WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchy resolution strategy

  1. Income generation strategy in the overall hierarchy of business strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Shastun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To comply with claims of a modern economy significantly increases the role of strategic revenue management in enterprises, and in the first place, strategic management of income generation. The concept of an income generation strategy is not disclosed in the scientific literature, in this connection in article describes and analyzes the main concepts which are similar in content to the category of income generation strategy of enterprises (strategy analysis of income, revenue strategy, development strategy of income. Defines the role and importance of income generation strategy in modern management practices and presented the author's definition of income generation strategy. In article considered income generation strategy a compared to financial strategy of the enterprise and proved the difference between them. Show the position of income generation strategy in the hierarchy of strategies of enterprises and spheres of influence at all levels of the company. Income generation strategy described as interlevel, components of which are elements of all the functional and resource strategies and established a direct and feedback between the income generation strategy and corporate, competitive, functional and resource strategy.

  2. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN KOMPETENSI GURU DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANALYSIS HIERARCHY PROCESS

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    Reni Daharti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seorang guru sebagai seorang pendidik merupakan komponen penting dalam proses pendidikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1 menganalisis profil guru SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal, (2 menganalisis prioritas kebijakan dalam meningkatkan kompetensi guru di daerah penelitian, (3 menentukan strategi untuk meningkatkan kompetensi guru melalui prioritas kebijakan yang dapat diterapkan di daerah penelitian. Respondennya adalah 33 guru SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal. Mereka dipilih dengan menggunakan simple random sampling. Selain itu 15 orang dipilih untuk menjadi keyperson. Statistik Deskriptif dan Analisis Hierarchy Process digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kompetensi pedagogik dan kompetensi profesional guru adalah moderat dan guru memiliki kepribadian dan kompetensi sosial yang tinggi. Hal yang harus ditingkatkan adalah kompetensi guru. Prioritas utama dalam meningkatkan kompetensi guru di Kabupaten Tegal adalah (1 memilih moralitas calon guru 2 menyaring kualitas guru (3 mengirim guru untuk mengikuti berbagai pelatihan untuk meningkatkan karakter mereka.A teacher as an educator is an important component in the educational process. This study aims to (1 analyze the teacher profile of SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal,  (2 analyze the policy priorities in improving the competence of teachers in the study area, (3 determine the strategies for enhancing the competence of teachers through the policy priorities that can be applied in the study area. There are 33 junior high school teachers of SLTP Komwil 05 Kabupaten Tegal as the respondents. They were selected by using simple random sampling. Then, there are also15 key persons. Descriptive Statistics and Analysis Hierarchy Process were used to analyze the data in the study. The results show that pedagogical competence and professional competence are moderate and the teachers have high personality and social competence. The thing that should be

  3. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  4. Identification of overlapping communities and their hierarchy by locally calculating community-changing resolution levels

    CERN Document Server

    Havemann, Frank; Struck, Alexander; Gläser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new local, deterministic and parameter-free algorithm that detects fuzzy and crisp overlapping communities in a weighted network and simultaneously reveals their hierarchy. Using a local fitness function, the algorithm greedily expands natural communities of seeds until the whole graph is covered. The hierarchy of communities is obtained analytically by calculating resolution levels at which communities grow rather than numerically by testing different resolution levels. This analytic procedure is not only more exact than its numerical alternatives such as LFM and GCE but also much faster. Critical resolution levels can be identified by searching for intervals in which large changes of the resolution do not lead to growth of communities. We tested our algorithm on benchmark graphs and on a network of 492 papers in information science. Combined with a specific post-processing, the algorithm gives much more precise results on LFR benchmarks with high overlap compared to other algorithms and perform...

  5. Strategies of anaphora resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2000-01-01

    First draft: November 1997 (OTS Working Papers) Revised: May 1999 Appeared in Hans Bennis, M. Everaert and E. Reuland (eds) Interface Strategies North Holland Amsterdam (2000).Several corrections were added at the proofs stage, not included here. The major points of this paper are: a. The definition

  6. Strategies of anaphora resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    First draft: November 1997 (OTS Working Papers) Revised: May 1999 Appeared in Hans Bennis, M. Everaert and E. Reuland (eds) Interface Strategies North Holland Amsterdam (2000).Several corrections were added at the proofs stage, not included here. The major points of this paper are: a. The definition

  7. Mass Hierarchy Resolution in Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiments: Parameter Degeneracies and Detector Energy Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Qian, D. A. Dwyer, R. D. McKeown, P. Vogel, W. Wang, C. Zhang`

    2013-02-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy using a reactor neutrino experiment at ∼60  km is analyzed. Such a measurement is challenging due to the finite detector resolution, the absolute energy scale calibration, and the degeneracies caused by current experimental uncertainty of |Δm{sub 32}{sup 2}|. The standard {chi}{sup 2} method is compared with a proposed Fourier transformation method. In addition, we show that for such a measurement to succeed, one must understand the nonlinearity of the detector energy scale at the level of a few tenths of percent.

  8. Hierarchy vs. Democracy: Two Strategies for the Management of Knowledge in Pohnpei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgout, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    Compares theories of knowledge and strategies for cultural transmission in Pohnpei (Micronesia) and U.S. models of education. Extensive interviews and observations demonstrate the awareness of the people of Pohnpei of the potential of U.S. education to transform their traditional chiefdom hierarchy and the content and nature of traditional…

  9. Penentuan Kriteria Pemilihan Strategi Sistem Manufaktur Menggunakan Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Soepardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decision making process for the selection of criteria manufacturing system using AHP. The accuracy of the selection strategy is based on many criteria that termed as agility capabilities. Several influential criteria that is used in the selection are responsiveness, product quality, product cost, operator skills, and inventory. From these criteria, manufacturing responsiveness has the highest priority weight. On these criteria, the company cast metal is required to have the agility capabilities in reduction of lead-time for product development, new product introduction, and a wide variety of products. While the criteria for product quality takes places at second priority, followed by product cost, operator skill and inventory. From agility capability priorities that must be owned by the company of cast metal, the manufacturing system according to the characteristics of the organization and be able to respond appropriately to environmental changes is lean manufacturing system.

  10. SELECTION OF BUSINESS STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING FUZZY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

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    Prasun Das

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy linguistic concepts are often used to enhance the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP in capturing the fuzziness and subjectiveness of decision makers' judgments. In this paper, fuzzy AHP methodology is adopted for selection of the strategies for business improvement in an Indian industry as a decision making problem. Due to simplicity and effectiveness, triangular fuzzy numbers are adopted as a reference to indicate the influence strength of each element in the hierarchy structure. The confidence level and the optimistic levels of multiple decision makers are captured by using ? -cut based fuzzy number methods. This fuzzy set theory based multi-attribute decision making method is found to be quite useful and effective in industrial environment.

  11. Ship Classification with High Resolution TerraSAR-X Imagery Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

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    Zhi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship surveillance using space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, taking advantages of high resolution over wide swaths and all-weather working capability, has attracted worldwide attention. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of ship detection, but the classification is largely still open. In this paper, we propose a novel ship classification scheme based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP in order to achieve better performance. The main idea is to apply AHP on both feature selection and classification decision. On one hand, the AHP based feature selection constructs a selection decision problem based on several feature evaluation measures (e.g., discriminability, stability, and information measure and provides objective criteria to make comprehensive decisions for their combinations quantitatively. On the other hand, we take the selected feature sets as the input of KNN classifiers and fuse the multiple classification results based on AHP, in which the feature sets’ confidence is taken into account when the AHP based classification decision is made. We analyze the proposed classification scheme and demonstrate its results on a ship dataset that comes from TerraSAR-X SAR images.

  12. Selection of the Bank Investment Strategy on the Basis of the Hierarchy Analysis Method

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    Zhytar Maksym O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of a methodical approach to selection of the investment strategy of banks on the basis of factors of its formation with the use of the hierarchy analysis method. Factors of formation of the bank’s investment strategy were identified in the result of the study. The article demonstrates that selection of the investment strategy of the bank could be efficiently realised on the basis of the hierarchy analysis method, which is the most popular under conditions of a multi-criteria assessment of the search for optimal solution of the set task. The article offers a hierarchical structure of decision making, which could be a basis of selection of the bank’s investment strategy with consideration of the institutional flexibility. The prospect of further study in this direction is development of an optimisation model of the bank’s investment portfolio with consideration of not only institutional, but also market flexibility of decision making.

  13. Analytic hierarchy process analysis for choosing a corporate social entrepreneurship strategy

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    Hadad Shahrazad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social entrepreneurship as market development tool, and corporate social entrepreneurship as transformational innovation tool were organised as the alternatives of a carefully constructed hierarchy having as criteria: return on investment (which does not necessarily refer to the money that the company invests in the strategy; the term is derived from sustainability and scalability, degree of novelty, pre-entry knowledge and interest in solving the communities’ social problems. The questionnaire constructed based on the hierarchy using analytic hierarchy processes was distributed to experts (business developers coming from the following industries or sectors: beverages, IT, banking, furniture, and automotive. The research reveals which is the approach most likely to be employed by Romanian business developers. The results may be inferred to the sum of businesses represented by the expert business developers who were part of the research.

  14. Hierarchy concepts: classification and preparation strategies for zeolite containing materials with hierarchical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Wilhelm; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Weissenberger, Tobias; Inayat, Amer; Selvam, Thangaraj; Klumpp, Michael; Inayat, Alexandra

    2016-06-13

    'Hierarchy' is a property which can be attributed to a manifold of different immaterial systems, such as ideas, items and organisations or material ones like biological systems within living organisms or artificial, man-made constructions. The property 'hierarchy' is mainly characterised by a certain ordering of individual elements relative to each other, often in combination with a certain degree of branching. Especially mass-flow related systems in the natural environment feature special hierarchically branched patterns. This review is a survey into the world of hierarchical systems with special focus on hierarchically porous zeolite materials. A classification of hierarchical porosity is proposed based on the flow distribution pattern within the respective pore systems. In addition, this review might serve as a toolbox providing several synthetic and post-synthetic strategies to prepare zeolitic or zeolite containing material with tailored hierarchical porosity. Very often, such strategies with their underlying principles were developed for improving the performance of the final materials in different technical applications like adsorptive or catalytic processes. In the present review, besides on the hierarchically porous all-zeolite material, special focus is laid on the preparation of zeolitic composite materials with hierarchical porosity capable to face the demands of industrial application.

  15. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN KEBERDAYAAN INDUSTRI KECIL KONVEKSI DENGAN ANALIYSIS HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP

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    Himawan Arif Sutanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was done on Small Medium Enterprises (SME that produce convection in the district of Watesalit Batang. The aimsof this study are to (1 determine the condition of SME that produce convection (2 determine the strategy for increasingthe empowerment of convection SME. The sampling technique was done by having simple random sampling of 75 persons as the owners of convectionSME and 10 keypersons. Descriptive statistics has beenused to determine the condition of convection SME convectionand Analysis Hierarchy Prcess (AHP has been used to determine the strategies forincreasing the empowerment of convectionSME. The result showsthat most of convectionSMEs market their products directly in local and regional markets. The main priorities in the development of convection SME are (1 conductingtrainings to encourage entrepreneurship, (2 improving technical skills, (3 providingtrading trading home and small business marketing (workshop. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan pada industri kecil konveksi di Watesalit Kabupaten Batang. Tujuan penelitian ini (1 untuk mengetahui kondisi UKM Konveksi(2 untuk menentukan strategi peningkatan keberdayaan UKM Konveksi. Teknik pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan simple random sampling yang terdiri dari 75 orang pelaku usaha UKM Konveksi dan 10 orang responden kunci (keyperson. Statistik deskriptif telah digunakan untuk mengetahui kondisi UKM Konveksi dan Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP telah digunakan untuk menentukan strategi dalam meningkatkan keberdayaan UKM Konveksi di daerah penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada umumnya para pelaku usaha konveksi di daerah penelitian menggunakan polapemasaran secara langsung di pasar lokal dan regional. Prioritas utama dalam pengembangan UKM konveksi di daerah penelitian adalah (1 melakukan pelatihan dalam upaya membudayakan kewirausahaan, (2 meningkatkan keterampilan teknis, (3 menyediakan rumah dagang dan pemasaran usaha kecil (workshop. 

  16. SELECTING A COMPETITIVE STRATEGY FOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY USING THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

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    Irina Bondareva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable growth of enterprises, as well as their competitiveness enhancement, is based largely on the formation of strategic potential. To ensure fulfillment of objectives on maintaining or strengthening the competitive position of the company, suitable competitive strategy, as a tool of strategic management, should be selected and implemented. However, optimal strategy should also form the strategic potential, i.e. the vision of how a company can use its reserves to increase competitiveness. The aim of the article was to select an effective competitive strategy from several alternatives with the help of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Company, that is recognized as the leader in the production of radiopharmaceuticals on the Slovak market was an object of this study. Calculations showed that the company should focus on the development of new products and keep the position on the existing markets rather than entering a new one. Based on the chosen strategy, it is also possible to create or customize the investment portfolio of the company, which ensures strengthening its competitive position.

  17. Identifying and ranking of strategies to implement green supply chain management in Indian manufacturing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Luthra; Dixit Garg; Abid Haleem

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to identify and rank the major strategies that help achieve successful implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) in Indian manufacturing industry.Design/methodology/approach – Strategies to implement GSCM have been identified thorough extensive literature review and then experts’ opinion is sought for categorizing them into four representative dimensions which are then ranked using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).Findings – The study categorizes the GSCM...

  18. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process for Exploring Prioritization of Functional Strategies in Auto Parts Manufacturing SMEs of Pakistan

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    Yasir Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article uses analytical hierarchy process (AHP to find prioritization of functional strategies (manufacturing, marketing, human resource, and financial management by small and medium enterprises (SMEs operating in auto parts manufacturing sector of Pakistan. SMEs are major part of the industrial structure and have significant contribution toward generating jobs in Pakistan. These enterprises are generally family-owned businesses, and this study provides concrete insights into the mind-set of owners toward different functional strategies. The AHP implementation steps are performed using commercially available software “Expert Choice®.” Marketing strategy is considered to be the most important strategy, while manufacturing management strategy is the second most important strategy. There is little emphasis on the financial and human resource management which is a serious cause of concern. The study would help policy makers to understand the business behaviors of this sector and consequently formulate policies to enhance their performance.

  19. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  20. Identifying and ranking of strategies to implement green supply chain management in Indian manufacturing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study aims to identify and rank the major strategies that help achieve successful implementation of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM in Indian manufacturing industry.Design/methodology/approach – Strategies to implement GSCM have been identified thorough extensive literature review and then experts’ opinion is sought for categorizing them into four representative dimensions which are then ranked using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP.Findings – The study categorizes the GSCM implementation strategies into four dimensions - Non members of supply chain, downward stream supply chain Members, Organizational members of supply chain and upward stream supply chain members. These dimensions are found to play an important role in greening the supply chains enabling the practicing firms achieve enhanced operational performances.Research limitations/implications- AHP is used for ranking the GSCM implementation strategies in Indian manufacturing scenario. The pair-wise comparisons are made on the basis of the opinion of the experts drawn from academia and industry. As is natural, opinions of experts may not always be free from bias or prejudices. Moreover, the study relied more on the GSCM practices literature in developed nations as only limited literature related to the undertaken work in the Indian context was available.Practical implications – This paper may play important role in understanding various strategies and ranking them in order of importance. This facilitates firms prioritize different actions for achieving high GSCM performances in Indian manufacturing industry. Strategic implementation of green supply chain management will help Indian manufacturing enterprises enjoy cost and efficiency benefits.Originality/value – GSCM is a relatively new topic for majority of Indian manufacturing industries. This work is likely to help GSCM practitioners select suitable strategies in consonance with the government regulations

  1. The Effects of Time Delay and Increasing Prompt Hierarchy Strategies on the Acquisition of Purchasing Skills by Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, John

    1987-01-01

    Two teaching strategies (constant time delay and increasing prompt hierarchy assistance) were compared in teaching four severely handicapped high school students to purchase snack items at a convenience store and fast food restaurant. Results indicated the time delay procedure was more effective. (DB)

  2. Taxonomy and hierarchy of psychological abuse strategies in intimate partner relationships

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    Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking a psychosocial perspective this study analyses the components of psychological abuse in intimate adult partner violence against women. Following a review of studies on the subject the main objective that emerged was the need for a new taxonomy of psychological abuse strategies, one which should include their corresponding operational definitions. The proposed new classification was then evaluated by means of a Delphi study involving 32 experts from the academic and professional worlds. These experts were asked to assess the suitability of the system categories and to rate the severity of the impact made by each of the strategies on the global phenomenon of psychological abuse in couples. The results show that the experts ratified the new classification of strategies and the corresponding operational definitions, thereby endorsing their content and construct validity. When rating the strategies according to the severity of their impact, those of an emotional nature were considered the most severe, followed by those related to the immediate context, those of a cognitive nature and, finally, behavioural strategies. We discuss the results and their implications.

  3. A Hierarchy Fuzzy MCDM Method for Studying Electronic Marketing Strategies in the Information Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael T.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    In this paper, the impacts of Electronic Commerce (EC) on the international marketing strategies of information service industries are studied. In seeking to blend humanistic concerns in this research with technological development by addressing challenges for deterministic attitudes, the paper examines critical environmental factors relevant to…

  4. Selection of optimum maintenance strategies based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

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    Aida Azizi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to rank different factors influencing on maintenance strategies on Iranian oil terminals’ company. The study determines four main factors, production quality, reliability, cost and safety. Using fuzzy analytical process, the study determines various factors associated with each main factor and ranks them by performing pair-wise comparisons. The results indicate that reliability ranks first (0.255, followed by production quality (0.252, cost (0.25 and safety (0.244. In terms of reliability, the best utilization of resources is number one priority followed by increase access to maintenance tools, reduction in production interruption are among the most important issues. In terms of production quality, reduction in system failure as well as reworks is the most important factors followed by customer satisfaction and defects. In terms of cost items, ease of access to accessories and consulting are important factors followed by necessary software, hardware and training programs. Finally, in terms of safety factors, external, internal and employee services are the most important issues, which are needed to be considered.

  5. Identification and prioritization of the effective factors on the choice of optimal marketing strategy in recession situations using fuzzy and Group Analytic Hierarchy Process

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    Amir Kariznoee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that recession situation leads to demands reduction. Therefore, companies encounter challenges and weak businesses are disappeared and resistant and strength companies remain. In this situation considering the marketing department especially marketing strategy play a significant role. There are many marketing strategies. Companies use these strategies based on their needs or formulate new strategy with regard to their internal and external circumstances. This paper identify and prioritize the important factors in determination and selection appropriate marketing strategy through reviewing previous studies related to strategies used in recession condition and interviewing with experts. Thus, fuzzy and group analytic hierarchy process, which is a common and widely used decision making method, have been used in this study also the excel software was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that the major factors influencing the selection of appropriate marketing strategies, in order of preference, are price, product, distribution networks, and staff.

  6. Exit and Voice: Organizational Loyalty and Dispute Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares workplace dispute resolution strategies (exit, voice and toleration) in matched pairs of conventional and worker-owned cooperative organizations operating in three industries--coal mining, taxicab driving and organic food distribution. Building on Hirschman's classic exit, voice and loyalty thesis, this research demonstrates…

  7. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can......This article focuses on employee participation in organisational action research (OAR), presenting three examples of OAR in one private and two public organisations in Denmark, respectively. Each of these examples shows how participatory hierarchies between employees and between them and action...... researchers are constructed in OAR projects, leading in these cases to the exclusion of silent pedagogues, elderly foremen, and a critical employee. Based on these examples, the article has three mutually connected purposes, an empirical, theoretical, and methodological purpose. First, the empirical purpose...

  8. Conflict Resolution, Can It Really Make a Difference in the Classroom: Conflict Resolution Strategies for Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollan, Savannah; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conflict and provides five resolutions for teachers on managing negative behaviors within the classroom. Acknowledging and implementing conflict resolution strategies in the classroom enables every student to fully participate in the learning process.

  9. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  10. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain) and Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-01-23

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula.

  11. Subversions of the Social Hierarchy: Social Closure as Adaptation Strategy by the Female Marriage Migrants of Taiwan

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    Yi-Hsuan Chelsea Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how female marriage migrants employ various forms of social closure to help them adapt to the receiving society. As for female migration itself, although it has begun to dominate the migration flow it has not yet been discussed and theorized as a unique phenomenon in immigration studies. This phenomenon must, however, be viewed within the context of international hypergamy, which has become an increasingly notable trend in many countries, especially those of East Asia. Female marriage migrants, coming toTaiwanchiefly from Southeast Asian countries and fromChina, often are depicted by the mainstream discourse as being inferior. This study has found that by creating, and in some cases transforming, social closure, these female marriage migrants are able to reshape their group identity, to reposition themselves within the stratification at least within the parameters of their own minds, and thereby to cope with the discriminatory environment and unfavorable social hierarchy of Taiwanese society.

  12. A Hybrid Stochastic-Interval Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach for Prioritizing the Strategies of Reusing Treated Wastewater

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    Liang Jing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid stochastic-interval analytic hierarchy process (SIAHP approach to address uncertainty in group decision making by integrating interval judgment, probabilistic distribution, lexicographic goal programming, and Monte Carlo simulation. A case study related to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP effluent reuse was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Four candidate alternatives including city moat landscaping, municipal reuse, industrial reuse, and agricultural irrigation were evaluated by five experts according to technical, economic, and environmental criteria. The results suggest that industrial reuse (0.18–0.3 is more preferred over municipal reuse (0.16–0.25 or agricultural irrigation (0.17–0.26 in most replications. The final score of city moat landscaping ranges from 0.11 to 0.31 which indicates a great divergence of expert opinions. It can be concluded that choosing industrial reuse seems to give the best overall account of technical, economic, and environmental concerns. The proposed SIAHP approach can aid group decision making by accommodating linguistic information and dealing with insufficient information or biased opinions.

  13. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    . Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner...... language....

  14. Hierarchy of life strategies of modern ukrainian youth (by investigation of the Оrdzhonikidze cities student youth

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    P. I. Dragoy

    2014-03-01

    Youth is often based on a values such as personal growth, love and commitment, interpersonal relations and communication, autonomy, safety and security during constructing a life plan. This was showed by the results of study students life strategies and valuable component. Young people articulate key goals in life their lives and organize their behavior according to these values. In conclusion we can mention that modern student youth focused on their own problems, don’t focused on social problems in constructing their own life strategies. social dynamics of paradigm of life strategies basic directions is carried contradictory and inconsistent.

  15. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  16. Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.

  17. Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-08-01

    Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.

  18. Mathematical hierarchies and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...

  19. Strategies for efficient resolution analysis in full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, A.; van Leeuwen, T.; Trampert, J.

