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Sample records for hierarchy ratings self-report

  1. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  2. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  3. Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-04-01

    This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Self-Rated Health in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  5. Self-reported adherence rates in glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Olukorede Onakoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nigerian glaucoma patients have an aversion to surgery and often rely on medical therapy to prevent disease progression. For medical therapy to be effective, the drugs have to be used as prescribed. Compliance has been reported to be low in the previous Nigerian studies. Aims: To evaluate the adherence rates of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients on medical therapy using patient self-report. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional design was used to assess consecutive POAG patients attending a glaucoma clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Self-reported adherence was evaluated by trained interviewers. Comprehensive clinical assessment including intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, visual field assessment, and dilated binocular funduscopy using the slit lamp and + 78D fundus lens was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using MedCalc Statistical Software. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients reported adherence rates ranging from 10% to 100% with a mean adherence rate of 82.33% ± 19.25%. Only 31 respondents (27.2% reported 100% adherence. Duration of the disease was the only significant factor on multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The development of strategies to improve compliance and persistence in glaucoma patients is crucial for the reduction of disease progression and blindness.

  6. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  7. Associations between Birth Order and Personality Traits: Evidence from Self-Reports and Observer Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Tyrone; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Sulloway (1996) proposed that personality traits developed in childhood mediate the association of birth order with scientific radicalism. Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in three studies. Self-reports on brief measures of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness in a national sample (N= 9664) were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in an adult sample (N= 612) ...

  8. Self-reported "worth it" rating of aesthetic surgery in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Mark C; Cavale, Naveen

    2012-12-01

    A wide variety of surveys have been used to validate the satisfaction of patients who underwent aesthetic surgery. However, such studies are often limited by patient number and number of surgeons. Social media now allows patients, on a large scale, to discuss and rate their satisfaction with procedures. The views of aesthetic procedures patients expressed in social media provide unique insight into patient satisfaction. The "worth it" percentage, average cost, and number of respondents were recorded on October 16, 2011, for all topics evaluated on the aesthetic procedure social media site www.realself.com . Procedures were divided into categories: surgical, liposuction, nonsurgical, and dental. For each group, procedures with the most respondents were chosen and ordered by "worth it" score. A literature search was performed for the most commonly rated surgical procedures and the satisfaction rates were compared. A total of 16,949 evaluations of 159 aesthetic surgery topics were recorded. A correlation between cost of the procedure and percentage of respondents indicating that the procedure was "worth it" was not found. The highest-rated surgical procedure was abdominoplasty, with 93 % of the 1,589 self-selected respondents expressing that abdominoplasty was "worth it." The average self-reported cost was $8,400. The highest-rated nonsurgical product was Latisse, with 85 % of 231 respondents reporting it was "worth it" for an average cost of $200. The satisfaction scores in the literature for commonly rated surgical procedures ranged from 62 to 97.6 %. No statistically significant correlations between literature satisfaction scores and realself.com "worth it" scores were found. Abdominoplasty had the highest "worth it" rating among aesthetic surgical procedures. Aesthetic surgeons should be wary that satisfaction scores reported in the literature might not correlate with commonly achieved results. Social media has opened a new door into how procedures are

  9. Associations between informant ratings of personality disorder traits, self-reports of personality, and directly observed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C

    2018-03-02

    Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age  = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the

  10. Parent and Self-Report Ratings on the Perceived Levels of Social Vulnerability of Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Emma; Fisher, Marisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The current study took a multi-informant approach to compare parent to self-report ratings of social vulnerability of adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants included 102 pairs of adults with WS and their parents. Parents completed the "Social Vulnerability Questionnaire" and adults with WS completed an adapted version of the…

  11. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-leased medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, H. T.

    Purpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own performances in

  12. Self-reported competency ratings of graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); H.M. van der Molen

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To study the self-reports of professional competencies by graduates of a problem-based medical curriculum. Method. All graduates from a medical school and a faculty of health sciences with a problem-based curriculum were sent a questionnaire asking them to compare their own

  13. Are self-report scales as effective as clinician rating scales in measuring treatment response in routine clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Walsh, Emily; Friedman, Michael; Boerescu, Daniela A; Attiullah, Naureen

    2018-01-01

    Recent treatment guidelines have suggested that outcome should be measured in routine clinical practice. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we compared three self-report scales of depressive symptoms and the two most widely used clinician administered scales in treatment studies in their sensitivity to change and evaluation of treatment response in depressed patients treated in routine practice. At baseline and 4-month follow-up 153 depressed outpatients with DSM-IV MDD completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-report version (QIDS-SR), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The patients were rated on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On each scale treatment response was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in scores from baseline. While there were some differences in the percentage of patients considered to be responders on the different scales, a large effect size was found for each scale, with little variability amongst the scales. The level of agreement between the three self-report scales and the clinician rating scales was approximately the same LIMITATIONS: The present study was conducted in a single clinical practice in which the majority of the patients were white, female, and had health insurance. When measuring outcome in clinical practice the magnitude of change in depressive symptoms is as great on self-report scales as on clinician rating scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the Accuracy of Self-Report Versus Informant-Report Using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lisa; Liljequist, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD. Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index - Working Memory Index (VCI - WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index - Processing Speed Index (POI - PSI) scaled scores. Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI - WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  16. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  17. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  18. Plastic surgeons' self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wendy Ky; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted.

  19. Continuity Between Interview-Rated Personality Disorders and Self-Reported DSM-5 Traits in a Danish Psychiatric Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Anderson, Jaime; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Section III offers an alternative model for the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs), including 25 pathological personality trait facets organized into 5 trait domains. To maintain continuity with the categorical PD...... diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated...... showed that, overall, the interview-rated DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with expected self-reported Section III traits. Results also supported the addition of facets not included in the proposed Section III PD criteria. These findings partly underscore the continuity between...

  20. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  1. Residents' Ratings of Their Clinical Supervision and Their Self-Reported Medical Errors: Analysis of Data From 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, DeWitt C; Daugherty, Steven R; Ryan, Patrick M; Yaghmour, Nicholas A; Philibert, Ingrid

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors and patient safety are major concerns for the medical and medical education communities. Improving clinical supervision for residents is important in avoiding errors, yet little is known about how residents perceive the adequacy of their supervision and how this relates to medical errors and other education outcomes, such as learning and satisfaction. We analyzed data from a 2009 survey of residents in 4 large specialties regarding the adequacy and quality of supervision they receive as well as associations with self-reported data on medical errors and residents' perceptions of their learning environment. Residents' reports of working without adequate supervision were lower than data from a 1999 survey for all 4 specialties, and residents were least likely to rate "lack of supervision" as a problem. While few residents reported that they received inadequate supervision, problems with supervision were negatively correlated with sufficient time for clinical activities, overall ratings of the residency experience, and attending physicians as a source of learning. Problems with supervision were positively correlated with resident reports that they had made a significant medical error, had been belittled or humiliated, or had observed others falsifying medical records. Although working without supervision was not a pervasive problem in 2009, when it happened, it appeared to have negative consequences. The association between inadequate supervision and medical errors is of particular concern.

  2. Can Mindful Parenting Be Observed? Relations between Observational Ratings of Mother-Youth Interactions and Mothers’ Self-Report Mindful Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Geier, Mary H.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high and low mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well six composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth. PMID:25844494

  3. Oral health-related quality of life in youth receiving cleft-related surgery: self-report and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.

  4. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  5. Does a variation in self-reported physical activity reflect variation in objectively measured physical activity, resting heart rate, and physical fitness? Results from the Tromso study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emaus, Aina; Degerstrøm, Jorid; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and objectively measured PA, resting heart rate, and physical fitness. METHODS: During 2007-08, 5017 men and 5607 women aged 30-69 years attended the sixth survey of the Tromsø study. Self-reported PA during leisure......-time and work were assessed and resting heart rate was measured. In a sub-study, the activity study, PA (Actigraph LLC) and physical fitness (VO₂(max)) were objectively measured among 313 healthy men and women aged 40-44 years. RESULTS: Self-reported leisure PA was significantly correlated with VO₂(max) (ml...... women than men met the international recommendations of 10,000 step counts/day (27% vs. 22%) and the recommendation of at least 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous intensities (30% vs. 22 %). CONCLUSIONS: The Tromsø physical activity questionnaire has acceptable validity and provides valid estimates...

  6. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  7. Advancing the Multi-Informant Assessment of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: Child Self-Report in Relation to Parent and Teacher Ratings of SCT and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Belén; Servera, Mateu; Burns, G Leonard; Becker, Stephen P

    2018-04-27

    Despite increasing interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in children and advancements in its measurement, little research has examined child self-reported SCT. Child self-report of SCT is important for the multi-informant assessment of SCT. The current study used a large, school-based sample of children and a multi-informant design to examine child self-reported SCT using the Child Concentration Inventory - Version 2 (CCI-2) which was recently revised based on meta-analytic findings and parallels the item content of validated parent and teacher rating scales. The study involved 2142 unique children (ages 8-13 years, 50.51% males). Children (n = 1980) completed measures of SCT, loneliness, and preference for solitude. Mothers (n = 1648), fathers (n = 1358), and teachers (n = 1773) completed measures of SCT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-IN (ADHD-IN), academic impairment, social impairment, and conflicted shyness. Children's self-reported SCT demonstrated good reliability with the 15 SCT symptoms showing moderate to strong loadings on the SCT factor. The child self-report SCT factor also showed moderate convergent validity with mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT. In addition, higher child-reported SCT predicted greater mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's academic impairment even after controlling for mother, father, and teacher ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. Higher child-rated SCT also predicted greater mother ratings of children's social impairment after controlling for mother ratings of children's SCT and ADHD-IN. The present study provides initial empirical support for the reliability and validity of child-reported SCT as part of the multi-informant assessment of SCT. A key direction for future research includes evaluating the unique contributions of different informants and their utility within specific contexts to guide evidence-based recommendations for assessing SCT.

