de recursos del mercado de capitales; para esas situaciones concretas NORTE quería dar una situación de solvencia, por lo que realizó un maquillaje contable para mejorar su apariencia. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether la Compañía de los Caminos de Hierro del Norte de España (NORTE made manipulation of accounting information in the period 1900-1923.The main conclusion is that for the ordinary course of its production process, the company needed personal advances by the government, so continuously offered a lower economic results than it would, without manipulation of accounting information. However, the company promptly needed to obtain resources of capital market; for these situations NORTE wanted to show a solvency position, so it made an accounting make up to enhance their appearance.

  11. Moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal: importancia del receptor 1 de transferrina y de la ferroportina en la placenta humana = Molecules implicated in maternal-fetal iron transport across the placental barrier: Role of Transferrin Receptor 1 and Ferroportin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Agudelo, Lady Vanessa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La adecuada transferencia placentaria de hierro es crucial para satisfacer los altos requerimientos del feto y promover su adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo intrauterino; de otra parte, contribuye a prevenir la ferropenia y la anemia, entidades altamente prevalentes en los lactantes durante los primeros dos años de edad, que se asocian con mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en la infancia. La placenta es un órgano capaz de realizar diferentes adaptaciones en la producción de moléculas que participan en el transporte de hierro materno-fetal en respuesta al estado de hierro celular, para proveer la mayor disponibilidad de este mineral al feto. Esta revisión, pretende acercar al lector a los mecanismos metabólicos y moleculares relacionados con la captación, el transporte y la salida de hierro por la placenta hacia el feto, así como su regulación, para proporcionar elementos que le permitan comprender en forma integrada, la importancia de un adecuado estado de hierro materno antes y durante la gestación.

  12. Aplicación del método Electre III en la clasificación de clústeres de artesanías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Molica de Mendonça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados del estudio que busca aplicar el método Electre III para clasificar cuatro aglomerados productivos de micro y pequeñas empresas, localizados en el Estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, en relación con la capacidad de desarrollar estrategias de supervivencia, por medio de relaciones con proveedores, clientes y distribuidores, competidores y con instituciones públicas y privadas de apoyo. El efecto conjunto de esas variables es lo que define la capacidad que ellas poseen de desarrollar estrategias competitivas. Los resultados permitirán concluir que el agrupamiento de productores de artefactos de desechos de madera es lo que está más articulado en relación con el conjunto de factores de éxito de un aglomerado, seguido por los aglomerados de productos en telares y hierros, que se presentan indiferentes entre sí.

  13. Extracción de cromo con disolventes orgánicos. III parte. Aplicación al tratamiento de residuos polimetálicos industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Juan, D.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Primene 81R as extraction agent of chromium present in solid wastes containing nickel, iron and copper has been studied. The waste was leached with a sulphuric acid solution up to pH 3 and oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI with Caro acid was also studied. Because of the negative result of oxidation, the treatment was applied on Cr(III directly. Extraction/scrubbing/stripping process was studied in the leach. The composition of organic phase used in the extraction step was 10 % v/v Primene 81R, 10 % isodecanol and kerosene. All the iron, 91 % Cr, 10 % Ni and large part of the copper contained in the initial leach solution are recovered in the organic phase. In the scrubbing stage (with a sulphuric acid solution at pH 1,4, all the copper and nickel and 30 % Cr go to the washing liquor, while all the iron and 70 % Cr remained in the organic phase. In the stripping stage (with a 2N NH4OH or 2N NaOH solution all the iron and chromium are recovered as a precipitate of highly absorbent hydroxides. After the treatment mentioned, 63 % Cr and 100 % Fe are recovered as a mixture of hydroxides, and 28 % of the initial chromium, all the nickel and the copper are found in the washing liquor.

    Se estudia la aplicación del Primene 81R como agente de extracción del cromo presente en residuos sólidos que poseen níquel, hierro y cobre. El residuo se lixivió con disolución de ácido sulfúrico hasta pH 3 y se investigó la oxidación del Cr(III a Cr(VI con ácido de Caro. Ante el nulo resultado en la oxidación, se actuó directamente sobre el Cr(III. Se estudió el proceso de extracción/lavado/reextracción sobre la lejía de lixiviación. La fase orgánica empleada en la extracción estaba constituida por 10 % v/v de Primene 81R, 10 % de isodecanol y queroseno. En la fase orgánica se recupera todo el hierro, el 91 % Cr, el 10 % Ni y gran parte del cobre contenidos en la lejía de partida. En la etapa de lavado (con disolución de

  14. Evaluation of the Implementation of an educational intervention nurse in patients treated at the Heart Failure Unit at the University Hospital Puerta de Hierro

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    Aurora Hernández Rivas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of a nurse educational intervention in patients with heart failure in relation to the level of knowledge about their disease, level of self-care, treatment adherence, perceived satisfaction, fewer hospital readmissions and improved quality of life. Methods: Quasi-experimental study with two groups: control group (consisting of patients treated according to standard practice and experimental group (consisting of patients who will apply the nursing educational intervention proposal. It included all patients (= 18 years, good cognitive, literacy, sign informed consent with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF of recent (3-6 months or new onset, coming first in the Heart Failure Unit of Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro from May 2008. Sample: 68 patients per group. Nurse educational intervention will consist of four teaching sessions of 20 minutes before discharge, will be given a boost educational DVD, complete with brochures and explanatory guide, it will reinforce the information a month by telephone. Monitoring: baseline visit (inclusion and follow-up after 15 days, at 3 and 6 months. Outcomes/Instruments: demographic and clinical/exploration and medical history; quality of life, knowledge, self-care and medication adherence/validated questionnaires. Analysis: measures of central tendency and dispersion. Analysis by treatment assignment.

  15. Probabilistic approach to decision making under uncertainty during volcanic crises. Retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobradelo, Rosa; Martí, Joan; Kilburn, Christopher; López, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the potential evolution of a volcanic crisis is crucial to improving the design of effective mitigation strategies. This is especially the case for volcanoes close to densely-populated regions, where inappropriate decisions may trigger widespread loss of life, economic disruption and public distress. An outstanding goal for improving the management of volcanic crises, therefore, is to develop objective, real-time methodologies for evaluating how an emergency will develop and how scientists communicate with decision makers. Here we present a new model BADEMO (Bayesian Decision Model) that applies a general and flexible, probabilistic approach to managing volcanic crises. The model combines the hazard and risk factors that decision makers need for a holistic analysis of a volcanic crisis. These factors include eruption scenarios and their probabilities of occurrence, the vulnerability of populations and their activities, and the costs of false alarms and failed forecasts. The model can be implemented before an emergency, to identify actions for reducing the vulnerability of a district; during an emergency, to identify the optimum mitigating actions and how these may change as new information is obtained; and after an emergency, to assess the effectiveness of a mitigating response and, from the results, to improve strategies before another crisis occurs. As illustrated by a retrospective analysis of the 2011 eruption of El Hierro, in the Canary Islands, BADEMO provides the basis for quantifying the uncertainty associated with each recommended action as an emergency evolves, and serves as a mechanism for improving communications between scientists and decision makers.

  16. Fortificación de alimentos con hierro y zinc: pros y contras desde un punto de vista alimenticio y nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boccio José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia nutricional de ciertos minerales como el hierro y zinc afectan a la población a escala mundial con graves efectos sobre la salud dependiendo fundamentalmente del grado de incidencia y de la magnitud de la deficiencia. La fortificación de alimentos ha resultado ser la estrategia más efectiva para corregir esta situación con inconvenientes que radican no solamente en la elección del alimento a utilizar como transporte para dichos nutrientes sino también en la correcta elección del compuesto a utilizar como fortificante ya que en general aquellos compuestos que poseen una adecuada biodisponibilidad presentan cambios en las características sensoriales de los alimentos fortificados poco aceptables para su consumo. Los compuestos inertes, que poseen propiedades optimas desde del punto de vista tecnológico poseen una baja absorción que los convierte en compuestos nutricionalmente poco útiles. En este trabajo se discute con mayor detalle estos aspectos con el fin de llegar a un entendimiento más profundo de la problemática antes mencionada.

  17. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  18. Elementos de diferenciación social en el Bajo Aragón durante el Bronce final-Hierro I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Álvarez García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan algunos de los aspectos que más interesan a la denominada Arqueología Social, el relativo a la configuración de las sociedades. Nos proponemos, tomando como base algunos elementos arqueológicos de la zona bajoaragonesa, realizar un intento de aproximación a la realidad de los grupos humanos del Bronce Final y Primer Hierro en esta comarca. No son muchos los elementos de referencia con que contamos por el momento pero algunos de ellos, elementos metálicos, enterramientos, casas, tamaño de los poblados, etc. resultan tremendamente sugestivo como para hacer este intento de acercamiento a los modelos de sociedad de esta zona.This paper analyzes one of the main aspects of the Social Archaeology: the societies configuration. Through some archaeological items found in the Bajo Aragón (Spain we propose an approach to the human societies who lived in this area at the end of Bronze Age and the beginning of Iron Age. Although the number of available items is nowadays very limited, some of them are meaningful enough metallic items, graves, houses, village sizes, . . .- to allow us to deduce how they lived and died.

  19. Multifractal investigation of continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 pre- and eruptive phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Martì Molist, Joan; López Moreno, Carmen; Abella Meléndez, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    The Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) is an effective method that allows detecting multifractality in non-stationary signals. We applied the MF-DFA to the continuous seismic signal recorded at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands), which was affected by a submarine monogenetic eruption in October 2011. We investigated the multifractal properties of the continuous seismic signal before the onset of the eruption and after. We analysed three frames of the signal, one measured before the onset of eruption that occurred on October 10, 2011; and two after, but corresponding to two distinct eruptive episodes, the second one started on November 22, 2011 and lasting until late February 2012. The results obtained show a striking difference in the width of the multifractal spectrum, which is generally used to quantify the multifractal degree of a signal: the multifractal spectra of the signal frames recorded during the eruptive episodes are almost identical and much narrower than that of the signal frame measured before the onset of the eruption. Such difference indicates that the seismic signal recorded during the unrest reflects mostly the fracturing of the host rock under the overpressure exerted by the intruding magma, while that corresponding to the eruptive phases was mostly influenced by the flow of magma through the plumbing system, even some fracturing remains, not being possible to distinguish among the two eruptive episodes in terms of rock fracture mechanics.

  20. Estudio arqueometalúrgico de un hacha de hierro encontrada en la villa de "La Olmeda" Palencia, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez de Salazar, José María

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows an iron axe from I to V AD centuries. This piece belongs to an archaeological site from "La Olmeda" (Palencia, Spain where several iron artifacts were found. The metallurgical characterization of ancient iron axe was performed using optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and hardness test. The data obtained show the fabrication procedure and the technological knowledge of the roman society in "La Olmeda" site.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia un hacha de naturaleza férrea y que forma parte de los numerosos hallazgos encontrados en una villa situada en la provincia de Falencia conocida como "La Olmeda", que ha sido datada entre los siglos I y V dC. Esta pieza ha sido caracterizada microestructuralmente mediante microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido analítico, así como difracción de rayos X. También ha sido caracterizada mecánicamente mediante análisis de dureza Vickers. Con los resultados obtenidos se ha podido conocer la tecnología metalúrgica utilizada en la fabricación de hachas de hierro de época romana en la provincia de Palencia.

  1. Estudio de la granulación de la mezcla de minerales de hierro en el proceso de sinterización. I parte. Granulación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso, Antonio

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The granulation process of the ore mixture is described and the fitness for granulation of several iron ores form part of the mixture is studied. With a good granulation and sintering maximum temperature control is possible to achieve the best sintered structure, forming by a hematite nucleous bonded by acicular ferrites. The industrial experience of several types of granulation is described.

    Se describe el proceso de granulación de la mezcla de mineral y se estudia la aptitud a la granulación de una serie de minerales de hierro que forman parte de la mezcla. Con una buena granulación y control de la temperatura máxima de sinterización, se puede conseguir la estructura óptima del sintetizado, formada por un núcleo de hematita rodeado por una red de ferritos aciculares. Se expone la práctica industrial de distintas formas de realizar la granulación.

  2. Tratamiento con trofín en niños intolerantes a las sales de hierro Treatment with trofin in children who do not tolerate iron salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Fernández Delgado

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó tratamiento con Trofín, producto cubano de origen natural con propiedades antianémicas, a 14 niños entre 6 y 36 meses de edad con anemia ferripriva, que no toleraban las sales de hierro oral. Se observó una recuperación de las cifras de hemoglobina en el 86 % de los casos. Se presentaron reacciones adversas ligeras en el 36 % de los pacientes, sin que ello impidiera la continuación del tratamiento. El Trofín constituye una alternativa eficaz en el tratamiento de este déficit nutricional en pacientes intolerantes a las sales ferrosasTreatment with Trofin, a Cuban-made natural product with anti-anemic properties, was given to 14 children aged 6-36 months of age suffering from iron deficiency anemia, who do not assimilate oral iron salts. Adequate levels of hemoglobin figures were observed to be restored in 80% of the cases. 36% of patients showed minor adverse reactions without interrupting the treatment. Trofin is an effective alternative in treating this nutritional disorder in patients who do not tolerate iron salts

  3. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2018.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  4. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  5. Workshop 96. Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.).

  6. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  7. Ingesta de hierro y folatos durante el embarazo y su relación con indicadores bioquímicos maternos = Iron and folate intake during pregnancy and its relationship with maternal biochemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Mesa, Sandra Lucía

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la anemia en gestantes es un problema de salud pública en América Latina incluida Colombia.Objetivo: evaluar los indicadores bioquímicos del estado nutricional del hierro y el folato en un grupo de mujeres gestantes pobres vinculadas a un programa nutricional de la Gobernación de Antioquia (Colombia.Materiales y métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental en 26 gestantes, beneficiarias de un programa de educación nutricional, complemento alimentario fortificado con micronutrientes y suplemento de hierro, ácido fólico y vitamina C. Se evaluaron la ingesta dietética por recordatorio de 24 horas, y se midieron la ferritina sérica, la hemoglobina, el volumen corpuscular medio, la proteína C reactiva y el folato sérico; se hizo un coprológico para parásitos intestinales. Se aplicaron la prueba de Pearson para correlacionar la ingesta de folatos con la concentración sérica de los mismos, la prueba de Spearman para correlacionar la ingesta de hierro con la concentración sérica de ferritina, ANOVA de mediciones repetidas para comparación entre los trimestres de gestación y análisis de regresión simple y múltiple para establecer la dependencia de la ferritina, la hemoglobina y el folato sérico con las variables de interés. Se consideró significativo p < 0,05.Resultados: la anemia se previno en 84,6%; la variable más explicativa del cambio en la hemoglobina del tercer trimestre fue su valor en el segundo trimestre. Disminuyó la microcitosis (p = 0,02, pero las gestantes con menor ingesta de hierro tuvieron mayor prevalencia de esta en el tercer trimestre (p = 0,009. La ferropenia aumentó en el transcurso del embarazo (p < 0,001 y se halló correlación positiva entre la ingesta de hierro y la concentración de ferritina en el tercer trimestre (r = 0,64; p < 0,001. La concentración sérica de folato aumentó en el segundo y tercer trimestres (p = 0,018 y se observó una tendencia a la correlación positiva con la ingesta

  8. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  9. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  10. Factores de riesgo de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en lactantes de un área de salud Risk factors of iron-deficiency anemia in infants from a health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Gautier du Défaix Gómez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 57 lactantes, supuestamente sanos y tomados al azar, de la población urbana entre 6 y 12 meses de edad de un policlínico de la Ciudad de La Habana, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro y sus factores de riesgo. Se observó anemia por deficiencia de hierro relacionada con la lactancia materna exclusiva de menos de 4 meses de duración, la introducción temprana e ingestión exagerada de leche de vaca y el antecedente de diarreas e ingresos por esta causa. Se halló además correlación directa y significativa del peso al nacer con la ferritina y de la edad gestacional en el momento del parto con la hemoglobina, así como correlación directa de todos los indicadores de la deficiencia de hierro con la duración de la lactancia materna. El rápido crecimiento corporal, la dieta cuyo componente principal fue la leche de vaca y el aumento de las pérdidas por diarreas, constituyen las causas más frecuentes de deficiencia de hierro en este estudio57 infants who were apparently spund were selected at random from the urban population aged 6-12 months of a polyclinic in Havana City aimed at determining the frequency of iron-deficiency anemia and its risk factors. It was observed that iron-deficiency anemia was connected with exclusive breast feeding of less than 4 months of duration, the early introduction and exagerated ingestion of cow milk and the history of diarrheas and admissions for this cause. A direct and significant correlation was found between birth weight and ferritin and between gestational age at delivery and hemoglobin. A direct correlation of all the indicators of iron-deficiency anemia with the duration of breast feeding was also noted. The rapid body growth, the diet with cow milk as the main component and the increase of losses due to diarrheas were the commonest causes of iron-deficiency anemia according to this study

  11. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  12. Síntesis y caracterización espectroscópica de sulfatos de hierro: implicaciones en astrobiología y la exploración de Marte

    OpenAIRE

    Sansano Caramazana, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hay una serie de aspectos que fundamentan la necesidad y el interés de las investigaciones que en este proyecto de tesis se recogen. Por un lado, el interés por los sulfatos de hierro. Estos sulfatos tienen unas características físico químicas y estructurales que suponen un autentico mundo a descubrir y describir, con variadas composiciones, variados comportamientos acido-base y redox, diferentes grados de hidratación y diferentes disposiciones estructurales para mismas composiciones. La ...

  13. Preparación y estudio de fosfato de hierro y litio con diferentes morfologías y su aplicación en baterías de ión-litio

    OpenAIRE

    Trócoli Jiménez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    La investigación se ha centrado en la mejora de las propiedades electroquímicas del fosfato de hierro y litio, material positivo muy atractivo como electrodo en celdas litio ion. El óptimo comportamiento electroquímico de la estructura fosfolivina está basado en la meseta de potencial originada a 3.5 V. Las principales deficiencias del material, una muy baja conductividad intrínseca y un coeficiente de difusión de litio en la red muy pequeño, son causantes del pobre comportamiento electroquím...

  14. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as they are dangerous to cruise it over

  15. Estudio experimental sobre el comportamiento del hierro austemperado nitrurado (adi a la fatiga de contacto. // Experimental study to contact fatigue behavior of nitrided-austempered ductile iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Figueroa

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestra un estudio sobre el hierro fundido austemperado nitrurado sometido a pruebas de fatiga decontacto. El mismo se austenitizó y austemperó a las temperaturas de 900 y 3800C respectivamente, seleccionándose enambos casos un tiempo de 2 horas. Después se le aplicó un proceso de nitruración gaseosa a 5700C durante 6 horas.Las experiencias fueron realizadas en una máquina para el ensayo de fatiga de contacto con discos. Las presionesHertzianas utilizadas fueron de 1.73, 1.78, 2.04, 2.41, 2.46 y 2.71 GPa.La composición de fases se determinó utilizando la difracción de rayos X, evidenciándose la presencia de los compuestos e(Fe2-3N y g¢ (Fe4N. Los defectos tales como: pittings spalls y grietas fueron observados por medio de la microscopíaelectrónica de barrido (SEM. Los resultados indicaron que la capa nitrurada entre 5 y 6 micras de espesor desaparece bajola acción de las presiones de contacto. Por otra parte se pudo detectar una disminución de la resistencia a la fatiga en el ADInitrurado cuando fueron utilizadas bajas presiones Hertzianas También se comprobó que los nódulos de grafito actúancomo barreras a la propagación de grietas.Palabras claves: Fatiga de contacto, Capa nitrurada, hierro dúctil austemperado, máquina de fatiga condiscos, rayos X._____________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper presents a study on the behavior of nitrided austempered ductile iron (ADI under contact fatigue tests. ADI wasaustenitized at 9000C for 2 hours and austempered at 380oC for 2 hours. Later, the ADI was nitrided at 570oC for a periodof 6 hours.The contact fatigue tests were carried out using a disc test machine. Hertzian pressures of 1.73, 1.78, 2.04, 2.41, 2.46 and2.71 were used during the tests.The phase composition of nitride layer was determined using X-ray analysis, which detected the presence of the e and g¢phases. The pitting, spalls and cracks that appeared

  16. Racionalización de mezclas de minerales de hierro para la obtención de sinterizados de calidad optima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cores, A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Various iron ores, fluxes and coke, were used to prepare four ore mixtures with different proportions of these minerals. With each mixtures a series of sinters were produced in the pilot plant. Each one of the sinters was characterised by: chemical and granulometric analysis; degradation test on the sinter during reduction in the blast furnace, (RDI test; cold resistance test, (Tumbler Test; reducibility test; determining of softening and melting temperatures; and the determination of the structure of the sinter by electron microscopy. T he conditions of the mixtures and the operational parameters for obtaining the optimum quality of the sinters were established.

    Se utilizaron diversos minerales de hierro, fundentes y coque para preparar cuatro mezclas minerales con distintas proporciones de estos minerales. Con cada mezcla se fabricó una serie de sinterizados en planta piloto. Se caracteriza cada uno de los sinterizados mediante análisis químico y granulométrico, ensayo de la degradación del sinterizado durante la reducción en el horno alto (ensayo RDI, ensayo de la resistencia en frío (ensayo Tumbler, ensayo de reductibilidad; determinación de las temperaturas de reblandecimiento y fusión y determinación de la estructura del sinterizado por microscopia electrónica. Se establecen las condiciones de las mezclas y los parámetros de operación para la obtención de sinterizados de calidad óptima.

  17. Tendencias del uso del suelo en el Valle Amblés (Ávila, España. Del Neolítico al Hierro Inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BLANCO GONZÁLEZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo avanza una exploración preliminar, en clave diacrónica, de la explotación agropastoril del Valle Amblés (Ávila desde los primeros grupos agrarios hasta la Edad del Hierro. Se ha elegido una unidad geográfica con un nivel aceptable de información arqueológica y complementariedad paisajística entre las ocupaciones del fondo de valle, de tradicional explotación agropastoril y las zonas serranas, de vocación pastoril y forestal. En ese marco de estudio se han estudiado los territorios de explotación de un centenar de sitios de carácter habitacional, clasificados según criterios estilísticos de cultura material, tratando de evaluar de forma cuantitativa la potencialidad agraria de los terrenos en su entorno. Usando modelos de coste-distancia en un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG se han generado los polígonos correspondientes a media hora y una hora de marcha a pie desde cada yacimiento. Con ellos se han medido las superficies de los suelos clasificados según el sistema de evaluación del Mapa de Clases Agrológicas. Los resultados se describen mediante simples resúmenes numéricos y gráficos para ofrecer una lectura preliminar de los contrastes en el tiempo, advirtiéndose la parcialidad de una interpretación directa de los mismos, sin considerar otros factores locativos. En todas las etapas queda clara la tendencia a explotar diferentes tipos de suelos, relacionada con el acceso a un amplio rango de recursos complementarios entre estas comunidades campesinas. Los principales cambios se acusan a comienzos de las Edades del Bronce y del Hierro, conforme con las discontinuidades manifiestas en otros aspectos del registro arqueológico. Se aprecia una relación significativa entre la importancia del acceso a las tierras óptimas para una agricultura primitiva y los momentos de mayor sequía. Los suelos que requieren mayores inversiones de trabajo en infraestructuras agrarias y tecnologías de laboreo m

  18. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  19. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  20. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  1. Influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico durante el embarazo en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. (Influence of the physical aerobic exercise during pregnancy in the maternal haemoglobin and iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Stirling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Son bien conocidos los efectos beneficiosos que el ejercicio físico tiene sobre la salud en general, aunque no se cuenta con la misma información cuando se desarrolla durante el embarazo. La mayor incertidumbre es saber si pueden coexistir ambos procesos, ejercicio y embarazo, sin conflictos materno-fetales y sin resultados del embarazo alterados. Especialmente cuando día a día, son más las mujeres que desean continuar ejercitándose de alguna forma, durante su embarazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la influencia del ejercicio físico aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestres en los niveles de hemoglobina y de hierro maternos. Material y métodos: Se llevó acabo un estudio experimental que incluyó un total de 142 gestantes. Grupo casos: integrado por 72 mujeres. Grupo control: integrado por 70 mujeres. Los parámetros maternos estudiados fueron: niveles de hierro, nivel de hemoglobina previo al parto, edad gestacional, tipo de parto. Fetales: Peso de nacimiento, talla, perímetro craneal, test de Apgar (1´y 5´. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas a nivel estadístico entre ambos grupos (p menor que 0,05, el grupo de casos (ejercicio presento medias similares en los niveles de hemoglobina: 12.1 ± 0.8 y de hierro: 65.90 ± 7.1; que el grupo de control: hemoglobina: 12.3 ± 0.8 y hierro: 66.42 ± 8.4. El peso de nacimiento fue inferior en el grupo de casos dentro de valores normales (-142.1 grs.. Conclusión: El ejercicio aeróbico moderado desarrollado durante el segundo y tercer trimestre de embarazo parece no alterar los niveles de hierro y hemoglobina maternos. Abstract They are very well-known the beneficial effects that the physical exercise has about the health in general, although it is not had the same information when it refers to a pro- cess of remarkable importance: the pregnancy. The biggest uncertainty is to know if both processes, exercise and pregnancy can

  2. Óxidos de hierro libres asociados a carbono orgánico en agregados de suelos del partido de Balcarce Free iron oxides associated to organic carbon in soils aggregates in Balcarce county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Néstor Cabria

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuando la materia orgánica es el agente estabilizador principal y la estructura de los agregados es jerárquica, el mecanismo de formación de los agregados conduce a recluir el carbono orgánico en macroagregados estables. Este concepto surge de investigaciones que estudiaron el modo en que la labranza altera la formación y degradación de agregados y, consecuentemente, la dinámica natural de la materia orgánica particulada y asociaciones órgano-minerales. No contando con información local que corrobore cual es el contenido de carbono orgánico asociado a minerales dentro de los agregados y, además, entendiendo que una mejor información sobre la naturaleza y dinámica de las asociaciones órgano-minerales redundará en el entendimiento de la dinámica de la estructura y del secuestro y ciclo del carbono en los suelos, en este trabajo se extrajeron químicamente óxidos de hierro asociados al carbono orgánico en distintos tamaños de agregados en tres series de suelos bajo agricultura continua con labranza convencional (ACLC y paturras cultivadas (PC. Los resultados conducen a entender que la ferrihidrita, óxido de hierro paracristalino, sería un constituyente de las asociaciones órgano-minerales. La cantidad de este mineral disminuiría bajo ACLC, pero la magnitud de este resultado no fue similar en las tres series de suelo. En los dos sistemas de manejo el hierro removido desde los óxidos de hierro asociados al carbono orgánico fue más abundante en los macroagregados que en los microagregados. Bajo ACLC el hierro disminuyó en los macroagregados y aumento en los microagregados. Nosotros sugerimos que en los suelos disturbados el secuestro de carbono orgánico asociado a minerales, ferrihidrita, entre otros, ocurriría dentro de los microagregados que finalmente son recluidos en macroagregados estables.When organic matter is the principal stabilizing agent and soil aggregates structure is hierarchical, the mechanism of formation

  3. Energy saving using solar filters with iron base in windows; Ahorro de energia usando filtros solares con base en hierro en ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Galan, Jesus