    2016-12-01

    Full-waveform inversion is developing into a standard method in the seismological toolbox. It combines numerical wave propagation for heterogeneous media with adjoint techniques in order to improve tomographic resolution. However, resolution becomes increasingly difficult to quantify because of the enormous computational requirements. Here we present two families of methods that can be used for efficient resolution analysis in full-waveform inversion. They are based on the targeted extraction of resolution proxies from the Hessian matrix, which is too large to store and to compute explicitly. Fourier methods rest on the application of the Hessian to Earth models with harmonic oscillations. This yields the Fourier spectrum of the Hessian for few selected wave numbers, from which we can extract properties of the tomographic point-spread function for any point in space. Random probing methods use uncorrelated, random test models instead of harmonic oscillations. Auto-correlating the Hessian-model applications for sufficiently many test models also characterises the point-spread function. Both Fourier and random probing methods provide a rich collection of resolution proxies. These include position- and direction-dependent resolution lengths, and the volume of point-spread functions as indicator of amplitude recovery and inter-parameter trade-offs. The computational requirements of these methods are equivalent to approximately 7 conjugate-gradient iterations in full-waveform inversion. This is significantly less than the optimisation itself, which may require tens to hundreds of iterations to reach convergence. In addition to the theoretical foundations of the Fourier and random probing methods, we show various illustrative examples from real-data full-waveform inversion for crustal and mantle structure.

  20. Turkish Adolescents' Conflict Resolution Strategies toward Peers and Parents as a Function of Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ayse; Demir, Ayhan; Bikos, Lynette Heim

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of loneliness on the conflict resolution strategies of adolescents toward their friends, mothers, and fathers. High school students (N = 180) from 8 different schools in Ankara, Turkey, completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and Conflict Resolution Questionnaire with respect to their friends, mothers, and fathers.…

  1. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  2. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  3. The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhir, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...

  4. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  5. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  6. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  7. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  8. Using Multiple Adaptively-Weighted Strategies for the Resolution of Demonstratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-10

    proper binding for an anaphor . Its main strategies are extended versions of Wilks’ Preference Semantics [46,47) and Sidner’s anaphor resolution rules...different types. The successful chains thus bind one or more anaphors to candidate antecedents. Carter gives the outline of the overall processing...12. Possible Enhancements 87 12.1. Intrasentential Demonstrative References 87 12.2. Anaphoric Pronouns and NPs 87 12.3. Additional Strategies 88 12.4

  9. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of microlevel data on the allocation of decision authority between formal and real authority, and further on the organization design of 761 decision tasks within a hierarchy. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...

  10. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  11. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  12. Hierarchies in student groups

    OpenAIRE

    Güntert, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...

  13. Analysis strategies for high-resolution UHF-fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Jonathan R; Renvall, Ville; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-04-29

    Functional MRI (fMRI) benefits from both increased sensitivity and specificity with increasing magnetic field strength, making it a key application for Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI scanners. Most UHF-fMRI studies utilize the dramatic increases in sensitivity and specificity to acquire high-resolution data reaching sub-millimeter scales, which enable new classes of experiments to probe the functional organization of the human brain. This review article surveys advanced data analysis strategies developed for high-resolution fMRI at UHF. These include strategies designed to mitigate distortion and artifacts associated with higher fields in ways that attempt to preserve spatial resolution of the fMRI data, as well as recently introduced analysis techniques that are enabled by these extremely high-resolution data. Particular focus is placed on anatomically-informed analyses, including cortical surface-based analysis, which are powerful techniques that can guide each step of the analysis from preprocessing to statistical analysis to interpretation and visualization. New intracortical analysis techniques for laminar and columnar fMRI are also reviewed and discussed. Prospects for single-subject individualized analyses are also presented and discussed. Altogether, there are both specific challenges and opportunities presented by UHF-fMRI, and the use of proper analysis strategies can help these valuable data reach their full potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Reinforcement Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.

    1973-01-01

    Reinforcement hierarchy implies movement along a continuum from top to bottom, from primitive levels of reinforcement to more sophisticated levels. Unless it is immediately obvious that a child cannot function without the use of lower-order reinforcers, we should approach him as though he responds to topmost reinforcers until he demonstrates…

  15. The Influence of School Managers’ Personality Traits on Their Conflict Resolution Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAKUŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research, which is in a descriptive relational scanning model, is to examine the relationship between school managers’ personality traits and their conflict resolution strategies. The questionnaires were administered to all the managers working in primary and secondary schools in Elazığ downtown in 2008-2009 academic year. Data obtained from 107 questionnaires that were returned back were analyzed. Only school managers were included to studies. As a result of the research it was determined that; managers’ personality traits of conscientiousness, openness and agreeableness positively predict integrating strategy, personality traits of agreeableness and neuroticism positively predict compromising strategy, personality trait of openness negatively predict dominating strategy.

  16. Subgoal selection and updating strategy based on hierarchy sampling strategy%基于层次地图的子目标点的选择与更新策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏; 王健; 王闯奇

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of subgoal selection and updating method was presented in the probabilistic roadmap which was used to tackle the high dimentional robot path planning in the large scene. In order to execute the method in low computation complexity, multi-level hierarchy sampling strategy (HSS) was altered and introduced and subgoal processing was dealt with in the first level roadmap. The second level roadmap was used to search the local path with local planner. One important matter being faced with during the path planning phase was that the current subgoal becoming invalid results from the moving obstacles. In our method, when the current subgoal become invalid, the next subgoal was chosen to replace the current subgoal. If still here is no a valid one, subgoals between the current subgoal and goal were all updated in the first level roadmap. Simulation results show that realtime and robustness can be achieved by this method.%为了适应较大场景下多自由度移动机器人的路径规划,建立了一种新型的分层采样地图.利用第1层二维地图进行子目标点的选择和更新,从而实现子目标点对路径规划的全局引导.然后结合局部规划器和第2层九维地图进行路径搜索得到路径.考虑当前局部空间的子目标点存在被运动障碍物遮挡的情况,若当前子目标点被遮挡,则选取下一个子目标点为当前子目标点进行规划;若不能找到有效子目标点,则反馈到第1层进行子目标点更新,更新后再继续进行路径搜索.通过上层引导、下层更新反馈的机制对概率地图进行改进,在保证概率完备性的同时,提高了路径搜索的速度.仿真实验表明该方法能达到很好的实时性和鲁棒性.

  17. EDUCATION FOR PEACE IN COLOMBIA: STRATEGIES FOR TRANSFORMATION AND NEGOTIATED RESOLUTION OF CONFLICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany Areiza-Madrid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to answer the question how can we find, from educational institutions, non-violent and creative responses to the generation or manifestation of a conflict, and in turn, formulate strategies for peaceful resolution of conflicts and peacebuilding in Colombia? two conceptual perspectives that cross institutional educational exercise with interpersonal interactions from a relational dimension are proposed; namely, the commitment to a positive conception of the conflict and the need to define the negotiation process as a strategy of conflict resolution. This work finds that conflict is inherent to human relationships and to learn to act on them in dialogue and cooperative will be essential to building peace through education.

  18. An extension of heat hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a formally completely integrable extension of heat hierarchy based on the space of symmetries isomorphic to the Weyl algebra $\\mathcal{A}_1$. The extended heat hierarchy will be the basic model for the analysis of the extension of KP hierarchy, and other integrable equations.

  19. The Effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 on Conflict Resolution Strategies and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the problem of youth violence has been a cause of increasing concern for educational and mental health professionals worldwide. The main objective of the study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of an anti-bullying/cyberbullying program (Cyberprogram 2.0; Pirámide Publishing, Madrid, Spain) on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. A randomly selected sample of 176 Spanish adolescents aged 13-15 years (93 experimental, 83 control) was employed. The study used a repeated measures pretest-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program (19 one-hour sessions), two assessment instruments were administered: the questionnaire for measuring conflict management message styles and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The analyses of covariance of the posttest scores confirmed that the program stimulated an increase of cooperative conflict resolution strategies, a decrease in aggressive and avoidant strategies, and an increase of self-esteem. The change was similar in both sexes. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to improve the capacity for conflict resolution and self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote socioemotional development and to prevent violence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  1. Hierarchies in Dependence Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.

  2. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.

  3. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  4. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengduo Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  5. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengduo Shan; Hongwei Yang; Baoshu Yin

    2014-01-01

    With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  6. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  7. Delegated Contracting and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Park, In-Uck

    2004-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make decisions that set directions for the organization, employ subordinates and contract with external suppliers. This paper explains when such delegation of authority can be optimal, using a model of a firm with three parties: the principal, the manager and the worker. In centralization with two two-tier hierarchies, the principal designs contracts for both agents. In delegation with a three-tier hierarchy, the prin...

  8. Hierarchies of Inefficient Kernelizability

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelin, Danny; Sołtys, Karolina; Wahlström, Magnus; Wu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008) and Fortnow and Santhanam (STOC 2008) allows us to exclude the existence of polynomial kernels for a range of problems under reasonable complexity-theoretical assumptions. However, there are also some issues that are not addressed by this framework, including the existence of Turing kernels such as the "kernelization" of Leaf Out Branching(k) into a disjunction over n instances of size poly(k). Observing that Turing kernels are preserved by polynomial parametric transformations, we define a kernelization hardness hierarchy, akin to the M- and W-hierarchy of ordinary parameterized complexity, by the PPT-closure of problems that seem likely to be fundamentally hard for efficient Turing kernelization. We find that several previously considered problems are complete for our fundamental hardness class, including Min Ones d-SAT(k), Binary NDTM Halting(k), Connected Vertex Cover(k), and Clique(k log n), the clique problem parameterized by k log n.

  9. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  10. Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders to Use a Negotiation Procedure: Impact on Classroom Behavior and Conflict Resolution Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the instruction of a six-step problem solving negotiation procedure on the conflict resolution strategies and classroom behavior of six elementary students with challenging behaviors was examined. Moderately positive effects were found for the following negotiation strategies used by students: independent problem solving, problem…

  11. Principals' and Teachers' Use of Conflict Management Strategies on Secondary Students' Conflict Resolution in Rivers State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagbor, Levi Doe; Nnokam, Nyege Chinda

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to identify the principals' and teachers' level of utilization of conflict management strategies: integrating, dominating, compromising and avoiding strategies on secondary students' conflict resolution and their related implications in the internal school administration. Four research questions and four hypotheses addressed…

  12. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.

  13. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES IN TURKISH AND AMERICAN SPEECH COMMUNITIES: A SCHOOL SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Alagozlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts in communication are very common in every culture. However, resolving them varies from one culture to another. Conflict management strategies in communication revolve around five solutions collaboration, compromise, avoidance, competition, and accomodation as stated by Kilman (1977. This study attempts to explore ways of terminating verbal conflicts in academic settings. In the study, first, we aim to evaluate the ways of solving conflicts in two settings: a Turkish and an American University. Secondly, taking a pragmatic perspective, a classification of speech acts used to end conflicts is targeted according to both Killman’s strategies and a facework analysis. specifically, it is aimed to investigate:  generally how Turkish and American speakers end conflicts in discourse and which strategies they use in order to resolve conflicts  how “face” is reflected in those speech acts as categorized by Ting Toomey (1988, 1992.  any differences between Turkish and American speakers styles  any changes in conflict resolution due to power status in both cultures. Results are valuable in that they add up to the knowledge about intercultural pragmatic language use and cultural cognitions. Moreover, as the research aims to reveal basic verbal and behavioural differences between two communities, it is likely to contribute to intercultural understanding.

  14. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  15. Loewner equations and dispersionless hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Takashi [Department of Mathematics, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 (Japan); Teo, Lee-Peng [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Zabrodin, Anton [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Kosygina str. 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia and ITEP, Bol. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-15

    Using the Hirota representation of dispersionless dKP and dToda hierarchies, we show that the chordal Loewner equations and radial Loewner equations respectively serve as consistency conditions for one-variable reductions of these integrable hierarchies. We also clarify the geometric meaning of this result by relating it to the eigenvalue distribution of normal random matrices in the large N limit.

  16. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  17. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. 基于SWOT法和层次分析法的能源发展战略研究%Energy Development Strategy Based on SWOT Method and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵胜男; 崔胜辉; 林剑艺; 周健; 张雅京

    2011-01-01

    针对能源发展战略分析中缺少定量分析的不足,将SWOT法与层次分析法结合起来建立一个完整的定性与定量分析相结合的系统框架,分析影响能源发展的关键因素并计算各因素权重,在此基础上确定能源发展战略,并以厦门市为例,进行案例分析.结果表明:在众多因素中,单位GDP能耗低、能源资源稀缺、能源进口关税不断下调、能源消费不断增长等是影响厦门市能源发展的关键因素,各自的权重值分别为0.141 0,0.145 1,0.0469和0.353 3:厦门 市应采取努力克服劣势、积极应对挑战保守型能源发展战略,即为实现能源的可持续发展,应把节能放在首位,努力提高能源利用效率,加快调整能源消费结构.SWOT法与层次分析法的有机结合可为能源发展战略研究提供一种新的尝试,也能为能源发展规划提供可靠的基础数据.%In view of the lack of quantitative analysis in energy development strategy researches, SWOT method combined with analytical hierarchy process was used to establish a complete qualitative and quantitative analysis framework for analyzing and quantifying major factors influencing energy development and then determining the energy development strategy. Xiamen City, Fujian Province was taken as an example. Results showed that lower energy consumption per unit GDP, scarce energy resource, decreasing energy import tariffs and growing energy consumption were critical factors for the energy development with the weight respectively as 0.141 0,0.145 1,0.046 9 and 0.353 3. Therefore conservative type strategy which meant diligent overcoming its disadvantages and positive facing the challenges should be selected for its energy development. To realize the sustainable energy development, it was suggested to put energy conservation in the first place, strive to improve energy efficiency and speed up the adjustment of energy consumption structure. Organic combination between SWOT

  19. Strategies for redundancy resolution of dual-arm systems with passive elements for tank waste removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the coordination and control of two manipulators coupled by passive elements operating in a confined space. An example of one such system is the hardware used for the environmental response treatability study funded by the Department of Energy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The motivation for this project is to establish the methodology necessary to extract large volumes of hazardous waste from underground storage facilities. The hardware used at ORNL consists of two long-reach manipulators. The first robot, the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA), is an 8-degree-of-freedom long-reach manipulator. The second arm, the Hose Management Arm (HMA), has two active degrees-of-freedom and provides hardware to break up and extract materials from the tank. Current strategies call for the MLDUA to grasp a combined sluicing end-effector attached, by a long flexible hose, to the HMA. The MLDUA will then move the combined system through the waste, extracting material. This paper describes many of the issues related to redundancy resolution and the coordinated control of these two robots. First, the authors provide a brief outline of the project and the existing hardware. This is followed by a description of existing redundancy resolution techniques and the impact redundancy has on the success of the project. Finally, preliminary simulation results show the effect cooperative control has on the level of forces generated between the dual-arm systems when coupled by an elastic exhaust hose. These results show a significant reduction in forces when both arms are active and have a combined manipulation strategy.

  20. The Effects of Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Training on Turkish Elementary School Students' Conflict Resolution Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnuklu, Abbas; Kacmaz, Tarkan; Gurler, Selma; Turk, Fulya; Kalender, Alper; Zengin, Feza; Sevkin, Burcak

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of conflict resolution and peer mediation (CRPM) training among 10- and 11-year-old elementary school students was examined. The CRPM training program consisted of skills, such as understanding the nature of interpersonal conflicts, communication, anger management, negotiation and peer mediation. The research was carried out…

  1. ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping

  2. High resolution crop growth simulation for identification of potential adaptation strategies under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. S.; Yoo, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Impact assessment of climate change on crop production would facilitate planning of adaptation strategies. Because socio-environmental conditions would differ by local areas, it would be advantageous to assess potential adaptation measures at a specific area. The objectives of this study was to develop a crop growth simulation system at a very high spatial resolution, e.g., 30 m, and to assess different adaptation options including shift of planting date and use of different cultivars. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model was used to predict yields of soybean and maize in Korea. Gridded data for climate and soil were used to prepare input data for the DSSAT model. Weather input data were prepared at the resolution of 30 m using bilinear interpolation from gridded climate scenario data. Those climate data were obtained from Korean Meteorology Administration. Spatial resolution of temperature and precipitation was 1 km whereas that of solar radiation was 12.5 km. Soil series data at the 30 m resolution were obtained from the soil database operated by Rural Development Administration, Korea. The SOL file, which is a soil input file for the DSSAT model was prepared using physical and chemical properties of a given soil series, which were available from the soil database. Crop yields were predicted by potential adaptation options based on planting date and cultivar. For example, 10 planting dates and three cultivars were used to identify ideal management options for climate change adaptation. In prediction of maize yield, combination of 20 planting dates and two cultivars was used as management options. Predicted crop yields differed by site even within a relatively small region. For example, the maximum of average yields for 2001-2010 seasons differed by sites In a county of which areas is 520 km2 (Fig. 1). There was also spatial variation in the ideal management option in the region (Fig. 2). These results suggested that local

  3. Resolution of the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma by means of particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Zhang, Chunyan; Chu, Tianguang; Perc, Matjaž

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals in the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We equip players with the particle swarm optimization technique, and find that it may lead to highly cooperative states even if the temptations to defect are strong. The concept of particle swarm optimization was originally introduced within a simple model of social dynamics that can describe the formation of a swarm, i.e., analogous to a swarm of bees searching for a food source. Essentially, particle swarm optimization foresees changes in the velocity profile of each player, such that the best locations are targeted and eventually occupied. In our case, each player keeps track of the highest payoff attained within a local topological neighborhood and its individual highest payoff. Thus, players make use of their own memory that keeps score of the most profitable strategy in previous actions, as well as use of the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, to find the best available strategy for themselves and the society. Following extensive simulations of this setup, we find a significant increase in the level of cooperation for a wide range of parameters, and also a full resolution of the prisoner's dilemma. We also demonstrate extreme efficiency of the optimization algorithm when dealing with environments that strongly favor the proliferation of defection, which in turn suggests that swarming could be an important phenomenon by means of which cooperation can be sustained even under highly unfavorable conditions. We thus present an alternative way of understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior and its ubiquitous presence in nature, and we hope that this study will be inspirational for future efforts aimed in this direction.

  4. Resolution of the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma by means of particle swarm optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlei Zhang

    Full Text Available We study the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals in the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We equip players with the particle swarm optimization technique, and find that it may lead to highly cooperative states even if the temptations to defect are strong. The concept of particle swarm optimization was originally introduced within a simple model of social dynamics that can describe the formation of a swarm, i.e., analogous to a swarm of bees searching for a food source. Essentially, particle swarm optimization foresees changes in the velocity profile of each player, such that the best locations are targeted and eventually occupied. In our case, each player keeps track of the highest payoff attained within a local topological neighborhood and its individual highest payoff. Thus, players make use of their own memory that keeps score of the most profitable strategy in previous actions, as well as use of the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, to find the best available strategy for themselves and the society. Following extensive simulations of this setup, we find a significant increase in the level of cooperation for a wide range of parameters, and also a full resolution of the prisoner's dilemma. We also demonstrate extreme efficiency of the optimization algorithm when dealing with environments that strongly favor the proliferation of defection, which in turn suggests that swarming could be an important phenomenon by means of which cooperation can be sustained even under highly unfavorable conditions. We thus present an alternative way of understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior and its ubiquitous presence in nature, and we hope that this study will be inspirational for future efforts aimed in this direction.

  5. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  6. Hamiltonian Structure of PI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The string equation of type (2,2g+1 may be thought of as a higher order analogue of the first Painlevé equation that corresponds to the case of g = 1. For g > 1, this equation is accompanied with a finite set of commuting isomonodromic deformations, and they altogether form a hierarchy called the PI hierarchy. This hierarchy gives an isomonodromic analogue of the well known Mumford system. The Hamiltonian structure of the Lax equations can be formulated by the same Poisson structure as the Mumford system. A set of Darboux coordinates, which have been used for the Mumford system, can be introduced in this hierarchy as well. The equations of motion in these Darboux coordinates turn out to take a Hamiltonian form, but the Hamiltonians are different from the Hamiltonians of the Lax equations (except for the lowest one that corresponds to the string equation itself.

  7. Hierarchies of Predominantly Connected Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Michael; Wagner, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    We consider communities whose vertices are predominantly connected, i.e., the vertices in each community are stronger connected to other community members of the same community than to vertices outside the community. Flake et al. introduced a hierarchical clustering algorithm that finds such predominantly connected communities of different coarseness depending on an input parameter. We present a simple and efficient method for constructing a clustering hierarchy according to Flake et al. that supersedes the necessity of choosing feasible parameter values and guarantees the completeness of the resulting hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy contains all clusterings that can be constructed by the original algorithm for any parameter value. However, predominantly connected communities are not organized in a single hierarchy. Thus, we develop a framework that, after precomputing at most $2(n-1)$ maximum flows, admits a linear time construction of a clustering $\\C(S)$ of predominantly connected communities that contains ...

  8. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Noise Reduction Measures Based on Hierarchy Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of different noise reduction measures for diesel engines was evaluated based on hierarchy diagnosis. The hierarchy diagnosis chart and hierarchy judgment matrix were given.Through evaluation of noise reduction measures, the main strategies of noise reduction were found.The result shows that the noise reduction level of different frequency belts varies from measure to measure. The reduction capacity of different measures could not add simply, which relates to the problem of parameter matching.

  9. The Return of the Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    corporatisation. This layered set-up provided the state with a double governance grip that drove marketisation until 2011. However, the SOE as a hybrid created ripple effects between the market and the hierarchy that hampered the marketisation. The hierarchical governance turned towards centralisation and market....... It presents a case on how hybridity is altered and evolves in SOEs as a hybrid mode of governance between hierarchy and market in marketisation and how this can lead to re-centralisation....

  10. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  11. The application of high resolution fluxgate gradiometery as an aid to excavation planning and strategy formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lyall

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Late Roman and Anglian settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, has been one of the largest excavations undertaken in England in the last twenty years. It has been the setting for a number of developments and experiments in the application of 'the new technology' to field archaeology. Parts of the site, which extended over c.20 Ha., proved to have high magnetic susceptibility and were ideally suited for magnetic prospection techniques. Feature visibility contrasts were, however, frequently low and therefore a series of experiments were undertaken using high resolution fluxgate gradiometer surveys following removal of the topsoil. The results of the high resolution surveys undertaken on the cleaned excavation surface proved highly successful in providing an enhanced pre-excavation plan, adding considerable detail to the surveys undertaken prior to the start of the excavation. The careful examination of the results, using G-Sys geographic data management software, which enabled the magnetic data, finds plots and digitised plans to be fully integrated, indicated areas where stratigraphic relationships could be tested and assisted in the development and re-definition of the excavation strategy as it progressed. Following initial small area tests in 1991, nearly two hectares were documented in this way during 1995 facilitating the completion of a targeted sampling operation which ensured the completion of the excavation within the limited budget available. The approach proved highly successful and offers great potential for use on sites which have a high magnetic susceptibility and are liable to large area destruction as occurs in the case of mineral extraction or subsoil ploughing operations.

  12. A New Strategy for Deep Wide-Field High Resolution Optical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N; Luppino, G A

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new strategy for obtaining enhanced resolution (FWHM = 0.12 arcsec) deep optical images over a wide field of view. As is well known, this type of image quality can be obtained in principle simply by fast guiding on a small (D = 1.5m) telescope at a good site, but only for target objects which lie within a limited angular distance of a suitably bright guide star. For high altitude turbulence this 'isokinetic angle' is approximately 1 arcminute. With a 1 degree field say one would need to track and correct the motions of thousands of isokinetic patches, yet there are typically too few sufficiently bright guide stars to provide the necessary guiding information. Our proposed solution to these problems has two novel features. The first is to use orthogonal transfer charge-coupled device (OTCCD) technology to effectively implement a wide field 'rubber focal plane' detector composed of an array of cells which can be guided independently. The second is to combine measured motions of a set of guide stars...