  8. Incremental Validity of Spouse Ratings versus Self-Reports of Personality as Predictors of Marital Quality and Behavior during Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…

  9. Legislating child restraint usage -Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Ravindran, Karthik; Guse, Clare E

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of the newly enacted child passenger safety law, Wisconsin Act 106, on self-report of proper restraint usage of children in Milwaukee's central city population. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used. The settings used were (a) a pediatric urban health center, and (b) two Women, Infants and Children offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Participants included 11,566 surveys collected over 18 months that spanned the pre-legislation and post-legislation time periods from February 2006 through August 2008. The study set out to assess appropriate child passenger restraint. The results showed that the changes in adjusted proper restraint usage rates for infants between the pre-law, grace period, and post-fine periods were 94%, 94%, and 94% respectively. For children 1-3years old, the adjusted proper usage rates were 65%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. And for children 4-7years old, the rates were 43%, 44% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant increase in premature booster seat use in children who should have been restrained in a rear- or forward-facing car seat (10% pre-law, 12% grace period, 20% post-fine; padvertising and marketing to the correct age group, ease of installation, and mechanisms to prevent incorrect safety strap and harness placement. To ensure accurate and consistent use on every trip, car seat manufacturers must ensure that best practice recommendations for use as well as age, weight, and height be clearly specified on each child restraint. The authors support the United States Department of Transportation's new consumer program that will assist caregivers in identifying the child seat that will fit in their vehicle. In addition, due to the increase in premature graduation of children into belt-positioning booster seats noted as a result of legislation, promoting and marketing booster seat use for children less than 40 pounds should not be accepted. Child passenger safety technicians must continue to promote best

  10. A meta-analytic review of self-reported, clinician-rated, and performance-based motivation measures in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the same "stuff"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2018-04-07

    An array of self-reported, clinician-rated, and performance-based measures has been used to assess motivation in schizophrenia; however, the convergent validity evidence for these motivation assessment methods is mixed. The current study is a series of meta-analyses that summarize the relationships between methods of motivation measurement in 45 studies of people with schizophrenia. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.27, k = 33) was significant, positive, and approaching medium in magnitude, and the overall effect size between performance-based and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.21, k = 11) was positive, significant, and small in magnitude. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and performance-based motivation measures was negligible and non-significant (r = -0.001, k = 2), but this meta-analysis was underpowered. Findings suggest modest convergent validity between clinician-rated and both self-reported and performance-based motivation measures, but additional work is needed to clarify the convergent validity between self-reported and performance-based measures. Further, there is likely more variability than similarity in the underlying construct that is being assessed across the three methods, particularly between the performance-based and other motivation measurement types. These motivation assessment methods should not be used interchangeably, and measures should be more precisely described as the specific motivational construct or domain they are capturing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acquaintance ratings of the Big Five personality traits: incremental validity beyond and interactive effects with self-reports in the prediction of workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Donald H; McLarty, Benjamin D; Bing, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely established that the Big Five personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability are antecedents to workplace deviance (Berry, Ones, & Sackett, 2007). However, these meta-analytic findings are based on self-reported personality traits. A recent meta-analysis by Oh, Wang, and Mount (2011) identified the value of acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of job performance. The current investigation extends prior work by comparing the validities of self- and acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of workplace deviance across 2 studies. We also hypothesized and tested an interactive, value-added integration of self- with acquaintance-reported personality using socioanalytic personality theory (R. T. Hogan, 1991). Both studies assessed self- and acquaintance-rated Big Five traits, along with supervisor-rated workplace deviance. However, the studies varied the measures of workplace deviance, and the 2nd study also included a self-rated workplace deviance criterion for additional comparison. Across both studies, the traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness were strong predictors of workplace deviance, and acquaintance-reported personality provided incremental validity beyond self-reports. Additionally, acquaintance-reported conscientiousness and agreeableness moderated the prediction of workplace deviance by interacting with the corresponding self-reported traits. Implications for personality theory and measurement are discussed along with applications for practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The convergence between self-reports and observer ratings of financial skills and direct assessment of financial capabilities in patients with schizophrenia: more detail is not always better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Stone, Laura; Lowenstein, David; Czaja, Sara J; Heaton, Robert K; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-06-01

    Despite multiple lines of evidence suggesting that people with schizophrenia tend to overestimate their ability to perform everyday tasks such as money management, self-report methods are still widely used to assess functioning. In today's technology driven financial world patients are faced with increasingly complex financial management tasks. To meet these challenges adequate financial skills are required. Thus, accurate assessments of these abilities are critical to decisions regarding a patient's need for support such as a financial trustee. As part of the larger VALERO study, 195 patients with schizophrenia were asked to self-report their everyday financial skills (five common financial tasks) with the Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS). They were also assessed with performance-based measures of neuro-cognition and functional capacity with a focus on financial skills. In addition, a friend, relative, or clinician informant was interviewed with the ILSS and a best estimate rating of functioning was generated. Scores on the performance-based measures of financial skills and neuropsychological tests were uncorrelated with self-reported financial activities. Interviewer and all informant judgments of financial abilities were also minimally correlated with performance on functional skill tests. Discrete financial skills appear to be challenging for clinicians to rate with accuracy without the use of direct assessments. Direct assessment of financial skills seems prudent when making determinations about the need for guardianship or other financial supervision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reported eating rate is associated with weight status in a Dutch population: a validation study and a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Kranendonk, Jentina; van de Wiel, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M; Geelen, Anouk; Mars, Monica

    2017-09-08

    Observational studies performed in Asian populations suggest that eating rate is related to BMI. This paper investigates the association between self-reported eating rate (SRER) and body mass index (BMI) in a Dutch population, after having validated SRER against actual eating rate. Two studies were performed; a validation and a cross-sectional study. In the validation study SRER (i.e., 'slow', 'average', or 'fast') was obtained from 57 participants (men/women = 16/41, age: mean ± SD = 22.6 ± 2.8 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ) and in these participants actual eating rate was measured for three food products. Using analysis of variance the association between SRER and actual eating rate was studied. The association between SRER and BMI was investigated in cross-sectional data from the NQplus cohort (i.e., 1473 Dutch adults; men/women = 741/732, age: mean ± SD = 54.6 ± 11.7 yrs., BMI: mean ± SD = 25.9 ± 4.0 kg/m 2 ) using (multiple) linear regression analysis. In the validation study actual eating rate increased proportionally with SRER (for all three food products P men and women (P = 0.03 and P men; self-reported fast-eating men had a 0.29 kg/m 2 (95% CI -0.22, 0.80) higher BMI compared to average-speed-eating men, after adjusting for confounders. These studies show that self-reported eating rate reflects actual eating rate on a group-level, and that a high self-reported eating rate is associated with a higher BMI in this Dutch population.

  14. Afraid to be there? Evaluating the relation between presence, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate in a virtual public speaking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).

  15. An increased rate of falling leads to a rise in fracture risk in postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis: a prospective multinational cohort study (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogues, Xavier; Javaid, M Kassim; Wyman, Allison; Arden, Nigel K; Azagra, Rafael; Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Compston, Juliet E; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Sambrook, Philip N; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo

    2013-06-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis have increased bone mass but no decrease in fractures. The association between self-reported osteoarthritis and incident falls and fractures was studied in postmenopausal women. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women is a prospective multinational cohort of 60,393 non-institutionalised women aged ≥55 years who had visited primary care practices within the previous 2 years. Questionnaires were mailed at yearly intervals. Patients were classified as having osteoarthritis if they answered yes to the question, 'Has a doctor or other health provider ever said that you had osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease?', and this was validated against primary care records in a subsample. Information on incident falls, fractures and covariates was self-reported. Cox and Poisson models were used for incident fractures and number of falls, respectively, to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios (RRs) for baseline osteoarthritis status. Of 51 386 women followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range 2.1-3.0), 20 409 (40%) reported osteoarthritis. The adjusted HR for osteoarthritis predicting fracture was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.30; pfalls was 1.24 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.26; pfalls (HR 1.06 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; p=0.13)). Postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis have a 20% increased risk of fracture and experience 25% more falls than those without osteoarthritis. These data suggest that increased falls are the causal pathway of the association between osteoarthritis and fractures.

  16. Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Berman

    Full Text Available The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL, with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured.A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200, were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS; dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots.Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77, Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99, Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94 and School (55.8/50.01. Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings

  17. Investigation of accuracy and computation time of a hierarchy of growth rate definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Borg, R.C.; Ott, K.O.

    1977-07-01

    A numerical illustration of the hierarchy of four logically different procedures for the calculation of the asymptotic growth of fast breeder fuel is presented. Each hierarchy level is analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational effort. Using the first procedure as reference, the fourth procedure, which incorporates the isotopic breeding worths, w vector*, requires a minimum amount of effort with a negligible decrease in accuracy

  18. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiyagaito A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the

  19. Accuracy and computational time of a hierarchy of growth rate definitions for breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Borg, R.C.; Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    For a hierarchy of four logically different definitions for calculating the asymptotic growth of fast breeder reactor fuel, an investigation is performed concerning the comparative accuracy and computational effort associated with each definition. The definition based on detailed calculation of the accumulating fuel in an expanding park of reactors asymptotically yields the most accurate value of the infinite time growth rate, γ/sup infinity/, which is used as a reference value. The computational effort involved with the park definition is very large. The definition based on the single reactor calculation of the equilibrium surplus production rate and fuel inventory gives a value for γ/sup infinity of comparable accuracy to the park definition and uses significantly less central processor unit (CPU) time. The third definition is based on a continuous treatment of the reactor fuel cycle for a single reactor and gives a value for γ/sup infinity/ that accurately approximates the second definition. The continuous definition requires very little CPU time. The fourth definition employs the isotopic breeding worths, w/sub i//sup */, for a projection of the asymptotic growth rate. The CPU time involved in this definition is practically nil if its calculation is based on the few-cycle depletion calculation normally performed for core design and critical enrichment evaluations. The small inaccuracy (approx. = 1%) of the breeding-worth-based definition is well within the inaccuracy range that results unavoidably from other sources such as nuclear cross sections, group constants, and flux calculations. This fully justifies the use of this approach in routine calculations

  20. [Effects of Monochord Music on Heart Rate Variability and Self-Reports of Relaxation in Healthy Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Christine; Garrido, Natalia; Koenig, Julian; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Warth, Marco

    Music-based interventions are considered an effective and low-cost treatment option for stress-related symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the trajectories of the psychophysiological response in apparently healthy participants during a music-based relaxation intervention compared to a verbal relaxation exercise. 70 participants were assigned to either receptive live music (experimental group) or a prerecorded verbal relaxation exercise (control group). Self-ratings of relaxation were assessed before and after each intervention on visual analogue scales and the Relaxation Inventory (RI). The heart rate variability (HRV) was continuously recorded throughout the sessions. Statistical analysis focused on HRV parameters indicative of parasympathetic cardiovascular outflow. We found significant quadratic main effects for time on the mean R-R interval (heart rate), the high-frequency power of HRV (indicative of parasympathetic activity), and the self-ratings of relaxation in both groups. A significant group × time interaction was observed for the cognitive tension subscale of the RI. Participants in both groups showed psychophysiological changes indicative of greater relaxation over the course of the interventions. However, differences between groups were only marginal. Music might be effective in relieving stress and promoting relaxation by altering the autonomic nervous system function. Future studies need to explore the long-term outcomes of such interventions. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Self-reported competency--validation of the Norwegian version of the patient competency rating scale for traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Unni; Andelic, Nada; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Røe, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 12 months post-injury. Demographic and injury-related data were registered upon admission to the hospital in 148 TBI patients with mild, moderate, or severe TBI. At 12 months post-injury, competency in activities and global functioning were measured using the PCRS patient version and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Descriptive reliability statistics, factor analysis and Rasch modeling were applied to explore the psychometric properties of the PCRS. External validity was evaluated using the GOSE. The PCRS can be divided into three subscales that reflect interpersonal/emotional, cognitive, and activities of daily living competency. The three-factor solution explained 56.6% of the variance in functioning. The internal consistency was very good, with a Cronbach's α of 0.95. Item 30, "controlling my laughter", did not load above 0.40 on any factors and did not fit the Rasch model. The external validity of the subscales was acceptable, with correlations between 0.50 and 0.52 with the GOSE. The Norwegian version of the PCRS is reliable, has an acceptable construct and external validity, and can be recommended for use during the later phases of TBI.