    2003-07-01

    termico generado al interior de las edificaciones por las inadecuadas propiedades de los materiales de construccion, se desarrollaron en este trabajo filtros solares con base en hierro por medio de los cuales se logra un control selectivo de la radiacion solar que se transmite a traves de las ventanas. Estos filtros solares consisten en peliculas delgadas de FeO depositadas sobre sustratos de vidrio cal-sosa (el mas usado en nuestro pais para las edificaciones) de 600x300x3 mm, por medio de la tecnica de sputtering asistida con radiofrecuencia y magnetrones planos, partiendo de un blanco de hierro puro de 127x254 mm y usando un plasma de argon. Para obtener el grado de oxidacion deseado en el hierro, pequenas muestras (45 x 22 mm) fueron sometidas a un proceso de calentamiento en una atmosfera reductora constituida de 50% H{sub 2} + 50% N{sub 2}, durante un periodo de tiempo de 10 minutos a una temperatura de 400 C. Los filtros solares con base en FeO presentan una transmisividad de 30.2% para el intervalo visible del espectro electromagnetico (radiacion con longitud de onda de 380-780 nm), y de 39.9% para el infrarrojo cercano (radiacion con longitud de onda de 780-2500 nm); mientras que su reflectividad es de 17.5 y 19%, para los intervalos visibles e infrarrojo cercano del espectro electromagnetico respectivamente. Se realizo una simulacion, a traves del software Energy 10, del comportamiento energetico de una casa-habitacion cuando utilizan en las ventanas vidrios simples (una lamina) tipo cal-sosa, asi como tambien cuando esta misma edificacion usa en las ventanas los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados. Ambos casos se comparan obteniendose asi los posibles ahorros de energia por el uso de dichos filtros solares en las ventanas. Las simulaciones fueron llevadas a cabo para diferentes localidades del pais, obteniendose que los filtros solares con base en FeO desarrollados, permiten ahorros de energia principalmente por concepto de acondicionamiento de aire

  4. A new approach to the unrest and subsequent eruption at El Hierro Island (2011) based on petrological, seismological, geodetical and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletlidis, Stavros; Di Roberto, Alessio; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza; Pompilio, Massimo; García-Cañada, Laura; Bertagnini, Antonella; Benito Saz, Maria Angeles; Del Carlo, Paola; Sainz-Maza Aparicio, Sergio; Lopez Moreno, Carmen; Moure García, David

    2014-05-01

    A shallow submarine eruption took place on 10th October 2011, about 1.8 km off the coast of La Restinga, a small village located in El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruption lasted for about four months and ended by early March 2012. The eruption was preceded by an unrest episode that initiated about three months before, in July 2011, and characterized by more than 10,000 localized earthquakes accompanied by up to 5 cm of vertical ground deformation. In the Canary Islands, this event represents the first case of an eruption that was monitored since the unrest to the end by the monitoring network of IGN (Instituto Geográfico National), providing a huge dataset that includes geophysical (seismic, magnetic and gravimetric), geodetic, geochemistry and petrological data. In this work we use the seismic, GPS and gravity records collected by IGN along with the petrological data derived from the study of various lava balloons, scoriaceous fragments and ash.Geophysical and geochemical monitoring tools provide a variety of information that need to be interpreted in terms of magma movement and/or interaction of magma with host rocks. We present a model, based on this data, which describes the intrusion and ascent of the magma. According to this model, a major intrusion beneath and around preexisting high-density magmatic bodies, localized in the central sector of the island, led to an eruption in the Southern sector of the island. After a failed attempt to reach the surface, while various dykes were emplaced, through a low fractured area in the Central and Northern parts of the island, the ascending magma finally found its way in the submarine area of La Restinga, in the South rift zone, at a depth of 350 m below sea level. Feeding of the eruption was achieved by the ascension of an important volume of material from the upper mantle which was emplaced near the crust-mantle boundary. However, the very energetic post-eruptive unrests - we had five episodes up today with

  5. Estudio comparativo del comportamiento electroquímico del hierro en medio alcalino en presencia de lodos rojos y lodos grises. Efecto del Al3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu, C. M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is the main by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite, and grey slurries (GS are generated during the granite rocks transformation processes. The huge volume of those wastes generated every year suppose a serious environmental problem. Recent works by our group demonstrate the efficiency of both types of muds as corrosion inhibitors for iron and steel in alkaline media containing chlorides. The elemental analysis of these slurries shows that Al3+ is the main common element. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effect of the soluble Al3+ in the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline media, in presence and absence of chlorides. The electrochemical study using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS together with surface analysis techniques allowed to conclude that Al3+ blocks the surface of steel in alkaline media chloride increasing the steel resistance to chloride attack.

    Los elevados volúmenes de residuos generados por los lodos rojos (LR, procedentes del proceso de obtención de la alúmina a partir de la bauxita y los lodos grises (LG, originados durante el proceso de la transformación del granito, suponen un grave problema medioambiental. Trabajos recientes de este grupo demuestran la eficacia de ambos tipos de lodos como inhibidores de la corrosión del hierro y acero en medio alcalino clorurado. Esta característica ha llevado al estudio individualizado de sus componentes mayoritarios y, dentro de éstos, el Al3+, elemento común presente en mayor proporción. El estudio mediante técnicas electroquímicas como la Voltametría Cíclica (VC y la Espectroscopía de Impedancia Electroquímica (EIE, apoyadas en técnicas de análisis químico y superficial, ha permitido visualizar cómo el Al3+ es capaz de bloquear la superficie del acero en medio alcalino aumentando su resistencia al ataque

  6. Estudio de corrosión galvánica en pares latón/acero inoxidable y latón/fundición de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohanian, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion attack in heat exchanger systems is a topic of main interest for the maintenance in each industrial plant. These are multigalvanic systems with particular geometric and fluidodynamic complexity. Corrosive damages include zinc selective dealeation in copper alloys. In order to explain zinc dealeation attack, this paper deals with laboratory scale testing, characterization and interactions between two copper and zinc alloys (Yellow brass –UNS C268– and Admiralty brass –UNS C443– compared to AISI 316 stainless steel and cast iron. The tests were performed at 20 °C in 1.5 % NaCl and 1.5 % Na2SO4 solutions, pH 8 and each material was characterized by potentiodynamic sweeps. The couples are analyzed by studying transient galvanic currents. We conclude about the cause of the analyzed pathology, brass protection potential ranges and its coupling compatibility with other metals.

    El ataque por corrosión en los sistemas intercambiadores de calor constituye un problema para el mantenimiento de cualquier planta industrial. Se trata de sistemas multigalvánicos con particular complejidad geométrica y fluidodinámica. Las patologías corrosivas incluyen el fenómeno de dealeación selectiva de cinc en las aleaciones de cobre. A fin de explicar un caso particular de ataque por decinficación (deterioro en placa de intercambiador de calor de tubos de inoxidable, el presente trabajo aborda en ensayos a escala de laboratorio, la caracterización e interacciones entre dos aleaciones de cobre y cinc, (Yellow brass –UNS C268– y Admiralty brass –UNS C443–, respecto a acero inoxidable AISI 316 y fundición gris de hierro. Los ensayos se realizan a 20 °C en disoluciones de NaCl 1,5 % y Na2SO4 1,5 % y pH 8. Se caracterizan electroquímicamente las aleaciones y materiales involucrados mediante barridos potenciodinámicos. Los pares galvánicos formados se analizan mediante el

  7. Iron, zinc and iodide status in Mexican children under 12 years and women 12-49 years of age: a probabilistic national survey Estado de hierro, zinc y yodo en niños menores de 12 años y en mujeres de 12-49 años de edad en México: una encuesta probabilística nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Villalpando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of iron, zinc and iodide deficiencies in a probabilistic sample of Mexican women and children and explore its association with some dietary and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out in 1999 an epidemiological description of iron (percent transferrin saturation, PTS, OBJETIVO: Describir la epidemiología de las deficiencias de hierro, zinc y yodo en una muestra probabilística de mujeres y niños mexicanos y analizar algunas asociaciones con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Descripción epidemiológica de las deficiencias de hierro (Porcentaje de saturación de transferrina <16%, zinc (<65ug/dl y yodo (<50ug/l orina en una muestra probabilística de 1363 niños y 731 mujeres. Las concentraciones séricas de hierro, y la capacidad total de saturación de hierro y zinc se midieron por espectrometría de absorción atómica, y el yodo por un método colorimétrico. Los determinantes de tales deficiencias se estudiaron mediante modelos de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La deficiencia de hierro fue mayor (67% en niños <2 años de edad. La prevalencia disminuyó en los escolares (34-39%. La prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro en mujeres fue de 40%. La deficiencia de zinc fue mayor en niños <2 años de edad (34% que en escolares (19-24%. La prevalencia en mujeres fue de 30%, sin diferencia rural/urbana. La probabilidad de tener deficiencia de hierro en mujeres disminuyó con el nivel socio-económico (p=0.04 y aumentó con la ingestión de cereales (p=0.01. La probabilidad de tener concentraciones bajas de zinc sérico fueron mayores en mujeres de nivel socioeconómico (SES bajo (p=0.02 y p=0.001. La prevalencia de deficiencia de yodo fue casi inexistente tanto en niños como en mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos demuestran una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, especialmente en niños de 12 a 24 meses de edad. Se sugiere que en niños mayores

  8. Prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro y yodo, y parasitosis en niños de Arandas, Jalisco, México Prevalence of iron and iodine deficiency and parasitosis in children from Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Manuel Vásquez-Garibay

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis en niños que asisten al Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco (Inadej, Arandas, Jalisco, México. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal efectuado entre 1997 y 1999 con 432 niños de 12 a 120 meses de edad, de nuevo ingreso al Inadej. Se determinaron variables hematológicas, yodo en orina y presencia de parásitos. Se utilizaron las pruebas Ji cuadrada y t de Student en variables no paramétricas y paramétricas. Resultados. Hubo más anemia (20 vs 7.4% p=0.007 y deficiencia de hierro (60.9 vs 44.4% p=0.02 en prescolares que en escolares. El 29% presentaron deficiencia de yodo (10.5% moderada o grave y 47.2% parasitosis. Predominaron G. lamblia y E. histolytica. Bajo salario, sexo masculino y no tener seguridad social se asociaron con parasitosis. Conclusiones. La elevada prevalencia de deficiencia de hierro, yodo y parasitosis obliga al sector salud estatal a ejecutar medidas eficaces para abatir estas enfermedades prevenibles.Objective. To estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency, iodine deficiency and parasitosis in children attending the Instituto Alteño para el Desarrollo de Jalisco ((Highlands Institute for Development of Jalisco State, INADEJ, Arandas, Jalisco, Mexico. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 1997 and 1999, among 432 children aged 12 to 120 months attending the INADEJ. Measurements included hematological values, urine iodine concentration, and presence of parasites. Student's t test chi square tests were used for parametric and non-parametric analysis. Results. The prevalence figures of anemia (20 vs 7.4%, p=0.007 and iron deficiency (60.9 vs 44.4%, p=0.02 were higher in preschool than in school children. Iodine deficiency was found in 29% (10.5% moderate or severe and parasitosis in 47.2% of children, mainly E. histolytica (30.2% and G. lamblia (28.9%. Low income, male gender and lack of social

  9. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  10. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  11. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  12. Efecto del tipo de lactancia durante el primer año de vida sobre el estado de hierro y el desarrollo físico y psicológico del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Bedmar Carretero, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar el desarrollo del niño durante el primer año de vida en función del tipo de lactancia realizada durante el primer semestre y de la dosis de hierro administrada durante el segundo semestre. El 75,5% realizan lactancia materna exclusiva al nacer y el 16,5% la mantienen hasta los 6 meses. El 39,5%tienen alguna mutación en el gen HFE. La prevalencia de déficit de hierroy anemia ferropénicaes del 4,5% y 2,5% a los 6 meses y del 9,2% y 1,2% a los 12 meses.La ...

  13. Influencia de la concentración de hierro y pH iniciales en un proceso de biodesulfurización de carbón – ensayos a nivel de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Caicedo Pineda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Particle size, iron concentration and pH influence in biodesulfurization process of coal – laboratory tests   Resumen   A un carbón proveniente del municipio de Puerto Libertador, Córdoba-Colombia (2.34% de azufre total, con 1.34% pirítico, 0.90% orgánico y 0.10% de sulfatos, se le aplicó un cultivo mixto de Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans y Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, con el fin de evaluar procesos de biodesulfurización en suspensión, a partir de variables que influyen en el proceso: concentración inicial de hierro y pH de la solución lixiviante, bajo dos configuraciones de tamaño de partícula: pasante malla 8 (-malla 8 y pasante malla 60 (-malla 60, acorde con la serie Tyler de tamices. Los procesos de biodesulfurización se evaluaron cada dos días, mediante mediciones de la concentración de hierro, pH, potencial de óxido-reducción y crecimiento celular, en la solución. A partir de los ensayos realizados, se alcanzaron oxidaciones de azufre pirítico por encima del 50%, después de 12 días de proceso. Se pudo constatar que tanto el tipo de carbón tratado, como de las condiciones evaluadas, inciden en el grado de lixiviación alcanzado. La mejor eficiencia del proceso se observó al utilizar concentraciones de hierro iniciales menores a 1200 ppm y un pH inicial entre 1.5 y 1.3.   Palabras clave: Acidithiobacillus, biodesulfurización, carbón, hierro removido, pirita.   Abstract   Biodesulfurization process for Colombian coal (2.34% total sulfur: 1.34% as pyritic, 0.90% as organic and 0.10% from sulfates from municipality of Puerto Libertador (Córdoba, Colombia was carried out. A mixed culture of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans was used. The study was mainly focused on the influence of pH, and iron concentration in coal leaching process. Two mineral particle sizes were evaluated: less 8 mesh (-malla 8 and less 60 mesh (-malla 60, Tyler series. Biodesulfurization processes were determined by

  14. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  15. Prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro en escolares jujeños de 12 años Prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in 12 year old school children from Jujuy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Buys

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La deficiencia de hierro es una de las deficiencias de micronutrientes más comunes. Los adolescentes son un grupo vulnerable. Un reconocimiento oportuno puede prevenir una anemia ferropénica, etapa final y grave de dicha deficiencia, insuficientemente conocida en nuestro país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los valores hematológicos en adolescentes y conocer las prevalencias de anemia y deficiencia de hierro. Definidas como a anemia: hematocrito (Hto Iron deficiency is highly frequent among adolescents. Its early detection can prevent the development of a ferropenic anemia, a serious condition. The problem has not been well studied in our country. The purpose of this work was to determine the frequency of iron deficiency and anemia in adolescents. The criteria considered were: hematocrit below 38%, b saturation transferrin below 16%, c ferritin below 15 ng/ml. The study was carried out in 2.265 schoolchildren, 12 years old, of both sexes, in urban and periurban areas in the city of San Salvador de Jujuy (1.250 a.s.l.. The following parameters were measured: hematocrit as well as serum iron and total iron binding capacity, both by colorimetric method. Ferritin was measured by ELISA. Anemia was not found. Iron deficiency as estimated by the iron functional component, was found in 25% of girls and 21% of boys and, through iron stores, in 28% of girls and 18% of boys. Iron deficiency stores in both sexes is the more relevant alteration, indicating that the population sample here studied constitutes a highly vulnerable group. The early detection of iron deficiency will help physical and intellectual development so that adequate sanitary policies are necessary for its prevention.

  16. Disponibilidad de cobre, hierro, manganeso, zinc en suelos del NO argentino Pant availability of copper, iron, manganesum and zinc in the north west of Agentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Roca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobre, hierro, manganeso y zinc son cuatro metales esenciales para el crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de las pequeñas cantidades requeridas por las plantas, los suelos agrícolas suelen ser deficitarios en uno o más micronutrientes de forma que su concentración en los tejidos de los vegetales cae por debajo de los niveles que permiten un crecimiento óptimo. La naturaleza del suelo juega un papel fundamental en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en su comportamiento a nivel suelo-planta. Los objetivos planteados en el presente estudio son: a establecer la relación entre los parámetros edáficos y la dinámica de los metales dentro del perfil del suelo, y b determinar la biodisponibilidad y zonas de deficiencia de micronutrientes en suelos agrícolas y suelos con riesgo de salinización. El porcentaje de materia orgánica es el factor determinante en el contenido y distribución de los micronutrientes en el suelo objeto de estudio, siendo el horizonte superficial el de mayor acumulación. Tanto CuDTPA, FeDTPA como MnDTPA tienen cierta movilidad en el perfil, mientras que ZnDTPA permanece adsorbido sin un desplazamiento vertical. El ZnDTPA es el único metal que además, muestra diferencias como consecuencia de la salinidad y granulometría de los suelos. No obstante, las condiciones geoquímicas del suelo implican una baja extractabilidad y una cierta dificultad de absorción de los micronutrientes por parte de las plantas.Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are among the essential elements for plant growth. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more of these micronutrients. Therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the optimum levels. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behavior at a soil-plant level. The aims of this paper were: a to establish the relationship between soil properties and micronutrient dynamics within

  17. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  18. Complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenc, W.; Bernat, M; Gluchowska, H.W.; Sarzynski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The complexes of 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) have been synthesized as polycrystalline hydrated solids, and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy, magnetic studies and also by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric measurements. The analysed complexes have the following colours: violet for Nd(III), white for Gd(III) and cream for Ho(III) compounds. The carboxylate groups bind as bidentate chelating (Ho) or bridging ligands (Nd, Gd). On heating to 1173K in air the complexes decompose in several steps. At first, they dehydrate in one step to form anhydrous salts, that next decompose to the oxides of respective metals. The gaseous products of their thermal decomposition in nitrogen were also determined and the magnetic susceptibilities were measured over the temperature range of 76-303K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that 4-chlorophenoxyacetates of Nd(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) are high-spin complexes with weak ligand fields. The solubility value in water at 293K for analysed 4-chlorophenoxyacetates is in the order of 10 -4 mol/dm 3 . (author)

  19. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  20. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  1. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  2. Thermodecomposition of lanthanides (III) and ytrium (III) glucoheptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giolito, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) glucoheptonates as well the D-glucoheptono 1-4 lactone were studied using common analytical methods, elemental microanalysis of carbon and hydrogen, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. These compounds were prepared from the reaction between the lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) hydroxides and glucoheptonic acid aqueous solution obtained by means of the delta lactone hydrolysis of this acid. After stoichiometric reaction the compounds were precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol, washed with the same solvent and dried in desiccator. Thermogravimetric the (TG) curves of the lanthanides glucoheptonates of the ceric group present thermal profiles with enough differences permitting an easy caracterization of each compound and the yttrium (III) glucoheptonate TG curve showed a great similarity with the erbium (III) compound TG curve. The differential scanning calometry (DSC) curves showed endothermic and exothermic peaks by their shape, height and position (temperature) permit an easy and rapid identification of each compound specially if DSC and TG curves were examined simultaneously. (author) [pt

  3. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS

  4. Complexes of lanthanum(III), cerium(III), samarium(III) and dysprosium(III) with substituted piperidines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manhas, B S; Trikha, A K; Singh, H; Chander, M

    1983-11-01

    Complexes of the general formulae M/sub 2/Cl/sub 6/(L)/sub 3/.C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH and M/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/(L)/sub 2/.CH/sub 3/OH have been synthesised by the reactions of chlorides and nitrates of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) with 2-methylpiperidine, 3-methylpiperidine and 4-methylpiperidine. These complexes have been characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, and IR and electronic reflectance spectra. IR spectral data indicate the presence of coordinated ethanol and methanol molecules and bidentate nitrate groups. Coordination numbers of the metal ions vary from 5 to 8. 19 refs.

  5. Celestine III and the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår pave Cølestin IIIs forhold til de nordiske kongeriger i perioden 1191-1198. Artiklen viser, at paven, som i forskningen traditionelt år har stået i skyggen af sin berømte, energiske og især: yngre efterfølger, Innocens III, har været på forkant med udviklingen i de nordiske rig...

  6. Iron overload and genotype 3 are associated with liver steatosis in chronic hepatitis C Sobrecarga de hierro y genotipo 3 se asocian a la presencia de esteatosis en la hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Fernández Salazar

    2004-12-01

    excluyeron pacientes con otros virus. Se revisaron las biopsias hepáticas de forma protocolizada. Se obtuvieron los datos epidemiológicos, analíticos y virológicos. La talla y el peso de los pacientes se recogieron en el momento de la biopsia hepática. Se estudió la asociación estadística de las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas con la presencia de esteatosis y se realizó un análisis multivariante. Resultados: se identificó esteatosis en el 52% de las biopsias. No hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa con edad, sexo, vía de contagio, tiempo de evolución, ingesta de alcohol, presencia de enfermedades asociadas, índice de masa corporal, glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol, AST, ALT, GGT, FA, bilirrubina, carga viral. Se asoció a mayor sideremia, IST y ferritina. Se demostró asociación con el genotipo 3. La esteatosis se asoció a necrosis piecemeal, degeneración hepatocelular, hiperplasia de células de Kupffer, hierro hepático y fibrosis portal. El hierro hepático, la hiperplasia de las células de Kupffer y el genotipo 3 se asociaron de manera independiente a la esteatosis hepática. Conclusiones: la esteatosis en la hepatitis C se asocia a la infección por genotipo 3, a la hiperplasia de las células de Kupffer y a sobrecarga de hierro. También se asocia a mayor inflamación y fibrosis por lo que debe ser considerada factor agravante.

  7. Estudio del efecto de la adición de distintos mineralizadores en la síntesis cerámica del pigmento rosa coral de hierro-circón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llusar, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of several mineralizing agents (alkaline or alkaline-earth halides, KNO3, etc. in the traditional ceramic synthesis of the “coral pink” iron-zircon (Fe-ZrSiO4 ceramic pigment has been analysed, using two different Fe precursors (sulphate and goethite. FeSO4.7H2O employment as Fe precursor allows us to obtain a better reddish colour than with goethite (FeO(OH. Results let us to classify the studied mineralisers in two major groups: i primary or zircon-forming mineralisers, which activate somehow zircon formation with a good occlusion efficiency of hematite into the zircon matrix (NaF, NaCl and BaF2 when using FeSO4 and Na2SiF6 and NaAl3F6 with goethite,. and ii secondary or modifying mineralisers, that have a collateral effect on the pigment synthesis regulating both hematite crystallisation and occlusion (KNO3, Na2SiF6 and NaAl3F6 with FeSO4 and KI and KNO3 with goethite. With regard to the color yield, those compositions mineralised with the binary systems NaF-Na2SiF6, NaF-NaAl3F6 and NaF-KNO3 have been found to develop the best red color.

    Se ha analizado el efecto de la adición de distintos agentes mineralizadores (haluros alcalinos y alcalino-térreos, KNO3, etc. en la síntesis cerámica tradicional del pigmento rosa coral de hierro-circón (Fe-ZrSiO4, usando dos precursores diferentes para el hierro (sulfato y goetita. El empleo de FeSO4.7H2O como fuente de hierro permite obtener mejores coloraciones rojizas que con goetita (FeO(OH. Los resultados obtenidos permiten clasificar a los distintos mineralizadores ensayados en dos grandes grupos: i mineralizadores primarios o “formadores de circón”, los cuales permiten activar el desarrollo del circón con una buena eficiencia en el encapsulamiento de la hematita en los cristales de circón (NaF, NaCl y BaF2 con FeSO4, y Na2SiF6 y NaAl3F6 con goetita, y ii mineralizadores “secundarios o coadyuvantes”, con un efecto colateral sobre la síntesis del pigmento

  8. Iron zircon pigment synthesis: Proposal of a mixing index for the raw materials mixtures; Síntesis del pigmento de hierro-circón: Propuesta de un índice de mezclado para mezclas de materias primas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaquero, E.; Ortsb, M.J.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-11-01

    Iron zircon coral pigments are very interesting from an industrial point of view because of their high colouring power and their stability at high temperatures. However, the pigment's synthesis is particularly troublesome due to its specific reaction mechanism. As an encapsulated pigment it becomes very important how the raw materials are distributed in the reaction mixture. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mixing process, it would be convenient to define a parameter, that is the mixing index, to estimate the degree of homogeneity of the system. In the current investigation, a mixing index is proposed derived from the power spectrum of Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the raw material mixture. Concretely, the number of pixels in a certain range of values in the image of the power spectrum, seems to behave relatively well as mixing index. This index allows us to distinguish between samples with different zirconia and iron oxide used as precursors. The proposed mixing index seems to be related to the colouring power of the final pigment when the synthesis generates enough zircon to encapsulate hematite particles. [Spanish] Los pigmentos coral de hierro-circón son muy interesantes desde el punto de vista industrial ya que n un alto poder colorante y estabilidad a altas temperaturas. Sin embargo, la síntesis del pigmento es particularmente problemática debido a su mecanismo de reacción. Al tratarse de un pigmento encapsulado, resulta fundamental cómo se encuentran distribuidas las materias primas en la mezcla de reacción. Para evaluar la efectividad del proceso de mezclado, es conveniente definir un parámetro, que es el índice de mezclado, para estimar el grado de homogeneidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo de investigación se propone un índice de mezclado basado en el espectro de potencia de la transformada de Fourier de imágenes obtenidas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido de las mezclas de materias

  9. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población infantil de Cuba. Brechas por cerrar Iron deficiency anemia in the child population of Cuba. Gaps to be bridged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Pita-Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es un problema de salud mundial que afecta tanto a los países desarrollados como a aquellos en desarrollo. Sus causas pueden ser multifactoriales y frecuentemente pueden coexisitir varias de ellas; la principal es la baja ingestión de alimentos con fuentes adecuadas de hierro, tanto en cantidad como en calidad. En Cuba se está trabajando desde el año 1987 en el desarrollo de programas de intervención para la prevención de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en la población, pero a pesar de todo el esfuerzo, no se han obtenido los impactos esperados, y existen diversos factores que pueden estar incidiendo en ello y que pueden sinergizarse. Evidencias científicas nacionales muestran que la baja prevalencia de lactancia materna, el escaso consumo de frutas y vegetales y la deficiencia vitamínica, ejercen influencia en la prevalencia de la anemia en Cuba. El parasitismo intestinal y la infección con H. pylori no están asociados con la prevalencia de anemia en el país. La obesidad e inflamación crónica a bajo tenor requerirían de estudios epidemiológicos que describan las posibles asociaciones entre estos factores.Anemia is a global health problem affecting both developed and developing countries. The causes of anemia may be multifactorial, and several of them are often present at the same time. The main cause of anemia is the low intake of foods with adequate sources of iron both in quantity and quality. Work is being done in Cuba since the year 1987 aimed at developing intervention programs for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in the population, but despite the great effort, the expected impact has not been achieved, due to the combined influence of various factors. National scientific evidence shows that the low incidence of breastfeeding, the low intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as vitamin deficiency, have an influence on the prevalence of anemia in Cuba. Neither intestinal parasitism nor infection with H

  10. Efficacy of intravenous iron in treating iron deficiency anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: Are there predictors of response? Eficacia del hierro intravenoso en el tratamiento de la anemia ferropénica en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: ¿Existen factores predictivos de respuesta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ferreiro Iglesias

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD iron deficiency anaemia (IDA is a very common disorder. Until recently, oral iron has been the mainstay therapy, nevertheless it has been associated with intolerance and noncompliance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous iron in IDA in IBD patients and the secondary aim was to investigate whether other potential factors could influence in the response to the treatment. Design: an open-label, prospective, consecutive, single centre study. Material and methods: we performed our study in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD with severe anaemia or intolerance with oral iron. All of them received intravenous sacarose iron and did biochemistry profile with haemoglobin (Hb. Moreover, the correlation with other variables was studied: age, sex, smoking habit, IBD type, previous surgery and type of surgery and other treatments. Response was defined as Hb increase of ≥ 2 g/dL or normalization of the levels. Results: fifty-four patients were included into the study, 34 (63% with UC y 20 (37% with CD, 18 (33.3% men and 36 women (66.6% and the average was 48 ± 14 years. The total proportion of responders was 52% (SD ± 05; 43% of the patients reached Hb ≥ 2 g/dl and y 9% of them normalized Hb. Only the utilization of 5-ASA was associated with low response to iron treatment (p Introducción: la anemia por déficit de hierro es un problema frecuente en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII. Un número no despreciable de pacientes no responde o presenta intolerancia al hierro oral. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es evaluar la eficacia del hierro sacarosa intravenoso (Venofer® en los pacientes con EII así como los potenciales factores que pueden influir en la respuesta al mismo. Diseño: estudio abierto, unicéntrico y con una inclusión consecutiva de casos. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con colitis ulcerosa (CU y enfermedad

  11. Spectrophotometric and pH-Metric Studies of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III Metal Complexes with Rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sonar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal-ligand and proton-ligand stability constant of Ce(III, Dy(III, Gd(III,Yb(III and Pr(III metals with substituted heterocyclic drug (Rifampicin were determined at various ionic strength by pH metric titration. NaClO4 was used to maintain ionic strength of solution. The results obtained were extrapolated to the zero ionic strength using an equation with one individual parameter. The thermodynamic stability constant of the complexes were also calculated. The formation of complexes has been studied by Job’s method. The results obtained were of stability constants by pH metric method is confirmed by Job’s method.