  13. Fabrication of transistors on flexible substrates: from mass-printing to high-resolution alternative lithography strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Yakimets, I.; Huskens, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the development of conventional, mass-printing strategies into high-resolution, alternative patterning techniques is reviewed with the focus on large-area patterning of flexible thin-film transistors (TFTs) for display applications. In the first part, conventional and digital printin

  14. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A

    2013-01-01

    We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...

  15. Matrix integral solutions to the discrete KP hierarchy and its Pfaffianized version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Stéphane; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Matrix integrals used in random matrix theory for the study of eigenvalues of Hermitian ensembles have been shown to provide τ-functions for several hierarchies of integrable equations. In this article, we extend this relation by showing that such integrals can also provide τ-functions for the discrete KP hierarchy and a coupled version of the same hierarchy obtained through the process of Pfaffianization. To do so, we consider the first equation of the discrete KP hierarchy, the Hirota-Miwa equation. We write the Wronskian determinant solutions to the Hirota-Miwa equation and consider a particular form of matrix integrals, which we show is an example of those Wronskian solutions. The argument is then generalized to the whole hierarchy. A similar strategy is used for the Pfaffianized version of the hierarchy except that in that case, the solutions are written in terms of Pfaffians rather than determinants.

  16. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  17. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc

  18. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  19. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  20. Application of genetic algorithm with approximation crossover strategy to ambiguity resolution in PD radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangGong; ZhuZhaoda; ZhuNingyi

    2003-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) designed as a general optimization method was applied to the ambiguity resolution of pulse Doppler (PD) radar. The fitness, based on squared error for multi-PRF (pulse repeat frequency) consecutive ordered ranges, was designed. The crossover operator and the conditions of ending in GA were discussed. The relations among the probability of ambiguity resolution of this algorithm, the measurement error and the computational efficiency were analyzed.Simulation results show the GA ambiguity resolution algorithm does better than the sliding window algorithm on the probability of ambiguity resolution.

  1. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D

    2011-04-01

    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  2. Assessment of Personal Goal Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Marlene; Ford, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Developed a new method for measuring goal hierarchies, called the Adult Intentional and Motivational Systems Chart, by interviewing 53 men and constructing a system summarizing their goals. Results suggested the continued use of the chart for research on self-direction and adult development as well as intervention. (LLL)

  3. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  4. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  5. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.; Lando, S.

    2015-01-01

    We give a review of modern approaches to constructing formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics, whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to constructing efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are given.

  6. Dressing Technique for Intermediate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Holod, P.; Pakuliak, S.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized AKNS systems introduced and discussed recently in \\cite{dGHM} are considered. It was shown that the dressing technique both in matrix pseudo-differential operators and formal series with respect to the spectral parameter can be developed for these hierarchies.

  7. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  8. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  9. Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)

    2005-12-15

    A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)

  10. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  11. Preferred hierarchy scales from the product landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Lv; Zheng Sun; Lina Wu

    2014-01-01

    The product landscape method has been recently proposed to solve hierarchy problems such as the cosmological constant problem. We suggest that the parameter distribution on logarithmic scales should be used as a benchmark for hierarchy, and the preferred hierarchy scales can be obtained from the distribution peak. It is shown that generating hierarchy from purely product distribution is very inefficient. To achieve a reasonably acceptable efficiency, other effects such as accumulation of weak...

  12. Dehumanization, retributive and restorative justice, and aggressive versus diplomatic intergroup conflict resolution strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Bernhard; Castano, Emanuele; Ginges, Jeremy

    2013-02-01

    The desire for justice can escalate or facilitate resolution of intergroup conflicts. Two studies investigated retributive and restorative notions of justice as the mediating factor of the effect of perceived outgroup sentience-an aspect of (mechanistic) dehumanization referring to the emotional depth attributed to others-on intergroup conflict resolution. Study 1 showed that for Palestinians, who see themselves as victims, perceived sentience of Israelis decreased retributive but increased restorative notions of justice, which, ultimately, increased support for conflict resolution by negotiation rather than political violence. Study 2 partially replicated Study 1's findings with Jewish Israelis. The role of perceived sentience and its relationship to retributive and restorative notions of justice in protracted and nonprotracted conflicts and their resolution is discussed.

  13. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Burroughs, N J; Hollowood, Timothy J; Miramontes, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical $W$-algebras, which arise as the second Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the $W_n^{(l)}$ algebras.

  14. Reductions of Lower Triangular Toda Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Mishina, Marina G.; Polenkova, Svetlana V.

    2007-01-01

    Deforming commutative algebras in the lower triangular (ℤ×ℤ)-matrices yields lower triangular Toda hierarchies and their associated nonlinear equations. Like for their counterpart in the ring of pseudodifferential operators, the KP-hierarchy, one also has for these hierarchies a geometric picture:

  15. Super-resolution imaging strategies for cell biologists using a spinning disk microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Neveen A; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M; Wheeler, Ann P

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging.

  16. Super-resolution imaging strategies for cell biologists using a spinning disk microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen A Hosny

    Full Text Available In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging.

  17. Super-Resolution Imaging Strategies for Cell Biologists Using a Spinning Disk Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Neveen A.; Song, Mingying; Connelly, John T.; Ameer-Beg, Simon; Knight, Martin M.; Wheeler, Ann P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we use a spinning disk confocal microscope (SD) to generate super-resolution images of multiple cellular features from any plane in the cell. We obtain super-resolution images by using stochastic intensity fluctuations of biological probes, combining Photoactivation Light-Microscopy (PALM)/Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) methodologies. We compared different image analysis algorithms for processing super-resolution data to identify the most suitable for analysis of particular cell structures. SOFI was chosen for X and Y and was able to achieve a resolution of ca. 80 nm; however higher resolution was possible >30 nm, dependant on the super-resolution image analysis algorithm used. Our method uses low laser power and fluorescent probes which are available either commercially or through the scientific community, and therefore it is gentle enough for biological imaging. Through comparative studies with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and widefield epifluorescence imaging we identified that our methodology was advantageous for imaging cellular structures which are not immediately at the cell-substrate interface, which include the nuclear architecture and mitochondria. We have shown that it was possible to obtain two coloured images, which highlights the potential this technique has for high-content screening, imaging of multiple epitopes and live cell imaging. PMID:24130668

  18. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  19. The stochastic integrable AKNS hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudon, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    We derive a stochastic AKNS hierarchy using geometrical methods. The integrability is shown via a stochastic zero curvature relation associated with a stochastic isospectral problem. We expose some of the stochastic integrable partial differential equations which extend the stochastic KdV equation discovered by M. Wadati in 1983 for all the AKNS flows. We also show how to find stochastic solitons from the stochastic evolution of the scattering data of the stochastic IST. We finally expose som...

  20. KP hierarchy for Hodge integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the ELSV formula, we derive a number of new equations on the generating functions for Hodge integrals over the moduli space of complex curves. This gives a new simple and uniform treatment of certain known results on Hodge integrals like Witten's conjecture, Virasoro constrains, Faber's lambda_g conjecture etc. Among other results we show that a properly arranged generating function for Hodge integrals satisfies the equations of the KP hierarchy.

  1. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  2. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  3. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  4. Hierarchy of knowledge in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.

  5. Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...

  6. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  7. High resolution x-ray microtomography of biological samples: Requirements and strategies for satisfying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rothman, S.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    High resolution x-ray microscopy has been made possible in recent years primarily by two new technologies: microfabricated diffractive lenses for soft x-rays with about 30-50 nm resolution, and high brightness synchrotron x-ray sources. X-ray microscopy occupies a special niche in the array of biological microscopic imaging methods. It extends the capabilities of existing techniques mainly in two areas: a previously unachievable combination of sub-visible resolution and multi-micrometer sample size, and new contrast mechanisms. Because of the soft x-ray wavelengths used in biological imaging (about 1-4 nm), XM is intermediate in resolution between visible light and electron microscopies. Similarly, the penetration depth of soft x-rays in biological materials is such that the ideal sample thickness for XM falls in the range of 0.25 - 10 {mu}m, between that of VLM and EM. XM is therefore valuable for imaging of intermediate level ultrastructure, requiring sub-visible resolutions, in intact cells and subcellular organelles, without artifacts produced by thin sectioning. Many of the contrast producing and sample preparation techniques developed for VLM and EM also work well with XM. These include, for example, molecule specific staining by antibodies with heavy metal or fluorescent labels attached, and sectioning of both frozen and plastic embedded tissue. However, there is also a contrast mechanism unique to XM that exists naturally because a number of elemental absorption edges lie in the wavelength range used. In particular, between the oxygen and carbon absorption edges (2.3 and 4.4 nm wavelength), organic molecules absorb photons much more strongly than does water, permitting element-specific imaging of cellular structure in aqueous media, with no artifically introduced contrast agents. For three-dimensional imaging applications requiring the capabilities of XM, an obvious extension of the technique would therefore be computerized x-ray microtomography (XMT).

  8. Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M

    2005-02-08

    Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.

  9. RESOLUTION STRATEGY FOR GEOMECHANICALLY-RELATED REPOSITORY DESIGN FOR THERMAL-MECHANICAL EFFECTS (RDTME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Board

    2003-04-01

    In September of 2000, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2000). The Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements on Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) were jointly developed at the Technical Exchange and Management Meeting held on February 6-8, 2001 in Las Vegas, Nevada. In that report, a number of geomechanically-related issues were raised regarding the determination of rock properties, the estimation of the impacts of geologic variability, the use of numerical models, and the examination of drift degradation and design approach to the ground support system for the emplacement drifts. Ultimately, the primary end products of the KTI agreement resolution processes are an assessment of the preclosure stability of emplacement drifts and the associated ground support requirements. There is also an assessment of the postclosure degradation of the excavations when subjected to thermal and seismic-related stresses as well as in situ loading over time.

  10. Innovative strategies for high resolution site characterization: application to a flood plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vienken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving complex hydrogeological problems often requires a thorough understanding of (hydro- geological subsurface conditions. This is especially true for sedimentary deposits with complex architecture, where lithology and/or hydraulic properties can significantly vary over short horizontal and vertical distances. At these sites, a traditional, solely sample-based investigation approach is often not applicable due to limited data accuracy, resolution, and efficiency. Instead, an adapted investigation approach is required that combines exploration technologies of different resolution and investigation scales. This paper aims to demonstrate the feasibility of such a multi-scale approach for the characterization of a test site near the city of Löbnitz, Germany, that is comprised of heterogeneous alluvial deposits. Our focus is on site characterization in terms of lithology and hydraulic properties, as well as on the delineation and characterization of an aggradated oxbow as a typical example of a small scale geological structure.

  11. Robot perception errors and human resolution strategies in situated human-robot dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Niels; Kelleher, John; MacNamee, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which human participants interacted through a natural language dialogue interface with a simulated robot to fulfil a series of object manipulation tasks. We introduced errors into the robot’s perception, and observed the resulting problems in the dialogues and their resolutions. We then introduced different methods for the user to request information about the robot’s understanding of the environment. We quantify the impact of perception errors on the dialogues, ...

  12. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  13. Comparison of sampling strategies for object-based classification of urban vegetation from Very High Resolution satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Simon; Puissant, Anne; Stumpf, André; Lachiche, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation monitoring is becoming a major issue in the urban environment due to the services they procure and necessitates an accurate and up to date mapping. Very High Resolution satellite images enable a detailed mapping of the urban tree and herbaceous vegetation. Several supervised classifications with statistical learning techniques have provided good results for the detection of urban vegetation but necessitate a large amount of training data. In this context, this study proposes to investigate the performances of different sampling strategies in order to reduce the number of examples needed. Two windows based active learning algorithms from state-of-art are compared to a classical stratified random sampling and a third combining active learning and stratified strategies is proposed. The efficiency of these strategies is evaluated on two medium size French cities, Strasbourg and Rennes, associated to different datasets. Results demonstrate that classical stratified random sampling can in some cases be just as effective as active learning methods and that it should be used more frequently to evaluate new active learning methods. Moreover, the active learning strategies proposed in this work enables to reduce the computational runtime by selecting multiple windows at each iteration without increasing the number of windows needed.

  14. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study). Similar to Study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688

  15. Multi-Core Cache Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat

  16. New Strategies for 0.5 mm Resolution, High Sensitivity, Multi- Radionuclide Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    This project constitutes a 0.5-millimeter resolution radionuclide detector system built from CZT. (1) A novel dual-crystal photon detector module design with cross-strip electrode patterns was developed; (2) The module mechanical assembly was built; (3) A data acquisition (DAQ) chain for the module was produced; (4) A software tool was developed to incorporate novel time and energy measurement calibration techniques. (5) A small multi-detector prototype of the radionuclide imaging system was built from this module for system-level characterizations.

  17. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  18. Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1994-01-01

    Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.

  19. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this en...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  20. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  1. METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS: SISTEM REKOMENDER DATABASE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alam Syah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Rekomender electoral system is a database software application that can be used to look for alternative software database selection strategy, the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Rekomender systems needed by companies that have a large enough data processing such as the Bureau of Bina Sarana IT Information, expensive investments in the provision of Information Technology (IT makes IT Bina Sarana Information Bureau to be more careful in determining the selection of database software. This study focuses on research of database software selection system with the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP, a case study of IT Bureau Bina Sarana Infromatika with the observation unit administrator. The results of the study found that there are two (2 main criteria, namely the selection of technology and a user with an alternative strategy My SQL, Oracle and SQL Server. Having tested the system rekomender My SQL result that the top priority in the selection of database software with a 41% weighting, followed by SQL Server and Oracle 39% 21%. The end result of a system that has been created rekomender concluded that the Bureau of Bina Sarana Informatics IT can define strategy alternatives before determining database software to be used more effectively and efficiently. Abstrak¬¬ - Sistem rekomender pemilihan database software merupakan aplikasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mencari alternatif strategi pemilihan database software, dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Sistem rekomender dibutuhkan oleh perusahaan yang memiliki pengolahan data yang cukup besar seperti Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika, mahalnya investasi pada penyediaan Teknologi Informasi (TI membuat Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika lebih berhati-hati dalam menentukan pemilihan database software. Penelitian ini berfokus kepada penetilian tentang sistem pemilihan database sofware dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP, studi kasus Biro TI Bina Sarana

  2. The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people

  3. Structural hierarchy of autism spectrum disorder symptoms: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsik; Keifer, Cara M; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Lerner, Matthew D; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2017-02-14

    In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. This study analyzed DSM-IV-referenced ASD symptom statements from parent and teacher versions of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R. A series of exploratory structural equation models was conducted in order to produce interpretable latent factors that account for multivariate covariance. Results indicated that ASD symptoms were structured into an interpretable hierarchy across multiple informants. This hierarchy includes five levels; key features of ASD bifurcate into different constructs with increasing specificity. This is the first study to examine an underlying structural hierarchy of ASD symptomatology using the bass-ackwards method. This hierarchy demonstrates how core features of ASD relate at differing levels of resolution, providing a model for conceptualizing ASD heterogeneity and a structure for integrating divergent theories of cognitive processes and behavioral features that define the disorder. These findings suggest that a more coherent and complete understanding of the structure of ASD symptoms may be reflected in a metastructure rather than at one level of resolution. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Resolution of the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma by means of particle swarm optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianlei; Chu, Tianguang; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1371/journal.pone.0021787

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation among selfish individuals in the stochastic strategy spatial prisoner's dilemma game. We equip players with the particle swarm optimization technique, and find that it may lead to highly cooperative states even if the temptations to defect are strong. The concept of particle swarm optimization was originally introduced within a simple model of social dynamics that can describe the formation of a swarm, i.e., analogous to a swarm of bees searching for a food source. Essentially, particle swarm optimization foresees changes in the velocity profile of each player, such that the best locations are targeted and eventually occupied. In our case, each player keeps track of the highest payoff attained within a local topological neighborhood and its individual highest payoff. Thus, players make use of their own memory that keeps score of the most profitable strategy in previous actions, as well as use of the knowledge gained by the swarm as a whole, to find the best available stra...

  5. Probing three-dimensional surface force fields with atomic resolution: Measurement strategies, limitations, and artifact reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Z. Baykara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM is being increasingly used to measure the interaction force between an atomically sharp probe tip and surfaces of interest, as a function of the three spatial dimensions, with picometer and piconewton accuracy. Since the results of such measurements may be affected by piezo nonlinearities, thermal and electronic drift, tip asymmetries, and elastic deformation of the tip apex, these effects need to be considered during image interpretation.In this paper, we analyze their impact on the acquired data, compare different methods to record atomic-resolution surface force fields, and determine the approaches that suffer the least from the associated artifacts. The related discussion underscores the idea that since force fields recorded by using NC-AFM always reflect the properties of both the sample and the probe tip, efforts to reduce unwanted effects of the tip on recorded data are indispensable for the extraction of detailed information about the atomic-scale properties of the surface.

  6. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l

  7. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  8. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  9. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  10. Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...

  11. A hierarchy of Poisson brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...

  12. Hierarchy measure for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...

  13. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  14. Normalization of Class Hierarchy in Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天柱; 肖计田; 等

    1996-01-01

    In complex object oriented databases,the purpose of introducing class hierarchy is to express ISA semantics,to realize inheriting and to reuse schema definition codes.The schema defintition and schema evolution,based on the partial order of lattice,often cause the loss o information inheriting and the redundance of schema definition.Based on the fullness of the inheritance shown by class hierarchy,three normal forms of class hierarchy are given in this paper,and a general algorithm of normalization of class hierarchy is presented,following the Boolean algebra model of class hierarchy.The loss of information inheritance can be avoided when they are applied to schema design and schema evolution.

  15. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  17. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanzhong; Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  18. Comprehensive analytical strategy for biomonitoring of pesticides in urine by liquid chromatography–orbitrap high resolution masss pectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M; Leon, N; Pastor, A; Yusà, V

    2014-12-29

    In this study we propose an analytical strategy that combines a target approach for the quantitative analysis of contemporary pesticide metabolites with a comprehensive post-target screening for the identification of biomarkers of exposure to environmental contaminants in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS). The quantitative method for the target analysis of 29 urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids, herbicides and fungicides was validated after a previous statistical optimization of the main factors governing the ion source ionization and a fragmentation study using the high energy collision dissociation (HCD) cell. The full scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2 Hz), in both ESI+ and ESI− modes, and with and without HCD-fragmentation. The method – LOQ was lower than 3.2 μg L−1 for the majority of the analytes. For post-target screening a customized theoretical database was built, for the identification of 60 metabolites including pesticides, PAHs, phenols, and other metabolites of environmental pollutants. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass with less than 5 ppm, and diagnostic ions including isotopes and/or fragments were used. The analytical strategy was applied to 20 urine sample collected from children living in Valencia Region. Eleven target metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging from 1.18 to 131 μg L−1. Likewise, several compounds were tentatively identified in the post-target analysis belonging to the families of phthalates, phenols and parabenes. The proposed strategy is suitable for the determination of target pesticide biomarkers in urine in the framework of biomonitoring studies, and appropriate for the identification of other non-target metabolites.

  19. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  20. A Game-Theoretical Winner and Loser Model of Dominance Hierarchy Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Many animals spend large parts of their lives in groups. Within such groups, they need to find efficient ways of dividing available resources between them. This is often achieved by means of a dominance hierarchy, which in its most extreme linear form allocates a strict priority order to the individuals. Once a hierarchy is formed, it is often stable over long periods, but the formation of hierarchies among individuals with little or no knowledge of each other can involve aggressive contests. The outcome of such contests can have significant effects on later contests, with previous winners more likely to win (winner effects) and previous losers more likely to lose (loser effects). This scenario has been modelled by a number of authors, in particular by Dugatkin. In his model, individuals engage in aggressive contests if the assessment of their fighting ability relative to their opponent is above a threshold [Formula: see text]. Here we present a model where each individual can choose its own value [Formula: see text]. This enables us to address questions such as how aggressive should individuals be in order to take up one of the first places in the hierarchy? We find that a unique strategy evolves, as opposed to a mixture of strategies. Thus, in any scenario there exists a unique best level of aggression, and individuals should not switch between strategies. We find that for optimal strategy choice, the hierarchy forms quickly, after which there are no mutually aggressive contests.

  1. Diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Gottesman, Daniel; Krishna, Anirudh

    2017-01-01

    The Clifford hierarchy is a set of gates that appears in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, but its precise structure remains elusive. We give a complete characterization of the diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy for prime-dimensional qudits. They turn out to be pmth roots of unity raised to polynomial functions of the basis state to which they are applied, and we determine which level of the Clifford hierarchy a given gate sits in based on m and the degree of the polynomial.

  2. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  3. UC hierarchy and monodromy preserving deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2010-01-01

    The UC hierarchy is an extension of the KP hierarchy, which possesses not only an infinite set of positive time evolutions but also that of negative ones. Through a similarity reduction we derive from the UC hierarchy a class of the Schlesinger systems including the Garnier system and the sixth Painleve equation, which describes the monodromy preserving deformations of Fuchsian linear differential equations with certain spectral types. We also present a unified formulation of the above Schlesinger systems as a canonical Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian functions are polynomials in the canonical variables.

  4. Hierarchy and information in feedforward networks

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Solé, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we define a hierarchical index for feedforward structures taking, as the starting point, three fundamental concepts underlying hierarchy: order, predictability and pyramidal structure. Our definition applies to the so called causal graphs, i.e., connected, directed acyclic graphs in which the arrows depict a direct causal relation between two elements defining the nodes. The estimator of hierarchy is obtained by evaluating the complexity of causal paths against the uncertainty in recovering them from a given end point. This naturally leads us to a definition of mutual information which, properly normalized and weighted through the layered structure of the graph, results in suitable index of hierarchy with strong theoretical grounds.

  5. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  6. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Mariño, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using -algebra symmetries which encode the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how an A-model topological string on P1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  7. Quark masses and their hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, M.

    1987-12-01

    Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.

  8. Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...

  9. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  10. Integration of Balanced Scorecard (BSC), Strategy Map, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) for a Sustainability Business Framework: A Case Study of a Spanish Software Factory in the Financial Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesar alvarez Perez; Vicente Rodríguez Montequín; Francisco Ortega Fernandez; Joaquín Villanueva Balsera

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of how a Spanish financial software factory (FSF) has determined the weights of the indicators and objectives included in their strategy map with the aim of ensuring its business sustainability...

  11. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gracia-Lázaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.

  12. Optimized sampling strategy of Wireless sensor network for validation of remote sensing products over heterogeneous coarse-resolution pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J.; Liu, Q.; Wen, J.; Fan, W.; Dou, B.