  2. The self-reported Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale is a useful evaluative tool in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantino Bruno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Patient-reported Outcomes (PROs as secondary endpoints in the development of new antidepressants has grown in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the 9-item, patient-administered version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S. Methods Data from a multicentre, double-blind, 8-week, randomised controlled trial of 278 outpatients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder were used to evaluate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the MADRS-S using psychometric methods. A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve was plotted to identify the most appropriate threshold to define perceived remission. Results No missing values were found at the item level, indicating good acceptability of the scale. The construct validity was satisfactory: all items contributed to a common underlying concept, as expected. The correlation between MADRS-S and physicians' MADRS was moderate (r = 0.54, p Conclusion Taking account of patient's perceptions of the severity of their own symptoms along with the psychometric properties of the MADRS-S enable its use for evaluative purposes in the development of new antidepressant drugs.

  3. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  4. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.

  5. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Brettschneidera, Anna-Kristin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kuhnert, Ronny; Schmidt, Steffen; Wiegand, Susanna; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2015-11-06

    The nationwide "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regularly monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing self-reported height and weight. Since self-reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. The aim of the present study is to obtain updated prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for 11- to 17-year olds living in Germany after correction for bias in self-reports. In KiGGS Wave 1, self-reported height and weight were collected from 4948 adolescents during a telephone interview. Participants were also asked about their body perception. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from self-reports, weight status categories based on self-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure under consideration of body perception. The correction procedure was applied and corrected rates were estimated. The corrected prevalence of overweight, including obesity, derived from KiGGS Wave 1, showed that the rate has not further increased compared to the KiGGS baseline survey (18.9 % vs. 18.8 % based on the German reference). The rates of overweight still remain at a high level. The results of KiGGS Wave 1 emphasise the significance of this health issue and the need for prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

  6. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  7. Depression and anxiety in patients with coronary artery disease, measured by means of self-report measures and clinician-rated instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryś, Joanna M; Bellwon, Jerzy; Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Gruchała, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The presence of depression symptomatology significantly deteriorates the prognosis for the patient. There are many instruments developed to measure depression and anxiety in clinical trials; however, the suitability of the specific scale for screening these disorders in cardiovascular patients is debatable. The aim of current study is to verify which of the major assessment instruments is the most relevant for the screening evaluation of depression and anxiety in patients with cardiovascular system diseases. The sample studied consisted of 120 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). They did not display serious psychiatric or somatic disorders. To assess depressive and anxiety symptoms we used self-reporting measures (BDI-II, HADS, SSAI/STAI, and PHQ), the results of which were compared to results obtained on the basis of a clinician-rating instrument (HRSD). We found that depressive symptoms assessed on the basis of HRSD, BDI-II, and PHQ-9 were equivalent in results, while the results obtained in HADS-D were significantly lower. Anxiety symptoms were found at approximate levels in HADS, SSAI, and GAD-7. The assessment of somatic symptoms in patients with CAD indicates that 87.5% of the subjects reported somatic symptoms of various intensity. Screening assessment of depression in patients with CAD gives different results depending on the tool used. We found that HADS significantly underestimates the percentage of patients with symptoms of depression in patients with CAD. Assessing anxiety symptoms with the aid of HADS gave outcomes close to the results gained by use of other tools.

  8. Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Function in Phenylketonuria: Psychometric Properties of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Inattention Subscale in Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Auguste, Priscilla; Yu, Ren; Zhang, Charlie; Dewees, Benjamin; Winslow, Barbara; Yu, Shui; Merilainen, Markus; Prasad, Suyash

    2015-06-01

    Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, their psychometric attributes for measuring PKU-related inattention have not been established. The primary objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention symptoms subscales in a randomized controlled trial of patients with PKU aged 8 years or older. A post hoc analysis investigated the psychometric properties (Rasch model fit, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness) of the ADHD RS-IV and ASRS inattention subscales using data from a phase 3b, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in those with PKU aged 8 years or older. The Rasch results revealed good model fit, and reliability analyses revealed strong internal consistency reliability (α ≥ 0.87) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.87) for both measures. Both inattention measures demonstrated the ability to discriminate between known groups (P < 0.001) created by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Correlations between the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS with the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale and the age-appropriate Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscale were consistently moderate to strong (r ≥ 0.56). Similarly, results of the change score correlations were of moderate magnitude (r ≥ 0.43) for both measures when compared with changes over time in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory subscales. These findings of reliability, validity, and responsiveness of both the ADHD RS-IV and the ASRS inattention scales

  9. Associations between self-reported fitness and self-rated health, life-satisfaction and health-related quality of life among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Adilson; Mota, Jorge; Gaspar, Tânia; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the associations between physical fitness (PF) and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aimed to analyse the associations between self-reported PF and self-rated health (SRH), life-satisfaction (LS), and quality of life (QoL). This is a cross-sectional study of 3554 adolescents (1652 boys), aged 13-18, from the HBSC Portuguese survey. PF, health, LS and OoL were self-rated. SRH, LS, and health-related OoL (HRQoL) were significantly and positively correlated with all PF components. From regression model, overall fitness was significantly related with SRH (boys: β = 0.18, p  < 0.001; girls: β = 0.16, p  < 0.001), LS (boys: β = 0.36, p  < 0.001; girls: β = 0.43, p  < 0.001), and HRQoL (boys: β = 2.26, p  < 0.001; girls: β = 2.54, p  < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was also positively and significantly related with SRH (boys: β = 0.17, p  < 0.001; girls: β = 0.11, p  < 0.001), LS (boys: β = 0.13, p  < 0.05; girls: β = 0.31, p  < 0.001), and HRQoL (boys: β = 1.74, p  < 0.001; girls: β = 1.57, p  < 0.001). These findings suggest that perceived PF is associated with a better SRH, LS, and perceived HRQoL. A few implications regarding public policies were highlighted.

  10. How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2017-11-27

    Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.

  11. Yarn supplier selection using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and standardized unitless rating (SUR) method on textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfaisalsyah, M. H.; Mansur, A.; Khasanah, A. U.

    2017-11-01

    For a company which engaged in the textile field, specify the supplier of raw materials for production is one important part of supply chain management which can affect the company's business processes. This study aims to identify the best suppliers of raw material suppliers of yarn for PC. PKBI based on several criteria. In this study, the integration between the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Standardized Unitless Rating (SUR) are used to assess the performance of the suppliers. By using AHP, it can be known the value of the relative weighting of each criterion. While SUR shows the sequence performance value of the supplier. The result of supplier ranking calculation can be used to know the strengths and weaknesses of each supplier based on its performance criteria. From the final result, it can be known which suppliers should improve their performance in order to create long term cooperation with the company.

  12. The impact of borderline personality disorder and sub-threshold borderline personality disorder on the course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramleth, Ruth-Kari; Groholt, Berit; Diep, Lien M; Walby, Fredrik A; Mehlum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Studies on adults suggest that the presence of comorbid depression and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is associated with an elevated risk of self-harming behaviours and that self-harming behaviours, when present, will have higher severity. This comorbidity, furthermore, complicates clinical assessments, which may be an obstacle to early identification and proper intervention. Adolescents who self-harm frequently report high levels of depressive symptoms, but this is often not reflected in the clinicians' assessment. BPD is still a controversial diagnosis in young people, and less is known about the clinical significance of comorbid BPD in adolescent populations.The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of BPD on the assessment and course of self-reported and clinician-rated depression in self-harming adolescents before and after a treatment period of 19 weeks. We hypothesized that, compared to adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD would self-report higher levels of depression at baseline, and that they would have less reduction in depressive symptoms. A total of 39 adolescents with depressive disorders and BPD-traits participating in a randomised controlled trial on treatment of self-harm with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy adapted for Adolescents or enhanced usual care were included. Adolescents with full-syndrome BPD ( n  = 10) were compared with adolescents with sub-threshold BPD ( n  = 29) with respect to their self-reported and clinician-rated depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and global level of functioning at baseline, and after 19 weeks of treatment (end of trial period). At baseline, adolescents with full-syndrome BPD self-reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with sub-threshold BPD, whereas the two groups were rated as equally depressed by the clinicians. At trial completion, all participants had a significant reduction in suicidal ideation

  13. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  14. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  15. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    projects works in the interface between communication and organisation. Third, the methodological purpose is to show that handling of these participatory hierarchies ought to become a goal in OAR projects to be included along with producing practical and theoretical results. The article argues...

  16. Self-reported Chlamydia testing rates of sexually active women aged 15-25 years in the United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guoyu; Hoover, Karen W; Leichliter, Jami S; Peterman, Thomas A; Kent, Charlotte K

    2012-08-01

    Using the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we estimated a 37.9% annual chlamydia testing rate for sexually active US women aged 15 to 25 years, defined as having ≥ 1 sex partner in the past year. Our results highlight the need for increased testing among sexually active young women.

  17. A Public Database of Immersive VR Videos with Corresponding Ratings of Arousal, Valence, and Correlations between Head Movements and Self Report Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR has been proposed as a methodological tool to study the basic science of psychology and other fields. One key advantage of VR is that sharing of virtual content can lead to more robust replication and representative sampling. A database of standardized content will help fulfill this vision. There are two objectives to this study. First, we seek to establish and allow public access to a database of immersive VR video clips that can act as a potential resource for studies on emotion induction using virtual reality. Second, given the large sample size of participants needed to get reliable valence and arousal ratings for our video, we were able to explore the possible links between the head movements of the observer and the emotions he or she feels while viewing immersive VR. To accomplish our goals, we sourced for and tested 73 immersive VR clips which participants rated on valence and arousal dimensions using self-assessment manikins. We also tracked participants' rotational head movements as they watched the clips, allowing us to correlate head movements and affect. Based on past research, we predicted relationships between the standard deviation of head yaw and valence and arousal ratings. Results showed that the stimuli varied reasonably well along the dimensions of valence and arousal, with a slight underrepresentation of clips that are of negative valence and highly arousing. The standard deviation of yaw positively correlated with valence, while a significant positive relationship was found between head pitch and arousal. The immersive VR clips tested are available online as supplemental material.

  18. Self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value and improved risk classification of self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen...

  19. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  20. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula

  1. Interpersonal Hierarchy Expectation: Introduction of a New Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of studies was to introduce a new individual difference construct, interpersonal hierarchy expectation (IHE), and to show that it predicts interpersonal perception. IHE means expecting social interactions and relationships to be hierarchically structured. I developed a self-report questionnaire to measure IHE (IHE Scale [IHES]). In 5 studies, 581 undergraduates took the IHES together with an array of self-report personality measures. Three studies included a measure o...

  2. Identifying high-functioning dyslexics: is self-report of early reading problems enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S Hélène; Cook, Kathryn; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-07-01

    We used a questionnaire to identify university students with self-reported difficulties in reading acquisition during elementary school (self-report; n=31). The performance of the self-report group on standardized measures of word and non-word reading and fluency, passage comprehension and reading rate, and phonological awareness was compared to that of two other groups of university students: one with a recent diagnosis (diagnosed; n=20) and one with no self-reported reading acquisition problems (comparison group; n=33). The comparison group outperformed both groups with a history of reading difficulties (self-report and diagnosed) on almost all measures. The self-report and diagnosed groups performed similarly on most tasks, with the exception of untimed reading comprehension (better performance for diagnosed) and reading rate (better performance for self-report). The two recruitment methods likely sample from the same underlying population but identify individuals with different adaptive strategies.