  12. Making progress with PISC III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Nichols, R.; McDonald, N.

    1989-01-01

    The thirdphase of the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC III) was begun in 1986 with the aim of assessing inspection capability and reliability for actual defects in full scale components under realistic nuclear power plant conditions. It is organized by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Ispra Joint Research Centre of the European Communities Commission. The objectives and status of each of the seven areas of PISC III are given. The areas are: real contaminated structures; full scale vessel tests; nozzles and dissimilar metal welds; austenitic steel testing; steam generator integrity testing; mathematical modelling of non-destructive examination; and human reliability studies. (U.K.)

  13. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  14. Digestión en horno de microondas para determinación de contenido de hierro y zinc totales en alimentos Microwave digestion for determination of iron and zinc content of total food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se optimizó el procedimiento de digestión de alimentos por medio de un horno de microondas, para cuantificar el hierro y el zinc totales en diferentes matrices por espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Se analizó la cantidad óptima de HNO3 concentrado al 65% para digerir determinada masa de muestra por evaluación del porcentaje de recuperación obtenido con diferente cantidad de HNO3. Los resultados no difieren de los obtenidos por los métodos recomendados oficialmente de digestión ácida en sistemas abiertos y de calcinación.In this study, the procedure was optimized digestion of food by means of a microwave oven, to quantify the total iron and zinc in different matrices by atomic absorption spectroscopy. We analyzed the optimal amount of 65% concentrated HNO3 to digest sample mass determined by evaluating the percent recover y obtained with different amounts of HNO3.The results are similar to those obtained by the methods recommended officially acid digestion in open systems and calcination.

  15. La pantalla feminista: feminidad sufragista y masculinidad hegemónica. Análisis cinematográfico: Ángeles de Hierro (2004 y Las Sufragistas (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gómez Beltrán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La cinematografía de los últimos años ha prestado especial atención a determinados procesos de la Historia del feminismo, uno de estos “hechos” lo constituye el sufragismo. A lo largo del texto se pretenderá ahondar en la politización de los mensajes fílmicos y por tanto en su comprensión/recepción como discurso político al alcance del público contemporáneo así como instrumentos productivos de una representación determinada de los géneros y sus alteridades. Todo ello sin olvidar los “efectos” –en tanto agentes culturales- que pueden producir en la sociedad. Para ello se utilizarán dos películas del cine mainstream contemporáneo Ángeles de Hierro (2004 y Las Sufragistas (2015 con la intención de analizar cómo la narración fílmica sirve a los intereses discursivos de la desmitificación de las mitologías antisufragistas así como al despliegue de la alteridad femenina sufragista y la comprobación de los posibles cambios y resistencias en el seno de la masculinidad.

  16. Del desarrollismo al (neoextractivismo (1969-2017. Auge, decadencia y resurgimiento de la minería del hierro en Sierra Grande, provincia de Río Negro (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Gómez Lende

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aunque en la Argentina la problemática del avance del extractivismo y la minería metalífera ha sido ampliamente debatida en tiempos recientes, en el pasado esta última actividad ha sido clave respecto de la configuración de la matriz productiva de ciertas provincias. Tal es el caso del complejo minero-fabril de Sierra Grande (provincia de Río Negro, única explotación metalífera surgida en el país por iniciativa del Estado nacional. Este trabajo analiza el auge, decadencia y resurgimiento de la minería del hierro en Sierra Grande, a la luz del contexto impuesto por proyecto desarrollista estatal primero (1969-1992, la fase neoliberal después (1993-2004, y finalmente el modelo (neoextractivista (2005-2017. Asimismo, se demuestra que este último período ha sido escenario del despliegue de variadas formas de acumulación por desposesión, como la privatización y extranjerización de bienes comunes, la configuración de enclaves exportadores, la superexplotación del trabajo, la expropiación político-económica y la desapropiación socio-ecológica.

  17. La aldea del Hierro Inicial del Cerro de San Vicente (Salamanca, España: Resultados de las excavaciones entre 1990 y 2006 a la luz de algunos debates actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BLANCO-GONZÁLEZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge algunos de los principales resultados de las excavaciones arqueológicas efectuadas entre 1990 y 2006 en el yacimiento de la Primera Edad del Hierro (800-400 cal AC del Cerro de San Vicente (Salamanca. El trabajo aborda dos cuestiones mal conocidas, centrándose en las últimas ocupaciones del asentamiento, por ser las mejor investigadas: a los procesos de formación y acumulación de restos en una aldea con arquitectura de barro; y b una caracterización social de sus habitantes. La anatomía interna de este asentamiento muestra la persistencia de usos y la superposición de desechos y estructuras. Las viviendas carecen de enseres domésticos, aparecen colmatadas con adobes y en ocasiones incendiadas. Respecto a la organización social, se detectan síntomas de división interna: las casas con atrio y sus dependencias auxiliares se cercan. Las estrategias agrarias complejas constatadas pudieron haber facilitado la acumulación de riqueza por algunas familias, dentro de una organización social heterárquica.

  18. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  19. Ion temperatures in TORTUR III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, F.B.

    1985-12-01

    Spatially resolved ion-energy distributions are presented for discharges in the TORTUR III tokamak. The measurements are performed in an active method, using a neutral hydrogen probing beam of 20-30 keV, to enhance charge-exchange processes along its path, as well as by the usual passive method. Ion temperatures can amount up to 1 keV

  20. Synthesis and characterization of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) complexes of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Singh, Praveen K.

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of 2-acetylfuran-2-thenoylhydrazone(afth) with Ln(III) trichlorides yields complexes of the type [Ln(afth)Cl 2 (H 2 O)(EtOH)]Cl, [Ln(III) = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy]. The complexes have been characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, magnetic susceptibility and TGA and DTA measurements, FAB mass, infrared, proton NMR, electronic absorption and emission spectra. The terbium complex is found to be monomer from the FAB mass spectrum. The IR and NMR spectra suggest neutral tridentate behaviour of the Schiff base. A coordination number seven is proposed around the metal ions. Emission spectra suggest C 3v , symmetry around the metal ion with capped octahedron geometry for the europium complex. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of Alloys of Iron and Silicon; Proprietes Thermodynamiques des Alliages Fer-Silicium; Termodinamicheskie svojstva splavov zheleza s kremniem; Propiedades Termodinamicas de las Aleaciones de Hierro y Silicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecher, R. A.; Gejderih, V. A.; Gerasimov, Ja. I. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Im.M.V. Lomonosova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-01-15

    -Harpoon-Over-Leftwards-Harpoon {alpha}' est une veritable transformation de phase. La region a deux phases est plus large que ne semble l'indiquer le diagramme d'equilibre (etabli d'apres les valeurs publiees). L'activite du fer en solution liquide calculee a partir de celle du fer en solution solide est en bon accord avec les valeurs trouvees par Chipman. (author) [Spanish] El diagrama de equilibrio Fe-Si es muy complejo. A 1000 Degree-Sign K se observa la presencia de las fases siguientes: FeSi{sub 2}({beta}), FeSi y soluciones solidas de silicio en hierro {alpha} and {alpha}'. Los autores midieron las fuerzas electromotrices de las celdas electroquimicas: Fe|Fe{sup 2+} , KI + Nal|Fe-Si at 600-800 Degree-Sign C fundidos Las aleaciones se prepararon a partir de componentes puros por pulvimetalurgia y se sometieron a un recocido prolongado. Los autores estudiaron diez aleaciones con un contenido de silicio comprendido entre 85% y 4%, situadas en todas las fases del diagrama de equilibrio a 1000 Degree-Sign K. Calcularon los valores integrales de {Delta}G, {Delta}H y {Delta}S correspondientes a la formacion de los siliciuros FeSi{sub 2}({beta}), FeSi y Fe{sub 3}Si a la temperatura media del intervalo experimental (1000 Degree-Sign K), asi como (utilizando el calor especifico de los siliciuros de hierro y del silicio) a 298, 1188 y 1798 Degree-Sign K. Los calores de formacion de los mencionados siliciuros a 298 Degree-Sign K ascienden a -19,4, -17,6 y -22,4 kcal/mol, respectivamente. Los datos publicados permiten calcular el calor de formacion del FeSi{sub 2,33} - ({alpha}-leboita) a 298 Degree-Sign K, que es igual a -14,4 kcal/mol. Los calores calculados por los autores son superiores a los datos experimentales de Corber y de Olsen en 1,5 - 3 kcal. Por otra parte, los calores de mezcla, calculados para las aleaciones liquidas, concuerdan satisfactoriamente con los datos publicados. Los datos obtenidos pueden explicarse como un resultado de la modificacion que sufre el caracter del enlace en los

  2. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, S; Gessner, M; Wolf, R H.H. [Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied.

  3. Sorption of trace amounts of gallium (III) on iron (III) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been studied as a function of pH. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of traces of gallium(III) by iron(III) oxide. The influence of surface active substances and of complexing agents on the sorption of trace amounts of gallium(III) on iron(III) oxide has been also studied. (orig.) [de

  4. Aplicación de tratamiento electroquímico a baja intensidad de corriente para la extracción de cloruros en objetos arqueológicos de hierro de procedencia subacuática. Observación de la evolución de fases mineralógicas mediante XRD-Rietveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethencourt, M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of optimising a suitable methodology for the conservation of an archaeological object of iron, a low current intensities electrolytic treatment has been applied, to a piece of cast iron, proving to be effective in the extraction of chloride ions from the structure of akaganeite, principal corrosion product of iron in the marine medium. The monitoring of the electrolytic treatment has been proven by applying the "Rietveld" method to the patterns XRD of samples extracted from the corroded surface before and after the treatment. This method has permitted the unequivocal determination of the akaganeite and its chemical composition. This identification has been corroborated by means of SEM and EDS. After the electrolytic treatment, akaganeite was not present in the sample.

    Con objeto de optimizar una metodología adecuada para la conservación de una pieza de hierro arqueológico de fundición, se ha aplicado un tratamiento electrolítico a bajas intensidades de corriente, demostrando su efectividad en la extracción de iones cloruro de la estructura de akaganeita, principal producto de corrosión del hierro en medio marino. La monitorización del proceso se ha comprobado aplicando el método Rietveld a los patrones XRD de muestras extraídas de la superficie corroída antes y después del tratamiento. Este método ha permitido la determinación inequívoca de la akaganeita y la composición química de este oxihidróxido de hierro no estequiométrico. Dicha identificación se corrobora mediante SEM y EDS. Después del tratamiento electrolítico la akaganeita no está presente en la muestra.

  5. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  6. Firebird-III program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.R.; Prawirosochardjo, S.; Rennick, D.F.; Wessman, E.; Blain, R.J.D.; Wilson, J.M.

    1979-09-01

    The FIREBIRD-III digital computer program is a general network code developed primarily for predicting the thermalhydraulic behaviour of CANDU power reactors during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident and the subsequent emergency coolant injection. Because of its flexibility, the code can also be used to solve a large variety of general two-phase flow problems. This report describes the thermalhydraulic models and the computation methods used in the program

  7. Mechatronic systems and materials III

    CERN Document Server

    Gosiewski, Zdzislaw

    2009-01-01

    This very interesting volume is divided into 24 sections; each of which covers, in detail, one aspect of the subject-matter: I. Industrial robots; II. Microrobotics; III. Mobile robots; IV. Teleoperation, telerobotics, teleoperated semi-autonomous systems; V. Sensors and actuators in mechatronics; VI. Control of mechatronic systems; VII. Analysis of vibration and deformation; VIII. Optimization, optimal design; IX. Integrated diagnostics; X. Failure analysis; XI. Tribology in mechatronic systems; XII. Analysis of signals; XIII. Measurement techniques; XIV. Multifunctional and smart materials;

  8. Revised SNAP III Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Calvin Elroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzales, Samuel M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rothrock, Richard Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sorensen, Eric Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sundby, Gary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    The Shielded Neutron Assay Probe (SNAP) technique was developed to determine the leakage neutron source strength of a radioactive object. The original system consisted of an EberlineTM Mini-scaler and discrete neutron detector. The system was operated by obtaining the count rate with the EberlineTM instrument, determining the absolute efficiency from a graph, and calculating the neutron source strength by hand. In 2003 the SNAP III, shown in Figure 1, was designed and built. It required the operator to position the SNAP, and then measure the source-to-detector and detectorto- reflector distances. Next the operator entered the distance measurements and started the data acquisition. The SNAP acquired the required count rate and then calculated and displayed the leakage neutron source strength (NSS). The original design of the SNAP III is described in SNAP III Training Manual (ER-TRN-PLN-0258, Rev. 0, January 2004, prepared by William Baird) This report describes some changes that have been made to the SNAP III. One important change is the addition of a LEMO connector to provide neutron detection output pulses for input to the MC-15. This feature is useful in active interrogation with a neutron generator because the MC-15 has the capability to only record data when it is not gated off by a pulse from the neutron generator. This avoids recording of a lot of data during the generator pulses that are not useful. Another change was the replacement of the infrared RS-232 serial communication output by a similar output via a 4-pin LEMO connector. The current document includes a more complete explanation of how to estimate the amount of moderation around a neutron-emitting source.

  9. Titanium gettering in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Grassie, J.S.; Callis, R.; Campbell, G.

    1980-08-01

    The application of mild titanium gettering in the Doublet III tokamak has led to a significant improvement in the obtainable operating regimes and discharge parameters for all of the many plasma cross-sectional shapes studied. With gettering, low-Z impurities and radiated power are greatly reduced. The maximum line averaged electron density has increased 50% (anti n/sub e max/ approx. 1 x 10 20 /m 3 ), corresponding to a Murakami coefficient of nearly 6

  10. Improving Minuteman III Maintenance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    the ground . Then figure out what your challenges are. We’ll have those” (Pappalardo, 2011). Another challenge facing the maintenance personnel...as assets aged as indicated by the pattern ‘B’ shown in Figure 2. With the increase in the mechanization of processes, more attention has been...concepts could be applied to the sustainment of the MM III as well as benefit its planned replacement, the Ground Based Strategic Deterrent (GBDS

  11. French participation to PISC III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.

    1994-06-01

    The PISC III programme was set up in 1986 after the conclusions of the PISC II programme. The main objective was assessment of ISI procedures on few particular components or materials. France with IPSN, CEA/DTA, DCN INDRET, EDF, FRAMATOME and INTERCONTROLE decided to have an important participation in several of the eight actions. This paper describes shortly the key points of this participation and the consequences in France. (authors). 10 figs., 1 tab

  12. Basel III and Asset Securitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mpundu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asset securitization via special purpose entities involves the process of transforming assets into securities that are issued to investors. These investors hold the rights to payments supported by the cash flows from an asset pool held by the said entity. In this paper, we discuss the mechanism by which low- and high-quality entities securitize low- and high-quality assets, respectively, into collateralized debt obligations. During the 2007–2009 financial crisis, asset securitization was seriously inhibited. In response to this, for instance, new Basel III capital and liquidity regulations were introduced. Here, we find that we can explicitly determine the transaction costs related to low-quality asset securitization. Also, in the case of dynamic and static multipliers, the effects of unexpected negative shocks such as rating downgrades on asset price and input, debt obligation price and output, and profit will be quantified. In this case, we note that Basel III has been designed to provide countercyclical capital buffers to negate procyclicality. Moreover, we will develop an illustrative example of low-quality asset securitization for subprime mortgages. Furthermore, numerical examples to illustrate the key results will be provided. In addition, connections between Basel III and asset securitization will be highlighted.

  13. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  14. The determination of the thermodynamic activity of antimony in alpha-iron; Determination de l'activite thermodynamique de l'antimoine dans le fer alpha; Opredelenie termodinamicheskoj aktivnosti sur'my v al'fa-zheleze; Determinacion de la actividad termodinamica del antimonio en el hierro alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomilin, I A

    1962-01-15

    des divergences positives par rapport a l'etat parfait lorsque les concentrations d'antimoine present sont peu importantes. L'auteur a calcule la quantite de chaleur necessaire pour dissoudre l'antimoine dans le fer, ainsi que l'excedent d'entropie molaire partielle d'apres la temperature d'activite. Il s'est servi des resultats obtenus pour determiner avec precision la ligne qui marque la limite de solubilite de l'antimoine dans le fer alpha. Etant donne que les ferroalliages d'antimoine avaient ete obtenus par voie de saturation de diffusion, et non par refroidissement a partir de l'etat liquide, il n'y a pas eu de liquefaction. L'auteur a donc pu determiner d'une facon sure la constante du reseau des alliages et la relation entre cette constante et la concentration de l'antimoine. La limite de solubilite determinee d'apres les donnees radiographiques correspond a celle que l'on obtient en employant l'antimoine-124. (author) [Spanish] La memoria propone un metodo para determinar la actividad termodinamica del antimonio disuelto en el hierro alfa, que se basa en el estudio de la reparticion de este metal entre dos fases: plomo liquido y hierro solido. El metodo permitio observar que las soluciones solidas de antimonio en hierro se desvian en sentido positivo del estado ideal. Las soluciones de este elemente en el hierro obedecen a la ley de Henry en un intervalo muy extenso de concentraciones. Los experimentos especiales realizados para estudiar la reparticion del antimonio entre el plomo y el hierro en estado liquido han demostrado que, en estado liquido, el sistema hierro-antimonio se caracteriza por su desviacion positiva respecto del estado ideal cuando la concentracion del segundo elemento es baja. Los autores calcularon el calor necesario para la disolucion del antimonio en el hierro alfa, y el incremento de entropia molar parcial a partir de la temperatura de activacion. Los resultados obtenidos han servido para establecer con precision el limite de

  15. Biosíntesis de dextranos de alto peso molecular mediante la inoculación con Leuconostoc Mesenteroides, var. Mesenteroides (atcc 10830 de jugos residuales de la agroindustria de la piña: síntesis y caracterización de hierro-dextranos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Vega Baudrit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran los estudios realizados para obtener dextranos a partir de desechos de la agroindustria de piña. La fermentación se llevó a cabo en un biorreactor (10 L, se inoculó con un cultivo de Leuconostoc mesenteroides, var. mesenteroides (ATCC 10830. Se centrifugó y se precipitó y purificó con etanol. Fue caracterizado por medio de viscosidad, peso molecular y grupos funcionales por espectroscopía infrarroja. Este dextrano fue tratado con el fin de obtener hierro-dextranos.

  16. Granulometría, morfometría y mineralogía de polvo atmosférico que entra a la cuenca canaria: evidencia de retención de partículas de hierro en la capa de mezcla

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo-Vélez, Alfredo; Menéndez, Inmaculada; Alonso, Ignacio; Mangas, José; Hernández-León, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    El polvo atmosférico juega un papel importante en el clima y en los procesos oceánicos, particularmente la deposición del polvo sahariano es de suma importancia en la corriente canaria debido a que contiene minerales de hierro que actúan como fertilizante del océano. En este trabajo las partículas de polvo fueron caracterizadas mediante granulometría, morfometría y mineralogía, usando procesamiento de imágenes, microscopia electrónica (SEM-EDS). El polvo analizado en este estudio fue generado...

  17. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  18. Study of type III ELMs in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Horton, L. D.; Becoulet, M.; Budny, R.; Borba, D.; Chankin, A.; Conway, G. D.; Cordey, G.; McDonald, D.; Guenther, K.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Igithkanov, Y.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; Pogutse, O.; Rapp, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n(e)-T-e diagram, and Type III ELMs are

  19. Sparkle/PM3 for the modeling of europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    The Sparkle/PM3 model is extended to europium(III), gadolinium(III), and terbium(III) complexes. The validation procedure was carried out using only high quality crystallographic structures, for a total of ninety-six Eu(III) complexes, seventy Gd(III) complexes, and forty-two Tb(III) complexes. The Sparkle/PM3 unsigned mean error, for all interatomic distances between the trivalent lanthanide ion and the ligand atoms of the first sphere of coordination, is: 0.080 A for Eu(III); 0.063 A for Gd(III); and 0.070 A for Tb(III). These figures are similar to the Sparkle/AM1 ones of 0.082 A, 0.061 A, and 0.068 A respectively, indicating they are all comparable parameterizations. Moreover, their accuracy is similar to what can be obtained by present-day ab initio effective core potential full geometry optimization calculations on such lanthanide complexes. Finally, we report a preliminary attempt to show that Sparkle/PM3 geometry predictions are reliable. For one of the Eu(III) complexes, BAFZEO, we created hundreds of different input geometries by randomly varying the distances and angles of the ligands to the central Eu(III) ion, which were all subsequently fully optimized. A significant trend was unveiled, indicating that more accurate local minima geometries cluster at lower total energies, thus reinforcing the validity of sparkle model calculations. (author)

  20. Europium (III) and americium (III) stability constants with humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R.A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) complexes with a humic acid extracted from a lake-bottom sediment were measured using a solvent extraction system. The organic extractant was di(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid in toluene while the humate aqueous phase had a constant ionic strength of 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). Aqueous humic acid concentrations were monitored by measuring uv-visible absorbances at approx.= 380 nm. The total carboxylate capacity of the humic acid was determined by direct potentiometric titration to be 3.86 +- 0.03 meq/g. The humic acid displayed typical characteristics of a polyelectrolyte - the apparent pKsub(a), as well as the calculated metal ion stability constants increased as the degree of ionization (α) increased. The binding data required a fit of two stability constants, β 1 and β 2 , such that for Eu, log β 1 = 8.86 α + 4.39, log β 2 = 3.55 α + 11.06 while for Am, log β 1 = 10.58 α + 3.84, log β 2 = 5.32 α + 10.42. With hydroxide, carbonate, and humate as competing ligands, the humate complex associated with the β 1 constant is calculated to be the dominant species for the trivalent actinides and lanthanides under conditions present in natural waters. (orig.)

  1. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Charm physics at BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifang

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of J/Ψ and the τ lepton in 70's, the study of τ-charm physics became very active: several dedicated e + e - colliders were built and tremendous progress were obtained. In this paper, the main reasoning,the content and the characteristics of the τ-charm physics study are discussed, together with the scientific motivations and the latest results of the recently completed upgrade of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC II) and the new Beijing Spectrometer (BES III). (authors)

  3. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  4. Isothiocyanato complexes of Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A; Singh, V K

    1982-01-01

    Six-coordinated complexes of the type (Ln(PyBzH)/sub 2/NCS.H/sub 2/O) (NCS)/sub 2/.nH/sub 2/O/mC/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH (Ln = Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III), n=1-2; m=1) have been prepared from Ln(NCS)/sub 6//sup 3 -/. The room temperature magnetic moment values confirm the terpositive state of the lanthanide ions. Infrared spectra suggest the N-coordination of thiocyanate group. Electronic spectral studies of Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) complexes have been made in terms of LSJ term energies. 13 refs.

  5. Transformational III-V Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-04-01

    Flexible electronics using III-V materials for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. This thesis describes a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process for transforming traditional III-V materials based electronics into flexible one. The thesis reports releasing 200 nm of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) from 200 nm GaAs / 300 nm Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes that contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelengths) observed. Fabrication of metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAPs) on GaAs is followed by releasing it to have devices on flexible 200 nm GaAs. Similarly, flexible GaSb and InP fabrication process is also reported to transform traditional electronics into large-area flexible electronics.

  6. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino] phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omprakash, K.L.; Chandra Pal, A.V.; Reddy, M.L.N.

    1982-01-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO 4 ) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (logβ 2 ) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III). (author)

  7. Formation constants of Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes of tridentate schiff base, 2-((1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene) amino) phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omprakash, K L; Chandra Pal, A V; Reddy, M L.N. [Osmania Univ., Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1982-03-01

    A new tridentate schiff base, 2- (1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-methylene)amino phenol derived from benzimididazole-2-carbo-xaldehyde and 2-aminophenol has been synthesised and characterised by spectral and analytical data. Proton-ligand formation constants of the schiff base and metal-ligand formation constants of its complexes with Sm(III), Dy(III), Gd(III), Nd(III) and Pr(III) have been determined potentiometrically in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxane at an ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO/sub 4/) and at 25deg C using the Irving-Rossotti titration technique. The order of stability constants (log..beta../sub 2/) is found to be Sm(III)>Dy(III)>Gd(III)>Pr(III)>Nd(III).