    2015-12-01

    Coarse-resolution satellite albedo products are increasingly applied in geographical researches because of their capability to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of land surface parameters. In the long-term validation of coarse-resolution satellite products with ground measurements, the scale effect, i.e., the mismatch between point measurement and pixel observation becomes the main challenge, particularly over heterogeneous land surfaces. Recent advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) technologies offer an opportunity for validation using multi-point observations instead of single-point observation. The difficulty is to ensure the representativeness of the WSN in heterogeneous areas with limited nodes. In this study, the objective is to develop a ground-based spatial sampling strategy through consideration of the historical prior knowledge and avoidance of the information redundancy between different sensor nodes. Taking albedo as an example. First, we derive monthly local maps of albedo from 30-m HJ CCD images a 3-year period. Second, we pick out candidate points from the areas with higher temporal stability which helps to avoid the transition or boundary areas. Then, the representativeness (r) of each candidate point is evaluated through the correlational analysis between the point-specific and area-average time sequence albedo vector. The point with the highest r was noted as the new sensor point. Before electing a new point, the vector component of the selected points should be taken out from the vectors in the following correlational analysis. The selection procedure would be ceased once if the integral representativeness (R) meets the accuracy requirement. Here, the sampling method is adapted to both single-parameter and multi-parameter situations. Finally, it is shown that this sampling method has been effectively worked in the optimized layout of Huailai remote sensing station in China. The coarse resolution pixel covering this station could be

  13. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  14. Integrable Couplings of the Coupled Burgers Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIATie-Cheng; CHENXiao-Hong; CHENDeng-Yuan; ZHANGYu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, a new loop algebra G is constructed, from which a new isospectral problem is established. It follows that integrable couplings of the well-known coupled Burgers hierarchy are obtained.

  15. Enterprise IT governance key decision-making based on strategy alignment and analytic hierarchy process%基于战略匹配和层次分析的企业IT治理关键问题决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计春阳; 唐志豪

    2012-01-01

    The alignment between business strategy and IT strategy is the bases for good IT governance performance. And enterprises have to do five key decisions for their IT governance. To convert the alignment ideal into quantitative model so as to support enterprise IT governance decision, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) algorithm was introduced , and collaboration between business and IT strategy was simulated. Business strategy management of Porter, and strategy alignment management of Henderson were borrowed to represent business strategy and IT strategy. An IT governance key decision-making model based on the quantitative results of strategic alignment was put forward and validated through computation and analysis of real cases.%企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配是确保IT治理取得良好绩效的重要前提.企业的IT治理必须完成五个关键问题的决策.为有效地将战略对应的思想转化为量化模型,支持企业决策,本文引入网络层次分析法模拟企业战略与IT战略之间的匹配关系,分别借用Porter的战略管理理论和Henderson的战略匹配模型代表企业战略和IT战略,提出了基于战略匹配的企业IT治理五个关键问题决策模型,并通过实例分析与运算验证了该模型的有效性.

  16. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  17. Existence of Hierarchies and Human's Pursuit of Top Hierarchy Lead to Power Law

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    The power law is ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena, and is considered as a universal relationship between the frequency and its rank for diverse social systems. However, a general model is still lacking to interpret why these seemingly unrelated systems share great similarity. Through a detailed analysis of natural language texts and simulation experiments based on the proposed 'Hierarchical Selection Model', we found that the existence of hierarchies and human's pursuit of top hierarchy lead to the power law. Further, the power law is a statistical and emergent performance of hierarchies, and it is the universality of hierarchies that contributes to the ubiquity of the power law.

  18. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  19. The critical role of conflict resolution in teams: a close look at the links between conflict type, conflict management strategies, and team outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Kristin J; Peterson, Randall S; Mannix, Elizabeth A; Trochim, William M K

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the linkages between strategies for managing different types of conflict and group performance and satisfaction. Results from a qualitative study of 57 autonomous teams suggest that groups that improve or maintain top performance over time share 3 conflict resolution tendencies: (a) focusing on the content of interpersonal interactions rather than delivery style, (b) explicitly discussing reasons behind any decisions reached in accepting and distributing work assignments, and (c) assigning work to members who have the relevant task expertise rather than assigning by other common means such as volunteering, default, or convenience. The authors' results also suggest that teams that are successful over time are likely to be both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all group members. 2008 APA

  20. Hygro-thermo-aeraulic modeling of multi-zone buildings. Proposal of a strategy for the resolution of the coupled system; Modelisation hygro-thermo-aeraulique des batiments multizones. Proposition d'une strategie de resolution du systeme couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloszyn-Vallon, M.

    1999-11-01

    hygroscopic materials. Experimental conditions are simulated using the proposed model. A good overall performance of the model can be sent, if the vapour absorbed and released by building materials is represented. We are interested in a dynamic system described by a set of algebro-diffeential equations. To start the time integration of the differential equations, we need to fix a starting point. The best choice is given by the solution of the set of non-linear algebraic equations corresponding to initial stationary date. However, the resolution of this set is often found impossible. To face the numerical resolution of our problems, we called on block methods. The idea is to divide judiciously the system of equations, in such a way as to get an easy solution for each block. The physical interactions between blocks are then numerically ensured by successive global interations. After analysing our system, three principal blocks are identified: airflow block, describing inter-zonal air movements; energy block, describing temperatures in each zone; moisture block, describing air moisture content in each zone. The airflow block has a special role; it determines moisture and energy transport. A strategy to update the values of variables is also adapted to physical interaction among systems and allows rapid convergence. The proposed strategy is validated on a set of benchmark tests designed by CLIM2000 users. (author)

  1. Measuring the mass hierarchy with muon and hadron events in atmospheric neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino mass hierarchy can be measured in atmospheric neutrino experiments through the observation of earth matter effects. Magnetized iron calorimeters have been shown to be good in this regard due to their charge identification capabilities. The charged current interaction of ν μ in this detector, produces a muon track and a hadron shower. The direction of the muon track can be measured very accurately. We show the improvement expected in the reach of this class of experiments to the neutrino mass hierarchy, as we improve the muon energy resolution and the muon reconstruction efficiency. We next propose to include the hadron events in the analysis, by tagging them with the zenith angle of the corresponding muon and binning the hadron data first in energy and then in zenith angle. To the best of our knowledge this way of performing the analysis of the atmospheric neutrino data has not be considered before. We show that the hadron events increase the mass hierarchy sensitivity of the experiment. Finally, we show the expected mass hierarchy sensitivity in terms of the reconstructed neutrino energy and zenith angle. We show how the detector resolutions spoil the earth matter effects in the neutrino channel and argue why the sensitivity obtained from the neutrino analysis cannot be significantly better than that obtained from the analysis using muon data alone. As a result, the best mass hierarchy sensitivity is obtained when we add the contribution of the muon and the hadron data. For sin2 2 θ 13 = 0.1, sin2 θ 23 = 0.5, a muon energy resolution of 2%, reconstruction efficiency of 80% and exposure of 50 × 10 kton-year, we could get up to 4.5 σ signal for the mass hierarchy from combining the muon and hadron data. The signal will go up when the atmospheric data is combined with data from other existing experiments, particularly NO νA.

  2. Index Conditions of Resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Chun Cheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the following results are proved: (1) Using both deletion strategy and lock strategy, resolution is complete for a clause set where literals with the same predicate or proposition symbol have the same index. (2) Using deletion strategy, both positive unit lock resolution and input lock resolution are complete for a Horn set where the indexes of positive literals are greater than those of negative literals. (3) Using deletion strategy, input half-lock resolution is complete for a Horn set.

  3. Assessing data assimilation and model boundary error strategies for high resolution ocean model downscaling in the Northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvig Mariegaard, Jesper; Huiban, Méven Robin; Tornfeldt Sørensen, Jacob; Andersson, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    Determining the optimal domain size and associated position of open boundaries in local high-resolution downscaling ocean models is often difficult. As an important input data set for downscaling ocean modelling, the European Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) provides baroclinic initial and boundary conditions for local ocean models. Tidal dynamics is often neglected in CMEMS services at large scale but tides are generally crucial for coastal ocean dynamics. To address this need, tides can be superposed via Flather (1976) boundary conditions and the combined flow downscaled using unstructured mesh. The surge component is also only partially represented in selected CMEMS products and must be modelled inside the domain and modelled independently and superposed if the domain becomes too small to model the effect in the downscaling model. The tide and surge components can generally be improved by assimilating water level from tide gauge and altimetry data. An intrinsic part of the problem is to find the limitations of local scale data assimilation and the requirement for consistency between the larger scale ocean models and the local scale assimilation methodologies. This contribution investigates the impact of domain size and associated positions of open boundaries with and without data assimilation of water level. We have used the baroclinic ocean model, MIKE 3 FM, and its newly re-factored built-in data assimilation package. We consider boundary conditions of salinity, temperature, water level and depth varying currents from the Global CMEMS 1/4 degree resolution model from 2011, where in situ ADCP velocity data is available for validation. We apply data assimilation of in-situ tide gauge water levels and along track altimetry surface elevation data from selected satellites. The MIKE 3 FM data assimilation model which use the Ensemble Kalman filter have recently been parallelized with MPI allowing for much larger applications running on HPC

  4. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other ne

  5. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  6. Analytical strategy to investigate 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) metabolites in consumers' urine by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, María; Pozo, Óscar J; Sancho, Juan V; Orengo, Teresa; Haro, Gonzalo; Hernández, Félix

    2016-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the investigation of human in vivo metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) using urine collected from a consumer (this is, in non-controlled experiments) has been investigated. As a control sample was not available, the common approach based on the comparison of a control/blank sample and samples collected after drug intake could not be used. Alternatively, an investigation based on common fragmentation pathways was applied, assuming that most metabolites share some fragments with the parent drug. An extension of this approach was also applied based on the fragmentation pathway of those metabolites identified in urine samples in the first step. The use of MS(E) experiments (sequential acquisition of mass spectra at low and high collision energy) has been crucial to this aim as it allowed promoting fragmentation in the collision cell without any previous precursor ion selection. MDPV belongs to the group of new psychoactive substances (NPS), being known as the "cannibal drug". This substance is being abused more and more and is associated with dangerous side effects. The human metabolites (both phase I and phase II) were detected and tentatively identified by accurate mass full-spectrum measurements using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Following this strategy, up to 10 phase I metabolites, together with some glucuronides and sulphates, were detected and tentative structures were proposed. Several compounds identified in this work have not been previously reported in the literature.

  7. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.

  8. The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; McDonald, David B

    2015-04-01

    The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high frequencies of transitive triads, whereas cycles were very rare. Moreover, pass-along triads were rare, and double-dominant triads were common in most groups. These patterns did not vary in any systematic way across taxa, study settings (captive or wild) or group size. Two factors significantly affected network motif structure: the proportion of dyads that were observed to interact and the interaction rates of the top-ranked individuals. Thus, study design (i.e. how many interactions were observed) and the behaviour of key individuals in the group could explain much of the variations we see in social hierarchies across animals. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of dominance hierarchies across all animal systems, and demonstrate that network analysis provides new avenues for comparative analyses of social hierarchies.

  9. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  10. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  11. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  12. Integrable couplings of a generalized AKNS hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 张鸿庆; 闫庆友

    2002-01-01

    A generalized AKNS isospectral problem where the trace of corresponding spectral matrix is not zero, is transformed to a new isospectral problem where the trace of the resulting matrix is zero, by using transformation of Lax pairs, and these two spectral problems lead to the same hierarchy of equations. The authors started from the transformed spectral problem and constructed a new loop algebra which has not appeared before, and obtained the integrable coupling of the generalized AKNS hierarchy. Specially, the integrable couplings of the KdV equation and MKdV equation are obtained.

  13. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  14. Program information architecture/document hierarchy. [Information Management Systems, it's components and rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Experimental conditions for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy with reactor antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Myoung Youl

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the optimized experimental requirements to determine neutrino mass hierarchy using electron antineutrinos (νbare) generated in a nuclear reactor. The features of the neutrino mass hierarchy can be extracted from the | Δ m312 | and | Δ m322 | oscillations by applying the Fourier sine and cosine transforms to the L / E spectrum. To determine the neutrino mass hierarchy above 90% probability, the requirements on the energy resolution as a function of the baseline are studied at sin2 ⁡ 2θ13 = 0.1. If the energy resolution of the neutrino detector is less than 0.04 /√{Eν} and the determination probability obtained from Bayes' theorem is above 90%, the detector needs to be located around 48-53 km from the reactor(s) to measure the energy spectrum of νbare. These results will be helpful for setting up an experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, which is an important problem in neutrino physics.

  16. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept. T30; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik und Physikalisches Inst.; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  17. Integrable hierarchies of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugmanova, G.; Azimkhanova, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system. From compatibility conditions we obtain the form of matrix operators. After using a gauge transformation, obtained a new type of Lax representation for the hierarchy of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation, which is equivalent to the gauge coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system.

  18. Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-06-04

    A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.

  19. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  20. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (~10^{19}GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ~10^{16} between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at \\~10^{-3}eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass...

  1. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  2. Self-organization of divided hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.

  3. The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...

  4. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  5. Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yiya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.

  6. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  7. Sociality, hierarchy, health comparative biodemography: a collection of papers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Maxine; Lane, Meredith A

    2014-01-01

    "Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography is a collection of papers that examine cross-species comparisons of social environments with a focus on social behaviors along with social hierarchies and connections...

  8. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  9. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  10. Improving Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: New Approach to needs hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Nemati

    2013-01-01

    In this article Maslow's hierarchy of needs is reviewed with two viewpoints: critical and supportive. We try to extract and classify the relevant subject related to the research content after studying and analysis of documents. Thus, because of their common characters, the needs that have been cited from some scientists could be gathered and make some new levels.The new Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been presented in this research and we added three levels EPISTEMOLOGY, LOG and EROS (Freedo...

  11. The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparski, W

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.

  12. Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.

  13. Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...

  14. Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.

  15. Basic Studies of Learning Hierarchies in School Subjects. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    This study explores three areas of learning hierarchies: (1) the condition for learning in accordance with learning hierarchies; (2) the use of hierarchies in the diagnosis and learning of prerequisite intellectual skills; and (3) the conditions of learning and retention of principles. There were seven studies undertaken using elementary and…

  16. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with INO, T2K, NOvA and reactor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anushree; Thakore, Tarak; Choubey, Sandhya

    2013-04-01

    The relatively large measured value of θ 13 has opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy through earth matter effects. Amongst the current accelerator-based experiments only NOvA has a long enough baseline to observe earth matter effects. However, NOvA is plagued with uncertainty on the knowledge of the true value of δ CP, and this could drastically reduce its sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. The earth matter effect on atmospheric neutrinos on the other hand is almost independent of δ CP. The 50 kton magnetized Iron CALorimeter at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (ICAL@INO) will be observing atmospheric neutrinos. The charge identification capability of this detector gives it an edge over others for mass hierarchy determination through observation of earth matter effects. We study in detail the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of the data from this experiment simulated using the NUANCE based generator developed for ICAL@INO and folded with the detector resolutions and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full Geant4-based detector simulation. The data from ICAL@INO is then combined with simulated data from T2K, NOvA, Double Chooz, RENO and Daya Bay experiments and a combined sensitivity study to the mass hierarchy is performed. With 10 years of ICAL@INO data combined with T2K, NOvA and reactor data, one could get about 2.3 σ-5.7 σ discovery of the neutrino mass hierarchy, depending on the true value of sin2 θ 23 [0.4-0.6], sin2 2 θ 13 [0.08-0.12] and δ CP [0-2 π].

  17. A 2 + 1 non-isospectral integrable lattice hierarchy related to a generalized discrete second Painleve hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordoa, Pilar R. [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: andrew.pickering@urjc.es; Zhu Zuonong [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    In this article, by considering a 2 + 1 dimensional discrete non-isospectral linear problem, a new 2 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchy is constructed. It is shown that a generalization of the discrete second Painleve hierarchy can be obtained as a reduction. Other reductions include new 1 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies.

  18. High resolution data analysis strategies for mesoscale human functional MRI at 7 and 9.4T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, Valentin G; De Martino, Federico; Emmerling, Thomas C; Yacoub, Essa; Goebel, R.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has greatly facilitated submillimeter resolution acquisitions (voxel volume below (1mm³)), allowing the investigation of cortical columns and cortical depth dependent (i.e. laminar) structures in the human brain. Advanced

  19. Heterozygous mapping strategy (HetMapps)for high resolution genotyping-by-sequencing markers: a case study in grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) provides opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low per-sample genotyping cost, but missing data and under-calling of heterozygotes complicate the creation of GBS linkage maps for highly heterozygous species. To overcome these issues, we developed ...

  20. Neuroanatomical Markers of Social Hierarchy Recognition in Humans: A Combined ERP/MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-García, Hernando; Burgaleta, Miguel; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria

    2015-07-29

    Social hierarchy is an ubiquitous principle of social organization across animal species. Although some progress has been made in our understanding of how humans infer hierarchical identity, the neuroanatomical basis for perceiving key social dimensions of others remains unexplored. Here, we combined event-related potentials and structural MRI to reveal the neuroanatomical substrates of early status recognition. We designed a covertly simulated hierarchical setting in which participants performed a task either with a superior or with an inferior player. Participants showed higher amplitude in the N170 component when presented with a picture of a superior player compared with an inferior player. Crucially, the magnitude of this effect correlated with brain morphology of the posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. We conclude that early recognition of social hierarchies relies on the structural properties of a network involved in the automatic recognition of social identity. Humans can perceive social hierarchies very rapidly, an ability that is key for social interactions. However, some individuals are more sensitive to hierarchical information than others. Currently, it is unknown how brain structure supports such fast-paced processes of social hierarchy perception and their individual differences. Here, we addressed this issue for the first time by combining the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) and the high spatial resolution of structural MRI. This methodological approach allowed us to unveil a novel association between ERP neuromarkers of social hierarchy perception and the morphology of several cortical and subcortical brain regions typically assumed to play a role in automatic processes of social cognition. Our results are a step forward in our understanding of the human social brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510843-08$15.00/0.

  1. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  3. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  4. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  5. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  6. Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.

  7. Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.

  8. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  9. Homology and the hierarchy of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-07-01

    Homology is the similarity between organisms due to common ancestry. Introduced by Richard Owen in 1843 in a paper entitled "Lectures on comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals", the concept of homology predates Darwin's "Origin of Species" and has been very influential throughout the history of evolutionary biology. Although homology is the central concept of all comparative biology and provides a logical basis for it, the definition of the term and the criteria of its application remain controversial. Here, I will discuss homology in the context of the hierarchy of biological organization. I will provide insights gained from an exemplary case study in evolutionary developmental biology that indicates the uncoupling of homology at different levels of biological organization. I argue that continuity and hierarchy are separate but equally important issues of homology. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quantitative performance of advanced resolution recovery strategies on SPECT images: evaluation with use of digital phantom models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Motomura, Nobutoku; Fujino, Koichi; Natsume, Takahiro; Haramoto, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Several resolution recovery (RR) methods have been developed. This study was aimed to validate the following performance of the advanced RR methods: Evolution, Astonish, Flash3D, and 3D-OSEM. We compared the advanced RR method with filtered back projection (FBP) and standard order-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) using resolution (RES), cylinder/sphere (CYS), and myocardial (MYD) digital phantoms. The RES phantom was placed in three spheres. Sixteen spheres (hot and cold) were then placed in a concentric configuration (diameter: 96-9.6 mm) inside the CYS phantom. The MYD phantom was created by computer simulation with the use of an electron γ-shower 4 (EGS4) and it included two left ventricular defects in the myocardium. The performance was evaluated at source-to-detector distances (R-distance) of 166, 200, and 250 mm with reconstruction parameters (product of subset and iteration: SI) with use of the resolution recovery factor, count recovery, normalized mean square error (NMSE), and %CV. According to increased SI updates, the value of the FWHM decreased, and the effect was more obvious as the R-distance increased. The spatial resolution of the advanced RR method was 20 % better than that of FBP and OSEM. The resolution recovery ratio was 80 %, and the count recovery was maintained only in objects with a diameter of >30 mm in the advanced RR method. The NMSE and %CV was 50 and 30 % improved over FBP and OSEM, respectively. The advanced RR method caused overestimation due to Gibbs's phenomenon in the marginal region when the diameter of the sphere was 16-28.8 mm.

  11. ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS: AN APPLICATION IN GREEN BUILDING MARKET RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Attaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has become a necessity in the building industry. In recent years, as the general public is more informed and aware of sustainability related issues, they are becoming major players in the decision making process regarding their built environment. However, there are still challenges with how sustainability is communicated to occupants and owners of buildings. As the global economic crisis is continuing, the marketing of green buildings needs to be refined to communicate the lifetime benefits of sustainability. One of the ways to develop effective marketing strategies, is to understand what the occupants value the most among many aspects of green buildings thus develop focused marketing solutions. Authors present a conceptual methodology using Analytic Hierarchy Process toward identifying consumer ranking and weights of a major green building rating system’s categories. Authors use sample non-representative data to illustrate the proposed methodology, while sharing preliminary qualitative data from the research in progress.

  12. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gönül, B

    2000-01-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  13. INFORMATION GATHERING, DELEGATED CONTRACTING AND CORPORATE HIERARCHIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwoo Choe; In-Uck Park

    2008-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. We study when such delegation can be optimal. In centralization, the owner retains the authority, which fails to motivate the manager to acquire valuable information, leading to suboptimal decisions and inefficient incentive provision to the worker. Beneficial delegation should necessarily motivate the manager to acquire information, which is possible onl...

  14. Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2013-08-06

    Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.

  15. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2017-08-29

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  16. Models of the Sociocultural Strategies of Today's College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, G. D.; Maslova, T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data suggest that there are several models of sociocultural strategy used by Russian students, each with a specific hierarchy of values. A typical model is the traditionalist strategy, although the achievement-oriented strategy is also quite widespread.

  17. Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies between Teachers and School Leaders in Primary Schools of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanka, Engdawork Birhanu; Thuo, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various strategies used to manage and resolve conflict between teachers and school leaders in government primary schools of Wolaita zone. The study employed a descriptive survey design where both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to correct and analyze data, concurrently. From six…

  18. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. A multi-step strategy to obtain crystals of the dengue virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that diffract to high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Thai Leong [Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Road, Chromos Building, Singapore 138670 (Singapore); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Chen, Yen Liang; Xu, Ting; Wen, Daying; Vasudevan, Subhash G. [Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Road, Chromos Building, Singapore 138670 (Singapore); Lescar, Julien, E-mail: julien@ntu.edu.sg [Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Road, Chromos Building, Singapore 138670 (Singapore); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2007-02-01

    Crystals of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalytic domain from the dengue virus NS5 protein have been obtained using a strategy that included expression screening of naturally occurring serotype variants of the protein, the addition of divalent metal ions and crystal dehydration. These crystals diffract to 1.85 Å resolution and are thus suitable for a structure-based drug-design program. Dengue virus, a member of the Flaviviridae genus, causes dengue fever, an important emerging disease with several million infections occurring annually for which no effective therapy exists. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NS5 plays an important role in virus replication and represents an interesting target for the development of specific antiviral compounds. Crystals that diffract to 1.85 Å resolution that are suitable for three-dimensional structure determination and thus for a structure-based drug-design program have been obtained using a strategy that included expression screening of naturally occurring serotype variants of the protein, the addition of divalent metal ions and crystal dehydration.