  3. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  4. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  5. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  6. Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) Approach on Consumer Decision Making to Stay in Star Rating Hotel in Manado City

    OpenAIRE

    Lapian, S.L.H.V. Joyce; Mokodaser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Hotel has became the new business that developing quickly in Manado. It is happened due to the Manado tourism city program established by the city government which indirectly opening up the opportunities for the growth of hospitality industry in Manado. The purpose of this study is to analyze the criteria hotel that influence consumer and analyze the most star rating hotel chosen by the people. This research held from May until June 2015 in Manado city. The respondent are 30 person with using...

  7. Validation of self-reported erythema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Thieden, E; Lerche, C M

    2013-01-01

    Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data.......Most epidemiological data of sunburn related to skin cancer have come from self-reporting in diaries and questionnaires. We thought it important to validate the reliability of such data....

  8. Self-Report Measures of Family Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family…

  9. On the ILW hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutiya, Y.; Satsuma, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new hierarchy which includes the intermediate long wave (ILW) equation at the lowest order. This hierarchy is thought to be a novel reduction of the 1st modified KP type hierarchy. The framework of our investigation is Sato theory

  10. Self-Report and Psychophysiological Responses to Fear Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonana, Juan R.; Gonzalez-Javier, Francisca; Espin-Lopez, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between self-report and psychophysiological responses to fear appeals and behavioral changes elicited by these. Ninety-two subjects watched one of four messages that varied in level of threat (high vs. low) and efficacy (high vs. low). Concomitantly, psychophysiological measures (heart rate and…

  11. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  12. Speech-based recognition of self-reported and observed emotion in a dimensional space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; van Leeuwen, David A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The differences between self-reported and observed emotion have only marginally been investigated in the context of speech-based automatic emotion recognition. We address this issue by comparing self-reported emotion ratings to observed emotion ratings and look at how differences between these two

  13. The Effect of Response Style on Self-Reported Conscientiousness Across 20 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mõttus, René; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Rossier, Jérôme; Zecca, Gregory; Ah-Kion, Jennifer; Amoussou-Yéyé, Dénis; Bäckström, Martin; Barkauskiene, Rasa; Barry, Oumar; Bhowon, Uma; Björklund, Fredrik; Bochaver, Aleksandra; Bochaver, Konstantin; de Bruin, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Rankings of countries on mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness continue to puzzle researchers. Based on the hypothesis that cross-cultural differences in the tendency to prefer extreme response categories of ordinal rating scales over moderate categories can influence the comparability of self-reports, this study investigated possible effects of response style on the mean levels of self-reported Conscientiousness in 22 samples from 20 countries. Extreme and neutral responding were es...

  14. Self-report measure of financial exploitation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2010-12-01

    this study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by 22 adult protective services investigators from 7 agencies in Illinois to 227 substantiated abuse clients. Analyses included tests for dimensionality, model fit, and additional construct validation. Results from the OAFEM were also compared with the substantiation decision of abuse and with investigators' assessments of FE using a staff report version. Hypotheses were generated to test hypothesized relationships. the OAFEM, including the original 79-, 54-, and 30-item measures, met stringent Rasch analysis fit and unidimensionality criteria and had high internal consistency and item reliability. The validation results were supportive, while leading to reconsideration of aspects of the hypothesized theoretical hierarchy. Thresholds were suggested to demonstrate levels of severity. the measure is now available to aid in the assessment of FE of older adults by both clinicians and researchers. Theoretical refinements developed using the empirically generated item hierarchy may help to improve assessment and intervention.

  15. Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Self-Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Brinthaupt

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-Talk Scale (STS; Brinthaupt, Hein, & Kramer, 2009 is a self-report measure of self-talk frequency that has been shown to possess acceptable reliability and validity. However, no research using the STS has examined the accuracy of respondents’ self-reports. In the present paper, we report a series of studies directly examining the measurement of self-talk frequency and functions using the STS. The studies examine ways to validate self-reported self-talk by (1 comparing STS responses from 6 weeks earlier to recent experiences that might precipitate self-talk, (2 using experience sampling methods to determine whether STS scores are related to recent reports of self-talk over a period of a week, and (3 comparing self-reported STS scores to those provided by a significant other who rated the target on the STS. Results showed that (1 overall self-talk scores, particularly self-critical and self-reinforcing self-talk, were significantly related to reports of context-specific self-talk; (2 high STS scorers reported talking to themselves significantly more often during recent events compared to low STS scorers, and, contrary to expectations, (3 friends reported less agreement than strangers in their self-other self-talk ratings. Implications of the results for the validity of the STS and for measuring self-talk are presented.

  16. Models of neutrino masses: Anarchy versus hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the ability of models with different levels of hierarchy to reproduce the solar neutrino solutions, in particular the LA solution. As a flexible testing ground we consider models based on SU(5)xU(1) F . In this context, we have made statistical simulations of models with different patterns from anarchy to various types of hierarchy: normal hierarchical models with and without automatic suppression of the 23 (sub)determinant and inverse hierarchy models. We find that, not only for the LOW or VO solutions, but even in the LA case, the hierarchical models have a significantly better success rate than those based on anarchy. The normal hierarchy and the inverse hierarchy models have comparable performances in models with see-saw dominance, while the inverse hierarchy models are particularly good in the no see-saw versions. As a possible distinction between these categories of models, the inverse hierarchy models favour a maximal solar mixing angle and their rate of success drops dramatically as the mixing angle decreases, while normal hierarchy models are far more stable in this respect. (author)

  17. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  18. Are self-reports of health and morbidities in developing countries misleading? Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Self-reported measures of poor health and morbidities from developing countries tend to be viewed with considerable skepticism. Examination of the social gradient in self-reported health and morbidity measures provides a useful test of the validity of self-reports of poor health and morbidities. The prevailing view, in part influenced by Amartya Sen, is that socially disadvantaged individuals will fail to perceive and report the presence of illness or health-deficits because an individual's assessment of their health is directly contingent on their social experience. In this study, we tested whether the association between self-reported poor health/morbidities and socioeconomic status (SES) in India follows the expected direction or not. Cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were carried out on a nationally representative population-based sample from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey (INFHS); and 1995-1996 and 2004 Indian National Sample Survey (INSS). Four binary outcomes were analyzed: any self-reported morbidity; self-reported sickness in the last 15 days; self-reported sickness in the past year; and poor self-rated health. In separate adjusted models, individuals with no education reported higher levels of any self-reported, self-reported sickness in the last 15 days, self-reported sickness in the last year, and poor self-rated health compared to those with most education. Contrary to the prevailing thesis, we find that the use of self-rated ill-health has face validity as assessed via its relationship to SES. A less dismissive and pessimistic view of health data obtained through self-reports seems warranted.

  19. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  20. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  1. Self-reported rates of interpersonal conflict vary as a function of questionnaire format: why age-related trends in disagreement (and other events) may not be what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, David F; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M = 20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M = 11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M = 8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-reported Rates of Interpersonal Conflict Vary as a Function of Questionnaire Format: Why Age-related Trends in Disagreement (and Other Events) May Not be What They Seem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, Dave; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M=20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M=11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M=8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues. PMID:25086497

  3. Self-reported skin morbidity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Zarchi, Kian; Ellervik, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Skin diseases are thought to be common in the general population. In 2004, a cross-sectional study in Norway, using a validated questionnaire for 18,770 individuals, revealed a high prevalence of skin diseases in the general population. To describe the prevalence of self-reported skin morbidities...... questionnaire. In total, 17.2% self-reported skin complaints. The most prominent self-reported skin complaint was itch with an overall prevalence of 6.5%. The skin morbidity most influenced by age was pimples. There was a uniform pattern showing fewer skin complaints with increasing education. Women reported...... skin morbidities more frequently than men. Participants in employment reported fewer skin morbidities compared to unemployed participants. Skin morbidities in Denmark are common, and the distribution of prevalence estimates in the Danish population parallel those of the Norwegian population, although...

  4. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  5. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Jari; Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (pbruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects.

  6. Self-reported delinquency in a probation service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Cysne Frota D'Abreu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International research shows that self-reported delinquency is a successful strategy to improve data collection on the identification of the so-called "dark figure", ie, offenses that are not reported to the justice system. This technique, however, is still little used in Brazil. Through documentary research from data archive, this study described the socio-demographic variables and the severity of unofficial delinquency of a sample of 211 adolescents who attended a probation service in Brazil. The results showed that adolescents in conflict with the law have delinquent engagement with higher polymorphism and intensity than the official data are able to identify. Self-reported delinquency can improve data collection, provide more reliable rates and guide more assertive intervention actions in these services.

  7. Self-reported difficulty in conceiving as a measure of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, M-L B; Bain, C J; Purdie, D M; Siskind, V; Molloy, D; Green, A C

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to explore the meaning and potential use of women's self-reported difficulties in conceiving as a measure of infertility in epidemiological studies, and to compare women's stated reasons for infertility with information in their medical records. Data were available from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer involving 1638 women. The sensitivity and specificity of women's self-reported infertility were calculated against their estimated fertility status based on detailed reproductive histories. Self-reported reasons for infertility were compared with diagnoses documented in women's medical records. The sensitivity of women's self-reported difficulty in conceiving was 66 and 69% respectively when compared with calendar-derived and self-reported times taken trying to conceive; its specificity was 95%. Forty-one (23%) of the 179 women for whom medical records were available had their self-reported fertility problem confirmed. Self-reported infertility causes could be compared with diagnoses in medical records for only 22 of these women. Self-reported difficulty conceiving is a useful measure of infertility for quantifying the burden of fertility problems experienced in the community. Validation of reasons for infertility is unlikely to be feasible through examination of medical records. Improved education of the public regarding the availability and success rates of infertility treatments is proposed.

  8. What's in a Self-report?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    of ED recorded in the health registers. Women with self-reported ED were comparable with women with hospital diagnosed ED on most reproductive and health characteristics, while they differed from women without ED concerning all characteristics studied. Our findings highlight that women with self...