  8. The SINTRAN III NODAL system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaali, T.B.

    1980-10-01

    NODAL is a high level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, with some influence from BASIC. The language was developed to operate on the computer network controlling the SPS accelerator at CERN. NODAL is an interpretive language designed for interactive use. This is the most important aspect of the language, and is reflected in its structure. The interactive facilities make it possible to write, debug and modify programs much faster than with compiler based languages like FORTRAN and ALGOL. Apart from a few minor modifications, the basic part of the Oslo University NODAL system does not differ from the CERN version. However, the Oslo University implementation has been expanded with new functions which enable the user to execute many of the SINTRAN III monitor calls from the NODAL level. In particular the most important RT monitor calls have been implemented in this way, a property which renders possible the use of NODAL as a RT program administrator. (JIW)

  9. Solvent effects on extraction of aluminum(III), gallium(III), and indium(III), with decanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Fujii, Yukio; Mizuta, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Extraction of aluminum(III) and indium(III) with decanoic acid in 1-octanol was carried out at 25 deg C and at an aqueous ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4 ). Monomeric and tetrameric aluminum(III) decanoates and monomeric indium(III) decanoate are responsible for the extraction. From a comparison of the present results with those obtained from the previous works, the polymerization of the extracted species was found to be more extensive in benzene than in 1-octanol, and the metal decanoates were highly polymerized in the following order in both solvents: Al > Ga > In. (author)

  10. Separation studies of La(III) and Ce(III)/Nd(III)/Pr(III)/Sm(III) from chloride solution using DEHPA/PC88A in petrofin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Sagarika; Mishra, Sujata; Bhatta, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    The separation of La(III) and four other lanthanides. Ce, Nd, Pr and Sm from chloride solution has been studied using the two acidic organophosphorous extractants, DEHPA and PC88A in petrofin at pH 4.3. The metal content analysis was done using an ICP-OES spectrophotometer. The separation factors (β) was calculated and for La-Sm pair highest value of 9.7 was obtained. (author)

  11. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Singh, M.P.; Singh, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    The nitrato-complexes, [Y(PyBzH) 2 (NO 3 ) 2 ]NO 3 .H 2 O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole] are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm -1 cm 2 mol -1 ) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the terpositive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C 2 v) and uncoordinated (D 3 h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms. (author)

  12. Nitrato-complexes of Y(III), La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) with 2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A; Singh, M P; Singh, V K

    1982-05-01

    The nitrato-complexes, (Y(PyBzH)/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/)NO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O and Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho ; n=1-3, m=0-0.5 ; PyBzh=2-(2 -pyridyl)benzimidazole) are formed on interaction of the ligand with metal nitrates in ethanol. The electrical conductance values (116-129 ohm/sup -1/cm/sup 2/mol/sup -1/) suggest 1:1 electrolyte-nature of the complexes. Magnetic moment values of Ce(2.53 B.M.), Pr(3.62 B.M.), Nd(3.52 B.M.), Sm(1.70 B.M.), Gd(8.06 B.M.), Tb(9.44 B.M.), Dy(10.56 B.M.) and Ho(10.51 B.M.) in the complexes confirm the positive state of the metals. Infrared evidences are obtained for the existance of both coordinated (C/sub 2/v) and uncoordinated (D/sub 3/h) nitrate groups. Electronic absorption spectra of Pr(III)-, Nd(III)-, Sm(III)-, Tb(III)-, Dy(III)- and Ho(III)-complexes have been analysed in the light of LSJ terms.

  13. Junta de soldadura disímil de la aleación hk – 40 y del hierro fundido 24//Dissimilar welding joints of the alloy hk - 40 and of the cast iron 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernández‐Columbié

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es establecer el comportamiento microestructural de una unión soldada disímil en una aleación HK 40 y el hierro fundido 24, la cual se realiza en equipo que prestan servicios en la industria del níquel y que por las características de la unión, surgen en el mismo problema de agrietamiento. Se realizó una caracterización química de ambas aleaciones, luego por el proceso demecanizado se prepararon un total de nueve muestras, las que fueron soldada por proceso manual por arco eléctrico, los electrodos revestidos empleados fueron el E 312–16, el UTP 65 y el Castell Xiron 244, demostrándose en el análisis microestructural y en el diagrama de Schaeffler, que la disposición de la unión con el electrodo E 312–16 provoca la aparición de estructura interdendritica con origen a la fundición blanca, siendo más favorable la unión con el electrodo UTP 65. Se le realizó el análisis de microdureza en cada unión.Palabras claves: disímil, aleación, agrietamiento, soldadura, electrodos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIt is paper have the objective to establish the behaviour microstructure of an union welded dissimilar in an alloy HK 40 and the cast iron 24, which is carried out in team that you lend services in the industry of the nickel and that for the characteristics of the union, they arise in the same cracking problem. He was carried out a chemical characterization of both alloys, then for the process ofautomated got ready a total of nine samples, those that were welding for process shield for electric arch (SMAW, the electrodes lined employees were the E 312 - 16, the UTP 65 and the Castell Xiron 244, being demonstrated in the analysis microstructure and in the diagram of Schaeffler that the disposition of the union with the electrode E 312 - 16 cause the appearance of structure inter dendritewith origin to the white foundry, being more available the union

  14. Modificación superficial de aceros y hierros fundidos mediante láser de Nd: YAG. // Steels and cast irons superficial modification by means of laser Nd: YAG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sagaró Z.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de los autores en el tratamiento térmico superficial con técnica láser (TTSL. Con el empleo deun láser de Nd: YAG se procedió al endurecimiento superficial de los aceros AISI 1045, W1, W112 y hierros fundidos detipo laminar y nodular. Los autores prestan atención a las rutas de endurecimiento superficial atendiendo a los parámetrosoperacionales del láser: potencia incidente en la zona de interacción (P y la velocidad de barrido del haz de láser (V. Deigual forma se establecen valoraciones acerca de las estructuras metalográficas obtenidas. En todos los casos se reportanvalores de microdureza Vickers que oscilan entre los 500-900 HV (incrementos de 3-4 veces respecto al substratooriginal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer en todos los casos experimentados que el incremento de lavelocidad de barrido provocó una disminución de la profundidad de la capa endurecida. Las experiencias del TTSL en losaceros ensayados muestran una tendencia a la disminución de la profundidad del endurecimiento con el incremento delcontenido de carbono.Palabras claves: Endurecimiento superficial, parámetros de operación de láser., microdureza, profundidadde capa endurecida, de fallo, vibraciones.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis paper expose the experiences of researchers on the laser surface heat treatment. The hardening of AISI 1045, W1,W112 steels and cast irons flake and nodular was carried out by using a Nd: YAG laser. Operation parameters of laser, likebeam power (P and traverse speed of the laser spot (V are closely with hardening depth . Authors present some analysesabout metallographic studies. In all cases are reported Vickers microhardness about 500-900 HV (three or four times higherthan original substrates. Relations between microhardness and depth of hardening are presented for the processedmaterials. Experimental results showed that the increased

  15. Efecto de la serpentina en la formación de fases mineralógicas y su relación con la resistencia mecánica en sinterizados de mineral de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedolla, E.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of microstructures formed by serpentine addition on mechanical strength is investigated. It was found that the microstructure formed depends mainly on firing temperature, basicity and serpentine percent. The mineralogical phases present were quantified by the point-count method. The addition of serpentine on acid briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 0.3, mainly on those fired at 1,275, 1,300 and 1,325 °C, leads to the formation of magnesio-ferrite that diminishes the mechanical strength of fired briquettes, and at the temperature of 1,250 °C the mechanical strength decreases because of the presence of glassy slags. On the other hand, the addition of serpentine on basic briquettes (CaO/Si O2 = 1.2 leads to the formation of olivines and ferrites that improve the mechanical strength of fired briquettes.

    Se estudia la influencia de las microestructuras formadas sobre la resistencia mecánica de mineral de hierro aglomerado con serpentina. Se deduce que la microestructura formada depende de la temperatura de sinterización, de la basicidad y del valor porcentual de serpentina, principalmente. Las fases mineralógicas presentes se cuantificaron utilizando la técnica de conteo por puntos. En briquetas acidas (CaO/SiO2 = 0,3 sinterizadas a 1.275, 1.300 y 1.325 °C, se encontró que la serpentina induce la formación de magnesio-ferritas que traen, como consecuencia, una disminución de la resistencia mecánica, mientras que, a la temperatura de sinterización de 1.250 °C, la aparición de escorias vítreas es la causa principal de la disminución de resistencia. En el caso de briquetas básicas (CaO/SiO2 = 1,2, la adición de serpentina produce la formación de olivinas y calcio-ferritas que originan un aumento de la resistencia mecánica de los sinterizados.

  16. DSM-III-R and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, S G

    1992-07-01

    The interpretation of religion in DSM-III-R contains considerable negative bias and contributes to unfair stereotypes of religious persons. Particularly new religious movements and religious conversion are unfairly interpreted under the DSM-III-R heading, 'Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified'. It is suggested that a more balanced and respectful interpretation of religion is needed in DSM-III-R, since psychiatry through its official nomenclature should not contribute to social intolerance of religious nonconformity.

  17. Sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide has been studied as a function of pH. The mechanism of sorption is discussed. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of small or trace amounts of europium(III) by iron(III) hydroxide and oxide. The influence of complexing agents (EDTA, oxalate, tartrate and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) on the sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) oxide has also been studied. (author)

  18. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potentiometric studies on some ternary complexes of Nd(III), Sm(III), Gd(III) and Ho(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid as primary ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, D.G.; Munshi, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    The formation constants of the ternary complexes of neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadlonium(III) and holmium(III) with cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid (CyDTA) as primary ligand and dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), dihydroxynaphthalene-6-sulphonic acid (DHNSA) and cateechol-3,5-disulphonic acid (CDSA) as secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The secondary ligands have been investigated by potentiometric titration technique. The values of formation constants of 1:1:1 ternary chelates are reported at three different temperatures, and at a fixed ionic strength, μ = 0.1 M (NaClO 4 ). (author)

  20. The Moessbauer effect in Fe(III) HEDTA, Fe(III) EDTA, and Fe(III) CDTA compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of Moessbauer spectra with pH value of Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds is studied. Informations on formation processes of LFe-O-FeL (L=ligand) type dimers by the relation of titration curves of Fe(III)EDTA, Fe(III)HEDTA and Fe(III)CDTA compounds with the series of Moessbauer spectra, are obtained. Some informations on Fe-O-Fe bond structure are also obtained. Comparing the titration curves with the series of Moessbauer spectra, it is concluded that the dimerization process begins when a specie of the form FeXOH α (X = EDTA, HEDTA, CDTA; α = -1, -2) arises. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Producción de hierros nodulares ferríticos directamente de fundición partiendo de chatarra de acero de alto manganeso // Production of ferrítics nodular irons directly from foundry leaving of high manganese scrap steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DeFranch

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available La producción de hierros nodulares con matriz ferrítica es lograda normalmente con el uso de arrabios especiales con bajoscontenidos de elementos formadores de carburos, o mediante largos y costosos tratamientos térmicos. Estos arrabios tienenaltos precios, por lo que se hace necesario la búsqueda de variantes más económicas para la producción de este tipo dematerial. El objetivo de este trabajo es la obtención de dicho material usando como carga chatarra de acero, la cual tiene unprecio mucho mas bajo.La estructura de la matriz en el hierro nodular, depende de su composición química, su velocidad de enfriamiento, así como dela forma y cantidad de nódulos de grafito. Cuando lo que se desean son matrices ferríticas se deben mantener los elementosperlitizantes en contenidos lo más bajo posible para desfavorecer de esta forma la solidificación de acuerdo al diagramametaestable.El uso de chatarra plantea el problema de los niveles de manganeso presentes en la misma (generalmente entre 0.6 y 0.8%. Elmanganeso, que es un elemento perlitizante evita la obtención de altas elongaciones ya que la matriz nunca seríacompletamente ferrítica. Es por esto que si se desea usar chatarra de acero como material de carga sea necesario el estudio deformas de eliminarlo del baño.Para la eliminación del manganeso existen diversas referencias en la literatura a procesos desarrollados a base de cloro,oxígeno, sulfatos, óxido de hierro, y procesos con el uso de hornos al vacío.En este trabajo la eliminación del manganeso mediante el uso de óxido de hierro, Sulfato de sodio, y PVC. ha sido investigada,llegando a soluciones factibles para la producción de este tipo de hierro.El primero de los tres métodos ha demostrado ser el más factible ya que el segundo aumenta el contenido de azufre en el baño,requiriendo una desulfuración previa al tratamiento de esferoidización y el tercero de los métodos desprende una gran cantidadde gases da

  2. Extraction and stripping of neodymium (III) and dysprosium (III) by TRUEX solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    McCabe-Thiele diagram for the extraction and stripping of Nd (III) and Dy (III) by TRUEX solvent has been constructed to determine the number of stages required for complete extraction and stripping. (author)

  3. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojczal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler. Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity.

  4. Modal Profiles for the WISC-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David A.; Livingston, Ronald B.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Moses, James A., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a normative typology for classifying the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) factor index profiles according to profile shape. Current analyses indicate that overall profile level accounted for a majority of the variance in WISC-III index scores, but a considerable proportion of the variance was because of…

  5. The OPAL phase III microvertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, S.

    1997-01-01

    A description of the OPAL Phase III microvertex detector is given. Special emphasis is put on problems that have been encountered in the installation and operation of the different phases of the OPAL microvertex detector leading to the present Phase III detector and their cures. A short description of the new OPAL radiation monitoring and beam dump system is also given. (orig.)

  6. National Coastal Condition Report III Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  7. National Coastal Condition Report III (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  8. Oral Assessment Kit, Levels II & III. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelo-Gonzalez, Maria; And Others

    The assessment packet includes a series of oral tests to help develop speaking as an integral part of second language instruction at levels II and III. It contains: 8 mini-tests for use at level II; 9 mini-tests for use at level III; a rating scale and score sheet masters for evaluating performance on these tests; and a collection of suggested…

  9. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation...... in critically ill patients are unknown. This review was published in 2008 and updated in 2015.  Objectives: To examine: 1. The effect of AT III on mortality in critically ill participants. 2. The benefits and harms of AT III. We investigated complications specific and not specific to the trial intervention......, bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general.  Search methods: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

  10. Uranium (III)-Plutonium (III) co-precipitation in molten chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2018-02-01

    Co-management of the actinides in an integrated closed fuel cycle by a pyrochemical process is studied at the laboratory scale in France in the CEA-ATALANTE facility. In this context the co-precipitation of U(III) and Pu(III) by wet argon sparging in LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) molten salt at 705 °C is studied. Pu(III) is prepared in situ in the molten salt by carbochlorination of PuO2 and U(III) is then introduced as UCl3 after chlorine purge by argon to avoid any oxidation of uranium up to U(VI) by Cl2. The oxide conversion yield through wet argon sparging is quantitative. However, the preferential oxidation of U(III) in comparison to Pu(III) is responsible for a successive conversion of the two actinides, giving a mixture of UO2 and PuO2 oxides. Surprisingly, the conversion of sole Pu(III) in the same conditions leads to a mixture of PuO2 and PuOCl, characteristic of a partial oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV). This is in contrast with coconversion of U(III)-Pu(III) mixtures but in agreement with the conversion of Ce(III).

  11. Association of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Zenko

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of Eu(III) and Cm(III) by Bacillus subtilis and Halobacterium salinarum was investigated. Both microorganisms showed almost identical pH dependence on the distribution ratio (K d ) of the metals examined, i.e., K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) increased with an increase of pH. The coordination state of Eu(III) adsorbed on the microorganisms was studied by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The coordination states of Eu(III) adsorbed on the B. subtilis and H. salinarum was of different characteristics. H. salinarum exhibited more outer-spherical interaction with Eu(III) than B. subtilis. (author)

  12. Fluorimetric determination of samarium(III) and europium(III) in neodymium oxide by separation with a resin column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaorong Liu; Jian Meng (Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Engineering and Metallurgy (China)); Wenhua Liu (General Research Institute for Non-Ferrous Metals (China))

    1992-08-24

    When thenoyltrifluoroacetone-phenanthroline-Triton X-100 is used to determine samarium(III) and europium(III) fluorimetrically, only a limited amount of neodymium(III) can be tolerated. By using an on- line separation which can partially separate neodymium(III) from samarium(III), a practical and convenient method was developed to detect samarium(III) at concentrations >0.05% and europium(III) at concentrations >0.005% in neodymium oxide. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs.

  13. Fluorimetric determination of samarium(III) and europium(III) in neodymium oxide by separation with a resin column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaorong Liu; Jian Meng; Wenhua Liu

    1992-01-01

    When thenoyltrifluoroacetone-phenanthroline-Triton X-100 is used to determine samarium(III) and europium(III) fluorimetrically, only a limited amount of neodymium(III) can be tolerated. By using an on- line separation which can partially separate neodymium(III) from samarium(III), a practical and convenient method was developed to detect samarium(III) at concentrations >0.05% and europium(III) at concentrations >0.005% in neodymium oxide. (author). 7 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  15. Food Consumption and Iron Intake of Pregnant and Reproductive Aged Women Consumo alimentar e ingestión de hierro por mujeres embarazadas y en edad reproductiva Consumo alimentar e ingestão de ferro de gestantes e mulheres em idade reprodutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Sayuri Sato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the eating habits and consumption of natural and fortified iron sources in pregnant and reproductive aged women. This cross-sectional study was developed in a health center located in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. We studied 61 women, of which 30 were pregnant. A food frequency questionnaire and a 24-hour recall instrument were used. The main natural sources of iron were beans and greens, although fortified foods were also an important source. There was little statistically significant difference between the food consumption of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Inadequate intake of iron, folate and calcium was observed in both groups. Non-pregnant women meet the iron recommendation, considering the iron added in fortified foods, though pregnant women do not. These results suggest the need for mixed strategies: food fortification, iron supplements for pregnant women and nutritional instruction for women in general.Comparar la práctica alimentar y el consumo de alimentos fuentes de hierro, naturales y fortificados, de mujeres en edad reproductiva, gestantes o no, constituye el objetivo de esta investigación. Se trata de un estudio transversal, desarrollado en un centro de salud del municipio de Sao Paulo, en el cual participaron 61 mujeres, siendo 30 gestantes. Se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo alimentar y un recordatorio de 24h. Las principales fuentes naturales de hierro fueron frijoles y hojas verdes. Alimentos fortificados también tuvieron participación importante. Hubo una pequeña diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre el consumo alimentar de las gestantes y no gestantes. Se observó inadecuación del consumo de hierro, folato y calcio en los dos grupos. Las mujeres no gestantes atenderían la demanda de hierro, considerándose el adicional recomendado para la fortificación de las harinas, sin embargo, las gestantes no. Hay necesidad de implementar estrategias combinadas: fortificación de los

  16. Un exponente de gestión económica de la «fidalguía» gallega y de producción de hierro en la montaña lucense. La herrería de Quinta durante el Antiguo Régimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Manuel MIGUÉS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente vinculadas a la percepción de rentas agrarias, las economías señoriales en Galicia fueron frecuentemente observadas desde tal atalaya. Es por eso por lo que estrategias diferentes de comportamiento económico son tan desconocidas como casi inabordadas. Esto, si cabe, se acentúa aún más en el caso de la producción de hierro, actividad desarrollada a lo largo de los siglos en pequeñas y diseminadas unidades de producción conocidas comúnmente en Galicia como «ferrarías», y tradicionalmente desconocidas no sólo como integrantes de economías señoriales de más amplio fuste, sino como representantes del débil sector industrial del Antiguo Régimen.

  17. El péptido ? A [25-35] y el hierro promueven apoptosis en linfocitos por un mecanismo de estrés oxidativo: contribución del H202,, caspasa 3, fn- kb, p53 y c-Jun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Jiménez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El depósito del beta-amiloide (βA en las placas neuríticas es
    uno de los principales marcadores neuropatológicos de la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA. Estudios in vitro han demostrado que el fragmento βA25-35, el cual contiene la secuencia funcionalmente citotóxica del péptido amiloide, induce neurotoxicidad y muerte celular por apoptosis (1. A pesar de las intensas investigaciones, no se ha dado una descripción completa de la cascada de eventos moleculares que conducen a muerte inducida por βA25-35 en un modelo celular único. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo principal es evidenciar una cascada de eventos moleculares ordenados inducidos por el bA25-35 y el hierro en un modelo celular.

  18. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University, Florida (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Pu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(III) species are lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other trivalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is mainly used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  19. III-V semiconductor materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, R J

    1989-01-01

    The main emphasis of this volume is on III-V semiconductor epitaxial and bulk crystal growth techniques. Chapters are also included on material characterization and ion implantation. In order to put these growth techniques into perspective a thorough review of the physics and technology of III-V devices is presented. This is the first book of its kind to discuss the theory of the various crystal growth techniques in relation to their advantages and limitations for use in III-V semiconductor devices.

  20. Validación de la metodología analítica para la cuantificación de hierro por espectroscopia de absorción atómica de llama en alimentos de la canasta básica costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva Trejos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la metodología analítica para la determinación de hierro en alimentos de la canasta básica del costarricense por espectroscopia de absorción atómica con llama. La digestión de las muestras se realizó en recipientes cerrados, con horno de microondas con HNO3 al 65% m/m, para muestras de 0,5 g, dependiendo del tipo de alimento; las cantidades óptimas de ácido nítrico variaron de 6 a 10 mL, obteniéndose porcentajes de recuperación que variaron de 90,0±0,5% a 106,0±0,5%. El ámbito de linealidad óptimo que se obtuvo fue de 0,05 m/L a 6,0 mg/L, con un coeficiente de correlación de 0,9991. Los límites de detección y cuantificación reportados fueron de 0,006 mg/L y 0,009 mg/L, respectivamente. La veracidad se determinó utilizando un patrón certificado de la NIST, SRM 1846 Infant Formula, con un valor reportado para hierro de 63,1±4,0 mg/kg, el valor obtenido fue de 63,8 mg/L, con un porcentaje de error de 1,1%.

  1. Proceso de molturación mecánica en medio seco, húmedo y criogénico de polvo de hierro dúctil nanoestructurado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study, is to obtain an effective particle and grain size reduction of a nanostructured iron powder by mechanical milling under different milling media. One of the main challenges in this study is to work with this material of great ductility.The variables of the study to be optimized have been the following: speed of rotation, powder to ball ratio (PBR and the percentage of control agent to induce an effective powder fracturing in front of cold welding. The powder has been characterized by a Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyser, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and, X-ray diffraction.Through the comparative study, it is found that operating under dry milling conditions: there is a more effective particle size reduction of 43 % and grain size reduction of 62 %. In wet conditions has been reduced the amount of oxide, as well as to obtain a more homogenous distribution of the resulting powder. The results under cryogenic media is presented as promising.

    El principal objetivo de este estudio, es obtener una efectiva reducción del tamaño de partícula y de grano de un polvo de hierro nanoestructurado mediante la molturación mecánica en diferentes medios de molienda. La principal dificultad radica en la gran ductilidad del material. Las variables a estudiar en el proceso han sido la velocidad de rotación, la relación polvo/bolas y el porcentaje de agente de control añadido. El polvo se ha estudiado por difracción laser para caracterizar la distribución de tamaños de partículas, microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM, microscopía electrónica de transmisión (TEM y difracción de Rayos X. Del estudio comparativo se destaca: la molienda en seco ha dado lugar a una reducción más efectiva tanto del tamaño de partícula (43% como del tamaño de grano (62%, mientras que en condiciones húmedas se ha conseguido disminuir la cantidad de óxido, así como obtener

  2. Anemia por deficiencia de hierro en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva: historia de un problema no resuelto Iron deficiency anemia among Mexican women on reproductive age: history of an unresolved problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Casanueva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia informada de anemia por deficiencia de hierro en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva en los últimos 66 años y analizar la eficacia de las intervenciones informadas para su prevención y manejo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Revisión de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales, clínicos y programas gubernamentales de intervención, publicados entre 1939 y 2005 con información original. Se consultaron las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina de Estados Unidos, Artemisa e índices de revistas mexicanas. La calidad de los ensayos clínicos se evaluó con base en la escala Jadad. Las tendencias de la prevalencia de anemia se analizaron con una regresión lineal ponderada por el tamaño muestral. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 46 trabajos de investigación; nueve correspondieron a ensayos clínicos y cuatro a programas operativos; 17 informaron la prevalencia de anemia en no embarazadas y 23 en gestantes. En el primer grupo, la prevalencia ponderada de anemia ha descendido de 39.6 a 15.5%, en tanto que en las gestantes ha disminuido 10 puntos porcentuales, hasta 25%. De los estudios clínicos, 55% se consideraron con un nivel de evidencia adecuado. CONCLUSIONES: La anemia en mujeres en edad reproductiva, y particularmente en las embarazadas, aún constituye un problema de salud pública. De seguir con los esquemas actuales, se requerirían cerca de 57 años para erradicar la anemia entre las no gestantes y 121 para las gestantes. Es necesario evaluar las estrategias de intervención y hacer estudios consistentes que permitan tomar las medidas adecuadas para controlarla.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in the past 66 years among Mexican women on reproductive age, and to analyze the efficacy of interventions implemented for its prevention and control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational and clinical epidemiological studies as well as federal intervention programs published

  3. Costo-beneficio de un programa preventivo y terapéutico para reducir la deficiencia de hierro en Argentina Cost-benefit of a prevention and treatment program to reduce iron deficiency in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Drake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estimar los costos directos e indirectos de la deficiencia de hierro (DH y la anemia ferropénica (AF en Argentina y compararlos con los costos de un programa específico para su prevención y tratamiento. MÉTODOS: Análisis de escenario previo (ex ante de la relación costo-beneficio de un programa de prevención y tratamiento de la AF dirigido a todos los niños y las embarazadas pobres y sin cobertura social de Argentina. Las consecuencias económicas de la DH y la AF se estimaron a partir de los costos directos - gastos vinculados a la atención de un parto prematuro - e indirectos - pérdidas en la productividad futura de los niños por su peor desarrollo cognitivo debido a la DH y la menor productividad de los adultos por la AF - mediante la metodología específica desarrollada por The Micronutrient Initiative. Las intervenciones se definieron según las Guías de Práctica Clínica vigentes en Argentina y los costos de los componentes se tomaron de los precios de las licitaciones del Ministerio de Salud de la Nación. RESULTADOS: Cada US$ 1,00 invertido en un programa de prevención y tratamiento de la DH y la AF, con una cobertura de 90% de la población de lactantes y embarazadas pobres sin seguro explícito de salud, representaría un ahorro de US$ 33,40 por la prevención de las pérdidas económicas debidas a estas enfermedades. CONCLUSIÓN: Las intervenciones para enfrentar la DH no solo mejoran significativamente el estado de salud de la población, sino que representan un ahorro considerable de recursos.OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct and indirect cost of iron deficiency (ID and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA in Argentina and compare it with the cost of a prevention and treatment program. METHODS: Analysis of a prior scenario to gage the relative cost-benefit of an IDA prevention and treatment program for all low-income children and expectant mothers without social coverage/benefits in Argentina. The economic

  4. Sorption behavior of europium(III) and curium(III) on the cell surfaces of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Yoshida, Z.; Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the association of europium(III) and curium(III) with the microorganisms Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, and Halobacterium halobium. We determined the kinetics and distribution coefficients (K d ) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption at pH 3-5 by batch experiments, and evaluated the number of water molecules in the inner-sphere (N H 2 O ) and the degree of strength of ligand field (R E/M ) for Eu(III) by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Exudates from C. vulgaris, Halomonas sp., and H. halobium had an affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). The log K d of Eu(III) and Cm(III) showed that their sorption was not fully due to the exchange with three protons on the functional groups on cell surfaces. The halophilic microorganisms (Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, H. halobium) showed almost no pH dependence in log K d , indicating that an exchange with Na + on the functional groups was involved in their sorption. The ΔN H 2 O (= 9 - N H 2 O ) for Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was 1-3, while that for the other microorganisms was over 3, demonstrating that the coordination of Eu(III) with C. vulgaris was predominantly an outer-spherical process. The R E/M for Eu(III) on halophilic microorganisms was 2.5-5, while that for non-halophilic ones was 1-2.5. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu(III) on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones. (orig.)