  20. Enhanced GPS-based GRACE baseline determination by using a new strategy for ambiguity resolution and relative phase center variation corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Liu, Junhong; Tu, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Precise relative position determination is a prerequisite for radar interferometry by formation flying satellites. It has been shown that this can be achieved by high-quality, dual-frequency GPS receivers that provide precise carrier-phase observations. The precise baseline determination between satellites flying in formation can significantly improve the accuracy of interferometric products, and has become a research interest. The key technologies of baseline determination using spaceborne dual-frequency GPS for gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) formation are presented, including zero-difference (ZD) reduced dynamic orbit determination, double-difference (DD) reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, integer ambiguity resolution and relative receiver antenna phase center variation (PCV) estimation. We propose an independent baseline determination method based on a new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution and correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, and implement the method in the NUDTTK software package. The algorithms have been tested using flight data over a period of 120 days from GRACE. With the original strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on Melbourne-Wübbena (M-W) combinations, the average success rate is 85.6%, and the baseline precision is 1.13 mm. With the new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on a priori relative orbit, the average success rate and baseline precision are improved by 5.8% and 0.11 mm respectively. A relative ionosphere-free phase pattern estimation result is given in this study, and with correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, the baseline precision is further significantly improved by 0.34 mm. For ZD reduced dynamic orbit determination, the orbit precision for each GRACE satellite A or B in three dimensions (3D) is about 2.5 cm compared to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) post science orbits. For DD reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, the final baseline precision for two

  1. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  2. A robust multi-shot scan strategy for high-resolution diffusion weighted MRI enabled by multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W

    2013-05-15

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies.

  3. Design of a Data Storage Hierarchy. DSH-III--Software & Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Mlanagement Systems (DBPIS’s) are caoable of handling data bases on the order of a trillion (1012) bits of data, and can porocess transactions at rates of...level extracting the appropriate sub-page from the broadcast data. This strategy is called READ-THROUGH since the requested data is read through from...to all higher levels of the hierarchy. Section 3 describes the architecture which allows the destination levels to extract appropriate sub-pages from

  4. White Paper: Measuring the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, R N; Freedman, S J; Haxton, W C; Kadel, R W; Kolomensky, Yu G; Luk, K B; McDonald, P; Gann, G D Orebi; Poon, A W P

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is a condensation of a report by a committee appointed jointly by the Nuclear Science and Physics Divisions at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goal of this study was to identify the most promising technique(s) for resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy. For the most part, we have relied on calculations and simulations presented by the proponents of the various experiments. We have included evaluations of the opportunities and challenges for these experiments based on what is available already in the literature.

  5. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Janusz; de Lucas, Javier

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  6. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  7. Cascade Hierarchy in SUSY SU(5) GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    We study cascade hierarchy in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. The neutrino Dirac mass matrix of the cascade form can lead to the tri-bimaximal generation mixing at the leading order in the seesaw mechanism while the down quark mass matrix of a hybrid cascade form naturally gives the CKM structure. We embed such experimentally favored mass textures into supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, which gives a relation between the down quark and charged lepton mass matrices. Related phenomenologies, such as lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to lepton mixing angles.

  8. Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ~Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).

  9. Systematic assessment of survey scan and MS2-based abundance strategies for label-free quantitative proteomics using high-resolution MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Sheng, Quanhu; Zhang, Ming; Qu, Jun

    2014-04-04

    Survey-scan-based label-free method have shown no compelling benefit over fragment ion (MS2)-based approaches when low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used, the growing prevalence of high-resolution analyzers may have changed the game. This necessitates an updated, comparative investigation of these approaches for data acquired by high-resolution MS. Here, we compared survey scan-based (ion current, IC) and MS2-based abundance features including spectral-count (SpC) and MS2 total-ion-current (MS2-TIC), for quantitative analysis using various high-resolution LC/MS data sets. Key discoveries include: (i) study with seven different biological data sets revealed only IC achieved high reproducibility for lower-abundance proteins; (ii) evaluation with 5-replicate analyses of a yeast sample showed IC provided much higher quantitative precision and lower missing data; (iii) IC, SpC, and MS2-TIC all showed good quantitative linearity (R(2) > 0.99) over a >1000-fold concentration range; (iv) both MS2-TIC and IC showed good linear response to various protein loading amounts but not SpC; (v) quantification using a well-characterized CPTAC data set showed that IC exhibited markedly higher quantitative accuracy, higher sensitivity, and lower false-positives/false-negatives than both SpC and MS2-TIC. Therefore, IC achieved an overall superior performance than the MS2-based strategies in terms of reproducibility, missing data, quantitative dynamic range, quantitative accuracy, and biomarker discovery.

  10. Causal structure and hierarchies of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Kevin D

    2012-12-01

    Economics prefers complete explanations: general over partial equilibrium, microfoundational over aggregate. Similarly, probabilistic accounts of causation frequently prefer greater detail to less as in typical resolutions of Simpson's paradox. Strategies of causal refinement equally aim to distinguish direct from indirect causes. Yet, there are countervailing practices in economics. Representative-agent models aim to capture economic motivation but not to reduce the level of aggregation. Small structural vector-autoregression and dynamic stochastic general-equilibrium models are practically preferred to larger ones. The distinction between exogenous and endogenous variables suggests partitioning the world into distinct subsystems. The tension in these practices is addressed within a structural account of causation inspired by the work of Herbert Simon's, which defines cause with reference to complete systems adapted to deal with incomplete systems and piecemeal evidence. The focus is on understanding the constraints that a structural account of causation places on the freedom to model complex or lower-order systems as simpler or higher-order systems and on to what degree piecemeal evidence can be incorporated into a structural account.

  11. The Hierarchy Solution to the LHC Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, James S; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of ...

  12. The hierarchy solution to the LHC inverse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, James S.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-06-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of sparticles.

  13. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  14. Hamiltonian and Godunov Structures of the Grad Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grmela, Miroslav; Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy; Pavelka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution governed by the Boltzmann kinetic equation is compatible with mechanics and thermodynamics. The former compatibility is mathematically expressed in the Hamiltonian and Godunov structures, the latter in the structure of gradient dynamics guaranteeing the growth of entropy and consequently the approach to equilibrium. We carry all three structures to the Grad reformulation of the Boltzmann equation (to the Grad hierarchy). First, we recognize the structures in the infinite Grad hierarchy and then in several examples of finite hierarchies representing extended hydrodynamic equations. In the context of Grad's hierarchies we also investigate relations between Hamiltonian and Godunov structures.

  15. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;

    2015-01-01

    and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  16. OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stan LIPOVETSKY

    2009-01-01

    A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.

  17. Correlating Dimensions of Inheritance Hierarchy with Complexity & Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance is the vital feature of any object oriented software which provides reuse of exiting classes for designing new classes. Higher reuse provides higher productivity and greater quality.Inheritance hierarchy is one of the very important artifacts targeted for measurement of reuse and reusability. Reuse through inheritance hierarchy can be measured from two dimensions- Depth and Breadth. Higher depth and breadth may increase complexity of software which makes the software difficult to understand and maintain. This paper aimed to correlate the depth and breadth of inheritance hierarchy with reuse and complexity of inheritance hierarchy using design oriented metrics.

  18. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  19. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  20. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  1. Gravitational inflaton decay and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yuki

    2007-01-01

    We study implications of the large-N species solution to the hierarchy problem, proposed by G. Dvali, for reheating of the universe after inflation. Dvali's proposal contains additional N~10^{32} Z_2-conserved quantum fields beyond the Standard Model particles with mass ~1 TeV, which weaken gravity by a factor of 1/N, and thus explain the hierarchy between the Plank scale and the electroweak scale. We show that, in this scenario, the decay rates of inflaton fields through gravitational decay channels are enhanced by a factor of N, and thus they decay into N species of the quantum fields very efficiently, in the limit that quantum gravity effects are unimportant for the gravitational decay rate. In order not to over-reheat the universe, inflaton mass, vacuum expectation value of inflaton, or non-minimal gravitational coupling should be tightly fine-tuned. Our conclusion holds even when the gravitational decay is prohibited by some symmetry of the theory; the universe may still be over-reheated via annihilation...

  2. Instability-induced hierarchy in bipedal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgane, Kunishige; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2008-05-01

    One of the important features of human locomotion is its instant adaptability to various unpredictable changes of physical and environmental conditions. This property is known as flexibility. Modeling the bipedal locomotion system, we show that initial-state coordination by a global variable which encodes the attractor basins of the system can yield flexibility. This model is based on the following hypotheses: (i) the walking velocity is a global variable, and (ii) the leg posture at the beginning of the stance phase is the initial state of the gait. Moreover, we confirm these hypotheses. We investigate the regions near the neutral states between walking and falling phases using numerical experiments and demonstrate that global variables can be defined as the dominant unstable directions of the system dynamics near the neutral states. We propose the concept of an “instability-induced hierarchy.” In this hierarchy, global variables govern other variables near neutral states; i.e., they become elements of a higher level.

  3. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  4. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N

    2017-04-15

    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-09-17

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  7. Marketing Mix Formulation for Higher Education: An Integrated Analysis Employing Analytic Hierarchy Process, Cluster Analysis and Correspondence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Hung, Chia-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a graduate institute at National Chiayi University (NCYU), by using a model that integrates analytic hierarchy process, cluster analysis and correspondence analysis, can develop effective marketing strategies. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a quantitative study aimed at…

  8. Investigating the Strengths and Weaknesses of Bojnurd Islamic Azad University in Order to Strategic Planning by Fuzzy Hierarchy Analysis (Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Batyari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A large part of country's economy in the new era is based on knowledge and intellectual activities produced in universities. In recent years, the concepts related to strategic management have been issued in the universities of our country and some of them have attempted to exploit strategic management benefits in order to manage their activities more efficiently. Nowadays, increasing growth of organizations and competition for gaining more market share has doubled the necessity of appropriate strategic plans. Generally, grand strategies are threefold: aggressive strategies, defensive strategies and stability strategies. This research investigate inner environment (strengths and weaknesses of Bojnourd Islamic Azad University, using SWOT analysis. In rating inner factors Fuzzy hierarchy analysis was used in which factor's weight was calculated by hierarchy analysis and using QSB software. The results showed that in strategic planning strengths were more important that weaknesses. In weaknesses set, lack of scientific - research in most training departments and in strengths set the existence of rather young and efficient faculty had the first priority and rank.

  9. ON GAUGE EQUIVALENT INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS AND r-MATRICES FOR AKNS HIERARCHY AND A COUPLED MKdV HIERARCHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘响林; 陈庆辉; 张保才

    2003-01-01

    The new coupled MKdV hierarchy is obtained. By using gauge transformation,the corns trained flow, the integrable system and Lax representation for the coupled MKdVhierarchy were first corstructed from the AKNS hierarchy and then using the Laxrepresentation, the r-matrix for the constrained flow of the coupled MKdV hierarchy wasconstructed. The second set of conserved integrals of this constrained flow and theirinvolutivity were also given.

  10. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  11. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d

  12. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  13. THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS OF THE LCZ HIERARCHY BY NONLINEARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we first search for the Hamiltonian structure of LCZ hierarchy by use of a trace identity. Then we determine a higher-order constraint condition between the potentials and the eigenfunctions of the LCZ spectral problem, and under this constraint condition, the Lax pairs of LCZ hierarchy are all nonlinearized into the finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense.

  14. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  15. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  16. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  17. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  18. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  19. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  20. Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-10-26

    A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.

  1. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  2. Integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    An integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources (dKdVHWS) is derived. Lax pair equations and bi-Hamiltonian formulation for dKdVHWS are formulated. Hodograph solution for the dispersionless KdV equation with sources (dKdVWS) is obtained via hodograph transformation. Furthermore, the dispersionless Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy with sources (dGDHWS) is presented.

  3. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  4. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  5. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  6. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2016-03-18

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  7. Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.

  8. Structural hierarchy governs fibrin gel mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechocka, Izabela K; Bacabac, Rommel G; Potters, Max; Mackintosh, Fred C; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2010-05-19

    Fibrin gels are responsible for the mechanical strength of blood clots, which are among the most resilient protein materials in nature. Here we investigate the physical origin of this mechanical behavior by performing rheology measurements on reconstituted fibrin gels. We find that increasing levels of shear strain induce a succession of distinct elastic responses that reflect stretching processes on different length scales. We present a theoretical model that explains these observations in terms of the unique hierarchical architecture of the fibers. The fibers are bundles of semiflexible protofibrils that are loosely connected by flexible linker chains. This architecture makes the fibers 100-fold more flexible to bending than anticipated based on their large diameter. Moreover, in contrast with other biopolymers, fibrin fibers intrinsically stiffen when stretched. The resulting hierarchy of elastic regimes explains the incredible resilience of fibrin clots against large deformations.

  9. Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.

  10. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, Oleg K

    2009-01-01

    We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.

  11. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinman, Oleg K [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    This paper considers the theory of Lax equations with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface, proposed by Krichever in 2001. The approach here is based on new objects, the Lax operator algebras, taking into consideration an arbitrary complex simple or reductive classical Lie algebra. For every Lax operator, regarded as a map sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyurin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra, a hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by the Lax equations is constructed, and it is proved that they are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example, elliptic A{sub n}, C{sub n}, and D{sub n} Calogero-Moser systems are derived in the framework of our approach. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  12. A new wavefunction hierarchy for interacting geminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Peter A.

    2016-11-01

    A new truncation scheme for non-orthogonal antisymmetrized products of interacting geminals (APIG) is introduced based on antisymmetrized products of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG). This wavefunction hierarchy of interacting geminals (IG) allows us to gradually increase the accuracy at which the ground state of a seniority-zero Hamiltonian can be estimated, ranging from APSG up to approximation-free APIG. Mathematical expressions for the lowest four orders (IG0, IG1, IG2, and IG3) are given explicitly and the computational cost to evaluate their transition density matrix is verified to scale only cubically with system size. Exemplary numerical calculations indicate that already a very early truncation level leads to results virtually identical to APIG.

  13. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G

    2016-01-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  14. Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2010-12-01

    For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M̂4±C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

  15. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through -1/12 ςϕ2 R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  16. Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief

    CERN Document Server

    Murthy, G Rama

    2011-01-01

    ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.

  17. Trophic hierarchies illuminated via amino acid isotopic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn A Steffan

    Full Text Available Food web ecologists have long sought to characterize the trophic niches of animals using stable isotopic analysis. However, distilling trophic position from isotopic composition has been difficult, largely because of the variability associated with trophic discrimination factors (inter-trophic isotopic fractionation and routing. We circumvented much of this variability using compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA. We examined the (15N signatures of amino acids extracted from organisms reared in pure culture at four discrete trophic levels, across two model communities. We calculated the degree of enrichment at each trophic level and found there was a consistent trophic discrimination factor (~7.6‰. The constancy of the CSIA-derived discrimination factor permitted unprecedented accuracy in the measurement of animal trophic position. Conversely, trophic position estimates generated via bulk-(15N analysis significantly underestimated trophic position, particularly among higher-order consumers. We then examined the trophic hierarchy of a free-roaming arthropod community, revealing the highest trophic position (5.07 and longest food chain ever reported using CSIA. High accuracy in trophic position estimation brings trophic function into sharper focus, providing greater resolution to the analysis of food webs.

  18. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  19. Extended fault inversion with random slipmaps: A resolution test for the 2012 Mw 7.6 Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake from a Popperian inversion strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Stich, Daniel; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Morales Soto, José

    2015-04-01

    The inversion of seismic data for extended fault slip distributions provides us detailed models of earthquake sources. The validity of the solutions depends on the fit between observed and synthetic seismograms generated with the source model. However, there may exist more than one model that fit the data in a similar way, leading to a multiplicity of solutions. This underdetermined problem has been analyzed and studied by several authors, who agree that inverting for a single best model may become overly dependent on the details of the procedure. We have addressed this resolution problem by using a global search that scans the solutions domain using random slipmaps, applying a Popperian inversion strategy that involves the generation of a representative set of slip distributions. The proposed technique solves the forward problem for a large set of models calculating their corresponding synthetic seismograms. Then, we propose to perform extended fault inversion through falsification, that is, falsify inappropriate trial models that do not reproduce the data within a reasonable level of mismodelling. The remainder of surviving trial models forms our set of coequal solutions. Thereby the ambiguities that might exist can be detected by taking a look at the solutions, allowing for an efficient assessment of the resolution. The solution set may contain only members with similar slip distributions, or else uncover some fundamental ambiguity like, for example, different patterns of main slip patches or different patterns of rupture propagation. For a feasibility study, the proposed resolution test has been evaluated using teleseismic body wave recordings from the September 5th 2012 Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake. Note that the inversion strategy can be applied to any type of seismic, geodetic or tsunami data for which we can handle the forward problem. A 2D von Karman distribution is used to describe the spectrum of heterogeneity in slipmaps, and we generate possible

  20. Lepton mass hierarchy from the quark mass hierarchy in the light of the quark Technicolor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that all electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) comes from the strong dynamics of Technicolor while these are the only quarks which receive masses through Technicolor dynamics. We assume the leptons are not embedded in a representation of Extended Technigroup. In this paper we suggest a model where the leptons receive their masses through the loop corrections which includes at least one closed quark loop. For this purpose we introduce model based on private family SU(2) scalar two doublets which interact very weakly with the Standard Model(SM) fermions and which do not condense at tree level. Assuming quark/lepton universality of suggested Yukawa interactions the model becomes strongly predictive and we calculate mass contributions to the all known SM lepton gauge eigenstates. Up to not yet explored mixing, the model suggests that the lepton mass hierarchy comes from the quark mass hierarchy. Within a single universal Yukawa coupling the absolute values of masses for neutrino family e...

  1. Detecting the Neutrinos Mass Hierarchy from Cosmological Data

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new parameterization to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy, namely $\\Delta=(m_3-m_1)/(m_1+m_3)$ which is dimensionless and varies in the range $[-1,1]$. Taking into account the results of neutrino oscillation experiments, $\\Delta$ is the unique parameter for determining all the masses of neutrinos, and a positive (negative) sign of $\\Delta$ denotes the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. Adopting the currently available cosmic observations, we find that the normal mass hierarchy is slightly favored, and the mass of lightest neutrino is less than $0.030$ eV for the normal mass hierarchy and $0.024$ eV for the inverted mass hierarchy at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  2. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  3. Safety evaluation of Chinese nickel resources based on analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    China is now the world’s largest producer and consumer of nickel. As an important strategic metal, nickel is widely used in various industries of national economy. Whether the supply of nickel ore resources is sufficient or not directly restricts the development of downstream industries. It is becoming more and more important to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in our country, and to formulate the corresponding safety strategy. This paper uses fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in China, and overcomes the subjectivity and singleness of traditional evaluation methods. On the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the weight, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is introduced. At present, the safety situation of nickel resources in our country is in a more dangerous level, and we need to take positive measures to improve it.

  4. Investigation of Lab Fire Prevention Management System of Combining Root Cause Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process with Event Tree Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chan Shih; Horng, Richard S.; Shin-Ku Lee

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a new approach, combining root cause analysis (RCA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and event tree analysis (ETA) in a loop to systematically evaluate various laboratory safety prevention strategies. First, 139 fire accidents were reviewed to identify the root causes and draw out prevention strategies. Most fires were caused due to runaway reactions, operation error and equipment failure, and flammable material release. These mostly occurred in working places of no prom...

  5. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  6. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  7. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  8. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  9. Nuke-sparing regimens as a main simplification strategy and high level of toxicity resolution after antiretroviral switch: the SWITCHART Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carrero-Gras

    2014-11-01

    Eighty patients switched to a simpler regimen (median age 48 [40–53], mean CD4 count 608±265 cells/cl, 89% <50 copies/ml, mean number of previous regimens 6±5, mean time on previous ART 3±2 years. In this case, previous ART mostly included 2NRTI+1PI/r (54% (Figure 1. The simplification strategy mainly contained nuke-sparing regimens (60% based on PI (DRV/r 48%: monotherapy 46%, dual therapy 13% (PI/r+maraviroc 9%, PI/r+NNRTI 4% and triple therapy 1% (PI/r+maraviroc+raltegravir. The second preferred simplification option was 2NRTI+1NNRTI (24%. Seventy-seven patients switched due to toxicities (median age 47 [43–53], mean CD4 count 606±350 cells/μl, <50 copies/ml 82%, mean number of previous regimens 4±3, mean time on previous ART 3±3 years. Renal (25% and CNS (18% toxicities were the main reasons for ART switch, followed by diarrhoea (16%, liver enzyme elevation (ALT 10%; AST 9%; bilirubin 7%, lipid elevation (cholesterol 5%; triglycerides 8%, nausea (7% and other (=5% (Figure 2. All patients with renal toxicity were under TDF and in most cases this drug was removed from the new regimen (with 3TC/ABC or nuke-sparing. Among patients with CNS toxicity, 79% were taking EFV; the main new treatment was a second-generation NNRTI (ETR+2NRTI. Toxicities were completely resolved in 66% of patients, partially resolved in 22% and not resolved in only 12%; the median time from ART switch to toxicity resolution was 4 (2–8 months. Conclusions: The main reasons for ART switch in daily practice are simplification and toxicities, renal and CNS toxicities being the most prevalent. The preferred simplification strategies are nuke-sparing regimens, mainly DRV/r-based monotherapy and dual therapy. ART switch leads to a complete resolution of toxicities in most cases in the short term.

  10. Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo

    2016-07-01

    With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.

  11. The $n$-component KP hierarchy and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kac, V G

    1993-01-01

    Starting from free charged fermions we give equivalent definitions of the $n\\/$-component KP hierarchy, in terms of $\\tau\\/$-functions $\\tau_\\alpha\\/$ (where $\\alpha \\in M =\\/$ root lattice of $sl_n\\/$), in terms of $n \\times n\\/$ matrix valued wave functions $W_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$, and in terms of pseudodifferential wave operators $P_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$. These imply the deformation and the zero curvature equations. We show that the 2-component KP hierarchy contains the Davey-Stewartson system and the $n\\geq3\\/$ component KP hierarchy continues the $n\\/$-wave interaction equations. This allows us to construct theis solutions.

  12. Field strategies for the calibration and validation of high-resolution forest carbon maps: Scaling from plots to a three state region MD, DE, & PA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, K. A.; Huang, W.; Johnson, K. D.; Birdsey, R.; Finley, A. O.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 Congress directed NASA to initiate research towards the development of Carbon Monitoring Systems (CMS). In response, our team has worked to develop a robust, replicable framework to quantify and map aboveground forest biomass at high spatial resolutions. Crucial to this framework has been the collection of field-based estimates of aboveground tree biomass, combined with remotely detected canopy and structural attributes, for calibration and validation. Here we evaluate the field- based calibration and validation strategies within this carbon monitoring framework and discuss the implications on local to national monitoring systems. Through project development, the domain of this research has expanded from two counties in MD (2,181 km2), to the entire state of MD (32,133 km2), and most recently the tri-state region of MD, PA, and DE (157,868 km2) and covers forests in four major USDA ecological providences. While there are approximately 1000 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots distributed across the state of MD, 60% fell in areas considered non-forest or had conditions that precluded them from being measured in the last forest inventory. Across the two pilot counties, where population and landuse competition is high, that proportion rose to 70% Thus, during the initial phases of this project 850 independent field plots were established for model calibration following a random stratified design to insure the adequate representation of height and vegetation classes found across the state, while FIA data were used as an independent data source for validation. As the project expanded to cover the larger spatial tri-state domain, the strategy was flipped to base calibration on more than 3,300 measured FIA plots, as they provide a standardized, consistent and available data source across the nation. An additional 350 stratified random plots were deployed in the Northern Mixed forests of PA and the Coastal Plains forests of DE for validation.