  9. Associations of quality of life, pain, and self-reported arthritis with age, employment, bleed rate, and utilization of hemophilia treatment center and health care provider services: results in adults with hemophilia in the HERO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsyth AL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Angela L Forsyth,1 Michelle Witkop,2 Angela Lambing,3 Cesar Garrido,4 Spencer Dunn,5 David L Cooper,6 Diane J Nugent7 1BioRx, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Munson Medical Center, Traverse City, MI, USA; 3Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; 4Asociacion Venezolana para la Hemofilia, Caracas, Venezuela; 5Center for Inherited Blood Disorders, Orange, CA, USA; 6Novo Nordisk Inc., Plainsboro, NJ, USA; 7Children’s Hospital of Orange County, Center for Inherited Blood Disorders, Orange, CA, USA Introduction: Severe hemophilia and subsequent hemophilic arthropathy result in joint pain and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Assessment of HRQoL in persons with hemophilia (PWH, including underlying factors that drive HRQoL differences, is important in determining health care resource allocation and in making individualized clinical decisions.Aim: To examine potential associations between HRQoL, pain interference, and self-reported arthritis and age, employment, activity, bleed frequency, and hemophilia treatment center and health care professional utilization.Methods: PWH (age ≥18 years from ten countries completed a 5-point Likert scale on pain interference over the previous 4 weeks, the EQ-5D-3L scale (mobility, usual activities, self-care, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression including a health-related visual analog scale (0–100, coded as an 11-point categorical response.Results: Pain interference (extreme/a lot was higher in PWH aged >40 years (31% compared to those aged 31–40 years (27% or ≤30 years (21%. In an analysis of eight countries with home treatment, PWH who reported EQ-5D mobility issues were less likely to be employed (53% vs 79%, with no mobility issues. Median annual bleed frequency increased with worsening EQ-5D pain or discomfort. The percentage of PWH with inhibitors reporting visual analog scale scores of 80–90–100 was lower (20% than those without inhibitors (34%. Median bleed frequency increased with pain

  10. Integral hierarchies and percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Stell, G.

    1985-01-01

    For a variation of the Potts model which has been shown to describe continuum percolation, we derive a hierarchy of integral equations of Kirkwood-Salsburg type. The distribution functions which are the solutions of this hierarchy can be simply related to the connectedness functions in continuum percolation. From this hierarchy a second set of equations is derived from which the connectedness functions can be obtained directly. This approach is extremely useful when investigating properties of systems far from the percolation transition. These hierarchies are solved exactly in the mean-field (Kac-Baker) limit and possible implications for cluster growth are discussed. The relation between the Potts model for continuum percolation and the Widom-Rowlinson model is also noted

  11. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  12. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  13. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  14. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  15. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluating genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity in the context of carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraga, Roman; Yarnall, Sarah; Elango, Sonya; Manoharan, Arun; Rodriguez, Sally Ann; Bristow, Sara L; Kumar, Neha; Niknazar, Mohammad; Hoffman, David; Ghadir, Shahin; Vassena, Rita; Chen, Serena H; Hershlag, Avner; Grifo, Jamie; Puig, Oscar

    2017-11-28

    Current professional society guidelines recommend genetic carrier screening be offered on the basis of ethnicity, or when using expanded carrier screening panels, they recommend to compute residual risk based on ethnicity. We investigated the reliability of self-reported ethnicity in 9138 subjects referred to carrier screening. Self-reported ethnicity gathered from test requisition forms and during post-test genetic counseling, and genetic ancestry predicted by a statistical model, were compared for concordance. We identified several discrepancies between the two sources of self-reported ethnicity and genetic ancestry. Only 30.3% of individuals who indicated Mediterranean ancestry during consultation self-reported this on requisition forms. Additionally, the proportion of individuals who reported Southeast Asian but were estimated to have a different genetic ancestry was found to depend on the source of self-report. Finally, individuals who reported Latin American demonstrated a high degree of ancestral admixture. As a result, carrier rates and residual risks provided for patient decision-making are impacted if using self-reported ethnicity. Our analysis highlights the unreliability of ethnicity classification based on patient self-reports. We recommend the routine use of pan-ethnic carrier screening panels in reproductive medicine. Furthermore, the use of an ancestry model would allow better estimation of carrier rates and residual risks.

  17. Integrable Hierarchies and Dispersionless Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Takebe, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierar...

  18. In praise of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, E

    1990-01-01

    Hierarchy has not had its day. After 3,000 years as the preferred structure for large organizations, managerial hierarchy is still the most natural and effective organizational form that a big company can employ. Now, as in the past, the key to organizational success is individual accountability, and hierarchy preserves unambiguous accountability for getting work done. Unfortunately, hierarchy is widely misunderstood and abused. Pay grades are confused with real layers of responsibility, for example, and incompetent bosses abound. As a result, many experts now urge us to adopt group-oriented or "flat" structures. But groups are never held accountable as groups for what they do or fail to do, and groups don't have careers. The proper use of hierarchy derives from the nature of work. As organizational tasks range from simple to very complex, there are sharp jumps in the level of difficulty and responsibility. Surprisingly, people in hundreds of companies in dozens of countries agree on where these jumps take place. They are tied to an objective measure-the time span of the longest task or program assigned to each managerial role-and they occur at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 20 years. As the time span increases, so does the level of experience, knowledge, and mental stamina required to do the work. This increasing level of mental capacity lets companies put people in jobs they can do, it allows managers to add value to the work of their subordinates, it creates hierarchical layers acceptable to everyone in the organization, and it allows employees to be evaluated by people they accept as organizational superiors. Best of all, understanding hierarchy allows organizations to set up hierarchies with no more than seven layers-often fewer-and to know what the structure is good for and how it ought to perform.

  19. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  20. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... on delegation by providing insights into when and how interrelated decisions are delegated across multiple levels of an organizational hierarchy....

  1. Comments on gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in a O(N) model is discussed. It is shown the existence of an upper bound for the hierarchy of order α- 1 / 2 , as proposed by Gildener. This same constraint appears when the breaking is made by the radiative corrections in a scheme elaborated by Weinberg. It is found that fine tunning or redefinition of coupling constants to improve hieracrchy, as proposed in several papers, cannot be done before the calculation of higher order contributions to the effective potential. (Author) [pt

  2. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders.

  3. Impression Management and Self-Report among Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.

    2006-01-01

    Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…

  4. Materials with structural hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Roderic

    1993-01-01

    The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

  5. Toda hierarchies and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2018-05-01

    The 2D Toda hierarchy occupies a central position in the family of integrable hierarchies of the Toda type. The 1D Toda hierarchy and the Ablowitz–Ladik (aka relativistic Toda) hierarchy can be derived from the 2D Toda hierarchy as reductions. These integrable hierarchies have been applied to various problems of mathematics and mathematical physics since 1990s. A recent example is a series of studies on models of statistical mechanics called the melting crystal model. This research has revealed that the aforementioned two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy underlie two different melting crystal models. Technical clues are a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, special algebraic relations therein called shift symmetries, and a matrix factorization problem. The two melting crystal models thus exhibit remarkable similarity with the Hermitian and unitary matrix models for which the two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy play the role of fundamental integrable structures.

  6. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  7. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  8. Validity of self-reported adult secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Grossman, William; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of adults to secondhand smoke (SHS) has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease. The current study evaluated brief self-report screening measures for accurately identifying adult cardiology patients with clinically significant levels of SHS exposure in need of intervention. A cross-sectional study conducted in a university-affiliated cardiology clinic and cardiology inpatient service. Participants were 118 non-smoking patients (59% male, mean age=63.6 years, SD=16.8) seeking cardiology services. Serum cotinine levels and self-reported SHS exposure in the past 24 h and 7 days on 13 adult secondhand exposure to smoke (ASHES) items. A single item assessment of SHS exposure in one's own home in the past 7 days was significantly correlated with serum cotinine levels (r=0.41, p85% and correct classification rates >85% at cotinine cut-off points of >0.215 and >0.80 ng/mL. The item outperformed multi-item scales, an assessment of home smoking rules, and SHS exposure assessed in other residential areas, automobiles and public settings. The sample was less accurate at self-reporting lower levels of SHS exposure (cotinine 0.05-0.215 ng/mL). The single item ASHES-7d Home screener is brief, assesses recent SHS exposure over a week's time, and yielded the optimal balance of sensitivity and specificity. The current findings support use of the ASHES-7d Home screener to detect SHS exposure and can be easily incorporated into assessment of other major vital signs in cardiology. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Accuracy of Professional Self-Reports: Medical Student Self-Report and the Scoring of Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Lagha, Regina Anne

    2014-01-01

    Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…

  10. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  11. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éilish Duke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  12. Smartphone addiction, daily interruptions and self-reported productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian

    2017-12-01

    The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N  = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.

  13. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  14. Hierarchy from baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We study a recently proposed mechanism to solve the hierarchy problem in the context of the landscape, where the solution of the hierarchy problem is connected to the requirement of having baryons in our Universe via electroweak baryogenesis. The phase transition is triggered by the fermion condensation of a new gauge sector which becomes strong at a scale Λ determined by dimensional transmutation, and it is mediated to the standard model by a new singlet field. In a 'friendly' neighborhood of the landscape, where only the relevant operators are ''scanned'' among the vacua, baryogenesis is effective only if the Higgs mass m h is comparable to this low scale Λ, forcing m h ∼Λ, and solving the hierarchy problem. A new CP violating phase is needed coupling the new singlet and the Higgs field to new matter fields. We study the constraints on this model given by baryogenesis and by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), and we briefly comment on gauge coupling unification and on dark matter relic abundance. We find that next generation experiments on the EDM will be sensitive to essentially the entire viable region of the parameter space, so that absence of a signal would effectively rule out the model

  15. Body awareness: construct and self-report measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf E Mehling

    Full Text Available Heightened body awareness can be adaptive and maladaptive. Improving body awareness has been suggested as an approach for treating patients with conditions such as chronic pain, obesity and post-traumatic stress disorder. We assessed the psychometric quality of selected self-report measures and examined their items for underlying definitions of the construct.PubMed, PsychINFO, HaPI, Embase, Digital Dissertations Database.Abstracts were screened; potentially relevant instruments were obtained and systematically reviewed. Instruments were excluded if they exclusively measured anxiety, covered emotions without related physical sensations, used observer ratings only, or were unobtainable. We restricted our study to the proprioceptive and interoceptive channels of body awareness. The psychometric properties of each scale were rated using a structured evaluation according to the method of McDowell. Following a working definition of the multi-dimensional construct, an inter-disciplinary team systematically examined the items of existing body awareness instruments, identified the dimensions queried and used an iterative qualitative process to refine the dimensions of the construct.From 1,825 abstracts, 39 instruments were screened. 12 were included for psychometric evaluation. Only two were rated as high standard for reliability, four for validity. Four domains of body awareness with 11 sub-domains emerged. Neither a single nor a compilation of several instruments covered all dimensions. Key domains that might potentially differentiate adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness were missing in the reviewed instruments.Existing self-report instruments do not address important domains of the construct of body awareness, are unable to discern between adaptive and maladaptive aspects of body awareness, or exhibit other psychometric limitations. Restricting the construct to its proprio- and interoceptive channels, we explore the current understanding

  16. The adolescent outcome of hyperactive girls: self-report of psychosocial status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan; Heptinstall, Ellen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Chadwick, Oliver; Taylor, Eric

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the developmental risk associated with hyperactive behaviour in girls in a longitudinal epidemiological design. This was investigated in a follow-up study of girls who were identified by parent and teacher ratings in a large community survey of 6- and 7-year-olds as showing pervasive hyperactivity or conduct problems or the comorbid mixture of both problems or neither problem. They were later investigated, at the age of 14 to 16 years, with a detailed self-report interview technique. Hyperactivity was a risk factor for later development, even allowing for the coexistence of conduct problems. Hyperactivity predicted academic problems and interpersonal relationship problems. Relationships with parents, by contrast, were not portrayed to be as problematic as relationships with peers and the opposite sex. Their psychological, social and occupational functioning was objectively rated to be more deviant and their self-report showed them to be more ambivalent about their future. There was a trend for hyperactivity to be self-reported as a risk for the development of continuing symptomatology but neither hyperactivity nor conduct problems were self-reported to be a risk for antisocial behaviour, substance misuse or low self-esteem in adolescence. However, they were at risk for the development of state anxiety. The results suggested girls' pattern of functioning may differ from that of boys because girls self-report a more pervasive range of social dysfunction than that previously reported in boys.