  5. Sorption behavior of europium(III) and curium(III) on the cell surfaces of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, T.; Kimura, T.; Ohnuki, T.; Yoshida, Z. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J. [Environmental Sciences Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the association of europium(III) and curium(III) with the microorganisms Chlorella vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, and Halobacterium halobium. We determined the kinetics and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for Eu(III) and Cm(III) sorption at pH 3-5 by batch experiments, and evaluated the number of water molecules in the inner-sphere (N{sub H{sub 2}O}) and the degree of strength of ligand field (R{sub E/M}) for Eu(III) by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Exudates from C. vulgaris, Halomonas sp., and H. halobium had an affinity for Eu(III) and Cm(III). The log K{sub d} of Eu(III) and Cm(III) showed that their sorption was not fully due to the exchange with three protons on the functional groups on cell surfaces. The halophilic microorganisms (Halomonas sp., Halobacterium salinarum, H. halobium) showed almost no pH dependence in log K{sub d}, indicating that an exchange with Na{sup +} on the functional groups was involved in their sorption. The {delta}N{sub H{sub 2}O} (= 9 - N{sub H{sub 2}O}) for Eu(III) on C. vulgaris was 1-3, while that for the other microorganisms was over 3, demonstrating that the coordination of Eu(III) with C. vulgaris was predominantly an outer-spherical process. The R{sub E/M} for Eu(III) on halophilic microorganisms was 2.5-5, while that for non-halophilic ones was 1-2.5. This finding suggests that the coordination environment of Eu(III) on the halophilic microorganisms is more complicated than that on the other three non-halophilic ones. (orig.)

  6. III Advanced Ceramics and Applications Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gadow, Rainer; Mitic, Vojislav; Obradovic, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This is the Proceedings of III Advanced Ceramics and Applications conference, held in Belgrade, Serbia in 2014. It contains 25 papers on various subjects regarding preparation, characterization and application of advanced ceramic materials.

  7. Workshop III – Cosmology: Observations versus theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    599–601. Workshop III – Cosmology: Observations versus theories. T R SESHADRI ... The gravitational lens image separation distribution function in the presence of evolving models of ... Restoration of local electroweak symmetry is achieved.

  8. First results from Mark III at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsweiler, K.F.

    The paper presents data on meson decays obtained using the MARK III detector operating at SPEAR. Results on hadronic decays; decays of the etasub(e); and results on radiative decays; are all described. (U.K.)

  9. Damping of type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The meter- and decameter-wavelength damping of type III bursts may be attributable to stabilization of the Langmuir-wave instability of the fast-electron streams through excitation of cyclotron-branch plasma waves

  10. Study of Type III ELMs in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, R [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Saibene, G [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Horton, L D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Becoulet, M [Association Euratom-CEA, CE Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, CEDEX (France); Budny, R [PPPL, Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Borba, D [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, 1096 Lisbon, CODEX (Portugal); Chankin, A [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Conway, G D [Association Euratom-IPP, MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Cordey, G [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McDonald, D [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Guenther, K [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hellermann, M G von [FOM-Rijnhuizen, Ass. Euratom-FOM, TEC, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Igithkanov, Yu [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Ass., D-17491, Greifswald (Germany); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching, 2 Boltzmannstrasse, Garching (Germany); Lomas, P J [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pogutse, O [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rapp, J [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents the results of JET experiments aimed at studying the operational space of plasmas with a Type III ELMy edge, in terms of both local and global plasma parameters. In JET, the Type III ELMy regime has a wide operational space in the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, and Type III ELMs are observed in standard ELMy H-modes as well as in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB). The transition from an H-mode with Type III ELMs to a steady state Type I ELMy H-mode requires a minimum loss power, P{sub TypeI}. P{sub TypeI} decreases with increasing plasma triangularity. In the pedestal n{sub e} - T{sub e} diagram, the critical pedestal temperature for the transition to Type I ELMs is found to be inversely proportional to the pedestal density (T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n) at a low density. In contrast, at a high density, T{sub crit}, does not depend strongly on density. In the density range where T{sub crit} {proportional_to} 1/n, the critical power required for the transition to Type I ELMs decreases with increasing density. Experimental results are presented suggesting a common mechanism for Type III ELMs at low and high collisionality. A single model for the critical temperature for the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, based on the resistive interchange instability with magnetic flutter, fits well the density and toroidal field dependence of the JET experimental data. On the other hand, this model fails to describe the variation of the Type III n{sub e} - T{sub e} operational space with isotopic mass and q{sub 95}. Other results are instead suggestive of a different physics for Type III ELMs. At low collisionality, plasma current ramp experiments indicate a role of the edge current in determining the transition from Type III to Type I ELMs, while at high collisionality, a model based on resistive ballooning instability well reproduces, in term of a critical density, the experimentally observed q{sub 95} dependence of the

  11. Magnetic interactions in iron (III) porphyrin chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, J.; Subramanian, Japyesan; Fuhrhop, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    Intermolecular exchange interactions in iron(III) porphyrin chlorides (porphyrin = OEP, proto, TPP) have been studied by X-ray structure, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. The crystal structure of Fe(III)OEP-Cl was found to be different from that of the other two. Different types of exchange broadened EPR-spectra are obtained which are attributable to the arrangement in the crystals. The EPR results correlate well with magnetic susceptibility data. (orig.) [de

  12. IIIST1\\NTI-i\\III.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guests in September 1914. (1) Major-General Sir Lothian Nicholson. KCB, CMG, and Major H 1. MacMullen, MC, History of the East Lancashire Regiment in the Great. War 1914-1918, Littlebury. Bros, Ltd. Liverpool,. 1936. p 114. Ti\\.~TI(~S-1\\ IIIST ••III. ~SI Til VI~V. I..•f :01 i\\. f~•• 10III.SOIl ~IIII~ 1~lt. The study of military tactics ...

  13. Introduction of Basel III: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Basel III is an opportunity as well as a challenge for the banks. It was developed from the existing Basel II framework, and the most signifi cant differences for banks are the introduction of liquidity and leverage ratios, and enhanced minimum capital requirements. An effective implementation of Basel III need to demonstrate to regulators, customers, and shareholders that the bank are recovering well from the global banking crisis of 2008 and provide a solid foundation for the next dev...

  14. NCEP ATP III dan Framingham score

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Refli; Fahila, Reny

    2016-01-01

    Laporan ini merupakan Program Pendidikan Kolesterol National yang diperbaharui yaitu pedoman klinis untuk melakukan pengujian kolesterol dan manajemen. ATP III dibuat berdasarkan bukti dan laporan ekstensif yang akan menjadi referensi dan rekomendasi ilmiah. Laporan ATP III dapat dijadikan pedoman untuk pemberian terapi penurun kolesterol yang intensif dalam praktek. Pedoman ini hanya sebagai informasi , tidak dapat mempengaruhi secara mutlak dalam penilaian klinis dokter yang akhirnya menent...

  15. CRONICA: FIESTA FUNERAL: LUMBALÚ PARA BATA III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Luis Muñoz Vélez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se inspira en las conversaciones con Paulino Salgado Valdez. Entrevistas con Batata III en Bogotá, 1998 y en Cartagena en el 2000 en el marco del Encuentro de los países andinos. Batata III nace el 29 de mayo de 1927 en el Palenque de San Basilio en el departamento de Bolívar, muere en Bogotá el viernes 23 de enero del 2004.

  16. Complexation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides with hydrophilic N-donor ligands for Am(III)/Cm(III) and An(III)/Ln(III) separation; Komplexierung von trivalenten Actiniden und Lanthaniden mit hydrophilen N-Donorliganden zur Am(III)/Cm(III)- bzw. An(III)/Ln(III)-Trennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Christoph

    2017-07-24

    The implementation of actinide recycling processes is considered in several countries, aiming at the reduction of long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of used nuclear fuel. This requires the separation of the actinides from the fission and corrosion products. The separation of the trivalent actinides (An(III)) Am(III) and Cm(III), however, is complicated by the presence of the chemically similar fission lanthanides (Ln(III)). Hydrophilic N-donor ligands are employed as An(III) or Am(III) selective complexing agents in solvent extraction to strip An(III) or Am(III) from an organic phase loaded with An(III) and Ln(III). Though they exhibit excellent selectivity, the complexation chemistry of these ligands and the complexes formed during solvent extraction are not sufficiently characterized. In the present thesis the complexation of An(III) and Ln(III) with hydrophilic N-donor ligands is studied by time resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), UV/Vis, vibronic sideband spectroscopy and solvent extraction. TRLFS studies on the complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the Am(III) selective complexing agent SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP (tetrasodium 3,3{sup '},3'',3{sup '''}-([2,2{sup '}-bipyridine]-6,6{sup '}-diylbis(1,2,4-triazine-3,5,6-triyl)) tetrabenzenesulfonate) revealed the formation of [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub n}]{sup (4n-3)-} complexes (M = Cm(III), Eu(III); n = 1, 2). The conditional stability constants were determined in different media yielding two orders of magnitude larger β{sub 2}-values for the Cm(III) complexes, independently from the applied medium. A strong impact of ionic strength on the stability and stoichiometry of the formed complexes was identified, resulting from the stabilization of the pentaanionic [M(SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP){sub 2}]{sup 5-} complex with increasing ionic strength. Thermodynamic studies of Cm(III)-SO{sub 3}-Ph-BTBP complexation showed that the proton concentration of the applied medium impacts

  17. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  18. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth do Nascimento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120 e adultos (N = 52 residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80. Além disso, a investigação da validade fatorial identifica a presença clara de apenas um componente. Este componente explica 81% e 64% para o WISC-III e WAIS-III, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as adaptações a que se procedeu não afetaram a estrutura fatorial das escalas. Deste modo, os profissionais poderão utilizar as escalas modificadas para avaliar a inteligência de pessoas cegas.Frente a la escasez de investigaciones nacionales asi como la ausencia de tests psicológicos que evaluen personas ciegas, se ha desarrollado un estudio psicometrico com la escalas verbales del WISC-III y WAIS-III. Posteriormente a las adaptaciones de algunos estímulos y de las instrucciones, las escalas fueron aplicadas a una muestra de niños (n=120 y de adultos (n=52 residentes en la ciudad de Belo Horizonte-Brasil. Los resultados indican que las escalas verbales modificadas presentan una alta fiabilidad (alpha >0,80 asi como la presencia clara de un unico componente responsable por 81% y 64% de la variancia del WIC-III e WAIS-III respectivamente. Se ha concluido que las modificaciones efectuadas no han comprometido la estructura factorial de las escalas verbales. Por tanto, los profesionales psicólogos pueden utilizar las escalas modificadas para la evaluación de la inteligencia de personas portadoras de ceguera.Owing to the almost lack of a national research on psychological testing for the evaluation of blind people, a psychometric study has been developed with the WISC-III and WAIS-III

  19. Solvent extraction of anionic chelate complexes of lanthanum(III), europium(III), lutetium(III), scandium(III), and indium(III) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone as ion-pairs with tetrabutylammonium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, Junji; Sekine, Tatsuya.

    1992-01-01

    The solvent extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III), lutetium(III), scandium(III), and indium(III) in 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium nitrate solutions with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) in the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions (tba + ) into carbon tetrachloride was measured. The extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III), and lutetium(III) was greatly enhanced by the addition of tba + ; this could be explained in terms of the extraction of a ternary complex, M(tta) 4 - tba + . However, the extractions of scandium(III) and indium(III) were nearly the same when tba + was added. The data were treated on the basis of the formation equilibrium of the ternary complex from the neutral chelate, M(tta) 3 , with the extracted ion-pairs of the reagents, tta - tba + , in the organic phase. It was concluded that the degree of association of M(tta) 3 with the ion-pair, tta - tba + , is greater in the order La(tta) 3 ≅ Eu(tta) 3 > Lu(tta) 3 , or that the stability of the ternary complex in the organic phase is higher in the order La(tta) 4 - tba + ≅ Eu(tta) 4 - tba + > Lu(tta) 4 - tba + . This is similar to those of adduct metal chelates of Htta with tributylphosphate (TBP) in synergistic extraction systems. (author)

  20. WISC-III e WAIS-III na avaliação da inteligência de cegos WISC-III/WAIS-III en ciegos WISC-III and WAIS-III in intellectual assessment of blind people

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth do Nascimento; Carmen Elvira Flores-Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Diante da escassez de pesquisas nacionais e de testes psicológicos destinados a avaliar pessoas cegas, desenvolveu-se um estudo psicométrico com as escalas verbais dos testes WISC-III e WAIS-III. Após as adaptações de alguns estímulos e das instruções, os testes foram aplicados em crianças (N = 120) e adultos (N = 52) residentes em Belo Horizonte. Os resultados indicaram que as escalas verbais modificadas apresentam uma boa consistência interna (alfa> 0,80). Além disso, a investigação da vali...

  1. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.

    2014-05-01

    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  2. Hydration structure of Ti(III) and Cr(III): Monte Carlo simulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the solvation structures of Ti(III) and Cr(III) ions in water with only ion-water pair interaction potential and by including three-body correction terms. The hydration structures were evaluated in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and ...

  3. Teachers' Guide to Music Appreciation III A and III B in the Senior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Mark; Dawkins, Barbara R.

    This guide to music appreciation courses was developed for use in senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. Music Appreciation III A examines the development of music, from the Gothic period through the Classical period. Music Appreciation III B examines the development of music from the Romantic period through the 1970s.…

  4. NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(iii) and An(iii) C5-BPP complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Christian; Beele, Björn B; Geist, Andreas; Müllich, Udo; Kaden, Peter; Panak, Petra J

    2015-02-01

    C5-BPP is a highly efficient N-donor ligand for the separation of trivalent actinides, An(iii), from trivalent lanthanides, Ln(iii). The molecular origin of the selectivity of C5-BPP and many other N-donor ligands of the BTP-type is still not entirely understood. We present here the first NMR studies on C5-BPP Ln(iii) and An(iii) complexes. C5-BPP is synthesized with 10% 15 N labeling and characterized by NMR and LIFDI-MS methods. 15 N NMR spectroscopy gives a detailed insight into the bonding of C5-BPP with lanthanides and Am(iii) as a representative for trivalent actinide cations, revealing significant differences in 15 N chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms compared to Ln(iii) complexes. The temperature dependence of NMR chemical shifts observed for the Am(iii) complex indicates a weak paramagnetism. This as well as the observed large chemical shift for coordinating nitrogen atoms show that metal-ligand bonding in Am(C5-BPP) 3 has a larger share of covalence than in lanthanide complexes, confirming earlier studies. The Am(C5-BPP) 3 NMR sample is furthermore spiked with Cm(iii) and characterized by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), yielding important information on the speciation of trace amounts of minor complex species.

  5. Enhancement of the fluorescence of the samarium (III) complex by gadolinium (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Xiang, C.; Zhang-Hua, L.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in sensitivity and selectivity of reactions in which colored species are formed by the addition of different metal ions is an area of research that has recently been developed. This phenomenon, which is sometimes called cocolaration effect, has been explained by the formation of mixed metal complex. The authors found an analogous phenomenon of reactions forming fluorescent complexes. The complexes of Sm(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-phenanthroline (Phen)-Triton-X-100 (TX-100) and Gd(III) (or La(III), Lu(III) and Y(III))-TTA-Phen-TX-100 had practically no fluorescence separately. Instead, a fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon caused by adding Gd or La, Lu and Y ions to the system was observed for the first time. The intensity of the enhanced fluorescence of Sm(III) complex was increased in the following order: La< Y< Lu< Gd. By analogy with cocoloration effect, the authors call this new fluorescence-enhancement phenomenon the co-fluorescence effect. The object of this work was to study the enhancement effect of Gd(III) on the fluorescence of the Sm(III)-TTA-Phen-TX-100 system. The recommended fluorimetric method has been applied to the determination of trace amounts of samarium in ytterbium oxide with satisfactory results. A general reaction mechanism for the system studied was proposed

  6. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  7. The steam generator programme of PISC III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.; Herkenrath, H.

    1990-12-01

    The PISC III Actions are intended to extend the results and methodologies of the previous PISC excercises, i.e. the validation of the capabilities of the various examination techniques when used on real defects in real components under real conditions of inspection. Being aware of the important safety role that steam generator tubes play as barrier between primary and secondary cooling system and of the industrial problems that the degradation of these tubes can create, the PISC III Management Board agreed to include in the PISC III Programme a special Action on Steam Generator Tubes Testing (SGT). It was decided to organize the programme in three phases, including Round Robin Tests (RRT): - capability tests on loose tubes, - capability tests on transportable mock-ups, - reliability tests on fixed mock-ups including some interesting SURRY tubes

  8. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  9. BALTICA III. Plant condition and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P.

    1995-01-01

    The BALTICA III, International Conference on Plant Condition and Life Management was held on June 6 - 8, 1995 on board Silja Serenade on its cruise between Helsinki - Stockholm and at the Forest Lake Hotel Korpilampi in Espoo. BALTICA III provides forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practise. This is the second volume of the publications, which contain the presentations given at the BALTICA III, Plant Condition and Life Management. A total of 45 articles report recent experience in plant condition and life management. The conference focuses on recent applications that have been demonstrated for the benefit of safe and economical operation of power plants. Practical approach is emphasised, including the presentations that aim to provide insight into new techniques, improvements in assessment methodologies as well as maintenance strategies. Compared to earlier occasions in the BALTICA series, a new aspect is in the applications of knowledge-based systems in the service of power plant life management. (orig.)

  10. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  11. SIMMER-III analytic thermophysical property model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Fischer, E.A.

    1999-05-01

    An analytic thermophysical property model using general function forms is developed for a reactor safety analysis code, SIMMER-III. The function forms are designed to represent correct behavior of properties of reactor-core materials over wide temperature ranges, especially for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity near the critical point. The most up-to-date and reliable sources for uranium dioxide, mixed-oxide fuel, stainless steel, and sodium available at present are used to determine parameters in the proposed functions. This model is also designed to be consistent with a SIMMER-III model on thermodynamic properties and equations of state for reactor-core materials. (author)

  12. Aufbau des humanoiden Roboters BART III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetov, Dimitri; Pietsch, Björn; Gerth, Wilfried

    Der vorliegende Beitrag präsentiert den humanoiden Roboter BART III, der am Institut für Regelungstechnik als eine robuste und erweiterbare Plattform für weiterführende Grundlagenforschung zur zweibeinigen Fortbewegung entwickelt wurde. Im Gegensatz zu den bisher am IRT genutzten Robotern BARt-UH und LISA besitzt der neue Roboter einen beweglichen Oberkörper mit einem Bauchgelenk und Armen. BART III besitzt insgesamt 19 aktive Freiheitsgrade, 12 davon im Unterkörper. Ein weiteres Merkmal des Roboters ist die im gesamten Körper verteilte Ansteuerelektronik, die neben der lokalen Motorregelung diverse sicherheitsrelevante Funktionen übernimmt.

  13. Thermal behaviour of cesiumchloroferrates(III). 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, B.; Fest, M.; Hass, D.; Leibnitz, P.

    1989-01-01

    Tricesium aquapentachloroferrate(III) chloride crystallizes from acid aqueous solutions of FeCl 3 · 6 H 2 O and CsCl in the triclinic space group P-bar1 with a = 714.1 pm, b = 1070.9 pm, c = 950.4 pm, α = 105.65 0 , β = 109.51 0 , γ = 89.08 0 and Z = 2. The compound is formed also from dicesium aquapentachloroferrate(III) and cesium chloride in a solid state reaction. The orientational relationships between the educt and product phases are elucidated, and a topotactic reaction mechanism is discussed. (author)

  14. Prediction of ROSA-III experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa

    1978-06-01

    ROSA-III experiment with the simulated BWR system is to investigate thermal hydraulic behavior as well as ECCS performance in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. RUN 701 assumes average core power, high and low pressure core sprays and low pressure injection of ECCS. Prediction of experiment RUN 701 was made with computer code RELAP-4J. The results indicate the need for ROSA-III pump characteristics to be clarified and for liquid level formation model to be improved. Comparison of the prediction results with the experimental data should reveal the areas of modifications in calculation model. (auth.)

  15. Construction of the Cleo III drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csorna, S.; Marka, S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Peterson, D.; Thies, P.; Glenn, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Kravchenko, I.

    1998-01-01

    The CLEO III group is constructing a new chamber to be installed as part of the staged luminosity upgrade program at the Cornell electron storage ring and compatible with the interaction region optics. Although having less radial extent than the current CLEO II tracking system, CLEO III will have equivalent momentum resolution because of material reduction in the drift chamber inner skin and gas. The thin inner skin requires special attention to the end-plate motion due to wire creep. During stringing, use of a robot will fully automate the wire handling on the upper end. (author)

  16. Influence of Water Deficit on Iron and Zinc Uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L. Influencia del Deficit Hídrico en la Absorción de Hierro y Zinc por Matricaria chamomilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pirzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency are a yield-limiting factor with major implications for field crop production in many agricultural regions of the world; this production is essential source of Fe and Zn in human and animal diets. Two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L. grown under several drought conditions. Treatments were arranged in four irrigation regimes (95%, 80%, 65%, and 50% field capacity and six irrigation disruptions (stem formation, flower onset, full bloom, first harvest, second harvest, and control without disruption based on a randomized complete block design with five and four replicates in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, the irrigation regimes had no significant effect on Fe and Zn uptake by German chamomile, which reached total means of Fe (39.68 mg kg4 and Zn (29.15 mg kg4. In Experiment 2, the highest amount of Fe (39.0 mg kg4 was obtained from irrigation disruption at first harvest; this is similar to the results of irrigation disruption at flower onset and full bloom. However, irrigation disruption in stem formation (21.3 mg kg4, second harvest (12.95 mg kg4, and the control (7.79 mg kg4 had a decreasing trend of Fe uptake. The maximum value of Zn (40.0 mg kg4 occurred at irrigation disruption at the full bloom stage, which was also similar to irrigation disruption at flower onset and stem formation. However, later irrigation disruptions at the first and second harvest stages caused lower amounts of Zn uptake by chamomile. Therefore, the lowest Zn values were obtained from irrigation disruption at second harvest (5.0 mg kg4 and the control (5.5 mg kg4. Regressions between both Fe or Zn uptake and irrigation showed a binomial function.La deficiencia de hierro y zinc es un factor limitante de la producción con grandes implicaciones para producción de cultivo en terreno en muchas regiones agrícolas del mundo como

  17. Inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes of yttrium(III), lanthanum (III), neodymium(III), terbium(III) and thulium(III) with halide ions in N,N-dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryouta; Ishiguro, Shin-ichi

    1991-01-01

    The formation of chloro, bromo and iodo complexes of yttrium(III), and bromo and iodo complexes of lanthanum(III), neodymium(III), terbium(III) and thulium(III) has been studied by precise titration calorimetry in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 25 o C. The formation of [YCl] 2+ , [YCl 2 ] + , [YCl 3 ] and [YCl 4 ] - , and [MBr] 2+ and [MBr 2 ] + (M = Y, La, Nd, Tb, Tm) was revealed, and their formation constants, enthalpies and entropies were determined. It is found that the formation enthalpies change in the sequence ΔH o (Cl) > ΔH o (l), which is unusual for hard metal (III) ions. This implies that, unlike the chloride ion, the bromide ion forms outer-sphere complexes with the lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) ions in DMF. Evidence for either an inner- or outer-sphere complex was obtained from 89 Y NMR spectra for Y(ClO 4 ) 3 , YCl 3 and YBr 3 DMF solutions at room temperature. (author)

  18. Luminescence studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in NaSCN/DHDECMP extraction systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, D Y; Kimura, T

    1999-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies of Sm(III) and Cm(III) complexes in the NaSCN/DHDECMP solvent extraction system were carried out. Luminescence lifetimes were measured to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution and in the DHDECMP phase. The hydration number of Sm(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the sodium thiocyanate solution decreased linearly with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The hydration numbers of Sm(III), Dy(III), and Cm(III) in the DHDECMP phase decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. The water molecules in the inner coordination sphere of Sm(III) and Dy(III) extracted into the DHDECMP were not completely removed at low sodium thiocyanate concentration but decreased with increasing sodium thiocyanate concentration. However, in the case of Cm(III) extracted into the DHDECMP phase from the sodium thiocyanate solution, there was no water in the inner coordination sphe...

  19. FutureTox III: Bridges for Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present document describes key discussion points and outcomes of a Society of Toxicology (SOT) Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (CCT) Workshop, entitled FutureTox III1,2 that was held in Crystal City, Virginia, November 19-20, 2015. The workshop built on the many lessons l...

  20. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set III) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into an Overview, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and…

  1. Constraining the Statistics of Population III Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Athena; Bromm, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We perform a cosmological simulation in order to model the growth and evolution of Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in a range of host minihalo environments. A Pop III multiple system forms in each of the ten minihaloes, and the overall mass function is top-heavy compared to the currently observed initial mass function in the Milky Way. Using a sink particle to represent each growing protostar, we examine the binary characteristics of the multiple systems, resolving orbits on scales as small as 20 AU. We find a binary fraction of approx. 36, with semi-major axes as large as 3000 AU. The distribution of orbital periods is slightly peaked at approx. < 900 yr, while the distribution of mass ratios is relatively flat. Of all sink particles formed within the ten minihaloes, approx. 50 are lost to mergers with larger sinks, and 50 of the remaining sinks are ejected from their star-forming disks. The large binary fraction may have important implications for Pop III evolution and nucleosynthesis, as well as the final fate of the first stars.

  2. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  3. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 2. Mononuclear non-heme iron(III) complexes of linear and tripodal tridentate ligands as functional models for catechol dioxygenases: Effect of -alkyl substitution on regioselectivity and reaction rate. Mallayan Palaniandavar Kusalendiran Visvaganesan.

  4. Monte Carlo studies of ZEPLIN III

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, J; Davidge, D C R; Gillespie, J R; Howard, A S; Jones, W G; Joshi, M; Lebedenko, V N; Sumner, T J; Quenby, J J

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, ZEPLIN III, has been achieved. Results from the analysis of a simulated data set are presented, showing primary and secondary signal distributions from low energy gamma ray events.

  5. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and... opposite it. (b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any... a stimulant effect on the central nervous sxstem, including its salts, isomers (whether optical...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial complex III deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Complex III is one of several complexes that ... in mtDNA. Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute mitochondria to the ... from their mother. These disorders can appear in every generation of ...