  13. Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Ozogány, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...

  14. How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...

  15. 6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...

  16. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  17. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...

  18. 6D RG flows and nilpotent hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina,Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University,New York, NY 10027 (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of “conformal matter,” a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent UV theory.

  19. Green primary explosives: 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V; Coburn, Michael D; Meyer, Thomas J; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-07-05

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[Fe(II)(NT)(3)(H(2)O)(3)], cat(2)[Fe(II)(NT)(4)(H(2)O)(2)], cat(3)[Fe(II)(NT)(5)(H(2)O)], and cat(4)[Fe(II)(NT)(6)] with cat = cation and NT(-) = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2). With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N(2)-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries.

  20. An effectiveness hierarchy of preventive interventions: neglected paradigm or self-evident truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Direct analysis in real time - high resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS): a high throughput strategy for identification and quantification of anabolic steroid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doué, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pouponneau, Karinne; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    High throughput screening is essential for doping, forensic, and food safety laboratories. While hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) remains the approach of choice, recent ambient MS techniques, such as direct analysis in real time (DART), offer more rapid and more versatile strategies and thus gain in popularity. In this study, the potential of DART hyphenated with Orbitrap-MS for fast identification and quantification of 21 anabolic steroid esters has been evaluated. Direct analysis in high resolution scan mode allowed steroid esters screening by accurate mass measurement (Resolution = 60 000 and mass error  0.99), dynamic range (from 1 to 1000 ng mL(-1) ), bias (<10%), sensitivity (1 ng mL(-1) ), repeatability and reproducibility (RSD < 20%) were evaluated as similar to those obtained with hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. This innovative high throughput approach was successfully applied for the characterization of oily commercial preparations, and thus fits the needs of the competent authorities in the fight against forbidden or counterfeited substances.

  2. A Complex Integrable Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure for Integrable Couplings of WKI Soliton Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We generate complex integrable couplings from zero curvature equations associated with matrix spectral problems in this paper. A direct application to the WKI spectral problem leads to a novel soliton equation hierarchy of integrable coupling system; then we consider the Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling system. We select the U¯, V¯ and generate the nonlinear composite parts, which generate new extended WKI integrable couplings. It is also indicated that the method of block matrix is an efficient and straightforward way to construct the integrable coupling system.

  3. Spatial hierarchy and emerging typologies inside world city network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilya Chubarov

    2015-01-01

    ...). Based upon the results of media- popular ‘global city rankings’ produced by several international think tanks, our calculation allowed to reveal global urban hierarchy and identify several subnetworks inside of world cities...

  4. INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.

  5. Bidifferential Calculus Approach to AKNS Hierarchies and Their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristophanes Dimakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We express AKNS hierarchies, admitting reductions to matrix NLS and matrix mKdV hierarchies, in terms of a bidifferential graded algebra. Application of a universal result in this framework quickly generates an infinite family of exact solutions, including e.g. the matrix solitons in the focusing NLS case. Exploiting a general Miura transformation, we recover the generalized Heisenberg magnet hierarchy and establish a corresponding solution formula for it. Simply by exchanging the roles of the two derivations of the bidifferential graded algebra, we recover ''negative flows'', leading to an extension of the respective hierarchy. In this way we also meet a matrix and vector version of the short pulse equation and also the sine-Gordon equation. For these equations corresponding solution formulas are also derived. In all these cases the solutions are parametrized in terms of matrix data that have to satisfy a certain Sylvester equation.

  6. Know Your Place: Neural Processing of Social Hierarchy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Caroline F.; Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Bassett, Danielle S.; Stein, Jason L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Summary Social hierarchies guide behavior in many species, including humans, where status also has an enormous impact on motivation and health. However, little is known about the underlying neural representation of social hierarchies in humans. In the present study, we identify dissociable neural responses to perceived social rank using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an interactive simulated social context. In both stable and unstable social hierarchies, viewing a superior individual differentially engaged perceptual-attentional, saliency, and cognitive systems, notably dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In the unstable hierarchy setting, additional regions were recruited related to emotional processing (amygdala), social cognition (medial prefrontal cortex), and behavioral readiness. Furthermore, social hierarchical consequences of performance were neurally dissociable and of comparable salience to monetary reward, providing a neural basis for the high motivational value of status. Our results identify neural mechanisms that may mediate the enormous influence of social status on human behavior and health. PMID:18439411

  7. Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru

    2006-07-01

    Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organization of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states; the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierarchical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierarchy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al. [Physica A 217 (1995) 373].

  8. Optimality Conditions and Finite Convergence of Lasserre's Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Jiawang

    2012-01-01

    Lasserre's hierarchy is a sequence of semidefinite relaxations for solving polynomial optimization problems globally. This paper studies the relationship between optimality conditions in nonlinear programming theory and finite convergence of Lasserre's hierarchy. Our main results are: i) Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence when the constraint qualification, strict complementarity and second order sufficiency conditions hold at every global minimizer, under the standard archimedean assumption; ii) these optimality conditions are all satisfied at every local minimizer if a finite set of polynomials, which are in the coefficients of input polynomials, do not vanish at the input data (i.e., they hold in a Zariski open set). This implies that Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence generically.

  9. The multicomponent KP hierarchy: differential Fay identities and Lax equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Lee Peng

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we show that four sets of differential Fay identities of an N-component KP hierarchy derived from the bilinear relation satisfied by the tau function of the hierarchy are sufficient to derive the auxiliary linear equations for the wavefunctions. From this, we derive the Lax representation for the N-component KP hierarchy, which are equations satisfied by some pseudo-differential operators with matrix coefficients. Besides the Lax equations with respect to the time variables proposed in Date et al (1981 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 3806-12), we also obtain a set of equations relating different charge sectors, which can be considered as a generalization of the modified KP hierarchy proposed in Takebe (2002 Lett. Math. Phys. 59 157-72).

  10. Improving the hierarchy sensitivity of ICAL using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmi, Ali; Dev, Abhish; Nizam, Mohammad; Nayak, Nitish; Sankar, S. Uma

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric neutrino experiments can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for any value of δCP . The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory can distinguish between the charged current interactions of νμ and {\\overline ν _π } by determining the charge of the produced muon. Hence it is particularly well suited to determine the hierarchy. The hierarchy signature is more prominent in neutrinos with energy of a few GeV and with pathlength of a few thousand kilometers, i.e. neutrinos whose direction is not close to horizontal. We use adaptive neural networks to identify such events with good efficiency and good purity. The hierarchy sensitivity, calculated from these selected events, is above 3σ level.

  11. Super-Affine Hierarchies and their Poisson Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1998-01-01

    The link between (super)-affine Lie algebras as Poisson brackets structures and integrable hierarchies provides both a classification and a tool for obtaining superintegrable hierarchies. The lack of a fully systematic procedure for constructing matrix-type Lax operators, which makes the supersymmetric case essentially different from the bosonic counterpart, is overcome via the notion of Poisson embeddings (P.E.), i.e. Poisson mappings relating affine structures to conformal structures (in their simplest version P.E. coincide with the Sugawara construction). A full class of hierarchies can be recovered by using uniquely Lie-algebraic notions. The group-algebraic properties implicit in the super-affine picture allow a systematic derivation of reduced hierarchies by imposing either coset conditions or hamiltonian constraints (or possibly both).

  12. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  13. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  14. Integrable Coupling of KN Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fu-Kui; ZHANG Yu-Feng

    2006-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings obtained by our method has not been solved. In this paper, the Hamiltonian structure of the KN hierarchy is obtained by making use of the quadratic-form identity.

  15. Quantifier hierarchies over the first-Order definable tree languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云付

    1996-01-01

    Using Boolean operations and concatenation product w.r.t special trees,quantifier hierarchies are given by way of alternate existential and universal quantifiers for the first-order definable tree languages.

  16. A Lecture on the Hierarchy Problem and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, G

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture we shall briefly review some motivations for physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus our attention on the hierarchy problem and discuss the role of gravity in defining and solving this problem.

  17. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au porphyry in ... process (Fuzzy AHP) that is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making techniques. ... for predictive Mineral prospectively mapping (MPM) for Cu -Au porphyry.

  18. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  19. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  20. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177

  1. Hierarchy in complex systems: the possible and the actual

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that non-adaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace using {\\em in silico} evolved networks.

  2. Trust hierarchy trees applied in team management and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Danilescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling access to data and information within organizations is an important concerntoday and also our aim. This paper is based on the concept of trust, which allows access control andcontrol of actions that can be applied to data and information indocuments held in computer systems.Methods we have used are: defining trust hierarchies applied to team members, data and actions.Results we have obtained are trust policies based on trust hierarchies.

  3. An Improved Semidefinite Programming Hierarchy for Testing Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W.; Natarajan, Anand; Wu, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    We present a stronger version of the Doherty-Parrilo-Spedalieri (DPS) hierarchy of approximations for the set of separable states. Unlike DPS, our hierarchy converges exactly at a finite number of rounds for any fixed input dimension. This yields an algorithm for separability testing that is singly exponential in dimension and polylogarithmic in accuracy. Our analysis makes use of tools from algebraic geometry, but our algorithm is elementary and differs from DPS only by one simple additional collection of constraints.

  4. Low-energy supersymmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Poppitz, E R; Gherghetta, Tony; Jungman, Gerard; Poppitz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    In models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, an anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetry can simultaneously explain the fermion mass hierarchy and the values of the \\mu and B terms. We construct an explicit model where the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the string scale. We show that with our charge assignments, the breaking of the horizontal symmetry generates the correct order of magnitude and correct hierarchy for all Yukawa couplings.

  5. Centrally extended W$_{1+\\infty}$ and the KP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Moras, F; Martinez-Moras, Fernando; Mas, Javier

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the centerless \\W_{1+\\infty} algebra provides a hamiltonian structure for the KP hierarchy. In this letter we address the question whether the centerfull version plays a similar r\\^ole in any related integrable system. We find that, surprisingly enough the centrally extended W_{1+\\infty} algebra yields another Poisson structure for the same standard KP hierarchy. This is proven by explicit construction of the infinitely many new hamiltonians in closed form.

  6. Hamiltonian Structures for the Generalized Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelli, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    We study from a Hamiltonian point of view the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy of equations. From the so called dispersionless Lax representation of these equations we obtain three compatible Hamiltonian structures. The second and third Hamiltonian structures are calculated directly from the r-matrix approach. Since the third structure is not related recursively with the first two ones the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy can be characterized as a truly tri-Hamiltonian system.

  7. Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...

  8. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-10-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P^4 . We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ɛ and η are smaller than one. The value of ɛ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  9. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  10. Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents' bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Lee, Ihno A; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-07-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (defined as within-group variation in individual status) and how they are related to bullying, a widespread form of aggression in schools. Data from 11,296 eighth- and ninth-graders (mean age = 14.57, 50.6 % female) from 583 classes in 71 schools were used to determine the direction of the association between classroom degree of status hierarchy and bullying behaviors, and to investigate prospective relationships between these two variables over a 6-month period. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that higher levels of classroom status hierarchy were concurrently associated with higher levels of bullying at the end of the school year. Higher hierarchy in the middle of the school year predicted higher bullying later in the year. No evidence was found to indicate that initial bullying predicted future hierarchy. These findings highlight the importance of a shared balance of power in the classroom for the prevention of bullying among adolescents.

  11. A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927

  12. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the Guo hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Huan-He; Zhang Ning

    2006-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the multi-component Guo hierarchy, integrable coupling of Guo hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional Guo hierarchy are obtained by the quadraticform identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies.

  13. Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues that to understand international hierarchies, we need to examine not only the type of hierarchy, but also processes of internalization of – and resistance to – hierarchies. We will then discover that many hierarchies are not simply imposed from above, but that subordinate acto...

  14. Social structure in a family group of Guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Ungulate): is female hierarchy based on 'prior attributes' or 'social dynamics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Loreto A; Zapata, Beatriz; Samaniego, Horacio; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    Social life involves costs and benefits mostly associated with how individuals interact with each other. The formation of hierarchies inside social groups has evolved as a common strategy to avoid high costs stemming from social interactions. Hierarchical relationships seem to be associated with different features such as body size, body condition and/or age, which determine dominance ability ('prior attributes' hypothesis). In contrast, the 'social dynamic' hypothesis suggests that an initial social context is a determinant in the formation of the hierarchy, more so than specific individual attributes. Hierarchical rank places individuals in higher positions, which presumably increases resource accessibility to their benefit, including opportunities for reproduction. We evaluate the maintenance of hierarchy in a family group of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the stability of these interactions and their consequences. We estimate the linearity of social hierarchy and their dynamics. We find evidence of the formation of a highly linear hierarchy among females with males positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. This hierarchy is not affected by physical characteristics or age, suggesting that it is established only through intra-group interactions. Rank is not related with calves' weight gain either; however, subordinated females, with lower rank, exhibit higher rates of allosuckling. We found no evidence of hierarchical structure in calves suggesting that hierarchical relationship in guanacos could be established during the formation of the family group. Hence, our results suggest that hierarchical dynamics could be related more to social dynamics than to prior attributes. We finally discuss the importance of hierarchies established by dominance and their role in minimizing social costs of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Hierarchy of Control in the Epidemic of Farm Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; King, Nathan; Koehncke, Niels; Kirychuk, Shelley; Trask, Catherine; Neudorf, Joshua; Day, Lesley; Voaklander, Donald; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy of control (HOC) is a well-established approach to hazard reduction in industrial workplaces. However, it has not been generally applied in farm workplaces. The objective was to determine current practices of farmers in the context of a modified HOC, and the effect of these practices on farm injury outcomes. A self-reported mail survey of 1196 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2013. Selected survey questions were used as proxy measures of the farm owner-operator's practices relevant to each of the six steps of increasing importance in a modified HOC: (1) hazard identification; (2) risk assessment; (3) personal protection; (4) administrative controls; (5) engineering controls; and (6) elimination of the hazard. Analysis used basic descriptive statistics and logistic regression to examine associations of interest. When four of the six HOC steps were adhered to, there was a significant protective effect: odds ratio (OR) = 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.74) for any injury and OR = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.07-0.99) for serious injury in the overall study population. For farm owner-operators utilizing four of the six steps in the modified HOC, there was a significant protective effect for any injury (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.83). Although there is a considerable absence of use of elements of the HOC among farm operators, for farmers who adhere to these steps, there is a significant reduction in their risk for injury. Prevention strategies that embrace the practice of these principles may be effective in the control of farm workplace injury.

  16. Study on Incentive Strategy of Open Education Learners-Based on Maslow’ s Hierarchy of Needs Theory%开放教育学员激励策略研究--以马斯洛层次需求理论为出发点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2016-01-01

    Noticeable differences can be seen from the open education learners ’ purposes and needs of learn-ing.By applying Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory,this paper sets out to analyze the learners’ needs of learning at different levels to stir the learners ’ motivation and interest in learning .%开放教育学员在学习目的、学习需求上存在较大的差异,因此,以马斯洛的层次需求理论为出发点,分析学员不同层次的学习需求,从而能更好的激励学员的学习动力,激发学员的学习兴趣。

  17. Attention to color sharpens neural population tuning via feedback processing in the human visual cortex hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Mandy V; Loewe, Kristian; Merkel, Christian; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Tsotsos, John K; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2017-09-25

    Attention can facilitate the selection of elementary object features like color, orientation, or motion. This is referred to as feature-based attention and commonly attributed to a modulation of the gain and tuning of feature-selective units in visual cortex. While gain mechanisms are well characterized, little is known about the cortical processes underlying the sharpening of feature selectivity. Here, we show with high-resolution magnetoencephalography in human observers (men and women) that sharpened selectivity for a particular color arises from feedback processing in the human visual cortex hierarchy. To assess color selectivity, we analyze the response to a color probe that varies in color-distance from an attended color target. We find that attention causes an initial gain enhancement in anterior ventral extrastriate cortex that is coarsely selective for the target color and transitions within ∼100 ms into a sharper tuned profile in more posterior ventral occipital cortex (VO-1/hV4). We conclude that attention sharpens selectivity over time by attenuating the response at lower levels of the cortical hierarchy to color values neighboring the target in color space. These observations support computational models proposing that attention tunes feature selectivity in visual cortex through backward-propagating attenuation of units less tuned to the target.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTWhether searching for your car, a particular item of clothing, or just obeying traffic lights, in everyday life we must select items based on color. But how does attention allow us to select a specific color? Here, we use high spatiotemporal resolution neuromagnetic recordings to examine how color selectivity emerges in the human brain. We find that color selectivity evolves as a coarse-to-fine process from higher to lower levels within the visual cortex hierarchy. Our observations support computational models proposing that feature selectivity increases over time, by attenuating the

  18. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  19. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.

  20. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Maurer, Vinzenz, E-mail: vinzenz.maurer@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Sluka, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.sluka@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(5)×A{sub 4} flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in (arXiv:1305.6612) – in particular the relation θ{sub 13}{sup PMNS}≃θ{sub C}/√(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.

  2. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  3. Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Maurer, Vinzenz; Sluka, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(5) x A_4 flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in arXiv:1305.6612 - in particular the relation theta_13^PMNS = theta_C / sqrt(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.

  4. Biochemical energetics of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Wittenberger, C

    1988-01-01

    Two different stages of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens were considered. Winners and losers in a short social contact, and dominant and submissive individuals after the establishment of a hierarchy, respectively, were identified. Metabolical determinations (free glucose, glycogen and protein content, glycogen and protein synthesis, glucose and amino acid oxidation, carbohydrate degradation) were performed. Winners and dominant individuals were shown to be able to produce more energy per unit time than losers and submissives, respectively. Differences in energy metabolism between individuals found in different stages of hierarchy formation also occurred: the carbohydrate degradation reached very high values after a short social contact. This is related to the noticed substitution of aggressive encounters with threat displays in the course of cohabitation.

  5. Hierarchy, Violence and Bullying Among Students of Public Middle Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    Full Text Available Abstract Hierarchies established in schools can lead to violence among students, particularly bullying, and this relationship is investigated in this study. A School Hierarchies Scale and a Peer Perception of Aggression Scale were applied to 274 9th grade students, both sexes, aged 14.08 years (SD = 0.81 old on average, attending four public schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The students more frequently perceived to be popular, were among the best in physical education and/or among the worst in academic subjects were also more frequently perceived to be bullies, while those more frequently perceived to be unpopular and having the worst performance in physical education were also more frequently perceived to be victims. Therefore, teachers should reflect upon the issue and fight school violence that may arise from these hierarchies.

  6. Hierarchy in directed random networks: analytical and numerical results

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks has been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and to the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present the analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate the effects of different type of correlations. The behavior of hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of the giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that hierarchy does not change monotonously with the correlations and there is an optimal level of ...

  7. Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...

  8. Equal-Time Hierarchies for Quantum Transport Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, P; Zhuang, Pengfei; Heinz, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    We investigate in the equal-time formalism the derivation and truncation of infinite hierarchies of equations of motion for the energy moments of the covariant Wigner function. From these hierarchies we then extract kinetic equations for the physical distribution functions which are related to low-order energy moments, and show how to determine the higher order moments in terms of these lowest order ones. We apply the general formalism to scalar and spinor QED with classical background fields and compare with the results derived from the three-dimensional Wigner transformation method.

  9. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free......The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant...

  10. Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need

    OpenAIRE

    King-Hill, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critique of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need, a psychological model that often goes unquestioned within the education sector. Examples will be given of the authors own professional practice and experience in relation to the Hierarchy of Need (HON) and discussed in terms of the critique. The paper concludes that whilst some elements of the HON may be useful in education it does have some serious flaws that also need to be considered when applying this to practice. Thi...

  11. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  12. Probing the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We show that a superbeam with an average neutrino energy of ~ 5 GeV, such as those being proposed at CERN, if pointing to Super-Kamiokande (L \\simeq 8770 km), could reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy at 5 sigma in less than two years irrespective of the true hierarchy and CP phase. The measurement relies on the near resonant matter effect in the numu \\rightarrow nue oscillation channel, and can be done counting the total number of appearance events with just a neutrino beam.

  13. Extended (Super-) KP-hierarchies and generalised String equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroufi, B; Sedra, M B

    2000-01-01

    We propose a consistently algebraic formulation of the extended KP (supersymmetric) integrable -hierarchy systems. We exploit the results already established in [14] and which consist in a framework suspected to unify in a fascinating way all the possible supersymmetric KP-hierarchies and then their underlying supergravity theories . This construction leads among other to built explicit non standard integrable Lax evolution equations suspected to reduce to the well known KP integrable equation. We present also a contribution of our construction to the subject of string equation and solitons. Other algebraic properties are also presented

  14. PHC: A Fast Partition and Hierarchy-Based Clustering Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU HaoFeng(周皓峰); YUAN QingQing(袁晴晴); CHENG ZunPing(程尊平); SHI BaiLe(施伯乐)

    2003-01-01

    Cluster analysis is a process to classify data in a specified data set. In this field,much attention is paid to high-efficiency clustering algorithms. In this paper, the features in thecurrent partition-based and hierarchy-based algorithms are reviewed, and a new hierarchy-basedalgorithm PHC is proposed by combining advantages of both algorithms, which uses the cohesionand the closeness to amalgamate the clusters. Compared with similar algorithms, the performanceof PHC is improved, and the quality of clustering is guaranteed. And both the features were provedby the theoretic and experimental analyses in the paper.

  15. Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we claim that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.

  16. Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, A. [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg,Albertstrasse 19, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Mathematics Institute, University of Freiburg,Eckerstrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); ITEP,Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-09

    In this paper we conjecture that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.

  17. Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...

  18. Singular sector of the Burgers-Hopf hierarchy and deformations of hyperelliptic curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yuji [Department of Mathematics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)]. E-mail: kodama@math.ohio-state.edu; Konopelchenko, Boris G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Lecce and Sezione INFN, Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: konopel@le.infn.it

    2002-08-09

    We discuss the structure of shock singularities of the Burgers-Hopf hierarchy. It is shown that the set of singular solutions defines a stratification of the affine space of the flow parameters in the hierarchy. The stratification is associated with the Birkhoff decomposition of the Grassmannian given by the set of linear spaces spanned by the hierarchy. We then construct integrable hierarchy on each stratum and demonstrate that it describes a deformation of a hyperelliptic curve parametrizing the stratum. The hierarchy is called the hidden Burgers-Hopf hierarchy, and we found the Riemann invariant form and the hodograph solution. (author)

  19. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong

    2013-11-01

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  20. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Yue; ZHAO Qiu-Lan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rationed type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  1. Integrable lattice hierarchies associated with two new (2+1)-dimensional discrete spectral problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Dpto. de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong, E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-10-19

    In this Letter, by considering two new (2+1)-dimensional discrete linear spectral problems, new (2+1)-dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies are constructed. It is shown that the two new (2+1)-dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies are extensions (to nonisospectral and (2+1)-dimensional cases) of a (1+1)-dimensional 3-field lattice hierarchy of Zhang et al. and a (1+1)-dimensional 2-field lattice hierarchy due to Merola, Ragnisco and Tu. We also obtain new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral lattice hierarchies which include a nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy.