  17. Self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician...... discussion of events in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: People in seven European countries aged >15 years with Type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (basal-only, basal-bolus and other insulin regimens) were recruited via consumer panels......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...

  18. Extension of noncommutative soliton hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A linear system, which generates a Moyal-deformed two-dimensional soliton equation as an integrability condition, can be extended to a three-dimensional linear system, treating the deformation parameter as an additional coordinate. The supplementary integrability conditions result in a first-order differential equation with respect to the deformation parameter, the flow of which commutes with the flow of the deformed soliton equation. In this way, a deformed soliton hierarchy can be extended to a bigger hierarchy by including the corresponding deformation equations. We prove the extended hierarchy properties for the deformed AKNS hierarchy, and specialize to the cases of deformed NLS, KdV and mKdV hierarchies. Corresponding results are also obtained for the deformed KP hierarchy. A deformation equation determines a kind of Seiberg-Witten map from classical solutions to solutions of the respective 'noncommutative' deformed equation

  19. Validity and reliability of stillbirth data using linked self-reported and administrative datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hure, Alexis J; Chojenta, Catherine L; Powers, Jennifer R; Byles, Julie E; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    A high rate of stillbirth was previously observed in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Our primary objective was to test the validity and reliability of self-reported stillbirth data linked to state-based administrative datasets. Self-reported data, collected as part of the ALSWH cohort born in 1973-1978, were linked to three administrative datasets for women in New South Wales, Australia (n = 4374): the Midwives Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; and Perinatal Death Review Database. Linkages were obtained from the Centre for Health Record Linkage for the period 1996-2009. True cases of stillbirth were defined by being consistently recorded in two or more independent data sources. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, percent agreement, and kappa statistics were calculated for each dataset. Forty-nine women reported 53 stillbirths. No dataset was 100% accurate. The administrative datasets performed better than self-reported data, with high accuracy and agreement. Self-reported data showed high sensitivity (100%) but low specificity (30%), meaning women who had a stillbirth always reported it, but there was also over-reporting of stillbirths. About half of the misreported cases in the ALSWH were able to be removed by identifying inconsistencies in longitudinal data. Data linkage provides great opportunity to assess the validity and reliability of self-reported study data. Conversely, self-reported study data can help to resolve inconsistencies in administrative datasets. Quantifying the strengths and limitations of both self-reported and administrative data can improve epidemiological research, especially by guiding methods and interpretation of findings.

  20. [Psychosocial work factors and self-reported health in the French national SUMER survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuffleur, Thomas; Chastang, Jean-François; Cavet, Marine; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the associations between psychosocial work factors, using well-known theoretical models and emerging concepts, and self-reported health in the national population of French employees. This study was based on the data of the French national representative SUMER 2010 survey. The sample included 46,962 employees, 26,883 men and 20,079 women, with an 87% participation rate. Self-reported health was measured by means of a single question and was analysed as a binary variable. Psychosocial work factors included factors related to job strain and effort-reward imbalance models, workplace violence and working hours. Associations between psychosocial work factors and self-reported health were studied using weighted logistic regression models adjusted for covariates (age, occupation, economic activity, and other types of occupational exposure). Low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, low social support (from supervisors for men), low reward (low esteem and low job promotion for both genders and job insecurity for men), bullying and verbal abuse for both genders were associated with self-reported health. This study emphasizes the role of psychosocial work factors as risk factors for poor self-reported health and suggests that the implementation of preventive measures to reduce exposure to psychosocial work factors should be an objective for the improvement of health at work.

  1. Demographic predictors of false negative self-reported tobacco use status in an insurance applicant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier, James; Lanzrath, Brian; Dixon, Ammon; Idowu, Oluseun

    2014-01-01

    To identify and quantify demographic correlates of false-negative self-reporting of tobacco use in life insurance applicants. Several studies have assessed the sensitivity of self-reporting for tobacco use in various populations, but statistical examination of the causes of misreporting has been rarer. The very large (488,000 confirmed tobacco users) sample size, US-wide geographic scope, and unique incentive structure of the life insurance application process permit more robust and insurance industry-specific results in this study. Approximately 6.2 million life insurance applicants for whom both tobacco-use interview questions and a confirmatory urine cotinine test were completed between 1999 and 2012 were evaluated for consistency between self-reported and laboratory-confirmed tobacco-use status. The data set was subjected to logistic regression to identify predictors of false negative self-reports (FNSR). False-negative self-reporting was found to be strongly associated with male gender, applicant ages of less than 30 or greater than 60, and low cotinine positivity rates in the applicant's state of residence. Policy face value was also moderately predictive, values above $500,000 associated with moderately higher FNSR. The findings imply that FNSR in life insurance applicants may be the result of complex interactions among financial incentives, geography and presumptive peer groups, and gender.

  2. Detecting Careless Responses to Self-Reported Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountur, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: The use of self-report questionnaires may lead to biases such as careless responses that distort the research outcomes. Early detection of careless responses in self-report questionnaires may reduce error, but little guidance exists in the literature regarding techniques for detecting such careless or random responses in…

  3. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  4. Validation of Self-Reported Cognitive Problems with Objective ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of validation of self-reported cognitive problems with objective neuropsychological measures. The validity of four self-reported cognitive items from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was examined with objective clinical neuropsychological test performance in 147 manganese (Mn) exposed residents. These residents were from two Ohio towns exposed to ambient air-Mn from an industrial source with modeled average air-Mn concentrations of 0.54 µg/m3 (range: 0.01-4.58) and were part of a larger study of cognitive, motor, tremor abnormalities and their relationship to Mn exposure.The primarily white (94.6%) participants (aged 30-64) lived in the towns for at least 10 years (range: 10-64) and had 13.9 years of education, on average. In the last 7 days before testing, 94 (64.4%) participants self-reported concentration problems and 105 (71.8%) self-reported memory problems. After adjusting for age and education, participants who self-reported cognitive problems did not perform worse on the objective neuropsychological measures than those who reported not having problems, except on 1 of 17 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Color). Greater levels of depression and female sex predicted having more self-reported cognitive problems. Higher education was associated with fewer self-reported cognitive problems. Measures of Mn in air, blood, hair, and toenails were not associated with subjective cognitive self-reported p

  5. Designing hunting regulation under population uncertainty and self-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2016-01-01

    A number of methods exist for estimating the size of animal populations. All methods generate an uncertain estimate of population size, and have different properties, which can be taken into account when designing regulation. We consider hunting regulation when the population size is uncertain...... and when the self-reported bag is used to estimate the population size. The properties of a population tax and a tax on self-reported bag are analyzed and we begin by considering a baseline situation with full certainty and no use of self-reporting for population size estimation. Here individual hunters...... self-report a bag on zero and a population tax alone can secure an optimum. Next we show that when facing uncertain population size, a risk-averse hunter will self-report part of the bag to reduce the uncertain population tax payment, making both tax instruments necessary for reaching an optimum...

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Self-Report Depressive Symptoms among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  8. Self-reported ADHD symptoms and interhemispheric interaction in adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, Norbert A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the dimensional approach to test whether self-reported symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults are associated with the speed of interhemispheric interaction. A sample of first grade students (N =112) completed Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales

  9. Differences in self-reported morbidity by marital status and by living arrangement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joung, I. M.; van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; van Poppel, F. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    It has frequently been shown that the never married, divorced and widowed have higher rates of self-reported morbidity than married people. The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent morbidity differences by marital status can be explained by differences in living arrangement (i.e.

  10. Self-reported and employer-recorded sickness absence in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, I J

    2014-09-01

    Doctors' sickness absence reduces the quality and continuity of patient care and is financially costly. Doctors have lower rates of sickness absence than other healthcare workers. To compare self-reported with recorded sickness absence in doctors in a UK National Health Service hospital trust. A retrospective questionnaire study. The main outcome measures were self-reported and trust-recorded sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in two consecutive 6-month periods. The response rate was 82% (607/736). Self-reported sickness absence rates were 1.2% compared with a rate of 0.6% from trust-recorded data. There were 38 matched pairs of self-reported (mean duration: 18 days, standard deviation: 22 days) and trust-recorded (mean duration: 10 days, standard deviation: 17 days) sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in the 12 months studied. A matched pairs t-test determined that the difference between the two means was significant (t = 2.57, P sickness absence was significantly under-recorded in this study population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Social determinants of self-reported health for Canada's indigenous peoples: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, R; Absher, N; Obiagwu, M; Qarmout, T; Steeves, M; Yaghoubi, M; Tikoo, R; Szafron, M; Dell, C; Farag, M

    2018-04-14

    In Canada, indigenous peoples suffer from a multitude of health disparities. To better understand these disparities, this study aims to examine the social determinants of self-reported health for indigenous peoples in Canada. This study uses data from Statistics Canada's Aboriginal Peoples Survey 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine how selected social determinants of health are associated with self-reported health among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples in Canada. Our analysis shows that being older, female, and living in urban settings were significantly associated with negative ratings of self-reported health status among the indigenous respondents. Additionally, we found that higher income and levels of education were strongly and significantly associated with positive ratings of self-reported health status. Compared with indigenous peoples with an education level of grade 8 or lower, respondents with higher education were 10 times (5.35-22.48) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health. Respondents who earned more than $40,000 annually were three times (2.17-4.72) more likely to report 'excellent' and 'very good' health compared with those who earned less than $20,000 annually. When interacted with income, we also found that volunteering in the community is associated with better self-reported health. There are known protective determinants (income and education) and risk determinants (location of residence, gender, and age) which are associated with self-reported health status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis peoples. For indigenous-specific determinants, volunteering in the community appears to be associated with self-perceived health status. Thus, addressing these determinants will be necessary to achieve better health outcomes for indigenous peoples in Canada. Next steps include developing indigenous-specific social determinants of health indicators that adequately measure culture, connection

  12. Association between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Susanna; Localio, Russell; Apter, Andrea J

    2016-04-01

    Penicillin allergy is the most commonly reported drug allergy and often presents with cutaneous symptoms. Other common diagnoses, such as chronic urticaria, may be falsely attributed to penicillin allergy. Because chronic urticaria is fairly common in the general population, evaluation of its prevalence in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was of interest. Similarly, the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria is not well known and also becomes interesting in light of the high prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in the general population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and the prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. This was a retrospective medical record review of 11,143 patients completed using the electronic health record of the University of Pennsylvania Allergy and Immunology clinic. The prevalence of self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria was found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the general population. The prevalence of chronic urticaria in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy was also found to be approximately 3 times greater than in the population. This link between chronic urticaria and self-reported penicillin allergy highlights the need for clinicians to inquire about self-reported penicillin allergy in patients with chronic urticaria and to consider penicillin skin testing. Furthermore, patients who report penicillin allergy might actually have chronic urticaria, indicating the importance of inquiring about chronic urticaria symptoms in patients with self-reported penicillin allergy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  14. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  15. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  16. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  17. On the supersymmetric BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; Stanciu, Sonia

    1994-01-01

    We prove that the supersymmetric BKP-hierarchy of Yu (SBKP 2 ) is hamiltonian with respect to a nonlinear extension of the N=1 super-Virasoro algebra (W SBKP ) by fields of spin k, where k>[3]/[2] and 2k≡0,3 (mod 4). Moreover, we show how to associate in a similar manner an N=1 W-superalgebra with every integrable hierarchy of the SKdV-type. We also show using dressing transformations how to extend, in a way which is compatible with the hamiltonian structure, the SBKP 2 hierarchy by odd flows, as well as the equivalence of this extended hierarchy to the SBKP-hierarchy of Manin-Radul. ((orig.))