  8. Chaos in Kundt Type-III Spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalli, I.; Halilsoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion in a particular Kundt type-III spacetime in which the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations admit the solutions. On a particular surface as constraint, we project the geodesics into the (x, y) plane and treat the problem as a two-dimensional one. Our numerical study shows that chaotic behavior emerges under reasonable conditions. (general)

  9. Gold(III)-Catalyzed Hydration of Phenylacetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J. Michelle; Tzeel, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    A guided inquiry-based experiment exploring the regioselectivity of the hydration of phenylacetylene is described. The experiment uses an acidic gold(III) catalyst in a benign methanol/water solvent system to introduce students to alkyne chemistry and key principles of green chemistry. The experiment can be easily completed in approximately 2 h,…

  10. DRDC Support to Exercise Cyber Storm III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    d’intervention fédéraux portant sur les incidents cybernétiques sont encore relativement peu élaborés et insuffisamment développés et un examen des plans examinés...9 2.7 CSIII Ethics Protocol...30 Annex C .. Exercise Cyber Storm III Ethics

  11. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes; Recuperación de hierro tras tratamiento secundario tipo Fenton de agua residual de la industria oleícola por membranas de nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa de baja presión

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [Spanish] En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF) y ósmosis inversa (OI) poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW) basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones) en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  12. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  13. Failures in Phase III: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, Bostjan; Ocana, Alberto; Amir, Eitan; Tannock, Ian F

    2015-10-15

    Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCT) in oncology fail to lead to registration of new therapies more often than RCTs in other medical disciplines. Most RCTs are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, which reflects industry's increasing responsibility in cancer drug development. Many preclinical models are unreliable for evaluation of new anticancer agents, and stronger evidence of biologic effect should be required before a new agent enters the clinical development pathway. Whenever possible, early-phase clinical trials should include pharmacodynamic studies to demonstrate that new agents inhibit their molecular targets and demonstrate substantial antitumor activity at tolerated doses in an enriched population of patients. Here, we review recent RCTs and found that these conditions were not met for most of the targeted anticancer agents, which failed in recent RCTs. Many recent phase III RCTs were initiated without sufficient evidence of activity from early-phase clinical trials. Because patients treated within such trials can be harmed, they should not be undertaken. The bar should also be raised when making decisions to proceed from phase II to III and from phase III to marketing approval. Many approved agents showed only better progression-free survival than standard treatment in phase III trials and were not shown to improve survival or its quality. Introduction of value-based pricing of new anticancer agents would dissuade the continued development of agents with borderline activity in early-phase clinical trials. When collaborating with industry, oncologists should be more critical and better advocates for cancer patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. A comparative study of ion exchange properties of antimony (III) tungstoselenite with those of antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardanan, C.; Nair, S.M.K.

    1996-01-01

    A new inorganic ion exchanger, antimony (III) tungstoselenite, has been prepared and characterised. Its exchange capacity and distribution coefficients for various metal ions and the effects of temperature and electrolyte concentrations on ion exchange capacity have been compared with antimony (III) tungstate and antimony (III) selenite. Six binary separations using the exchanger have been carried out. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Small-Angle Scattering of Neutrons by Iron and Nickel Close to the Curie Point; Diffusion aux petits angles des neutrons par le fer et le nickel au voisinage du point de curie; Rasseyanie nejtronov pod malymi uglami zhelezom i nikelem, blizkikh k tochke kyuri; Dispersion de neutrones en angulos pequenos por el hierro y el niquel cerca del punto de curie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacrot, B.; Konstantinovic, J.; Parette, G.; Cribier, D. [Centre d' etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1963-01-15

    Recent studies on critical scattering by iron have thrown fresh light on the results obtained previously and shown that: (1) At the Curie point, scattering is inelastic. The Lorentzian form of the lines and their angular dependence establish the existence of a scattering process having the diffusion coefficient 2m {Omega}/n = 7. (2) At the Curie point, the coefficient K{sub 1}{sup 2} is less than 5 x 10{sup -5} A{sup -2}. Iron and nickel have very different angular distribution. Small-angle scattering below T{sub c} has also been studied. (author) [French] De nouveaux travaux sur la diffusion critique par le fer ont permis de completer les resultats obtenus anterieurement. Ils etablissent les faits suivants: 1. Au point de Curie la diffusion est inelastique. La forme lorentzienne des raies et leur dependance angulaire etablissent l'existence d*un processus de diffusion avec un coefficient de diffusion 2m{Omega}/n = 7. 2. Au point de Curie le coefficient K{sub 1}{sup 2} est inferieur a 5 x 10{sup -5} A{sup -2}. La distribution angulaire est tres differente dans le cas du fer et du nickel. On a egalement etudie la diffusion aux petits angles en dessous de T{sub c}. (author) [Spanish] Nuevos trabajos sobre la dispersion critica por el hierro han permitido completar los resultados obtenidos anteriormente. Dichos trabajos prueban los hechos siguientes: 1) La dispersion es inelastica en el punto de Curie. La forma lorentziana de las rayas y su dependencia angular demuestran la existencia de un proceso de dispersion con un coeficiente de dispersion igual a 2m {Omega}/n = 7. 2) En el punto de Curie, el coeficiente K{sub 1}{sup 2} es inferior a 5 x 10{sup -5} A{sup -2}. La distribucion angular es muy diferente en el caso del hierro y del ni quel. Se ha estudiado tambien la dispersion en pequenos angulos por debajo de T{sub c}. (author)

  16. Recent operational history of the new Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.R.; Estes, B.F.; Reuscher, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III) is a fast-pulse research reactor which was designed and built at Sandia Laboratories and achieved criticality in August 1975. The reactor is now characterized and is in an operational configuration. The core consists of 18 fuel plates (258 kg fuel mass) of fully enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt.% molybdenum. It is arranged in an annular configuration with an inside diameter of 17.78 cm, an outside diameter of 29.72 cm, and a height of 35.9 cm. The reactor core uses reflectors of copper and aluminum for control and an external bolting arrangement to secure the fuel plates. SPR III and SPR II are operated on an interchangeable basis using the same facility and control system. As of June 1977, SPR III has had over 240 operations with core temperatures up to 541 0 C

  17. Complexes between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A.A. da.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) picrates and tetra methylene sulfoxide as ligand were described. The adducts were prepared in the molar relation 1 (salt): 3(ligand) in ethanol. They are microcrystalline with more intense color than those of their respective hydrated salts. At room temperature conditions they are non hygroscopic and do not present perceptible alterations. They became slightly opalescent, when heated between 363 and 423 K. At higher temperatures under several heating ratios, the behavior shown is the same: melting between 439 and 472 K. The characterization of the compounds was made by elemental analysis, electrolytic conductance measurements, X-ray powder patterns, infrared spectroscopy, visible electronic absorption and emission spectra of the neodymium (III) and europium (III), respectively. (author). 116 refs., 17 tabs., 11 figs

  18. Smoky indoor cooking fires are associated with elevated hemoglobin concentration in iron-deficient women Asocian el fuego con humo para cocinar dentro de la vivienda con concentraciones elevadas de hemoglobina en mujeres con deficiencia de hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette M. Neufeld

    2004-02-01

    álisis con una sola variable o con varias. Durante el análisis post hoc habitual para determinar si algún subgrupo particular presentaba elevación de la concentración de hemoglobina, se encontró que el empleo de fuego con humo para cocinar estaba asociado en grado significativo con la elevación de la concentración de hemoglobina en 5,2 g/L entre las mujeres con concentraciones bajas de ferritina (P < 0,10. CONCLUSIONES: La elevación de la concentración de hemoglobina debida a la exposición al aire doméstico contaminado por el empleo de combustible bioorgánico en fogones de cocina que producen humo podría tener implicaciones importantes para el diagnóstico de la anemia. Sin embargo, debido a la naturaleza observacional de este estudio, se requieren nuevas investigaciones donde se usen métodos más rigurosos para medir la exposición al monóxido de carbono y se realicen más mediciones de la cantidad de hierro en el organismo para confirmar la relación entre esta, la exposición al humo procedente de la combustión de materiales bioorgánicos para cocinar dentro de la vivienda y la concentración de hemoglobina en mujeres que viven a altitudes moderadamente altas sobre el nivel del mar. Estudios adicionales en este sentido podrían contribuir a que se ajusten los puntos de corte empleados para el diagnóstico de la anemia, si se justificara, y podrían ayudar a aclarar el posible efecto negativo de la exposición al humo producido por la combustión de materiales bioorgánicos dentro de las viviendas.

  19. Biomimetic oxidation of piperine and piplartine catalyzed by iron(III) and manganese(III) porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaab, Estela Hanauer; Crotti, Antonio Eduardo Miller; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Lotufo, Letícia Veras Costa; Lopes, Norberto Peporine

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic metalloporphyrins, in the presence of monooxygen donors, are known to mimetize various reactions of cytochrome P450 enzymes systems in the oxidation of drugs and natural products. The oxidation of piperine and piplartine by iodosylbenzene using iron(III) and manganese(III) porphyrins yielded mono- and dihydroxylated products, respectively. Piplartine showed to be a more reactive substrate towards the catalysts tested. The structures of the oxidation products were proposed based on electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

  20. Addition compounds of lanthamide (III) and yttrium (III) hexafluorophosphates and N,N - dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, L.S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Addition compounds of lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) hexafluorophosphates and N-N-Dimetylformamide are described to characterize the complexes, elemental analysis, melting ranges, molar conductance measurements, X-ray powder patters infrared and Raman spectra, TG and DTA curves, are studied. Information concerning the decomposition of the adducts through the thermogravimetric curves and the differential thermal analysis curves is obtained. (M.J.C.) [pt

  1. Extraction and separation studies of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III using the neutral organophosphorous extractant, Cyanex-923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. DHADKE

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The neutral extractant, Cyanes-923 has been used for the extraction and separation of gallium(III, indium(III and thallium(III from acidic solution. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the pH range 4.5–5.5, 5.0–6.5 and 1.5–3.0, respectively, and from the organic phase they can be stripped with 2.0 mol dm-3 HNO3, 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3 and 3.0 mol dm-3 HCl, respectively. The effect of pH equilibration period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agents on the extraction of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III has been studied. The stroichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined on the basis of the slope analysis method. The reaction proceed by solvation and the probable extracted species found were [MCl3. 3Cyanex-923] [where M = Ga(III or In(III ] and [HTlCl4. 3Cyanex-923]. Based on these results a sequential procedure for the separation of Ga(III, In(III and Tl(III from each other was developed.

  2. Gd(III)-nanodiamond conjugates for MRI contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manus, Lisa M.; Mastarone, Daniel J.; Waters, Emily A.; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Schultz-Sikma, Elise A.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Ho, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A Gd(III)-nanodiamond conjugate [Gd(III)-ND] was prepared and characterized, enabling detection of nanodiamonds by MR imaging. The Gd(III)-ND particles significantly reduced the T1 of water protons with a per-Gd(III) relaxivity of 58.82 ± 1.18 mM−1s−1 at 1.5 Tesla (60 MHz). This represents a tenfold increase compared to the monomer Gd(III) complex (r1 = 5.42 ± 0.20 mM−1s−1) and is among the highest per-Gd(III) relaxivities reported. PMID:20038088

  3. Doublet III beamline: as-built

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, C.R.; Holland, M.M.; Parker, J.W.; Gunn, J.; Resnick, L.

    1980-03-01

    In order to fully exploit Doublet III capabilities and to study new plasma physics regimes, a Neutral Beam Injector System has been constructed. Initially, a two beamline system will supply 7 MW of heat to the plasma. The system is currently being expanded to inject approx. 20 MW of power (6 beamlines). Each beamline is equipped with two Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory type rectangular ion sources with 10 cm x 40 cm extraction grids. These sources will accelerate hydrogen ions to 80 keV, with extracted beam currents in excess of 80 A per source expected. The first completed source is currently being tested and conditioned on the High Voltage Test Stand at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This paper pictorially reviews the as-built Doublet III neutral beamline with emphasis on component relation and configuration relative to spatial and source imposed design constraints

  4. Correction of a severe Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seher Gündüz; Kama, Jalan Devecioglu; Baran, Sedat

    2004-08-01

    The success of early orthopedic treatment in patients with Class III anomalies depends on facial skeletal development and type of treatment. This case report describes the treatment of a 12.6-year-old girl who had a severe Class III malocclusion with a 6-mm anterior crossbite, a deep overbite, a narrow maxilla, and unerupted maxillary canines. The treatment plan included rapid palatal expansion to expand the maxilla, reverse headgear to correct the maxillary retrognathia, a removable anterior inclined bite plane to correct the anterior crossbite and the deep overbite, and fixed edgewise appliances to align the teeth. One canine was brought into alignment, but the other was placed in occlusion in its transposed position. Ideal overjet and overbite relationships were established, and the final esthetic result was pleasing.

  5. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  6. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  7. Irradiation test of FPGA for BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Liang Hao; Xue Jundong; Liu Baoying; Liu Qiang; Yu Xiaoqi; Zhou Yongzhao; Hou Long

    2005-01-01

    The irradiation effect of FPGA, applied in Front-end Electronics for experiments of High-Energy Physics, is a serious problem. The performance of FPGA, used in the front-end card of Muon Counters of BES III project, needs to be evaluated under irradiation. SEUs on Altera ACEX 1K FPGA, observed in the experiment under the irradiation of γ ray, 14 and 2.5 MeV neutrons, was investigated. The authors calculated involved cross-section and provided reasonable analysis and evaluation for the result of the experiment. The conclusion about feasibility of applying ACEX 1K FPGA in the front-end card of the readout system of Muon Counters for BES III was given. (authors)

  8. Organic coolant for ARIES-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sawan, M.; Gierszewski, P.; Hollies, R.; Sharafat, S.; Herring, S.

    1991-04-01

    ARIES-III is a D-He 3 reactor design study. It is found that the organic coolant is well suited for the D-He 3 reactor. This paper discusses the unique features of the D-He 3 reactor, and the reason that the organic coolant is compatible with those features. The problems associated with the organic coolant are also discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Engineering design of ARIES-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, D.K.; Wong, C.; Cheng, E.

    1993-07-01

    An efficient organic cooled low activation ferritic steel first wall and shield has been designed for the D- 3 He power reactor ARIES-III. The design allows removal of the large surface heat load without exceeding temperature and stress design limits. The structure is expected to last for the whole reactor life. The major concerns regarding using the organic coolant in fusion reactors have been greatly alleviated

  10. Doublet III: status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    A synopsis is presented of the experimental results from the ohmic heating phase of Doublet III, with emphasis on the production of good target plasmas for the upcoming neutral beam injection phase. The program plan for the device over the life of the US-Japan cooperative program is discussed, as is the status of the preliminary investigation into replacing the present vacuum vessel by one better suited for ETF simulation

  11. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  12. Objectives and methodology of BIOBADASER phase iii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Piedra, Carlos; Hernández Miguel, M Victoria; Manero, Javier; Roselló, Rosa; Sánchez-Costa, Jesús Tomás; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Campos, Cristina; Cuende, Eduardo; Fernández-Lopez, Jesús Carlos; Bustabad, Sagrario; Martín Domenech, Raquel; Pérez-Pampín, Eva; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Millan-Arcineas, Ana Milena; Díaz-González, Federico; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús

    2017-09-18

    Describe the objectives, methods and results of the first year of the new version of the Spanish registry of adverse events involving biological therapies and synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatic diseases (BIOBADASER III). Multicenter prospective registry of patients with rheumatic inflammatory diseases being treated with biological drugs or synthetic drugs with an identifiable target in rheumatology departments in Spain. The main objective of BIOBADASER Phase III is the registry and analysis of adverse events; moreover, a secondary objective was added consisting of assessing the effectiveness by means of the registry of activity indexes. Patients in the registry are evaluated at least once every year and whenever they experience an adverse event or a change in treatment. The collection of data for phase iii began on 17 December 2015. During the first year, 35 centers participated. The number of patients included in this new phase in December 2016 was 2,664. The mean age was 53.7 years and the median duration of treatment was 8.1 years. In all, 40.4% of the patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent adverse events were infections and infestations. BIOBADASER Phase III has been launched to adapt to a changing pharmacological environment, with the introduction of biosimilars and small molecules in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. This new stage is adapted to the changes in the reporting of adverse events and now includes information related to activity scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Basel III Prevent Future Financial Crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Madzova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    The financial sector is crucial for the smooth functioning of the economy. For this reason, the authorities use financial regulation as a means to ensure the stability of the banking system and to correct those ‘market failures’ that would otherwise threaten the solidity of financial institutions. Recently introduced Basel III on the new bank capital and liquidity standards, (that is going to be implemented gradually starting from 2013 till 2019) is changing the way that banks address the...

  14. Doublet III construction and engineering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Progress during FY-78 on the construction and operation of the Doublet III is reported. Detailed discussions about the installation and testing of various components and subsystems, including the B-coil, E-coil, F-coils and support structure, vacuum vessel, vacuum pumping system, limiter, thermal insulation blanket, control system, B-coil power system, E-coil power system, F-coil power system, and motor-generator, are presented. A brief review of the engineering test operation is given

  15. Insight into the Extraction Mechanism of Americium(III) over Europium(III) with Pyridylpyrazole: A Relativistic Quantum Chemistry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-He; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Nie, Chang-Ming; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2018-05-10

    Separation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)) is one of the most important steps in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. However, it is very difficult and challenging to separate them due to their similar chemical properties. Recently the pyridylpyrazole ligand (PypzH) has been identified to show good separation ability toward Am(III) over Eu(III). In this work, to explore the Am(III)/Eu(III) separation mechanism of PypzH at the molecular level, the geometrical structures, bonding nature, and thermodynamic behaviors of the Am(III) and Eu(III) complexes with PypzH ligands modified by alkyl chains (Cn-PypzH, n = 2, 4, 8) have been systematically investigated using scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT). According to the NBO (natural bonding orbital) and QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) analyses, the M-N bonds exhibit a certain degree of covalent character, and more covalency appears in Am-N bonds compared to Eu-N bonds. Thermodynamic analyses suggest that the 1:1 extraction reaction, [M(NO 3 )(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ + PypzH + 2NO 3 - → M(PypzH)(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) + 5H 2 O, is the most suitable for Am(III)/Eu(III) separation. Furthermore, the extraction ability and the Am(III)/Eu(III) selectivity of the ligand PypzH is indeed enhanced by adding alkyl-substituted chains in agreement with experimental observations. Besides this, the nitrogen atom of pyrazole ring plays a more significant role in the extraction reactions related to Am(III)/Eu(III) separation compared to that of pyridine ring. This work could identify the mechanism of the Am(III)/Eu(III) selectivity of the ligand PypzH and provide valuable theoretical information for achieving an efficient Am(III)/Eu(III) separation process for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  16. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. Methods: The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016. Results: Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32, three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M and Doctorate (PhD. The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2 jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Conclusion: Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity

  18. Pangad õhutavad III pensionisambaga liituma / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Pangad peavad III pensionisambaga liitumist hädavajalikuks neile, kes soovivad oma elustandardit pensionile minnes säilitada. Pankade prognoose III sambaga liitumise kohta käesolevaks aastaks. Lisa: Pensioniks kogumine

  19. Luminescence study on solvation of americium(III), curium(III) and several lanthanide(III) ions in nonaqueous and binary mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Nagaishi, R.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Z.

    2001-01-01

    The luminescence lifetimes of An(III) and Ln(III) ions [An=Am and Cm; Ln=Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy] were measured in dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF), methanol(MeOH), water and their perdeuterated solvents. Nonradiative decay rates of the ions were in the order of H 2 O > MeOH > DMF > DMSO, indicating that O-H vibration is more effective quencher than C-H, C=O, and S=O vibrations in the solvent molecules. Maximal lifetime ratios τ D /τ H were observed for Eu(III) in H 2 O, for Sm(III) in MeOH and DMF, and for Sm(III) and Dy(III) in DMSO. The solvent composition in the first coordination sphere of Cm(III) and Ln(III) in binary mixed solvents was also studied by measuring the luminescence lifetime. Cm(III) and Ln(III) were preferentially solvated by DMSO in DMSO-H 2 O, by DMF in DMF-H 2 O, and by H 2 O in MeOH-H 2 O over the whole range of the solvent composition. The order of the preferential solvation, i.e., DMSO > DMF > H 2 O > MeOH, correlates with the relative basicity of these solvents. The Gibbs free energy of transfer of ions from water to nonaqueous solvents was further estimated from the degree of the preferential solvation. (orig.)

  20. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class III...

  1. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or class...

  2. On the uniqueness of the injective III1 factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, U.

    2016-01-01

    We give a new proof of a theorem due to Alain Connes, that an injective factor N of type III1 with separable predual and with trivial bicentralizer is isomorphic to the Araki-Woods type III1 factor R∞. This, combined with the author's solution to the bicentralizer problem for injective III1 facto...

  3. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Tahini, Hassan Ali; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Grimes, R. W.

    2014-01-01

    as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V I I I

  4. 40 CFR 300.220 - Related Title III issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related Title III issues. 300.220 Section 300.220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... PLAN Planning and Preparedness § 300.220 Related Title III issues. Other related Title III requirements...

  5. 77 FR 64397 - Order of Succession for HUD Region III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region III AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... Office and its Field Offices (Region III). This Order of Succession supersedes all prior Orders of Succession for HUD Region III. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  6. CURRENT SITUATION OF MEDICINE III AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    Describe the current situation of the area Medicine III of CAPES and detect challenges for the next four years of evaluation. The area's documents and reports of meetings were read from 2004 to 2013 Medicine III Capes as well as reports and evaluation form of each Postgraduate Program (PPG) of the area and the sub-page of the area from the Capes website. The data relating to the evaluation process, the assessment form and faculty, student and scientific production data of all of Post-Graduate Programs of Medicine III were computed and analyzed. From these data were detected the challenges of the area for the next four years (2013-2016). Among the 3,806 PPG, Medicine III had 41 PPG during last triennial evaluation and progressed from 18% to 43% of PPG very good or more concept (triennium 2001-2003 and 2010-2012). Most PPG were located in the South-East region (32), three in the South and two in the North-East. There was no PPG in North or Central-West regions. In 2013 and 2014 there were four approved Professional Master Degree Programs and one Master (M) and Doctorate (PhD). The average of permanent professors was 558 teachers with about three students/professor. The number of PhD graduates has increased as well as the reason PhD/MD. The proportion of in high impact periodicals (A1, A2, B1 and B2) jumped from 30% to 50% demonstrating positive community response to the policy area. The challenges identified were: decrease regional asymmetry, increase the number of masters and doctors of excellence, reassessment of Brazilian journals, stimulate and set internationalization indicators, including post-doctors and definition of its indicators, the PPG nucleation analysis, PPG 3x3, include primary and secondary education, professional master and indicators of technological scientific production and solidarity. Medicine III has been scientifically consolidated and their scientific researchers demonstrated maturity reaching a high level and matched to areas of greatest

  7. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  8. Interaction of Eu(III) and Cm(III) with mucin. A key component of the human mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the potential health risks caused by the ingestion of lanthanides (Ln) and actinides (An), investigations into the chemical behavior of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Mucin is an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system. We have recently reported that mucin interacts strongly with Eu(III) and Cm(III), representatives of Ln(III) and An(III), respectively, under in vivo conditions. In order to investigate the complexation behavior of this protein with Ln(III)/An(III), TRLFS measurements were performed on Eu(III)/Cm(III)-mucin solutions with different protein concentrations and at different pH. The results indicate the formation of at least two independent mucin species. At higher pH, the formation of hydroxide species was also observed.

  9. Mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction in sedimentary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovely, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    Although it was previously considered that Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms must come into direct contact with Fe(III) oxides in order to reduce them, recent studies have suggested that electron-shuttling compounds and/or Fe(III) chelators, either naturally present or produced by the Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms themselves, may alleviate the need for the Fe(III) reducers to establish direct contact with Fe(III) oxides. Studies with Shewanella alga strain BrY and Fe(III) oxides sequestered within microporous beads demonstrated for the first time that this organism releases a compound(s) that permits electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides which the organism cannot directly contact. Furthermore, as much as 450 w M dissolved Fe(III) was detected in cultures of S. alga growing in Fe(III) oxide medium, suggesting that this organism releases compounds that can solublize Fe(III) from Fe(III) oxide. These results contrast with previous studies, which demonstrated that Geobacter metallireducens does not produce electron-shuttles or Fe(III) chelators. Some freshwater aquatic sediments and groundwaters contained compounds, which could act as electron shuttles by accepting electrons from G. metallireducens and then transferring the electrons to Fe(III). However, other samples lacked significant electron-shuttling capacity. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the electron-shuttling capacity of the waters was not only associated with the presence of humic substances, but water extracts of walnut, oak, and maple leaves contained electron-shuttling compounds did not appear to be humic substances. Porewater from a freshwater aquatic sediment and groundwater from a petroleum-contaminated aquifer contained dissolved Fe(III) (4-16 w M), suggesting that soluble Fe(III) may be available as an electron acceptor in some sedimentary environments. These results demonstrate that in order to accurately model the mechanisms for Fe(III) reduction in sedimentary environments it will be necessary

  10. Preparation and characterisation of mixed ligand complexes of Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III) containing phthalimide and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.A.J.; Islam, M.S.; Pal, S.C.; Barma, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Some novel mixed ligand complexes of Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III) containing phthalimide as primary and 2-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol as secondary ligands have been synthesized and characterised on the basis of elemental analyses, conductivity and magnetic measurements and infrared and electronic spectral studies. Complexes containing 2-aminophenol are 1:1 electrolyte in N,N dimethylformamide. Spectral studies indicate that all the complexes exhibit octahedral geometry. The complexes have the general composition; K[M(pim)/sub 2/(L)/sub 2/]; where m=Co(III), Fe(III) and Cr(III), pim-anion of phthalimamide and L=anion of 2-aminophenol and 3-aminophenol. (author)

  11. 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical complexes of ruthenium(III), osmium(III) and rhodium(III) and redox series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manas Kumar; Patra, Sarat Chandra; Maity, Amarendra Nath; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2013-05-14

    Reactions of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (PQ) in toluene with [M(II)(PPh3)3X2] at 298 K afford green complexes, trans-[M(PQ)(PPh3)2X2] (M = Ru, X = Cl, 1; M = Os, X = Br, 2) in moderate yields. Reaction of anhydrous RhCl3 with PQ and PPh3 in boiling ethanol affords the dark brown paramagnetic complex, cis-[Rh(PQ)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3) in good yields. Diffusion of iodine solution in n-hexane to the trans-[Os(PQ) (PPh3)2(CO)(Br)] solution in CH2Cl2 generates the crystals of trans-[Os(PQ)(PPh3)2(CO)(Br)](+)I3(-), (4(+))I3(-)), in lower yields. Single crystal X-ray structure determinations of 1·2toluene, 2·CH2Cl2 and 4(+)I3(-), UV-vis/NIR absorption spectra, EPR spectra of 3, electrochemical activities and DFT calculations on 1, 2, trans-[Ru(PQ)(PMe3)2Cl2] (1Me), trans-[Os(PQ)(PMe3)2Br2] (2Me), cis-[Rh(PQ)(PMe3)2Cl2] (3Me) and their oxidized and reduced analogues including trans-[Os(PQ)(PMe3)2(CO)(Br)](+) (4Me(+)) substantiated that 1-3 are the 9,10-phenanthrenesemiquinone radical (PQ(˙-)) complexes of ruthenium(III), osmium(III) and rhodium(III) and are defined as trans/cis-[M(III)(PQ(˙-))(PPh3)2X2] with a minor contribution of the resonance form trans/cis-[M(II)(PQ)(PPh3)2X2]. Two comparatively longer C-O (1.286(4) Å) and the shorter C-C lengths (1.415(7) Å) of the OO-chelate of 1·2toluene and 2·CH2Cl2 and the isotropic fluid solution EPR signal at g = 1.999 of 3 are consistent with the existence of the reduced PQ(˙-) ligand in 1-3 complexes. Anisotropic EPR spectra of the frozen glasses (g11 = g22 = 2.0046 and g33 = 1.9874) and solids (g11 = g22 = 2.005 and g33 = 1.987) instigate the contribution of the resonance form, cis-[Rh(II)(PQ)(PPh3)2Cl2] in 3. DFT calculations established that the closed shell singlet (CSS) solutions of 1Me and 2Me are unstable due to open shell singlet (OSS) perturbation. However, the broken symmetry (BS) (1,1) Ms = 0 solutions of 1Me and 2Me are respectively 22.6 and 24.2 kJ mole(-1) lower in energy and reproduced the experimental bond

  12. Determination of Cu(III) and Cu(II)+Cu(III) in superconducting copper ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcheva, T.; Kostadinova, L.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.; Ivanova, I.