  2. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2013-11-15

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  3. Research on the Development Characteristics of the Strategy of Children’s Peer Conflict Resolution%幼儿同伴冲突解决策略的发展特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亭亭

    2016-01-01

    同伴冲突解决策略对于幼儿的同伴交往影响深远,相关研究指出有效地解决冲突具有重要意义,幼儿可以在解决同伴冲突的过程中提高社会交往技能。以设置物品争抢、参与活动、言语挑衅、干涉控制等假设冲突故事情境考察幼儿同伴冲突解决策略的发展特点,以及幼儿在不同情境的同伴冲突中解决策略的表现是否存在差异。结果发现幼儿解决冲突的策略以告状和攻击为主,且会受到同伴冲突情境的影响,这种影响在不同年龄、不同性别的幼儿中表现有所不同。%Peer conflict resolution strategy has a profound influence on children’s peer interaction, and the related research shows that effective conflict resolution has a long-term significance. Children can im-prove social interaction skills in the process of resolving peer conflicts. This study which set up four common hypoeses on conflict situations which are goods robbery, verbal provocation, activity participation and inter-ference control, investigates the characteristics of children’s peer conflict resolution strategy in the four con-flict situations, and children’s peer conflict resolution strategy in different situations. The results show that children mainly use plaint and attack strategies, peer conflict situation affected children's peer conflict resolu-tion strategy, the effect on children of different age and gender behave differently.

  4. Using the analytical hierarchy process to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Law of Comparative Judgement (LCJ) are pairwise comparison methods. A large number of observers need to perform an LCJ evaluation in order to get accurate results. LCJ also does not provide an absolute...

  5. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  6. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  7. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter ? Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the hierarchy problem. SUSY enlarges the space-time symmetry of physical laws, by connecting the realms of particles and fields. It predicts a variety of new species of particles at the energy scale around 1 TeV - waiting to be discovered at the LHC.

  8. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  9. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    .e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  10. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    .e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  11. Working with ESL Writers: Turning Up and Down the Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a hierarchy of concerns tutors can use in working with ESL writers. Suggests that the student's understanding of the assignment, development of a thesis, logical organization, and fully developed ideas all supplant minor issues, such as improper use of the definite article or subject/verb agreement. (NB)

  12. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za two……..“ • Scientific method Field Evaluation of Camouflage Uniforms Current techniques: • Cumulative Probability of Detection (Sweden, WTD52) • Sliding Scales (USA) • Law of Comparative Judgment (Thurstone) • Analytic Hierarchy...

  13. Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). ITFA; Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group

    2016-01-15

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET{sub +}, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET{sub +} additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N-jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the most general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.

  14. Optimization of cortical hierarchies with continuous scales and ranges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Krumnack, A.; Wanke, E.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although information flow in the neocortex has an apparent hierarchical organization, there is much ambiguity with respect to the definition of such a hierarchy, particularly in higher cortical regions. This ambiguity has been addressed by utilizing observable anatomical criteria, based upon tract

  15. Dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Min, Luo; Ma, Jingxi

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the model of dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree, as a combination of the dynamic fuzzy theory and the AHP, which can show the changes and trends of the value of each index of professionalization.

  16. Extending the applicability of the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has often been used to support decisions that only have to be made once. in this study, we explore whether the AHP can be applied to repetitive decision-making. We suggest a variant of the process to elicit implicit decision models that evaluate alternatives not

  17. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, J.W.; Orlov, A. Yu.; Shiota, T.

    2012-01-01

    We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981), 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]). We present approp

  18. Evaluating Modeling Sessions Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Proper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, which is methodological in nature, we propose to use an established method from the field of Operations Research, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in the integrated, stakeholder- oriented evaluation of enterprise modeling sessions: their language, pro- cess, tool (medium), and pr

  19. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.

  20. Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-08-01

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e + e - → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N -jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.

  1. Theories of Gender Hierarchy for an Introductory Women's Studies Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbra, Nancy W.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of gender hierarchy are central in an introductory women's studies class. The author wishes to give students an overview of some of the classical feminist theories and also some of the newest thinking. Also, through showing them multiple feminist perspectives, she would like them to learn that there is no single hegemonic feminist view. Her…

  2. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  3. Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…

  4. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur

  5. Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-10-05

    In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.

  6. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  7. Maslow's Need Hierarchy and the Adjustment of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the need hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow is used to describe stages in the adjustment process of new immigrants. This notion is developed and applied to interpreting some longitudinal data on the changing needs of immigrants to Israel during the first two years after their arrival. (Author/GC)

  8. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an "alternative school" in an urban school system for students having trouble in the regular secondary setting. The program was based upon "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and is described in detail. The initial assessment of the program produced very positive results.

  9. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  10. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidire

  11. A Bayesian Generative Model for Learning Semantic Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni eMittelman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy [18], which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet [11] dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.

  12. A Bayesian generative model for learning semantic hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Roni; Sun, Min; Kuipers, Benjamin; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy (Fellbaum, 1998), which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet (Deng et al., 2009) dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.

  13. Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…

  14. The $N=2$ supersymmetric unconstrained matrix GNLS hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorin, A.S.; Kersten, P.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The generalization of the $N=2$ supersymmetric chiral matrix $(k|n,m)$--GNLS hierarchy to the case when matrix entries are bosonic and fermionic unconstrained $N=2$ superfields is proposed. This is done by exhibiting the corresponding matrix Lax--pair representation in terms of $N=2$ unconstrained s

  15. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  16. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  17. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  18. A type of multi-component integrable hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu-Feng; Zhang Yu-Sen

    2004-01-01

    A new isospectral problem is established by constructing a simple interesting loop algebra. A commutation operation of the loop algebra is as straightforward as the loop algebra (A)1. It follows that a type of multi-component integrable hierarchy is obtained. This can be used as a general method.

  19. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  20. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated...

  1. Optimization of cortical hierarchies with continuous scales and ranges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Krumnack, A.; Wanke, E.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although information flow in the neocortex has an apparent hierarchical organization, there is much ambiguity with respect to the definition of such a hierarchy, particularly in higher cortical regions. This ambiguity has been addressed by utilizing observable anatomical criteria, based upon tract t

  2. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  3. QUEST Hierarchy for Hyperspectral Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Ryer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualia exploitation of sensor technology (QUEST motivated architecture using algorithm fusion and adaptive feedback loops for face recognition for hyperspectral imagery (HSI is presented. QUEST seeks to develop a general purpose computational intelligence system that captures the beneficial engineering aspects of qualia-based solutions. Qualia-based approaches are constructed from subjective representations and have the ability to detect, distinguish, and characterize entities in the environment Adaptive feedback loops are implemented that enhance performance by reducing candidate subjects in the gallery and by injecting additional probe images during the matching process. The architecture presented provides a framework for exploring more advanced integration strategies beyond those presented. Algorithmic results and performance improvements are presented as spatial, spectral, and temporal effects are utilized; additionally, a Matlab-based graphical user interface (GUI is developed to aid processing, track performance, and to display results.

  4. Emerging hierarchies in dynamically adapting webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Graewer, Johannes; Magnasco, Marcelo; Modes, Carl

    Transport networks play a key role across four realms of eukaryotic life: slime molds, fungi, plants, and animals. In addition to the developmental algorithms that build them, many also employ adaptive strategies to respond to stimuli, damage, and other environmental changes. We model these adapting network architectures using a generic dynamical system on weighted graphs and find in simulation that these networks ultimately develop a hierarchical organization of the final weighted architecture accompanied by the formation of a system-spanning backbone. We quantify the hierarchical organization of the networks by developing an algorithm that decomposes the architecture to multiple scales and analyzes how the organization in each scale relates to that of the scale above and below it. The methodologies developed in this work are applicable to a wide range of systems including the slime mold physarum polycephalum, human microvasculature, and force chains in granular media.

  5. Retrievals of ethane from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations with updated line parameters: determination of the optimum strategy for the Jungfraujoch station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, W.; Perrin, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Sudo, K.; Yashiro, H.; Gauss, M.; Demoulin, P.; Servais, C.; Mahieu, E.

    2012-04-01

    of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the 3.4 μm region (Bray et al., 2011) will be quantified. The ethane a priori volume mixing ratio (VMR) profile and associated covariance are based on synthetic data from the chemical transport model (CTM) of the University of Oslo. In this contribution, we will present updated ethane total and tropospheric column retrievals, using the SFIT-2 algorithm (v3.91) and high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar absorption observations recorded with a Bruker 120HR instrument, at the high altitude research station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5° N, 8° E, 3580 m asl), within the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, visit http://www.ndacc.org). We will characterize three microwindows encompassing the strongest ethane features after careful selection of a priori VMR profiles, spectroscopic parameters, accounting at best for all interfering species. We will then present the retrieval strategy representative of the best combination of those three characterized micro-windows in order to minimize the fitting residuals while maximizing the information content, the precision and the reliability of the retrieved product. The long-term C2H6 column time series will be produced using the Jungfraujoch observational database. Comparisons with synthetic data produced by two chemical transport model (CHASER and the one of the University of Oslo) will also be presented and analyzed, aiming at the determination and interpretation of long-term trends and interannual variations of ethane at Northern mid-latitudes. Acknowledgments The University of Liège involvement has primarily been supported by the PRODEX program funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office, Brussels and by the Swiss GAW-CH program. E. Mahieu is Research Associate with the F.R.S. - FNRS. The FRS-FNRS and the Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles are further acknowledged for observational activities support. We thank the International

  6. A Hierarchy of New Nonlinear Evolution Equations Associated with a 3 × 3 Matrix Spectral Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Xian-Guo; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    A 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem with three potentials and the corresponding hierarchy of new nonlinear evolution equations are proposed. Generalized Hamiltonian structures for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of trace identity.

  7. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  8. Classical Affine W-Algebras for gl_N and Associated Integrable Hamiltonian Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.; Valeri, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    We apply the new method for constructing integrable Hamiltonian hierarchies of Lax type equations developed in our previous paper to show that all W-algebras W({gl}N, f)} carry such a hierarchy. As an application, we show that all vector constrained KP hierarchies and their matrix generalizations are obtained from these hierarchies by Dirac reduction, which provides the former with a bi-Poisson structure.

  9. An integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)], E-mail: yfajun@163.com; Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-04-13

    In [E.G. Fan, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 6368], Fan present a lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits. In this Letter, we extend this method, by introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, a coupling lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new sequence of combinations of complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable coupling couplings of soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit.

  10. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-09-21

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  11. Visualization and cellular hierarchy inference of single-cell data using SPADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, Benedict; Hart, Tom D P; Bendall, Sean C; Qiu, Peng; Bjornson, Zach; Linderman, Michael; Nolan, Garry P; Plevritis, Sylvia K

    2016-07-01

    High-throughput single-cell technologies provide an unprecedented view into cellular heterogeneity, yet they pose new challenges in data analysis and interpretation. In this protocol, we describe the use of Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events (SPADE), a density-based algorithm for visualizing single-cell data and enabling cellular hierarchy inference among subpopulations of similar cells. It was initially developed for flow and mass cytometry single-cell data. We describe SPADE's implementation and application using an open-source R package that runs on Mac OS X, Linux and Windows systems. A typical SPADE analysis on a 2.27-GHz processor laptop takes ∼5 min. We demonstrate the applicability of SPADE to single-cell RNA-seq data. We compare SPADE with recently developed single-cell visualization approaches based on the t-distribution stochastic neighborhood embedding (t-SNE) algorithm. We contrast the implementation and outputs of these methods for normal and malignant hematopoietic cells analyzed by mass cytometry and provide recommendations for appropriate use. Finally, we provide an integrative strategy that combines the strengths of t-SNE and SPADE to infer cellular hierarchy from high-dimensional single-cell data.

  12. Two New Reformulation Convexification Based Hierarchies for 0-1 MIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Ouzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First, we introduce two new reformulation convexification based hierarchies called RTC and RSC for which the rank d continuous relaxations are denoted by P^RTCd and P^RSCd, respectively. These two hierarchies are obtained using two different convexification schemes: term convexification in the case of the RTC hierarchy and standard convexification in the case of the RSC hierarchy. Secondly, we compare the strength of these two hierarchies. We will prove that (i the hierarchy RTC is equivalent to the RLT hierarchy of Sherali-Adams, (ii the hierarchy RTC dominates the hierarchy RSC, and (iii the hierarchy RSC is dominated by the Lift-and-Project hierarchy. Thirdly, for every rank d, we will prove that convTd∩Etd⊆P^RTCd⊆Td and convSd∩Esd⊆P^RSCd⊆Sd where the sets Td and Sd are convex, while Etd and Esd are two nonconvex sets with empty interior (all these sets depend on the convexification step. The first inclusions allow, in some cases, an explicit characterization (in the space of the original variables of the RLT relaxations. Finally, we will discuss weak version of both RTC and RSC hierarchies and we will emphasize some connections between them.

  13. A Hidden Connection between Lax Descriptions and Superextensions of KdV Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-Jui

    1996-01-01

    A previously unnoticed connection between the Lax descriptions and the superextensions of the KdV hierarchy is presented. It is shown that the two different Lax descriptions of the KdV hierarchy come out naturally from two different bihamiltonian superextensions of the KdV hierarchy. Some implications of this observation are briefly mentioned.

  14. A Hierarchy of Lax Integrable Lattice Equations,Liouville Integrability and a New Integrable Symplectic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    A discrete matrix spectral problem and the associated hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations are presented, and it is shown that the resulting Lax integrable lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems. A new integrable symplectic map is given by binary Bargmann .constraint of the resulting hierarchy.Finally, an infinite set of conservation laws is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  15. Block (or Hamiltonian) Lie Symmetry of Dispersionless D-Type Drinfeld-Sokolov Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Zhong; He, Jing-Song; Su, Yu-Cai

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the dispersionless D-type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, i.e. a reduction of the dispersionless two-component BKP hierarchy, is studied. The additional symmetry flows of this hierarchy are presented. These flows form an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of Block type as well as a Lie algebra of Hamiltonian type.

  16. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-03-14

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  17. Analyzing Learning Hierarchies Relative to Transfer Relationships Within Arithmetic. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert B.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate procedures for validating a learning hierarchy from test data. An initial hierarchy for the computational skills of adding rational numbers with like denominators was constructed using Gagne's task analysis. A test designed to assess mastery at each of the 11 levels in this hierarchy was…

  18. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  19. On the Application of Psychological Theories in Resolution Strategies for Children's Peer Conflicts%幼儿心理理论及其在同伴冲突解决策略中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亭亭; 赵洁

    2012-01-01

    同伴冲突是幼儿社会性发展中的一种正常现象,幼儿心理理论的发展影响幼儿同伴冲突解决策略。通过实地观察和访谈,揭示了幼儿根据彼此的角色与地位、情绪与意图、以往的互动经验选择策略解决冲突,同时为教师提升幼儿同伴冲突解决策略的能力提出了相应建议。%Peer conflict is a normal phenomenon in children' s early social development, and the child psychological theories affect resolution strategies for children' s peer conflicts. Through field observa- tion and interviews, it is found that children choose strategies to resolve peer conflicts, depending on each other's roles and status, mood and intentions, and past interactive experiences. Some corresponding recommendations for teachers to improve children' s resolution strategies for peer conflicts are put forward.

  20. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  1. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Oil Sands Environmental Compliance Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Izak Johannes, III

    Oil companies in Alberta, Canada, invested $32 billion on new oil sands projects in 2013. Despite the size of this investment, there is a demonstrable deficiency in the uniformity and understanding of environmental legislation requirements that manifest into increased project compliance risks. This descriptive study developed 2 prioritized lists of environmental regulatory compliance risks and mitigation strategies and used multi-criteria decision theory for its theoretical framework. Information from compiled lists of environmental compliance risks and mitigation strategies was used to generate a specialized pairwise survey, which was piloted by 5 subject matter experts (SMEs). The survey was validated by a sample of 16 SMEs, after which the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank a total of 33 compliance risks and 12 mitigation strategy criteria. A key finding was that the AHP is a suitable tool for ranking of compliance risks and mitigation strategies. Several working hypotheses were also tested regarding how SMEs prioritized 1 compliance risk or mitigation strategy compared to another. The AHP showed that regulatory compliance, company reputation, environmental compliance, and economics ranked the highest and that a multi criteria mitigation strategy for environmental compliance ranked the highest. The study results will inform Alberta oil sands industry leaders about the ranking and utility of specific compliance risks and mitigations strategies, enabling them to focus on actions that will generate legislative and public trust. Oil sands leaders implementing a risk management program using the risks and mitigation strategies identified in this study will contribute to environmental conservation, economic growth, and positive social change.

  2. Growth of fat slits and dispersionless KP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Zabrodin, A

    2008-01-01

    A "fat slit" is a compact domain in the upper half plane bounded by a curve with endpoints on the real axis and a segment of the real axis between them. We consider conformal maps of the upper half plane to the exterior of a fat slit parameterized by harmonic moments of the latter and show that they obey an infinite set of Lax equations for the dispersionless KP hierarchy. Deformation of a fat slit under changing a particular harmonic moment can be treated as a growth process similar to the Laplacian growth of domains in the whole plane. This construction extends the well known link between solutions to the dispersionless KP hierarchy and conformal maps of slit domains in the upper half plane and provides a new, large family of solutions.

  3. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  4. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Óscar Lasso; Ortín, Tomás

    2016-10-01

    We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.

  6. The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andino, Oscar Lasso

    2016-01-01

    We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.

  7. Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grabinski, André M

    2012-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions, the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang-Baxter algebra an infinite hierarchy of comuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a TQ-equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed.

  8. Investigating a Hierarchy of Students’ Interpretations of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Aoyama

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyse qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information is the key task of statistical literacy in the 21st century. Although several studies have focussed on critical evaluation of statistical information, this aspect of research has not been clearly conceptualised as yet. This paper presents a hierarchy of the graphical interpretation component of statistical literacy. 175 participants from different educational levels (junior high school to graduate students responded to a questionnaire and some of them were also interviewed. The SOLO Taxonomy was used for coding the students’ responses and the Rasch model was used to clarify the construction of the hierarchy. Five different levels of interpretations of graphs were identified: Idiosyncratic, Basic graph reading, Rational/Literal, Critical, and Hypothesising and Modelling. These results will provide guidelines for teaching statistical literacy.

  9. Weight hierarchies of linear codes satisfying the almost chain condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The weight hierarchy of a linear [n, k; q] code C over GF(q) is the sequence (d1, d2,…,dk) where dr is the size of the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. An [n, k; q] codehas dimension r and support of size dr for all r. Further, C satisfies the almost chain condition ifit does not satisfy the chain condition, but there exist subcodes Dr of dimension r and support offor a sequence to be the weight hierarchy of a code satisfying the almost chain condition is given.Further, explicit constructions of such codes are given, showing that in almost all cases, the necessaryconditions are also sufficient.

  10. Factorization and Resummation for Generic Hierarchies between Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2016-01-01

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET$_+$, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET$_+$ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlat...

  11. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, S H; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from the core-collpse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative and model-independent interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to the neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed.

  12. Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Boeckx

    Full Text Available This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i the (biological problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric' variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

  13. Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric') variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

  14. Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.

  15. A hierarchy of cosmic compact objects - without black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, J

    2006-01-01

    We make the case for the existence of a, hitherto unknown and unobserved, hierarchy of ever more compact cosmic objects in the universe. This hypothesis is based on i) the assumption of "elementary" particle sub-constituents on several levels below the presently known, inspired by Glashow's "blooming desert", ii) the existence of nearly scale-invariant density fluctuations in the early universe, e.g. as predicted by inflationary models, iii) our own previous theoretical work showing that a class of objects considerably more compact than previously thought possible in astrophysics can exist. We also give several independent arguments strongly pointing towards the non-existence of black holes. Some brief suggestions on observational signals due to the hierarchy, both in collected astronomical data and in possible future observations, concludes the paper.

  16. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process for Ecological Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radionovs Andrejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being able to evaluate risks is an important task in many areas of human activity: economics, ecology, etc. Usually, environmental risk assessment is carried out on the basis of multiple and sometimes conflicting factors. Using multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methodology is one of the possible ways to solve the problem. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP is one of the most commonly used MCDM methods, which combines subjective and personal preferences in the risk assessment process. However, the AHP involves human subjectivity, which introduces vagueness type of uncertainty and requires the use of decision making under those uncertainties. In this paper, work with uncertainty is considered using fuzzy-based techniques. The paper also analyses the ecological risk assessment towards human health in case of gaseous substance escape at a chemical factory using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process.

  17. Scales and hierarchies in warped compactifications and brane worlds

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolfe, O; Wolfe, Oliver De; Giddings, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    Warped compactifications with branes provide a new approach to the hierarchy problem and generate a diversity of four-dimensional thresholds. We investigate the relationships between these scales, which fall into two classes. Geometrical scales, such as thresholds for Kaluza-Klein, excited string, and black hole production, are generically determined soley by the spacetime geometry. Dynamical scales, notably the scale of supersymmetry breaking and moduli masses, depend on other details of the model. We illustrate these relationships in a class of solutions of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual fluxes. After identifying the geometrical scales and the resulting hierarchy, we determine the gravitino and moduli masses through explicit dimensional reduction, and estimate their value to be near the four-dimensional Planck scale. In the process we obtain expressions for the superpotential and Kahler potential, including the effects of warping. We identify matter living on certain branes to be effectivel...

  18. The analytic hierarchy process in decisionmaking for caprine health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, M; Pérez, P; Oviedo, P; Sotomayor, G; Abalos, P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision-making when planning animal health programmes, by assigning priorities to issues of concern to producers in Chile's main goat production region. This process allows a multi-criteria approach to problems, by analysing and ranking them in a hierarchical structure. Industry experts have highlighted the following animal health and disease control criteria: acceptance by breeders of disease control measures; impact of specific diseases on regional animal trade; the cost and efficacy of control measures; a decrease in flock production; and the impact of caprine diseases on human public health. Using these criteria in the AHP, the study found that the most important impacts were on human public health and on the animal trade. The disease priorities were tuberculosis, brucellosis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, due mainlyto their zoonotic impact. The analytic hierarchy process proved useful when several criteria were involved in public health issues.

  19. Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process multicriteria and Geographical information system for coastal vulnerability analysis in Morocco: The case of Mohammedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahri, Meryem; Maanan, Mohamed; Hakdaoui, Mustapha

    2016-04-01

    This paper shows a method to assess the vulnerability of coastal risks such as coastal erosion or submarine applying Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and spatial analysis techniques with Geographic Information System (GIS). The coast of the Mohammedia located in Morocco was chosen as the study site to implement and validate the proposed framework by applying a GIS-FAHP based methodology. The coastal risk vulnerability mapping follows multi-parametric causative factors as sea level rise, significant wave height, tidal range, coastal erosion, elevation, geomorphology and distance to an urban area. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process methodology enables the calculation of corresponding criteria weights. The result shows that the coastline of the Mohammedia is characterized by a moderate, high and very high level of vulnerability to coastal risk. The high vulnerability areas are situated in the east at Monika and Sablette beaches. This technical approach is based on the efficiency of the Geographic Information System tool based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to help decision maker to find optimal strategies to minimize coastal risks.