  18. An extended Harry Dym hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    An extended Harry Dym hierarchy is constructed by using eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions of the spectral problems of the Harry Dym hierarchy associated with the pseudo-differential operator L = u∂ + u 0 + u 1 ∂ -1 + .... The corresponding Lax presentation possesses a self-consistent source involving squared eigenfunctions. The resulting extended Harry Dym hierarchy is reduced to the Harry Dym hierarchy with self-consistent sources under the n-reduction, L n = (L n ) ≥2 , and the k-constrained Harry Dym hierarchy under the k-constraint, L k = (L k ) ≥2 + Σ N i=1 q i ∂ -1 r i ∂ 2 . A few particular examples are computed, together with their Lax pairs.

  19. Validation of self-reported information on dental caries in a birth cohort at 18 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    Full Text Available Estimate the prevalence of dental caries based on clinical examinations and self-reports and compare differences in the prevalence and effect measures between the two methods among 18-year-olds belonging to a 1993 birth cohort in the city of Pelotas, Brazil.Data on self-reported caries, socio-demographic aspects and oral health behaviour were collected using a questionnaire administered to adolescents aged 18 years (n = 4041. Clinical caries was evaluated (n = 1014 by a dentist who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Prevalence rates of clinical and self-reported caries, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, absolute and relative bias, and inflation factors were calculated. Prevalence ratios of dental caries were estimated for each risk factor.The prevalence of clinical and self-reported caries (DMFT>1 was 66.5% (95%CI: 63.6%-69.3% and 60.3% (95%CI: 58.8%-61.8%, respectively. Self-reports underestimated the prevalence of dental caries by 9.3% in comparison to clinical evaluations. The analysis of the validity of self-reports regarding the DMFT index indicated high sensitivity (81.8%; 95%CI: 78.7%-84.7% and specificity (78.1%; 95%CI: 73.3%-82.4% in relation to the gold standard (clinical evaluation. Both the clinical and self-reported evaluations were associated with gender, schooling and self-rated oral health. Clinical dental caries was associated with visits to the dentist in the previous year. Self-reported dental caries was associated with daily tooth brushing frequency.Based on the present findings, self-reported information on dental caries using the DMFT index requires further studies prior to its use in the analysis of risk factors, but is valid for population-based health surveys with the aim of planning and monitoring oral health actions directed at adolescents.

  20. Existential struggle and self-reported needs of patients in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsdottir, Jonina; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study to increase understanding of patients' experience of rehabilitation and their self-reported needs in that context. Nurses need to be able to recognize patient needs to plan effective and individualized care. Needs-led nursing care is emphasized in the nursing literature, but few studies in rehabilitation have explored needs from the patient's perspective. The sample of this phenomenological study was purposively selected and the data consisted of 16 in-depth interviews with 12 people aged between 26 and 85 years. The data were collected in 2005. The findings showed that being a patient in rehabilitation involves existential struggling, as the reason behind patients' rehabilitation, accident or illness usually leads to trying to cope with existential changes while needing to adapt to new characteristics of life and self. This makes patients vulnerable and their self-reported needs include individualized caring and emotional support from family, peers and staff. Participants also reported a need for a sense of security in a stable and homelike environment, with assistance, help and presence. Finally, they reported needing goal-oriented and progressive care in which realistic and achievable goals were established. Individualized patient education enhanced their independence and empowered them towards a new and progressive lifestyle. A new emphasis is needed in rehabilitation nursing, involving assessment of existential well-being of patients by means of skilful interpersonal relationship based on individualized caring and emotional support and recognition of each patient's own hierarchy of needs.

  1. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, languag...

  2. Dynamical hierarchies - A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Olesen, M.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper summarizes some of the problems associated with the generation of higher order emergent structures in formal dynamical systems. In biological systems, higher order hyperstructures occur both in an intuitive and a formal sense: monomers, polymers, membranes, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, etc. constitute an observable hierarchy, apparently generated by the underlying biomolecular process. However, in models and simulations of these systems, it has turned out to be quite difficult to produce higher order emergent structures from first principles. The first problem is to agree on what a higher order structure is. An emergent structure can be defined through an introduction of an observational function. If a property can be observed in the dynamics, but not at the level of the fundamental first order interacting structures, we define it to be emergent. It is well known that second order structures occur relatively easy in simulation, so the problem is how to proceed to third and higher order without external interference. A third order structure is defined through the interaction of second order structures forming a new observable not found at the lower levels.

  3. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  6. Association between self-reported and objectively measured physical fitness level in a middle-aged population in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obling, Kirstine H.; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Overgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    fitness level were cross-tabulated and agreement was quantified by Kappa statistics. Gender differences within categories were investigated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Data from 996 men and 1017 women were analyzed (excluded, n = 303). In both men and women a higher self-reported fitness level......AIM: To investigate the association between self-reported physical fitness level obtained by a single-item question and objectively measured fitness level in 30- to 49-year-old men and women. METHODS: From the Danish 'Check Your Health Preventive Program' 2013-2014 fitness level was assessed...... in 2316 participants using the Aastrand test. Additionally, participants rated their physical fitness as high, good, average, fair or low. The association of self-reported- with objectively measured fitness level was analyzed by linear regression. Categories of self-reported- and objectively measured...

  7. Gauge-symmetry hierarchies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildener, E.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown by the author in a previous paper that in each order of perturbation theory there is an upper bound on the range of validity of a gauge hierarchy. Thus constructing a large hierarchy requires a fine-tuning of the scalar-field parameters. It was stated that the possibility of an inherent bound on the hierarchy exists, but the question of the actual existence of such a bound was left completely open. Since then several authors have addressed this problem. Some of what the author asserted was misunderstood, and incorrect conclusions have been drawn from recent computations. It has been claimed that the existence of large hierarchies has been demonstrated. It is the purpose of this paper to refute this claim, to help clarify the situation, and to explain why the status of this problem has in fact not really changed in recent years (author)

  8. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  9. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  10. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  11. Burnout, engagement and resident physicians' self-reported errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, J T; van der Heijden, F M M A; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M; Bakker, A B; van de Wiel, H B M; Jacobs, B; Gazendam-Donofrio, S M

    2009-12-01

    Burnout is a work-related syndrome that may negatively affect more than just the resident physician. On the other hand, engagement has been shown to protect employees; it may also positively affect the patient care that the residents provide. Little is known about the relationship between residents' self-reported errors and burnout and engagement. In our national study that included all residents and physicians in The Netherlands, 2115 questionnaires were returned (response rate 41.1%). The residents reported on burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-Health and Social Services), engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale) and self-assessed patient care practices (six items, two factors: errors in action/judgment, errors due to lack of time). Ninety-four percent of the residents reported making one or more mistake without negative consequences for the patient during their training. Seventy-one percent reported performing procedures for which they did not feel properly trained. More than half (56%) of the residents stated they had made a mistake with a negative consequence. Seventy-six percent felt they had fallen short in the quality of care they provided on at least one occasion. Men reported more errors in action/judgment than women. Significant effects of specialty and clinical setting were found on both types of errors. Residents with burnout reported significantly more errors (p engaged residents reported fewer errors (p burnout and to keep residents engaged in their work.

  12. Visualising large hierarchies with Flextree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongzhi; Curran, Edwin P.; Sterritt, Roy

    2003-05-01

    One of the main tasks in Information Visualisation research is creating visual tools to facilitate human understanding of large and complex information spaces. Hierarchies, being a good mechanism in organising such information, are ubiquitous. Although much research effort has been spent on finding useful representations for hierarchies, visualising large hierarchies is still a difficult topic. One of the difficulties is how to show both tructure and node content information in one view. Another is how to achieve multiple foci in a focus+context visualisation. This paper describes a novel hierarchy visualisation technique called FlexTree to address these problems. It contains some important features that have not been exploited so far. In this visualisation, a profile or contour unique to the hierarchy being visualised can be gained in a histogram-like layout. A normalised view of a common attribute of all nodes can be acquired, and selection of this attribute is controllable by the user. Multiple foci are consistently accessible within a global context through interaction. Furthermore it can handle a large hierarchy that contains several thousand nodes in a PC environment. In addition results from an informal evaluation are also presented.

  13. Relations Between Self-reported Executive Functioning and Speech Perception Skills in Adult Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Aaron C; Patel, Tirth R; Castellanos, Irina

    2018-02-01

    As a result of their hearing loss, adults with cochlear implants (CIs) would self-report poorer executive functioning (EF) skills than normal-hearing (NH) peers, and these EF skills would be associated with performance on speech recognition tasks. EF refers to a group of high order neurocognitive skills responsible for behavioral and emotional regulation during goal-directed activity, and EF has been found to be poorer in children with CIs than their NH age-matched peers. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that neurocognitive skills, including some EF skills, contribute to the ability to recognize speech through a CI. Thirty postlingually deafened adults with CIs and 42 age-matched NH adults were enrolled. Participants and their spouses or significant others (informants) completed well-validated self-reports or informant-reports of EF, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult (BRIEF-A). CI users' speech recognition skills were assessed in quiet using several measures of sentence recognition. NH peers were tested for recognition of noise-vocoded versions of the same speech stimuli. CI users self-reported difficulty on EF tasks of shifting and task monitoring. In CI users, measures of speech recognition correlated with several self-reported EF skills. The present findings provide further evidence that neurocognitive factors, including specific EF skills, may decline in association with hearing loss, and that some of these EF skills contribute to speech processing under degraded listening conditions.

  14. Relationships between self-reported physical and mental health and intelligence performance across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, M; Nyquist, L

    1990-07-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven adults between 20 and 90 years of age were tested on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale for their digit span memory (forward and backward), fluid intelligence (block design and digit symbol), and crystallized intelligence (vocabulary and information), as well as assessed for self-reported health (Cornell Medical Index, Zung Depression Scale, health habits, and self-ratings of physical and mental health). As expected, across the entire age range there was no correlation between age and digit span memory (r = .03), a strong negative correlation between age and fluid intelligence (r = -.78), and a modest positive correlation between age and crystallized intelligence (r = .27). In addition, older adults reported more physical (r = .36) and mental (r = .32) health problems than did younger adults. Of special interest was the finding that both self-reported physical and mental health accounted for significant variance in intelligence performance, particularly in older adults. Moreover, self-reported health accounted for a considerable portion of observed variance, even when age differences in self-reported health were statistically controlled.