    1992-01-01

    Copper(III) and total copper in superconducting Y-Ba-Cu oxide and related compounds can be determinated by two successive iodimetric titrations after the sample has been dissolved under Ar in HCl/KI medium. First, the iodine equivalent to copper(III) is titrated with Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution at pH 4.8, copper(II) being masked with EDTA. The total copper is then determined in the same solution by demasking with acid and iodide, followed by iodimetric titration. The method is both accurate and reproducible. The relative standard deviations for 1.074% copper(III) and 23.37% total copper are 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively. (orig.)

  13. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  14. Heterobimetallic gadolinium(III)-iron(III) complex of DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N.; Kimpe, Kristof; Binnemans, Koen

    2004-01-01

    A derivative of diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), carrying two catechol functional groups has been synthesised by the reaction between DTPA-bis(anhydride) and 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine). The ligand DTPA-bis(3-hydroxytyramide), [DTPA(HTA) 2 ], is able to form stable heterobimetallic complexes with gadolinium(III) and iron(III) ions. The gadolinium(III) occupies the internal coordination cage of DTPA formed by three nitrogens, two carboxylate and two amide oxygens, while the [Fe(NTA)(H 2 O) 2 ] (nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA) binds to catechol units by the substitution of two water ligands. The formation of polymeric species was avoided by using the tripodal NTA ligand. The heterobimetallic complex was characterised by means of visible absorption spectroscopy, electron spray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

  15. Alimentos industrializados congelados gama III y IV

    OpenAIRE

    Tupone Reverter, Paula

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo, indagar sobre el consumo, el grado de información y contenido de sodio, grasas saturadas y colesterol de los principales alimentos congelados Gama III y V consumidos por los encuestados. A partir de esto, se realiza una encuesta de frecuencia de consumo y preguntas varias a 250 personas de entre 30 a 60 años, que concurren a cuatro supermercados de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, para determinar el conocimiento por parte de los encuestados e...

  16. Decay time of type III solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Sixty-four Type III bursts that drifted to frequencies below 600 kHz between March 1968 and February 1970 were analyzed. Decay times were measured and combined with published data ranging up to about 200 MHz. By fitting power functions to the computed and observed decay times, and using the local plasma hypothesis, it was found that the ratio rho of computed to observed values varies with radiocentric radial distance according to a power function rho = 3r 0 . 7 . (U.S.)

  17. Power flow evaluations for HERMES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Corley, J.P.; Hasti, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the transfer of electro-magnetic pulses from water dielectric strip transmission lines into a diode insulator stack. The HERMES III Scale Model Experiments (HERMEX) included single-stage diodes as well as multistage models in which a variety of parallel/series combinations of strip transmission lines (strip lines) were used to evaluate the voltage adding efficiency at the diode. A technique has been established to estimate an equivalent shunt impedance across the diode due to the nearby uncharged water volume

  18. Silicon photonics III systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, David

    2016-01-01

    This book is volume III of a series of books on silicon photonics. It reports on the development of fully integrated systems where many different photonics component are integrated together to build complex circuits. This is the demonstration of the fully potentiality of silicon photonics. It contains a number of chapters written by engineers and scientists of the main companies, research centers and universities active in the field. It can be of use for all those persons interested to know the potentialities and the recent applications of silicon photonics both in microelectronics, telecommunication and consumer electronics market.

  19. Research in collegiate mathematics education III

    CERN Document Server

    Arcavi, A; Kaput, Jim; Dubinsky, Ed; Dick, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Volume III of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME) presents state-of-the-art research on understanding, teaching, and learning mathematics at the post-secondary level. This volume contains information on methodology and research concentrating on these areas of student learning: Problem solving. Included here are three different articles analyzing aspects of Schoenfeld's undergraduate problem-solving instruction. The articles provide new detail and insight on a well-known and widely discussed course taught by Schoenfeld for many years. Understanding concepts. These articles fe

  20. Doping of III-nitride materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pampili, Pietro; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    In this review paper we will report the current state of research regarding the doping of III-nitride materials and their alloys. GaN is a mature material with both n-type and p-type doping relatively well understood, and while n-GaN is easily achieved, p-type doping requires much more care. There are significant efforts to extend the composition range that can be controllably doped for AlGaInN alloys. This would allow application in shorter and longer wavelength optoelectronics as well as ex...

  1. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  2. RAS III - concept and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, U.; Wander, J.

    1990-01-01

    A new noise analysis system RAS III is being employed at the Greifswald NPP 'Bruno Leuschner' units 5 and 6 which differs from its forerunner types by an extended number of measuring points and a higher degree of automation. Substantial prerequisite of the system's full efficiency is implementation of efficient signal monitoring techniques that free the power plant engineer from routine work as well. The system has therefore been completed by algorithms established for automatic noise signal spectra control and for monitoring the pressure vessel vibrations. Moreover, a number of special techniques have been developed, such as for recording velocity-time plots during control element drop experiments. (author)

  3. Moessbauer study of iron(III) salicylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahesh, K; Sharma, N D; Gupta, D C [Kurukshetra Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Puri, D M [Kurukshetra Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    Moessbauer infrared and magnetic studies of different basic salicylates of iron(III) are reported. Comparison of observed isomer shift and quadrupole splitting with the earlier work allows to assign the trinuclear chain structure to the complexes wherein the central iron atom in the chain is considered to be octahedrally coordinated in case of salicylate and 4-aminosalicylate derivatives, and pentacoordinated for the thiosalicylate with the terminal iron atom in tetrahedral symmetry. The Moessbauer parameters and ..mu..sub(eff)-value indicate the high spin state of the central iron atom and low spin state for the terminal ones.

  4. Nutrición vegetal (III).

    OpenAIRE

    Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Editorial. Suniaga Q., José La codorniz fuente proteica para consumo humano. Díaz Cuellar, Doraida R. y González, Diomary Diagnóstico de parásitos gastrointestinales en bovinos y su importancia en la productividad de los sistemas ganaderos. Castillo O., Mayela; Hernández, Javier A.; Betancourt, Arquímedes y Suniaga Q., José Nutrición vegetal (II). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Nutrición vegetal (III). Moyeja Santana, Juan de Jesús Plagas chupadoras de las cítrica...

  5. NRL transmittance measurements at DIRT-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, J. A.; Haught, K. M.; Woytko, M. A.; Gott, C.

    1981-06-01

    This is a final report on NRL experiments at the DIRT-III tests at Fort Polk, Louisiana in April - May 1980. Spectral transmission data at 3 wavelengths 0.55 microns, 1.06 microns and 10.4 microns is reported for 27 events in natural soil and various prepared soils. Spectral transmittance of smoke and dust clouds generated by explosive charges was found to be independent of wavelengths in about 50% of the events where useful data was obtained. When the charge was buried in wet natural soil transmittance at 10.4 microns was transmittance at 0.55 microns .

  6. Temporal development of cross-neutralization between HTLV-III B and HTLV-III RF in experimentally infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Thiriart, C.; Smit, L.; Bruck, C.; Gibbs, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Sera from chimpanzees inoculated respectively with HTLV-III B, LAV, HTLV-III RF and brain tissue from an AIDS patient were analysed for neutralizing activity by two methods: a cell fusion inhibition test (CFI) using HTLV-III B infected cells as inoculum and CD4+ cells as target and a replication

  7. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in TEHDGA-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, G.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Kalpakkam (India). Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in the solvent impregnated resins containing extractants such as tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of TEHDGA+HDEHP. The rate of extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 M nitric acid and the effect of various parameters, such as the concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and concentration of TEHDGA and HDEHP in resin phase, on the distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in HDEHP-impregnated resin decreased and that in TEHDGA-impregnated resin increased, with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. However, in (TEHDGA+HDEHP) - impregnated resin, synergic extraction was observed at lower nitric acid concentration and antagonism at higher nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction in the combined resin was investigated by slope analysis method. The extraction of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste was studied. The separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was studied using citrate-buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution.

  8. The role of Ce(III) in BZ oscillating reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paulo A.; Varela, Hamilton; Faria, Roberto B.

    2012-03-01

    Herein we present results on the oscillatory dynamics in the bromate-oxalic acid-acetone-Ce(III)/Ce(IV) system in batch and also in a CSTR. We show that Ce(III) is the necessary reactant to allow the emergence of oscillations. In batch, oscillations occur with Ce(III) and also with Ce(IV), but no induction period is observed with Ce(III). In a CSTR, no oscillations were found using a freshly prepared Ce(IV), but only when the cerium-containing solution was aged, allowing partial conversion of Ce(IV) to Ce(III) by reaction with acetone.

  9. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the benefits and harms of AT III in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched from inception to 27 August 2015 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We included randomized...... participants). However, for all other outcome measures and analyses, the results did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support AT III substitution in any category of critically ill participants including those with sepsis and DIC. AT III did not show an impact...

  10. New analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI III) with simplified structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, K; Kupryszewski, G; Rózycki, J; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Otlewski, J

    1992-10-01

    Seven new analogues of trypsin inhibitor CMTI III were obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Three analogues contained only two, instead of three, disulfide bridges, whereas the molecules of the next four analogues were shortened at the N- and/or C-terminus. The elimination of one disulfide bridge in CMTI III induces a decrease in the association equilibrium constants by 6-7 orders of magnitude, whereas the removal of one, two or three amino-acid residues at the N- and/or C-terminus does not significantly affect the activity.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papassiopi, N.; Vaxevanidou, K.; Christou, C.; Karagianni, E.; Antipas, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe(III)–Cr(III) hydroxides enhance groundwater quality better than pure Cr(III) compounds. • Crystalline Cr(OH) 3 ·3H 2 O was unstable, with a solubility higher than 50 μg/l. • Amorphous Cr(OH) 3 (am) was stable with a solubility lower than 50 μg/l in the range 5.7 0.75 Cr 0.25 (OH) 3 , the stability region was extended to 4.8 3 ·xH 2 O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe (1−x) Cr x (OH) 3 phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fe x ,Cr 1−x )(OH) 3 hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH) 3 . We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH) 3 ·3H 2 O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH) 3 (am) phase. Mixed Fe 0.75 Cr 0.25 (OH) 3 hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH) 3 , and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)–Cr(III) hydroxides are more effective enhancers of groundwater quality, in comparison to the plain amorphous or crystalline Cr(III) hydroxides, the latter found to have a solubility typically higher than 50 μg/l (maximum EU permitted Cr level in drinking water), while the amorphous Cr(OH) 3 (am) phase was within the drinking water threshold in the range 5.7 0.75 Cr 0.25 (OH) 3 hydroxides studied were of extended stability in the 4.8 < pH < 13.5 range

  12. Reliability-Limiting Defects in GaN/AlGaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy”, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 18, pp. 2885- 2887, 2000. [24] A. Hierro , A. R. Arehart, B...defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides”, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 95, pp.3851-3879, 2004. [43] A. Hierro , S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S

  13. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  14. Radioactivity backgrounds in ZEPLIN-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, H. M.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; Deviveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Reichhart, L.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2012-03-01

    We examine electron and nuclear recoil backgrounds from radioactivity in the ZEPLIN-III dark matter experiment at Boulby. The rate of low-energy electron recoils in the liquid xenon WIMP target is 0.75 ± 0.05 events/kg/day/keV, which represents a 20-fold improvement over the rate observed during the first science run. Energy and spatial distributions agree with those predicted by component-level Monte Carlo simulations propagating the effects of the radiological contamination measured for materials employed in the experiment. Neutron elastic scattering is predicted to yield 3.05 ± 0.5 nuclear recoils with energy 5-50 keV per year, which translates to an expectation of 0.4 events in a 1 yr dataset in anti-coincidence with the veto detector for realistic signal acceptance. Less obvious background sources are discussed, especially in the context of future experiments. These include contamination of scintillation pulses with Cherenkov light from Compton electrons and from β activity internal to photomultipliers, which can increase the size and lower the apparent time constant of the scintillation response. Another challenge is posed by multiple-scatter γ-rays with one or more vertices in regions that yield no ionisation. If the discrimination power achieved in the first run can be replicated, ZEPLIN-III should reach a sensitivity of ˜1 × 10-8pb · yr to the scalar WIMP-nucleon elastic cross-section, as originally conceived.

  15. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R.; Cheng, E.T.; Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.; Herring, J.S.; Valenti, M.; Steiner, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m 2 , a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m 2 . The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed

  16. ARIES-III divertor engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States); Grotz, S.; Hasan, M.A.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Herring, J.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Valenti, M.; Steiner, D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Plasma Dynamics Lab.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the engineering design of the ARIES-III double- null divertor. The divertor coolant tubes are made from W-3Re alloy and cooled by subcooled flow boiling of organic coolant. A coating of 4 mm thick tungsten is plasma sprayed onto the divertor surface. This W layer can withstand the thermal deposition of a few disruptions. At a maximum surface heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}, a conventional divertor design can be used. The divertor surface is contoured to have a constant heat flux of 5.4 MW/m{sup 2}. The net erosion of the W-surface was found to be negligible at about 0.1 mm/year. After 3 years of operation, the W-3Re alloy ARIES-III divertor can be disposed of as Class A waste. In order to control the prompt dose release at site boundary to less than 200 Rem, isotopic tailoring of the W-alloy will be needed.

  17. The CRESST-III detector module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuestrich, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut f. Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The direct dark matter experiment CRESST uses scintillating calorimeters to detected WIMP induced nuclear scattering in CaWO{sub 4} single crystals. Equipped with transition edge sensors (TESs), these detectors can achieve detection thresholds well below 1 keV. The last physics run of CRESST-II proved the high potential of the experiment especially for small WIMP masses and triggered the development of a new detector module using much smaller CaWO{sub 4} main absorbers. The upcoming CRESST-III run will mainly be equipped with these newly developed modules, which combine a fully scintillating detector housing with an improved detection threshold (<100 keV). While many features of the new module were adapted from previous module designs in an improved way, also new features are implemented like instrumented sticks (iSticks) holding the crystals and optimized TES structures for phonon and light detectors. First tests above ground validated the improved performance of these detector modules and promise to explore new regions in the WIMP parameter space in the next CRESST-III run.

  18. A view from Cheyenne Mountain: Generation III's perspective of Keystone III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Erika; Cadwallader, Kara; Steyer, Terrence E; Clements, Deborah S; Devoe, Jennifer E; Fink, Kenneth; Khubesrian, Marina; Lyons, Paul; Steiner, Elizabeth; Weismiller, David

    2014-01-01

    In October 2000 the family of family medicine convened the Keystone III conference at Cheyenne Mountain Resort. Keystone III participants included members of Generation I (entered practice before 1970), Generation II (entered 1970-1990), and Generation III (entered after 1990). They represented a wide range of family physicians, from medical students to founders of the discipline, and from small-town solo practice to academic medicine. During the conference, the three generations worked together and separately thinking about the past, present, and future of family medicine, our roles in it, and how the understanding of a family physician and our discipline had and would continue to evolve. After the conference, the 10 Generation III members wrote the article published here, reflecting on our experiences as new physicians and physicians in training, and the similarities and differences between our experiences and those of physicians in Generations I and II. Key similarities included commitment to whole-person care, to a wide scope of practice, to community health, and to ongoing engagement with our discipline. Key differences included our understanding of availability, the need for work-life balance, the role of technology in the physician-patient relationship, and the perceptions of the relationship between medicine and a range of outside forces such as insurance and government. This article, presented with only minor edits, thus reflects accurately our perceptions in late 2000. The accompanying editorial reflects our current perspective.

  19. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  20. Structural Characterization of Am(III)- and Pu(III)-DOTA Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audras, Matthieu; Berthon, Laurence; Berthon, Claude; Guillaumont, Dominique; Dumas, Thomas; Illy, Marie-Claire; Martin, Nicolas; Zilbermann, Israel; Moiseev, Yulia; Ben-Eliyahu, Yeshayahu; Bettelheim, Armand; Cammelli, Sebastiano; Hennig, Christoph; Moisy, Philippe

    2017-10-16

    The complexation of 1,4,7,10-tetrazacyclodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) ligand with two trivalent actinides (Am 3+ and Pu 3+ ) was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry, NMR spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure in conjunction with computational methods. The complexation process of these two cations is similar to what has been previously observed with lanthanides(III) of similar ionic radius. The complexation takes place in different steps and ends with the formation of a (1:1) complex [(An(III)DOTA)(H 2 O)] - , where the cation is bonded to the nitrogen atoms of the ring, the four carboxylate arms, and a water molecule to complete the coordination sphere. The formation of An(III)-DOTA complexes is faster than the Ln(III)-DOTA systems of equivalent ionic radius. Furthermore, it is found that An-N distances are slightly shorter than Ln-N distances. Theoretical calculations showed that the slightly higher affinity of DOTA toward Am over Nd is correlated with slightly enhanced ligand-to-metal charge donation arising from oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papassiopi, N.; Vaxevanidou, K.; Christou, C.; Karagianni, E.; Antipas, G.S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Fe(III)–Cr(III) hydroxides enhance groundwater quality better than pure Cr(III) compounds. • Crystalline Cr(OH){sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O was unstable, with a solubility higher than 50 μg/l. • Amorphous Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was stable with a solubility lower than 50 μg/l in the range 5.7 < pH < 11. • For mixed Fe{sub 0.75}Cr{sub 0.25}(OH){sub 3}, the stability region was extended to 4.8 < pH < 13.5. -- Abstract: Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe{sub (1−x)}Cr{sub x}(OH){sub 3} phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fe{sub x},Cr{sub 1−x})(OH){sub 3} hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH){sub 3}. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH){sub 3}·3H{sub 2}O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) phase. Mixed Fe{sub 0.75}Cr{sub 0.25}(OH){sub 3} hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH){sub 3}, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)–Cr(III

  2. Gen-III/III+ reactors. Solving the future energy supply shortfall. The SWR-1000 option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, Z.V.

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency of non-renewable energy sources, growing demand for electricity and primary energy, increase in population, raised concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and global warming are the facts which make nuclear energy currently the most realistic option to replace fossil fuels and satisfy global demand. The nuclear power industry has been developing and improving reactor technology for almost five decades and is now ready for the next generation of reactors which should solve the future energy supply shortfall. The advanced Gen-III/III+ (Generation III and/or III+) reactor designs incorporate passive or inherent safety features which require no active controls or operational intervention to manage accidents in the event of system malfunction. The passive safety equipment functions according to basic laws of physics such as gravity and natural convection and is automatically initiated. By combining these passive systems with proven active safety systems, the advanced reactors can be considered to be amongst the safest equipment ever made. Since the beginning of the 90's AREVA NP has been intensively engaged in the design of two advanced Gen-III+ reactors: (i) PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) EPR (Evolutionary Power Reactor) and (ii) BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) SWR-1000. The SWR-1000 reactor design marks a new era in the successful tradition of BWR technology. It meets the highest safety standards, including control of a core melt accident. This is achieved by supplementing active safety systems with passive safety equipment of diverse design for accident detection and control and by simplifying systems needed for normal plant operation. A short construction period, flexible fuel cycle lengths and a high fuel discharge burn-up contribute towards meeting economic goals. The SWR-1000 completely fulfils international nuclear regulatory requirements. (author)

  3. Mixed ligand complexes of some of the rare earths. La(III)-, Pr(III)- or Nd-(III)-CDTA-Hydroxy Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, H S; Tandon, J P [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Chemical Labs.

    1975-11-01

    Biligand complexes of the 1:1 Ln(III)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-tetraacetic acid (CDTA) chelate with hydroxy acids (where hydroxy acids = salicylic acid (SA); Sulphosalicylic acid (SSA) and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid (HQSA)) have been investigated by potentiometric titration. Their formation constants have been calculated (..mu..=0.1M-KNO/sub 3/; and t=30+-1 deg C) as 4.60 +-0.03, 5.46+-0.03, 5.87+-0.05; 3.12+-0.04, 3.95+-0.05, 4.42+-0.07; 2.73+-0.06, 3.45+-0.05 and 3.90+-0.08 for Ln(III)-CDTA-SA,-SSA, and -HQSA respectively (where Ln=La, Pr or Nd). The value of log Ksub(MAB) follows the order: La(III)).

  4. Antithrombin III in animal models of sepsis and organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickneite, G

    1998-01-01

    Antithrombin III (AT III) is the physiological inhibitor of thrombin and other serine proteases of the clotting cascade. In the development of sepsis, septic shock and organ failure, the plasma levels of AT III decrease considerably, suggesting the concept of a substitution therapy with the inhibitor. A decrease of AT III plasma levels might also be associated with other pathological disorders like trauma, burns, pancreatitis or preclampsia. Activation of coagulation and consumption of AT III is the consequence of a generalized inflammation called SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome). The clotting cascade is also frequently activated after organ transplantation, especially if organs are grafted between different species (xenotransplantation). During the past years AT III has been investigated in numerous corresponding disease models in different animal species which will be reviewed here. The bulk of evidence suggests, that AT III substitution reduces morbidity and mortality in the diseased animals. While gaining more experience with AT III, the concept of substitution therapy to maximal baseline plasma levels (100%) appears to become insufficient. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies now suggests to adjust the AT III plasma levels to about 200%, i.e., doubling the normal value. During the last few years several authors proposed that AT III might not only be an anti-thrombotic agent, but to have in addition an anti-inflammatory effect.

  5. Radiometric titration of thallium(III) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.S.; Pulla Rao, Ch.; Tataiah, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive solutions containing very small amounts of thallium(III) can be determined by radiometric titration using ammonia as hydrolysing agent. Aqueous solution of thallium(I) (both inactive and radioactive) is treated with bromine water till the appearance of the brown colour of bromine, and the solution is warmed to 80 deg C to expel the excess bromine. By this procedure all thallium(I) is quantitatively oxidised to thallium(III). An aqueous solution of ammonia is added to precipitate thallium(III) as thallic oxide. It is then filtered, washed with water to free it from bromide and then dissolved in 2N HCl and the solution is then standardised. 2 ml of this solution is transferred to a 20 ml volumetric flask, 1 ml of radioactive thallium(III) solution to be standardised is added as well as incremental amounts of EDTA solution and mixed thoroughly. Uncomplexed thallium(III) is then precipitated by the addition of an ammonia solution and diluted to 20 ml. Required amount of this mixture is centrifuged. The beta activity of the supernatant aliquot is measured using a GM counter. Quantitative determination of Tl(III) in the range of 1-10 μM can be carried out. The interference of cations such as Au(III), iron(III), Ga(III) can be eliminated by pretreatment of the Tl(III) solution before carrying out radiometric titration. The results obtained are reproducible and accurate to +-3%. (T.I.)

  6. SPEAR III: A brighter source at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettel, R.; Boyce, R.; Brennan, S.

    1997-01-01

    By replacing the magnets and vacuum chamber for the 3 GeV SPEAR II storage ring, the natural emittance of the machine can be reduced from 130 to 18 nm-rad and the stored current can be raised from 100 to 200 mA with a 50 h lifetime. This configuration increases focused photon flux for insertion device beamlines by an order of magnitude and the photon brightness for future undulators would exceed 10 18 at 5 keV. Due to a higher critical energy, the photon flux in the 20 keV range for bending magnet beamlines increases by more than two orders of magnitude. We present preliminary SPEAR III design study results and plans to implement the facility upgrade with minimal downtime for SSRL users

  7. The Davros III supervisory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Branch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes, and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1) to improve operator control of systems; 2) to simplify software maintenance and version control; 3) to reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators; 4) to assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)

  8. The Davros III supervisory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    Magnox Electric's Remote Operations Bbranch deploy a wide variety of remote inspection and maintenance tools into nuclear plant in order to perform a variety of tasks. In recent years much progress has been made on low-level control of individual manipulator axes and a parallel need has emerged for a supervisory system to assist the operator in the control of the whole system. Some requirements are: 1, To improve operator control of systems. 2, To simplify software maintenance and version control. 3, To reduce the likelihood of damage to manipulators. 4, To assist with rehearsals and simulations. Davros III is a PC software system which has been developed over a number of years to address these requirements. In a single program capable of being configured for a wide variety of applications, it provides a technique for following pretaught routes, a comprehensive and fully configurable interlock system and several different facilities for simulation. (author)

  9. Results on the iota from Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of Mark III results on the iota(1440), a possible glueball state observed in radiative J/psi decays. The measurements include a spin-parity determination using both the iota → Ksub(s) 0 K +- π +- and iota → K + K - π 0 decay modes; an upper limit on the K*anti-K content of the Kanti-Kπ Dalitz plot; branching fractions and isospin; stringent upper limits for several hadronic channels, including iota → zetaπ→etaππ; and results from a search for iota radiative decays into vector mesons. These measurements are discussed in the context of theoretical ideas about the iota and results on the E(1420), a state observed in hadronic interactions. 11 refs., 7 figs

  10. Conference on Fractals and Related Fields III

    CERN Document Server

    Seuret, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume provides readers with an overview of the most recent developments in the mathematical fields related to fractals, including both original research contributions, as well as surveys from many of the leading experts on modern fractal theory and applications. It is an outgrowth of the Conference of Fractals and Related Fields III, that was held on September 19-25, 2015 in île de Porquerolles, France. Chapters cover fields related to fractals such as harmonic analysis, multifractal analysis, geometric measure theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems, probability theory, number theory, wavelets, potential theory, partial differential equations, fractal tilings, combinatorics, and signal and image processing. The book is aimed at pure and applied mathematicians in these areas, as well as other researchers interested in discovering the fractal domain.

  11. The Doublet III neutral beam injector cryosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes neutral beam injection into the Doublet III tokamak for plasma heating experiments. Cryopanels employed in the beamline vacuum pumping system are force flow cooled to 3.8 K by a closed loop refrigeration system. Topics considered include beamline description, cryosystem description, system characteristics, and operational history. Evaluation of the first beamline was carried out using a 25 L/h liquefier and a unique reliquefaction heat exchanger to permit subatmospheric operation and panel flow rates of 140 L/h. The system was upgraded for three beamline operation by substitution of a 100 L/h liquefier and more cryogen storage capacity. It is concluded that the cryosystem gives stable operation of three beamline cryopanel arrays with little operator intervention

  12. Potassium tetracyanidoaurate(III monohydrate: a redetermination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Matsushita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title metal complex salt, K[Au(CN4]·H2O, has been redetermined using X-ray diffraction data at 173 K in order to improve the precision. The previous determination was based on neutron diffraction data [Bertinotti & Bertinotti (1970. Acta Cryst. B26, 422–428]. The title compound crystallizes in the space group P212121 with one potassium cation, one [Au(CN4]− anion and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. The AuIII atom lies on a general position and has an almost square-planar coordination sphere defined by four cyanide ligands. Interactions between the potassium cation and N atoms of the complex anion, as well as O—H...N hydrogen bonds, lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework structure.