  20. Stakeholder prioritization of zoonoses in Japan with analytic hierarchy process method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadohira, M; Hill, G; Yoshizaki, R; Ota, S; Yoshikawa, Y

    2015-05-01

    There exists an urgent need to develop iterative risk assessment strategies of zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study is to develop a method of prioritizing 98 zoonoses derived from animal pathogens in Japan and to involve four major groups of stakeholders: researchers, physicians, public health officials, and citizens. We used a combination of risk profiling and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Profiling risk was accomplished with semi-quantitative analysis of existing public health data. AHP data collection was performed by administering questionnaires to the four stakeholder groups. Results showed that researchers and public health officials focused on case fatality as the chief important factor, while physicians and citizens placed more weight on diagnosis and prevention, respectively. Most of the six top-ranked diseases were similar among all stakeholders. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Ebola fever were ranked first, second, and third, respectively.

  1. Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    1992-01-01

    In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhi...

  2. The Hierarchy of Transcriptional Activation: From Enhancer to Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernimmen, Douglas; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    Regulatory elements (enhancers) that are remote from promoters play a critical role in the spatial, temporal, and physiological control of gene expression. Studies on specific loci, together with genome-wide approaches, suggest that there may be many common mechanisms involved in enhancer-promoter communication. Here, we discuss the multiprotein complexes that are recruited to enhancers and the hierarchy of events taking place between regulatory elements and promoters.

  3. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthén potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, B.; Özer, O.; Cançelik, Y.; Koçak, M.

    2000-10-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulthén potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated supersymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of the Hulthén potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  4. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rezai, O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available of object features Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org October 2014 | Volume 8 | Article 132 | 1 COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE Rezai et al. Shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping (Borra et al., 2008). AIP also contains other... of depth and its first and second spatial derivatives. CIP has been proposed to encode these variables (Orban et al., 2006), and they have been the basis for several experimental studies of CIP responses (Sakata et al., Frontiers in Computational...

  5. Encoding Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars with a Nonmonotonic Inheritance Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper shows how DATR, a widely used formal language for lexical knowledge representation, can be used to define an LTAG lexicon as an inheritance hierarchy with internal lexical rules. A bottom-up featural encoding is used for LTAG trees and this allows lexical rules to be implemented as covariation constraints within feature structures. Such an approach eliminates the considerable redundancy otherwise associated with an LTAG lexicon.

  6. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges. PMID:25383900

  7. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo,; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; WANG Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computat...

  8. An Integrable Symplectic Map of a Differential-Difference Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Huan-He; YI Fang-Jiao; SU Jie; LU Guo-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    By choosing a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from the discrete zero curvature equation, and the Hamiltonian structures are built. Through a higher-order Bargmann symmetry constraint, the spatial part and the temporal part of the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs, which we obtained are respectively nonlinearized into a new integrable symplectic map and a finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense.

  9. Hamiltonian Forms for a Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; YANG Hong-Xiang; LU Rong-Wu

    2008-01-01

    A semi-direct sum of two Lie algebras of four-by-four matrices is presented, and a discrete four-by-fore matrix spectral problem is introduced. A hierarchy of discrete integrable coupling systems is derived. The obtained integrable coupling systems are all written in their Hamiltonian forms by the discrete variational identity. Finally, we prove that the lattice equations in the obtained integrable coupling systems are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  10. The double scaling limit method in the Toda hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, L [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, E [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-08-22

    Critical points of semiclassical expansions of solutions to the dispersionful Toda hierarchy are considered and a double scaling limit method of regularization is formulated. The analogues of the critical points characterized by the strong conditions in the Hermitian matrix model are analysed and the property of doubling of equations is proved. A wide family of sets of critical points is introduced and the corresponding double scaling limit expansions are discussed.

  11. Application of Fuzzy QFD to Aircraft Top Hierarchy Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-xi; SONG Bi-feng; LIU Dong-xia

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, the Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD) theory and the step-by-step hierarchy structure in aircraft top decision design are studied. The fuzzy model for computing competitive factor in evaluation is presented.The decision of key technologies for improving the performance and affordability of a fixed-wing aircraft is studied using the model, and the result proves the feasibility of this model.

  12. Decision support for information systems management: applying analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision making. AHP can be applied if the decision problem includes multiple objectives, conflicting criteria, incommensurable units, and aims at selecting an alternative from a known set of alternatives. ...

  13. Varying and inverting the mass hierarchy in collisional energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC give access to the medium-induced suppression patterns of heavy-flavored single inclusive hadron spectra at high transverse momentum. This opens novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of the medium produced in the collision. In this note, we point out that the capacity of a QCD medium to absorb the recoil of a partonic projectile is an independent signature, which may differ for different media at the same density. In particular, while the mass hierarchy (i.e., the projectile mass dependence) of radiative energy loss depends solely on a property of the projectile, the mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss depends significantly on properties of the medium. By varying these properties in a class of models, we find that the mass hierarchy of collisional parton energy loss can be modified considerably and can even be inverted, compared to that of radiative parton energy loss. This may help to disentangle the relative strengths of radiative and collision...

  14. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship.

  15. Developing a hierarchy of needs for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the concept of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and apply this to Type 1 diabetes. Qualitative methods were employed using semi-structured interviews with 101 people from 13 countries. Grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis, with thematic analysis employed to identify the interviewees' needs. Sixteen needs were identified and links between these were mapped. Aligning these with Maslow's hierarchy allowed for a hierarchy to be developed for Type 1 diabetes with 'Policies', 'Organization of health system', 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin', 'Control', 'Healthcare workers' and 'Information and education' at the base, as they were needed for survival. Next came 'Community, family and peers' and changing roles for 'Healthcare workers' in their approach to care and delivering 'Information and education'. This enabled people to learn how to use 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin' and 'Control' flexibly. People's 'Experience' and 'Personality' then helped them 'Adapt' and 'Be open' about their diabetes, allowing for 'Acceptance' and viewing 'Diabetes as something positive'. Despite limitations, this work highlights that some needs are required for survival and others for well-being. Some are tangible as they can be directly provided, whereas others are intangible and cannot be provided directly by the health system. These results might be used for policy and practice in identifying needs that are met within a health system or what needs are lacking for the individual to then implement targeted interventions. © 2013 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  16. Introducing a Concept Hierarchy for the Journal of Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With this issue of the Journal of Research Practice, we initiate a conceptual framework for thinking and writing about research, defining areas of editorial focus, and indexing work published in the journal. The framework takes the form of a concept hierarchy that offers index terms at three interrelated levels: (1 focus areas for reflection on research practice within which the journal aims to achieve excellence and strengthen its profile and visibility, (2 subject areas relevant to research practice that the journal aims to cover and in terms of which it defines its focus areas, and (3 keywords for capturing the content of research work done in these subject areas or for reflecting and writing about it. Focus areas are characterized by assigned subject areas; subject areas are characterized by assigned keywords. The concept hierarchy is part of a more comprehensive initiative to strengthen the journal's profile and visibility, an initiative that will also include a restructuring of the editorial team and new roles for the journal's dedicated reviewers and active readers. The article introduces an initial version of the concept hierarchy, explains its intended use and further development, and situates it in the larger effort of which it is a part.

  17. Non-degenerate solutions of universal Whitham hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Teo, Lee Peng

    2010-01-01

    The notion of non-degenerate solutions for the dispersionless Toda hierarchy is generalized to the universal Whitham hierarchy of genus zero with $M+1$ marked points. These solutions are characterized by a Riemann-Hilbert problem (generalized string equations) with respect to two-dimensional canonical transformations, and may be thought of as a kind of general solutions of the hierarchy. The Riemann-Hilbert problem contains $M$ arbitrary functions $H_a(z_0,z_a)$, $a = 1,...,M$, which play the role of generating functions of two-dimensional canonical transformations. The solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem is described by period maps on the space of $(M+1)$-tuples $(z_\\alpha(p) : \\alpha = 0,1,...,M)$ of conformal maps from $M$ disks of the Riemann sphere and their complements to the Riemann sphere. The period maps are defined by an infinite number of contour integrals that generalize the notion of harmonic moments. The $F$-function (free energy) of these solutions is also shown to have a contour integral r...

  18. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  19. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.

  20. Inheritance Hierarchy Based Reuse & Reusability Metrics in OOSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reuse and reusability are two major aspects in object oriented software which can be measured from inheritance hierarchy. Reusability is the prerequisite of reuse but both may or may not bemeasured using same metric. This paper characterizes metrics of reuse and reusability in Object Oriented Software Development (OOSD. Reuse metrics compute the extent to which classes have been reused and reusability metrics computes the extent to which classes can be reused. In this paper five new metrics namely- Breadth of Inheritance Tree (BIT, Method Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (MRPIR,Attribute Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (ARPIR, Generality of Class (GC and Reuse Probability (RP have been proposed. These metrics help to evaluate reuse and reusability of object oriented software.Four extensively validated existing object oriented metrics, namely- Depth of Inheritance Tree (DIT, Number of Children (NOC, Method Inheritance Factor (MIF and Attribute Inheritance Factor (AIFhave been selected and investigated for comparison with proposed metrics. All metrics can be computed from inheritance hierarchies and classified according to their characteristics. Further, metrics areevaluated against a case study. These metrics are helpful in comparing alternative inheritance hierarchies at design time to select best alternative, so that the development time and cost can be reduced.

  1. Structural Measures to Track the Evolution of SNOMED CT Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying (Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is an extensive reference terminology with an attendant amount of complexity. It has been updated continuously and revisions have been released semi-annually to meet users’ needs and to reflect the results of quality assurance (QA) activities. Two measures based on structural features are proposed to track the effects of both natural terminology growth and QA activities based on aspects of the complexity of SNOMED CT. These two measures, called the structural density measure and accumulated structural measure, are derived based on two abstraction networks, the area taxonomy and the partial-area taxonomy. The measures derive from attribute relationship distributions and various concept groupings that are associated with the abstraction networks. They are used to track the trends in the complexity of structures as SNOMED CT changes over time. The measures were calculated for consecutive releases of five SNOMED CT hierarchies, including the Specimen hierarchy. The structural density measure shows that natural growth tends to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a more complex state, whereas the accumulated structural measure shows that QA processes tend to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a less complex state. It is also observed that both the structural density and accumulated structural measures are useful tools to track the evolution of an entire SNOMED CT hierarchy and reveal internal concept migration within it. PMID:26260003

  2. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant independ......The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant...... independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free...

  3. Social hierarchy modulates neural responses of empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Li, Zhihao; Feng, Xue; Wang, Lili; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that empathic responses to others' pain are modulated by various situational and individual factors. However, few studies have examined how empathy and underlying brain functions are modulated by social hierarchies, which permeate human society with an enormous impact on social behavior and cognition. In this study, social hierarchies were established based on incidental skill in a perceptual task in which all participants were mediumly ranked. Afterwards, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching inferior-status or superior-status targets receiving painful or non-painful stimulation. The results revealed that painful stimulation applied to inferior-status targets induced higher activations in the anterior insula (AI) and anterior medial cingulate cortex (aMCC), whereas these empathic brain activations were significantly attenuated in response to superior-status targets' pain. Further, this neural empathic bias to inferior-status targets was accompanied by stronger functional couplings of AI with brain regions important in emotional processing (i.e. thalamus) and cognitive control (i.e. middle frontal gyrus). Our findings indicate that emotional sharing with others' pain is shaped by relative positions in a social hierarchy such that underlying empathic neural responses are biased toward inferior-status compared with superior-status individuals. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Amplification of local changes along the timescale processing hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Yaara; Nguyen, Mai; Hasson, Uri

    2017-08-29

    Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural differences between the stories was highly correlated with an area's ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g., sobbing to "crying"). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.

  5. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  6. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resolution Strategy of Hidden Node Collision Based on Collision Indication and Grouping%基于冲突指示和分组隐藏节点冲突解析策略*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李拥军; 谢嵘; 谭晓青

    2014-01-01

    Hidden node problem is an important factor in performance degradation of IEEE 802.15.4 protocol. This paper presents a resolution strategy of hidden collision based on collision indication and grouping. The new strategy, named Hidden Node Collision Detection and Avoidance Strategy (HNCDAS), uses grouping method to divide the CFP of IEEE 802.15.4 protocol into several equal slot cycles and extract the hidden node address information from some damaged frame caused by the hidden conflict. The strategy dynamically adjusts nodes to different competition groups based on currently obtained hidden relationship. The nodes within competitive groups still competitively send messages in accordance with the binary back method in the same period, while different competitive groups send messages in different time slots. As a result, the strategy completely solves the hidden conflict problem. Compared with other hidden node collision resolution strategies, HNCDAS has certain advantages such as less overhead and dynamic adjustment capability. The convergence of the strategy and the maximum time of resolution strategies are also demonstrated in theory. Experimental results show that HNCDAS can significantly improve data transmission rate, throughput and energy efficiency.%隐藏节点问题是导致IEEE 802.15.4协议性能下降的一个重要因素,而在IEEE 802.15.4中没有给出解决该类问题的具体方案.提出一种基于冲突指示和分组的隐藏冲突避免策略(hidden node collision detection and avoid strategy,简称HNCDAS),该策略采用分组方法将IEEE 802.15.4的CAP周期划分为多个等分时隙,从隐藏冲突导致的部分破损帧中提取出隐藏节点地址信息,依据当前获得的隐藏关系动态地将节点调整到相应的竞争组,竞争组内的节点在同一周期内仍按照二进制后退方法竞争发送消息,不同的竞争组在不同的时隙发送消息,从而彻底解决隐藏冲突问题.与其他隐

  8. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  9. Fragment ion diagnostic strategies for the comprehensive identification of chemical profile of Gui-Zhi-Tang by integrating high-resolution MS, multiple-stage MS and UV information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Chen, Lulin; Leng, Jing; Chen, Pinghong; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-09-01

    Gui-Zhi-Tang was considered to be the most famous formula in Shang-Han-Lun, treating 32 symptoms of disease after adding up or cutting down crude drugs. The chemical constituents in Gui-Zhi-Tang were comprehensively studied by rapid resolution liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with rapid resolution liquid chromatography - diode array detector - ion trap mass spectrometry (RRLC-DAD-IT-MS) in this work, and a total number of 187 compounds were detected. Systematic diagnostic ion filtering strategies were recommended for flavonoids and oleanane-type triterpenoids, respectively. On the basis of the summarized strategies, compounds in Glycyrrhizae could be easily classified into flavones, isoflavones, flavanones or chalcones with special structures, and triterpene saponins with different sugar moieties. Consequently, among 187 compounds, 144 ones were confirmed or assumed tentatively. In addition, nine potential novel compounds were reported for the first time. This approach provided a rapid method for characterizing the constituents in Gui-Zhi-Tang, and would be also helpful in other TCM formulae analysis.

  10. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  11. Fusion strategy of multi-resolution image combined with gray level co-occurrence matrix%结合灰度共生矩阵的多分辨率图像融合策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳魁; 黄新生; 徐婉莹

    2012-01-01

    多分辨率图像的融合策略是提升融合图像质量的关键.目前常用的融合策略都没有直接考虑融合图像的纹理信息,根据灰度共生矩阵( GLCM)能较好地反映纹理粗糙度和方向的特点,提出了一种结合灰度共生矩阵的多分辨率图像融合策略.首先计算多分辨率图像的低频和高频部分的灰度共生矩阵,然后将低频图像GLCM的能量和高频图像GLCM的对比度对应作为低频和高频系数选取的活性度量进行图像融合.实验表明,所提出的融合策略与目前常见的融合策略相比,在主观感官和客观评价上都能获得较好的融合效果.%Fusion strategy of multi-resolution image is the key to enhance the quality of integration image. The most commonly used strategies are not directly consider the image texture information. According to GLCM can reflect the characteristics of grain roughness and direction accurately, this paper proposed a fusion strategy of multi-resolution image which combined with GLCM. First,it calculated the GLCM of the low and high frequency part of the multi-resolution image. Then the energy of the low-frequency GLCM and the contrast of the high-frequency GLCM corresponded as activity measure for image fusion to selecte the low and high frequency coefficients. Experiments show that compared to the current common fusion strategy, the proposed method can make fusion effect better through subjective sensory and objective evaluation.

  12. DOT strategies versus orbiter strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope is a high-resolution solar imager coming on-line at La Palma. The definition of the DOT science niche, strategies, and requirements resemble Solar Orbiter considerations and deliberations. I discuss the latter in the light of the former, and claim that multi-line observation

  13. A consistent hierarchy of generalized kinetic equation approximations to the master equation applied to surface catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang

    2015-06-21

    We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.

  14. Strategies for improving the resolution of electrical and electromagnetic geophysical measurements for three-dimensional inverse modeling of CO2 movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, M.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Dafflon, B.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is being evaluated as a means to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts are underway to identify adequate reservoirs and to evaluate the behavior of injected CO2 over time; time-lapse geophysical methods are considered effective tools for these purposes. Pilot studies have shown that the invasion of CO2 into a background pore fluid can alter the electrical resistivity, with increases from CO2 in the super-critical or gaseous phase, and decreases from CO2 dissolved in groundwater (especially when calcite dissolution is occurring). Because of their sensitivity to resistivity changes, electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods have been used in such studies for indirectly assessing CO2 saturation changes. While the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) method is a well-established technique for both crosswell and surface applications, its usefulness is limited by the relatively low-resolution information it provides. Controlled-source EM methods, including both frequency-domain and time-domain (transient EM) methods, can offer improved resolution. We report on three studies that aim to maximize the information content of electrical and electromagnetic measurements in inverse modeling applications that target the monitoring of resistivity changes due to CO2 migration and/or leakage. The first study considers a three-dimensional crosswell data set collected at an analogue site used for investigating CO2 distribution and geochemical reactivity within a shallow formation. We invert both resistance and phase data using a gradient-weighting method for descent-based inversion algorithms. This method essentially steers the search direction in the model space using low-cost non-linear conjugate gradient methods towards the more computationally expensive Gauss-Newton direction. The second study involves ERT data that were collected at the SECARB Cranfield site near Natchez, Mississippi, at depths exceeding 3000 m. We employ a

  15. A single marker choice strategy in simultaneous characterization and quantification of multiple components by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhangchi; Liu, Zhenli; Song, Zhiqian; Zhao, Siyu; Dong, Yunzhuo; Zeng, Honglian; Shu, Yisong; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-05-30

    Single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) method has been accepted as an efficient technique for the quality control of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), especially for overcoming the shortage of reference standards. HPLC-UV methods have been applied to establish SSDMC method for quantitative analysis in several plant medicines and Chinese patent medicines, however, no LC-MS methods have been used. The purpose of this study is to put forward an improved strategy for the choice of single marker in SSDMC using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS). Five different Panax genus plants, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia 2015 edition, were used as research subjects. An improved SSDMC strategy for simultaneous characterization and determination of 18 bioactive saponins in five Panax plants was put forward, and which was validated to be more superior. Then, it was fully investigated with respect to linearity, LODs, LOQs, precision and accuracy. Coupling with multivariate statistical analysis, the established and validated SSDMC strategy could be successively used in discrimination of the five Panax genus plants.

  16. A STUDY ON THE HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi

    Compared to the late 20th century, the Japanese construction industry has drastically changed its business methodology, outlook and approach in response to global issues and the incredible advances in technology. Such influences, non-exhaustively include the; WTO Government procurement agreement, updating conditions of tendering and contracting, client demands for cost reduction and the rapid penetration of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) into modern society. These days, the significance of controlling Quality, Cost and Time (the so-called QCT) has been recognized as an eternal-triangle by almost all countries, Government organizations and the private sector. However, as the construction industry is exposed to , and influenced by, more and more internal and external dynamic factors, continued reliance on managing and controlling QCT elements on their own is no longer adequate in meeting the growing demands and expectations, and as such control of additional management elements is now essential to avoid problems, or minimize their potential impacts should they occur. This paper utilizes the results of a survey carried out amongst construction managers and consultants in Japan and overseas to develop a spatial network that defines the interaction of management factors as a weighted graphical model. The calculated closeness centrality index of the developed management network model is adopted to identify the initialelement hierarchy, which is then further analyzed using the minimum distance of independent relationships of management elements (Warshall-Floyd algorism methodology), to identify the optimum potential hierarchy for effective construction management. A key result of the analysis is the significance of "Human Resource" in the construction industry management element hierarchy alongside the traditional QCT elements.

  17. Knowledge, expectations, and inductive reasoning within conceptual hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. Cognition 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the "basic" level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine relations between knowledge of concepts at different hierarchical levels, expectations about conceptual coherence, and inductive inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 5- and 8-year-olds and adults listed features of living kind (Experiments 1 and 2) and artifact (Experiment 2) concepts at different hierarchical levels (e.g. plant, tree, oak, desert oak), and also rated the strength of generalizations to the same concepts. For living kinds, the level that showed a relative advantage on these two tasks differed; the greatest increase in features listed tended to occur at the life-form level (e.g. tree), whereas the greatest increase in inductive strength tended to occur at the folk-generic level (e.g. oak). Knowledge and induction also showed different developmental trajectories. For artifact concepts, the levels at which the greatest gains in knowledge and induction occurred were more varied, and corresponded more closely across tasks. In Experiment 3, adults reported beliefs about within-category similarity for concepts at different levels of animal, plant and artifact hierarchies, and rated inductive strength as before. For living kind concepts, expectations about category coherence predicted patterns of inductions; knowledge did not. For artifact concepts, both knowledge and expectations predicted patterns of induction. Results suggest that beliefs about conceptual coherence play an important role in guiding inductive inference, that this role may be largely independent of specific knowledge of concepts, and that such beliefs are especially important in reasoning about living kinds.

  18. FIXING THE ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY IN ANCIENT GREEK EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe

  19. CAUSAL INFERENCE WITH A GRAPHICAL HIERARCHY OF INTERVENTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitser, Ilya; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification. This fragmentation makes it unnecessarily difficult to determine if a given parameter is identified (and in what model), and what assumptions must hold for this to be the case. This, in turn, complicates the development of estimation theory and sensitivity analysis procedures. In this paper, we give a unifying view of a large class of causal effects of interest, including novel effects not previously considered, in terms of a hierarchy of interventions, and show that identification theory for this large class reduces to an identification theory of random variables under interventions from this hierarchy. Moreover, we show that one type of intervention in the hierarchy is naturally associated with queries identified under the Finest Fully Randomized Causally Interpretable Structure Tree Graph (FFRCISTG) model of Robins (via the extended g-formula), and another is naturally associated with queries identified under the Non-Parametric Structural Equation Model with Independent Errors (NPSEM-IE) of Pearl, via a more general functional we call the edge g-formula. Our results motivate the study of estimation theory for the edge g-formula, since we show it arises both in mediation analysis, and in settings where treatment assignment has unobserved causes, such as models associated with Pearl's front-door criterion.

  20. Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1992-01-01

    In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhiezer function is given by a (generalized) Airy function.