  13. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofejev, G.L.; Imenitov, A.B.; Klimenko, E.Y.

    1980-01-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T. (author)

  14. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeiev, G L; Imenitov, A B; Klimenko, E Y [Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoi Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoi Ehnergii

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb/sub 3/Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  15. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  16. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  17. The PISC III programme: 1989 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Jehenson, P.; McDonald, N.

    1990-01-01

    The PISC Programme has the general objective of assessing procedures and techniques in use for the inspection of pressure components (in particular the vessel and piping). The Series of projects for the Inspection of Steel Components carried out since 1974 under the auspices of the CEC/JRC and the OECD/NEA is a major international effort to better assess the capability and reliability of Non Destructive Inspection procedures on structural components. The programme is now in its third phase (PISC III project); the activities are concentrated on the validation of the PISC II results (e.g. modification of the ASME Inspection Codes) on real structures containing real service defects and the extension of the PISC methodology on most important structural components made of different materials. Most of the PISC test assemblies and structure pieces are representative of (or are coming from) nuclear reactor components. (author)

  18. Hadron component of families (exp. 'Pamir' III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities of nuclear interaction investigation at 10 15 - 10 16 ev by means of analysis of family hadron component, registered in carbon and deep lead x-ray emulsion chambers, are discussed. The paper is divided in three parts. General properties of hadron families are discribed and compared in C and Pb chambers (part I). Correlations between gamma and hadron components of families are studied in the part II. It is shown that fluctuations of energies of this component are wider than in usually used models of nuclear interactions. The ratio of single hadron flux to the flux of γ-families is connected with cross-section and energy dissipation of nuclear interactions at about 10 16 ev (part III). (author)

  19. Thermal oxidation of III-V compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, O.R.; Evans, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of two important III-V compound semiconductor materials, namely GaAs and InP, has been studied between 300 and 600 0 C. In-situ TEM, cross-sectional TEM (XTEM) and SIMS analyses were used to characterize the reaction products. The first technique allows us to access the reactions at the very moment they are occurring. XTEM provides a clearer picture of the distribution of phases in the oxidized samples. SIMS gives us information on the dopant redistribution after oxidation as well as enrichment of group V element at the oxide semiconductor interface. Based on those results, the reaction products were characterized and reaction mechanisms proposed

  20. Paisagem e Património III

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Isabel; Carapinha, Aurora; Rodrigues, Paulo; Matos, Rute; Santos, Ilda

    2013-01-01

    Com Paisagem e Património III (2013-2014) abordamos agora o Som, elemento frequentemente relegado para segundo plano, o que está em manifesta contradição com o impacto que tem na nossa apreciação da paisagem, mas também do património. Capacidade auditiva e sentido de equilíbrio são as duas funções do ouvido, que fazem dele um órgão do espaço tridimensional. A propagação relativamente lenta do som (330m p/ segundo) permite-nos uma avaliação bastante fiável da profundidade do espaço. Por sua ve...

  1. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  2. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  3. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  4. Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Maria Deon Rizzatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at reporting the clinical case of a patient with Class III skeletal malocclusion with severe maxillary deficiency, producing a reduced midface associated with severe mandibular prognathism. The pre-surgical orthodontic preparation was composed mainly by dentoalveolar expansion and repositioning of the incisors in the lower arch. Then, a combined maxillary and mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed. The treatment objectives were achieved, with significant improvement in facial esthetics and occlusion, followed by post-treatment stability. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso clínico de um paciente portador de má oclusão de Classe III esquelética com acentuada deficiência maxilar, causando redução do terço médio da face, associada a severo prognatismo mandibular. O preparo ortodôntico pré-cirúrgico foi composto, principalmente, pela expansão dentoalveolar da maxila e o reposicionamento dos incisivos na arcada inferior. Depois, foi realizada a cirurgia ortognática combinada maxilomandibular. Os objetivos do tratamento foram atingidos, com significativa melhora da oclusão e da estética facial, seguida de estabilidade pós-tratamento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

  5. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  6. La otra "jaula de hierro": del fatalismo de la exclusion escolar a la recuperación del sentido de lo educativo. Una mirada desde la sociología The other "iron cage": from school exclusion fatalism to rescuing the meaning of education. A sociological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marrero

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es poner de relieve dos de las visiones más usuales sobre la institución escolar - como un mecanismo irresistible de reproducción social y como un lugar que carece de sentido para los jóvenes - y discutir, a partir de ellos, el lugar de la educación en esta etapa de la modernidad. Para ello, se revisa la tesis clásica de la jaula de hierro weberiana, la teoría de la estructuración de Giddens y el lugar de los proyectos humanos en Archer, y a partir de allí se concluye, con Charlot y Young sobre los modos como recuperar el sentido y el propósito emancipador de la educación en las sociedades contemporáneas. Desde el punto de vista empírico, se parte de la descripción de dos objetos culturales (un cortometraje y un artículo periodístico que sirven de ejemplificación de algunos de los aspectos analizados.The purpose of this article is to highlight two of the most common perspectives on education as an institution - an irresistible mechanism for social reproduction and as a meaningless place for youngsters - and from those ideas to discuss the role of education at the present stage of modernity. To do so, it will be reviewed the classic Weberian theory of the iron cage, Giddens' structuration theory, and the role of human projects in Archer's perspective. The article then concludes with the theories of Young and Charlot about the ways of recovering the meaning and emancipatory purpose of education in contemporary societies. From the empirical perspective, a description of two cultural objects (a short film and an Op-Ed is taken to illustrate some of the aspects analyzed.

  7. Variation in plasmonic (electronic) spectral parameters of Pr (III) and Nd (III) with varied concentration of moderators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Shubha, E-mail: shubhamishra03@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain (M. P.) (India); Limaye, S. N., E-mail: snl222@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, A Central University, Sagar (M.P.) (India)

    2015-07-31

    It is said that the -4f shells behave as core and are least perturbed by changes around metal ion surrounding. However, there are evidences that-4f shells partially involved in direct moderator interaction. A systematic investigation on the plasmonic (electronic) spectral studies of some Rare Earths[RE(III).Mod] where, RE(III) = Pr(III),Nd(III) and Mod(moderator) = Y(III),La(III),Gd(III) and Lu(III), increased moderator concentration from 0.01 mol dm{sup −3} to 0.025 mol dm{sup −3} keeping the metal ion concentration at 0.01mol dm{sup −3} have been carried out. Variations in oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters (T{sub λ}),inter-electronic repulsion Racah parameters (δE{sup k}),nephelauxetic ratio (β), radiative parameters (S{sub ED},A{sub T},β{sub R},T{sub R}). The values of oscillator strengths and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been discussed in the light of coordination number of RE(III) metal ions, denticity and basicity of the moderators. The [RE(III).Mod] bonding pattern has been studies in the light of the change in Racah parameters and nephelauxetic ratio.

  8. Adsorption behavior of Am(III) on granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Feng Xiaogui; Liang Junfu; Chen Jing; Su Rui; Wang Ju; Liu Chunli

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of Am(III) on granite (sampled from drilling well BS01 at Beishan (BS) area--a potential candidate site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository, the granite sample's depth about 300 m) was studied in BS03 well groundwater by a batch technique at (25±1) degree C. The influences of pH, sulphate ion, total carbonate ion, humic acid, and concentration of the Am(III) on the adsorption behavior were also studied, and the possible adsorption mechanism was discussed. Experimental results show that the adsorption distribution rate of Am(III) on granite increases with increasing pH of aqueous phase. The chemical composition of the groundwater is the main factor which influences the species of Am(III) and adsorption behavior. The adsorption mechanism of Am(III) on granite is surface complexation. The adsorption isotherm of Am(III) on granite can be described by Freundlich's equation. (authors)

  9. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7...... and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  10. Distribution and Translocation of 141Ce (III) in Horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoshan; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Fang, Min; Huang, Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in agriculture and a large amount of them contaminate the environment and enter foods. The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish was investigated in order to help understand the biochemical behaviour and toxic mechanism of REEs in plants. Method The distribution and translocation of 141Ce (III) in horseradish were investigated using autoradiography, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and electron microscopic autoradiography (EMARG) techniques. The contents of 141Ce (III) and nutrient elements were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Results The results from autoradiography and LSC indicated that 141Ce (III) could be absorbed by horseradish and transferred from the leaf to the leaf-stalk and then to the root. The content of 141Ce (III) in different parts of horseradish was as follows: root > leaf-stalk > leaf. The uptake rates of 141Ce (III) in horseradish changed with the different organs and time. The content of 141Ce (III) in developing leaves was greater than that in mature leaves. The results from EMARG indicated that 141Ce (III) could penetrate through the cell membrane and enter the mesophyll cells, being present in both extra- and intra-cellular deposits. The contents of macronutrients in horseradish were decreased by 141Ce (III) treatment. Conclusions 141Ce (III) can be absorbed and transferred between organs of horseradish with time, and the distribution was found to be different at different growth stages. 141Ce (III) can enter the mesophyll cells via apoplast and symplast channels or via plasmodesmata. 141Ce (III) can disturb the metabolism of macronutrients in horseradish. PMID:17921527

  11. Use of COMCAN III in system design and reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.; Shepherd, J.C.; Marshall, N.H.; Fitch, L.R.

    1982-03-01

    This manual describes the COMCAN III computer program and its use. COMCAN III is a tool that can be used by the reliability analyst performing a probabilistic risk assessment or by the designer of a system desiring improved performance and efficiency. COMCAN III can be used to determine minimal cut sets of a fault tree, to calculate system reliability characteristics, and to perform qualitative common cause failure analysis

  12. Analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III) with elastase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózycki, J; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Krokoszyńska, I; Wilusz, T

    1994-04-01

    Three new CMTI-III analogues containing the Val residue in the reactive site (position 5) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. The analogues displayed an elastase inhibitory activity. It is shown that the removal of the N-terminal Arg residue and the introduction of the Gly-Pro-Gln tripeptide in the region 23-25 decreases the antielastase activity by two orders of magnitude. The removal of the disulfide bridge in positions 16-28 and the substitution of Ala for Cys16 and Gly for Cys28 decreases the activity (measured as Ka with HLE) by five orders of magnitude as compared with [Val5]CMTI-III.

  13. Extraction of Am (III) and Nd (III): comparison of TODGA and TEHDGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, R.B.; Murali, M.S.; Ansari, S.A.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Belonging to the class of extractants, diglycolamides which are recently explored and promising for actinide partitioning, two reagents (N, N, N', N'-tetraoctyl diglycolamide) TODGA and its isomerically substituted counterpart, (N, N, N', N'- tetraethylhexyl diglycolamide) TEHDGA after addition of suitable phase modifiers, Dihexyoctanamide and isodecanol respectively in dodecane have been compared in their extraction abilities for Am (III) and Nd (III) from nitric acid as well as simulated high-level waste solutions (SHLW) equivalent to HLW arising from PHWR fuel reprocessing. Both 0.1M TODGA + 0.5M DHOA and 0.2M TEHDGA + 30% isodecanol in dodecane display high distribution ratios for the trivalent metal ions of f-elements. Similarities and differences in their extraction are discussed. (author)

  14. Aqueous phase complexation of Cm(III) and Cf(III) with ionizable macrocyclic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchanda, V.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Complexation behaviour of Cm(III) and Cf(III) with 1,7-diaza-4,10,13-trioxacyclopentadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid (K21DA), 1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16-tetraoxacyclooctadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid (K22DA) and ethylene diamine N,N'- diacetic acid (EDDA) has been investigated using dinonyl naphthalene sulphonic acid (DNNS), in tetramethyl ammonium form as liquid cation exchanger. The aqueous phase complex formation constants are computed from the distribution data. Though larger complex formation constants are observed with K21DA as well as K22DA compared to those with the acyclic analog EDDA, no size correlation is observed. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  15. Rhodium(III)- and iridium(III)-catalyzed C7 alkylation of indolines with diazo compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wen; Yang, Xueyan; Wu, Yunxiang; Wang, Xuan; Li, Yuanchao; Yang, Yaxi; Zhou, Bing

    2014-12-22

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed procedure for the C7-selective C-H alkylation of various indolines with α-diazo compounds at room temperature is reported. The advantages of this process are: 1) simple, mild, and pH-neutral reaction conditions, 2) broad substrate scope, 3) complete regioselectivity, 4) no need for an external oxidant, and 5) N2 as the sole byproduct. Furthermore, alkylation and bis-alkylation of carbazoles at the C1 and C8 positions have also been developed. More significantly, for the first time, a successful Ir(III)-catalyzed intermolecular insertion of arene C-H bonds into α-diazo compounds is reported. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Solar neutrino oscillation parameters after SNO Phase-III and SAGE Part-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Liu Qiuyu

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the recently published results from solar neutrino experiments SNO Phase-III and SAGE Part-III and show their constraints on solar neutrino oscillation parameters, especially for the mixing angle θ 12 . Through a global analysis using all existing data from SK, SNO, Ga and Cl radiochemical experiments and long base line reactor experiment KamLAND , we obtain the parameters Δm 12 2 =7.684 -0.208 +0.212 x 10 -5 eV 2 , tan 2 θ 12 =0.440 -0.057 +0.059 . We also find that the discrepancy between the KamLAND and solar neutrino results can be reduced by choosing a small non-zero value for the mixing angle θ 13 . (authors)

  17. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  18. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  19. Syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of a family of heterometallic heptanuclear [Cu5Ln2] (Ln = Y(III), Lu(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III), and Yb(III)) complexes: observation of SMM behavior for the Dy(III) and Ho(III) analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Dey, Atanu; Das, Sourav; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2013-03-04

    Sequential reaction of the multisite coordination ligand (LH3) with Cu(OAc)2·H2O, followed by the addition of a rare-earth(III) nitrate salt in the presence of triethylamine, afforded a series of heterometallic heptanuclear complexes containing a [Cu5Ln2] core {Ln = Y(1), Lu(2), Dy(3), Ho(4), Er(5), and Yb(6)}. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveals that all the complexes are dicationic species that crystallize with two nitrate anions to compensate the charge. The heptanuclear aggregates in 1-6 are centrosymmetrical complexes, with a hexagonal-like arrangement of six peripheral metal ions (two rare-earth and four copper) around a central Cu(II) situated on a crystallographic inversion center. An all-oxygen environment is found to be present around the rare-earth metal ions, which adopt a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. Three different Cu(II) sites are present in the heptanuclear complexes: two possess a distorted octahedral coordination sphere while the remaining one displays a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Detailed static and dynamic magnetic properties of all the complexes have been studied and revealed the single-molecule magnet behavior of the Dy(III) and Ho(III) derivatives.

  20. Control Analysis of Hazards Potential in Crude Distiller Unit III PT. Pertamina (Persero) Refinery Unit III Plaju Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Matariani, Ade; Hasyim, Hamzah; Faisya, Achmad Fickry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activities in CDU III are very risk to any hazards potential; because of that hazards potential is much needed in controlling the hazards potential to decrease the accidents and occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the controlling of hazards potential in CDU III PT. Pertamina (Persero) RU III Plaju in 2011. Method: This study was a qualitative study. The methods of data collection were using in-depth interview and observation. The total of informants in this...

  1. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  2. Separation of valence forms of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation with iron(III) hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirmadov, B.; Khamidov, B.O.; Egorova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption of 9.62·10 -5 M of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with iron hydroxide in 1 M potassium nitrate and potassium chloride was investigated in relation to the pH of the medium. Experimental data on the sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) with iron(III) hydroxide made it possible to determine the region of practically complete concentration of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) (pH = 3-6.5). The results from spectrophotometric investigations, calculated data on the distribution of the hydroxocationic forms of chromium(III) and the anions of chromium(IV), and their sorption by iron-(III) hydroxide made it possible to characterize the sorbability of the cationic and anionic forms of chromium in various degrees of oxidation. On this basis a method was developed for the separation of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation on iron(III) hydroxide and their separation from the iron(III) hydroxide support

  3. Determination of stability constants of iron(III and chromium(III-nitrilotriacetate-methyl cysteine mixed complexes by electrophoretic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Bhushan Tewari

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability constants of Fe(III and Cr(III with methyl cysteine and nitrilotriacetate (NTA were determined by paper electrophoretic technique. Beside binary ternary complexes have also been studied, in which nitrilotriacetate and methyl cysteine acts as primary and secondary ligand, respectively. The stability constants of mixed ligand complexes metal (M-nitrilotriacetate-methyl cysteine have been found to be 5.72 plus or minus 0.09 and 5.54 plus or minus 0.11 (log K values for Fe(III and Cr(III complexes, respectively, at 35 oC and ionic strength 0.1 M.

  4. Biochemical and Structural Properties of Mouse Kynurenine Aminotransferase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Robinson, H; Cai, T; Tagle, D; Li, J

    2009-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase III (KAT III) has been considered to be involved in the production of mammalian brain kynurenic acid (KYNA), which plays an important role in protecting neurons from overstimulation by excitatory neurotransmitters. The enzyme was identified based on its high sequence identity with mammalian KAT I, but its activity toward kynurenine and its structural characteristics have not been established. In this study, the biochemical and structural properties of mouse KAT III (mKAT III) were determined. Specifically, mKAT III cDNA was amplified from a mouse brain cDNA library, and its recombinant protein was expressed in an insect cell protein expression system. We established that mKAT III is able to efficiently catalyze the transamination of kynurenine to KYNA and has optimum activity at relatively basic conditions of around pH 9.0 and at relatively high temperatures of 50 to 60C. In addition, mKAT III is active toward a number of other amino acids. Its activity toward kynurenine is significantly decreased in the presence of methionine, histidine, glutamine, leucine, cysteine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. Through macromolecular crystallography, we determined the mKAT III crystal structure and its structures in complex with kynurenine and glutamine. Structural analysis revealed the overall architecture of mKAT III and its cofactor binding site and active center residues. This is the first report concerning the biochemical characteristics and crystal structures of KAT III enzymes and provides a basis toward understanding the overall physiological role of mammalian KAT III in vivo and insight into regulating the levels of endogenous KYNA through modulation of the enzyme in the mouse brain.

  5. The Evolution of Population III Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, J. C. N.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos el enfriamiento y colapso de las perturbaciones iso- termicas de masa M % Mj (masa de Jeans en la era de recombinaci6n) y M « Mj tomando en consideraci5n la expansi6n del Universo, presi6n, arrastre de fotones, enfriamiento de fotones (calentamiento), fotoioni- zaci6n, ionizaci5n por colisiones y la formaci6n y enfriamiento de mo- leculas de hidr6geno. Tambien estudiamos el efecto de no-esfericidad, rotaci6n y campos magneticos en el colapso de M % Mj debido a perturbaciones residuales que sobreviven para N « Mj. ABSTRACT. We study the cooling and collapse of isothermal perturbations of mass N % Nj (Jeans mass at recombination era) and N « NJ taking into account the expansion of the Universe, pressure, photon-drag, photon -cooling (heating), photoionization, collisional ionization and the formation and cooling of hydrogen molecules. We also study the effect of the nonsphericity, rotation and magnetic fields in the collapse of N % NJ. The formation of protostars from the fragmentation of clouds of mass M % MJ due to the residual perturbations that survive for N « NJ is also investigated. K ok : HYDRODYNANICS - STARS-POPULATION III

  6. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofejev, G. L.; Imenitov, A. B.; Klimenko, E. Yu.

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogenious monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr, Nb 3Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The longitudinal electric field for homogenious wires may be described by E=J ρnexp- T c/T 0+ T/T 0+ B/B 0+ J/J 0, where To, Bo, Jo are the increasing parameters, which depend weakly on B and T, of the electric field. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (ie the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T, B, J - space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  7. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Alves Furquim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5 mm and an overbite of 5 mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return the correct function. The surgical procedures included a Le Fort I osteotomy for expansion, advancement, impaction, and rotation of the maxilla to correct the occlusal plane inclination. There was 2 mm of impaction of the anterior portion of the maxilla and 5 mm of extrusion in the posterior region. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed in order to allow counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and anterior projection of the chin, accompanying the maxillary occlusal plane. Rigid internal fixation was used without any intermaxillary fixation. It was concluded that these procedures were very effective in producing a pleasing facial esthetic result, showing stability 7 years posttreatment.

  8. Progress in III-V materials technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ian R.

    2004-12-01

    Compound semiconductors, in the form of GaAs and InP have achieved major commercial significance in areas of application such as mobile communications, displays and telecoms and offer a versatility of function beyond the capabilities of Si. III-V compounds, and in particular GaAs, have since their early development been the subject of defence related interest. Support from this sector established the basic materials technologies and nurtured development up until their commercial breakthrough into consumer products. GaAs, for example, now provides essential components for mobile phones and CD / DVD players. An overview is presented of the crystal growth and processing methods used in the manufacture of these materials. Current state of the art characteristics on crystal form and quality are discussed, together with the evolution of single crystal growth techniques. Consideration is given to how these principal compounds together with the minor materials, InSb, GaSb and InAs are employed in diverse applications over a broad spectral range, together with information on markets and future perspectives.

  9. Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2005, a group of German and Polish mathematicians worked under a DFG research project No 436 POL 113/98/0-1 entitled "Methods of stochastic analysis in the theory of collective phenomena: Gibbs states and statistical hydrodynamics". The results of their study were summarized at the German-Polish conference, which took place in Poland in October 2005. The venue of the conference was Kazimierz Dolny upon Vistula - a lovely town and a popular place for various cultural, scientific, and even political events of an international significance. The conference was also attended by scientists from France, Italy, Portugal, UK, Ukraine, and USA, which predetermined its international character. Since that time, the conference, entitled "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems" has become an annual international event, attended by leading scientists from Germany, Poland and many other countries. The present volume of the "Condensed Matter Physics" contains proceedings of the conference "Infinite Particle Systems: Complex Systems III", which took place in June 2007.

  10. The evolution of supermassive Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Woods, T. E.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    Supermassive primordial stars forming in atomically cooled haloes at z ˜ 15-20 are currently thought to be the progenitors of the earliest quasars in the Universe. In this picture, the star evolves under accretion rates of 0.1-1 M⊙ yr-1 until the general relativistic instability triggers its collapse to a black hole at masses of ˜105 M⊙. However, the ability of the accretion flow to sustain such high rates depends crucially on the photospheric properties of the accreting star, because its ionizing radiation could reduce or even halt accretion. Here we present new models of supermassive Population III protostars accreting at rates 0.001-10 M⊙ yr-1, computed with the GENEVA stellar evolution code including general relativistic corrections to the internal structure. We compute for the first time evolutionary tracks in the mass range M > 105 M⊙. We use the polytropic stability criterion to estimate the mass at which the collapse occurs, which has been shown to give a lower limit of the actual mass at collapse in recent hydrodynamic simulations. We find that at accretion rates higher than 0.01 M⊙ yr-1, the stars evolve as red, cool supergiants with surface temperatures below 104 K towards masses >105 M⊙. Moreover, even with the lower rates 0.001 M_{⊙} yr{^{-1}}feedback remains weak, reinforcing the case for direct collapse as the origin of the first quasars. We provide numerical tables for the surface properties of our models.

  11. Perceived Benefits of National Fadama Development Project III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to appraise the perceived benefits of third national fadama development project III among rural farmers in Kwara state, Nigeria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in selecting 225 Fadama III users as respondents. Data were collected by well trained fadama community ...

  12. Prolonged Survival in Stage III Melanoma with Ipilimumab Adjuvant Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Grob, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    undergone complete resection of stage III melanoma. Methods After patients had undergone complete resection of stage III cutaneous melanoma, we randomly assigned them to receive ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram (475 patients) or placebo (476) every 3 weeks for four doses, then every 3 months...

  13. Determination of antithrombin III by radioimmunoassay and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, V; Chan, T K; Wong, V; Tso, S G; Todd, D [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong

    1979-04-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the determination of antithrombin III (AT III) in man. The detection limit was 25 ..mu..g/dl. At III-RIA level and biological activity (anti-Xa) was significantly correlated (r = 0.737, P < 0.0001). Plasma levels in 36 healthy males (mean +- SD, 19.9 +- 2.5 mg/dl) and 21 healthy females (19.1 +- 2.4 mg/dl) were similiar. Serial AT III measurements in normal menstruating females showed lower levels during midcycle and higher concentrations during menstruation. In carcinomas, the AT III levels were lower than normal, particularly in hepatocellular carcinoma. In cirrhosis of liver, the levels were markedly decreased and in some patients were below that found in congenital AT III deficiency. Patients with deep vein thrombosis and patients with heart valve replacement had lower levels than normal, while patients with cerebral vascular occlusion had normal levels. The possible use of AT III as a diagnostic tool of post-operative deep vein thrombosis was demonstrated in one patient after hysterectomy. The increased sensitivity, specificity and precision of this type of assay offer distinct advantages over existing methods of AT III estimation.

  14. Interdisciplinary orthognathic treatment of high angle class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Class III adult patients, combined treatment strategy must be followed which includes either further dentoalveolar compensation or orthognathic surgery following decompensation of the teeth. This case report presents the interdisciplinary approach of a skeletal Class III malocclusion with increased vertical facial ...

  15. Introduction to Part III: Application of LCA in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2018-01-01

    While Part II of this book presents the theoretical foundation and methodology of LCA, Part III is dedicated to a comprehensive discussion of how this methodology has been adapted and applied in practice. The chapters of Part III provide an easily readable and accessible introduction to different...

  16. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  17. Recent advances on biological production of difructose dianhydride III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Yu, Shuhuai; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Guang, Cuie; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-04-01

    Difructose dianhydride III (DFA III) is a cyclic difructose containing two reciprocal glycosidic linkages. It is easily generated with a small amount by sucrose caramelization and thus occurs in a wide range of food-stuffs during food processing. DFA III has half sweetness but only 1/15 energy of sucrose, showing potential industrial application as low-calorie sucrose substitute. In addition, it displays many benefits including prebiotic effect, low cariogenicity property, and hypocholesterolemic effect, and improves absorption of minerals, flavonoids, and immunoglobulin G. DFA III is biologically produced from inulin by inulin fructotransferase (IFTase, EC 4.2.2.18). Plenty of DFA III-producing enzymes have been identified. The crystal structure of inulin fructotransferase has been determined, and its molecular modification has been performed to improve the catalytic activity and structural stability. Large-scale production of DFA III has been studied by various IFTases, especially using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor. In this article, the recent findings on physiological effects of DFA III are briefly summarized; the research progresses on identification, expression, and molecular modification of IFTase and large-scale biological production of DFA III by IFTase are reviewed in detail.

  18. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III=Al, Ga, and In and V=P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V I I I q) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III V q defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V I I I q under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Position-controlled epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.L.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wunnicke, O.; Serafin, S.N.; Wondergem, H.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We show the epitaxial integration of III-V semiconductor nanowires with silicon technology. The wires are grown by the VLS mechanism with laser ablation as well as metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy. The hetero-epitaxial growth of the III-V nanowires on silicon was confirmed with x-ray diffraction

  20. Toxicological studies and antimicrobial properties of some Iron(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two iron(III) complexes of Ciprofloxacin were synthesized by reaction of the ligand with iron(III) chloride hexahydrate in different solutions. The nature of bonding of the ligands and the structure of the isolated metal complexes were elucidated on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic studies. The infrared spectra ...