  15. Special polynomials associated with some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2008-01-01

    Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of a hierarchy of equations of Painleve type are introduced. The hierarchy arises by similarity reduction from the Fordy-Gibbons hierarchy of partial differential equations. Some relations for these special polynomials are given. Differential-difference hierarchies for finding special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to obtain special polynomials associated with the hierarchy studied. It is shown that rational solutions of members of the Schwarz-Sawada-Kotera, the Schwarz-Kaup-Kupershmidt, the Fordy-Gibbons, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchies can be expressed through special polynomials of the hierarchy studied

  16. Grassmannian approach to super-KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, Michiaki.

    1995-06-01

    We present a theory of 'maximal' super-KP (SKP) hierarchy whose flows are maximally extended to include all those of known SKP hierarchies, including, for example, the MRSKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul and the Jacobian SKP (JSKP) introduced by Mulase and Rabin. It is shown that SKP hierarchies has a natural field theoretic description in terms of the B-C system, in analogous way as the ordinary KP hierarchy. For this SKP hierarchy, we construct the vertex operators by using Kac-van de Leur superbosonization. The vertex operators act on the τ-function and then produce the wave function and the dual wave function of the hierarchy. Thereby we achieve the description of the 'maximal' SKP hierarchy in terms of the τ-function, which seemed to be lacking till now. Mutual relations among the SKP hierarchies are clarified. The MRSKP and the JSKP hierarchies are obtained as special cases when the time variables are appropriately restricted. (author)

  17. The Exposure Hierarchy as a Measure of Progress and Efficacy in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerelos, Marina; Hawley, Lance L.; Antony, Martin M.; McCabe, Randi E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the psychometric properties and utility of the exposure hierarchy as a measure of treatment outcome for social anxiety disorder (SAD). An exposure hierarchy was created for each of 103 individuals with a diagnosis of SAD who completed a course of cognitive behavioral group therapy. Exposure hierarchy ratings were collected on a…

  18. Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiusheng; He Jingsong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.

  19. Individual wealth rank, community wealth inequality, and self-reported adult poor health: a test of hypotheses with panel data (2002-2006) from native Amazonians, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Nyberg, Colleen; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg; Reyes-García, Victoria; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; McDade, Thomas W; Tanner, Susan; Vadez, Vincent; Godoy, Ricardo

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that economic inequality in a community harms the health of a person. Using panel data from a small-scale, preindustrial rural society, we test whether individual wealth rank and village wealth inequality affects self-reported poor health in a foraging-farming native Amazonian society. A person's wealth rank was negatively but weakly associated with self-reported morbidity. Each step up/year in the village wealth hierarchy reduced total self-reported days ill by 0.4 percent. The Gini coefficient of village wealth inequality bore a positive association with self-reported poor health that was large in size, but not statistically significant. We found small village wealth inequality, and evidence that individual economic rank did not change. The modest effects may have to do with having used subjective rather than objective measures of health, having small village wealth inequality, and with the possibly true modest effect of a person's wealth rank on health in a small-scale, kin-based society. Finally, we also found that an increase in mean individual wealth by village was related to worse self-reported health. As the Tsimane' integrate into the market economy, their possibilities of wealth accumulation rise, which may affect their well-being. Our work contributes to recent efforts in biocultural anthropology to link the study of social inequalities, human biology, and human-environment interactions.

  20. Self-Reported Presence and Experience of Pain in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Nanda C; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuengel, Carlo; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to examine whether the presence of pain (based on physical conditions and participants' report) and self-reported pain experience in adults with Down syndrome (DS) differ from general population controls. Cross-sectional study of 224 adults with DS (mean age = 38.1 years, mild-severe intellectual disabilities) and 142 age-matched controls (median age = 40.5 years, mean estimated IQ = 105.7) in the Netherlands. File-based medical information was evaluated. Self-reported presence and experience of pain were assessed in rest and after movement during a test session (affect with facial affective scale (FAS: 0.04-0.97), intensity assessed with numeric rating scale (NRS: 0-10). Compared with controls, more DS participants had physical conditions that may cause pain and/or discomfort ( p  = .004, 50% vs 35%), but fewer DS participants reported pain during the test session ( p  = .003, 58% vs 73%). Of the participants who indicated pain and comprehended self-reporting scales ( n  = 198 FAS, n  = 161 NRS), the DS group reported a higher pain affect and intensity than the controls ( p  painful/discomforting physical conditions reported pain. Those who did indicated a higher pain experience than adults from the general population. Research into spontaneous self-report of pain, repeated pain assessment, and acute pain is needed in people with DS for more insight into pain experience and mismatches between self-report and medical information. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Donnelly, Alan E; Brage, Søren; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-02-01

    Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from nine European countries using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g., reporting ≥150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the ability of the three PA questionnaires to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (P for all PAQ 39.9% [95% CI, 37.5-42.1] and objective measure 48.5% [95% CI, 41.6-50.9]. All self-report methods showed low or moderate sensitivity (IPAQ 20.0%, RPAQ 18.7%, and EPIC-PAQ 69.8%) to correctly classify inactive people and the agreement between objective and self-reported PA was low (ĸ = 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.12], 0.12 [95% CI, 0.06-0.18], and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.13-0.24] for IPAQ, RPAQ, and EPIC-PAQ, respectively). The modest agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA suggests that population levels of PA derived from self-report should be interpreted cautiously. Implementation of objective measures in large-scale cohort studies and surveillance systems is recommended.

  2. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Xu, Changqing; Yao, Wenguo; Mahan, Clare M.; Kang, Han K.; Sandbrink, Friedhelm; Zhai, Ping; Karasik, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72–2.67) among ill group compared to controls (0.58–1.59). We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series. PMID:24431987

  3. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  4. Occlusal factors are not related to self-reported bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Visscher, Corine M; Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the contribution of various occlusal features of the natural dentition that may identify self-reported bruxers compared to nonbruxers. Two age- and sex-matched groups of self-reported bruxers (n = 67) and self-reported nonbruxers (n = 75) took part in the study. For each patient, the following occlusal features were clinically assessed: retruded contact position (RCP) to intercuspal contact position (ICP) slide length ( 4 mm, a deep bite), horizontal overlap (> 4 mm was considered a large horizontal overlap), incisor dental midline discrepancy (bruxism (dependent variable). Accuracy values to predict self-reported bruxism were unacceptable for all occlusal variables. The only variable remaining in the final regression model was laterotrusive interferences (P = .030). The percentage of explained variance for bruxism by the final multiple regression model was 4.6%. This model including only one occlusal factor showed low positive (58.1%) and negative predictive values (59.7%), thus showing a poor accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported bruxism (59.2%). This investigation suggested that the contribution of occlusion to the differentiation between bruxers and nonbruxers is negligible. This finding supports theories that advocate a much diminished role for peripheral anatomical-structural factors in the pathogenesis of bruxism.

  5. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  6. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  7. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  8. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  9. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  10. Stereotype Threat Lowers Older Adults' Self-Reported Hearing Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2015-01-01

    Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in noncognitive domains. Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adults' subjective hearing abilities. To test this, 115 adults (mean age 50.03 years, range 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40s and early 50s were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50s and 60s rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults' subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype threat-free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Stereotype threat lowers older adults’ self-reported hearing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J.; Lee, Soohyoung Rain

    2016-01-01

    Background Although stereotype threat is a well-documented phenomenon, previous studies examining it in older adults have almost exclusively focused on objective cognitive outcomes. Considerably less attention has been paid to the impact of stereotype threat on older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities or to the impact of stereotype threat in non-cognitive domains. Objective Older adults are stereotyped as having experienced not only cognitive declines, but physical declines as well. The current study tested the prediction that stereotype threat can negatively influence older adult's subjective hearing abilities. Methods To test this, 115 adults (M age = 50.02, range = 41-67) read either a positive or negative description about how aging affects hearing. All participants then answered a questionnaire in which they assessed their own hearing abilities. Results The impact of stereotype threat on self-reported hearing was moderated by chronological age. Participants in their 40's and early 50's were unaffected by the stereotype threat manipulation. In contrast, participants in their late 50's and 60's rated their hearing as being subjectively worse when under stereotype threat. Conclusion The current study provides a clear demonstration that stereotype threat negatively impacts older adults’ subjective assessments of their own abilities. It is also the first study to demonstrate an effect of stereotype threat within the domain of hearing. These results have important implications for researchers investigating age-related hearing decline. Stereotype threat can lead to overestimation of the prevalence of age-related hearing decline. It can also serve as a confounding variable when examining the psychosocial correlates of hearing loss. Because of this, researchers studying age-related hearing loss should aim to provide a stereotype-threat free testing environment and also include assessments of stereotype threat within their studies. PMID:26461273

  12. New supersymmetrizations of the generalized KDV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Stanciu, S.

    1993-03-01

    Recently we investigated a new supersymmetrization procedure for the KdV hierarchy inspired in some recent work on supersymmetric matrix models. We extend this procedure here for the generalized KdV hierarchies. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchies are generically nonlocal, expect for the case of Boussinesque which we treat in detail. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchy is integrable and bihamiltonian and contains the Boussinesque hierarchy as a subhierarchy. In a particular realization, we extend it by defining supersymmetric odd flows. We end with some comments on a slight modification of this supersymmetrization which yields local equations for any generalized KdV hierarchy. (orig.)

  13. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  14. Auditing an Online Self-reported Interventional Radiology Adverse Event Database for Compliance and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ezra A; Shyn, Paul B; Chick, Jeffrey F; Chauhan, Nikunj R

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether auditing an online self-reported interventional radiology quality assurance database improves compliance with record entry or improves the accuracy of adverse event (AE) reporting and grading. Physicians were trained in using the database before the study began. An audit of all database entries for the first 3 months, or the first quarter, was performed, at which point physicians were informed of the audit process; entries for the subsequent 3 months, or the second quarter, were again audited. Results between quarters were compared. Compliance with record entry improved from the first to second quarter, but reminders were necessary to ensure 100% compliance with record entry. Knowledge of the audit process did not significantly improve self-reporting of AE or accuracy of AE grading. However, auditing significantly changed the final AE reporting rates and grades. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heritability and environmental effects for self-reported periods with stuttering: A twin study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self-reporting. Using nation-wide questionnaire answers from 33,317 Danish twins, a univariate biometric analysis based on the liability threshold model was performed in order to estimate the heritability of stuttering. The self......-reported incidences for stuttering were from less than 4% for females to near 9% for males. Both probandwise concordance rate and tetrachoric correlation were substantially higher for monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, indicating substantial genetic influence on individual liability. Univariate biometric...... analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.84/0.81. Moderate unique environmental effects were also found. Genetic influence for stuttering was studied based on adult self...

  16. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P

    2015-09-19

    To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.

  17. General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joseph H; Gervais, Matthew M; Bryant, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about people's ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others' quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female) with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female). Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy. Target individuals had completed the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale. Judges viewed the videos in one of three conditions: complete audio, silent, or audio from which semantic content had been removed using low-pass filtering. Using a novel other-rating version of the LSRP, judges' ratings of targets' primary psychopathy levels were significantly positively associated with targets' self-reports, but only in the complete audio condition. Judge general trust and target LSRP interacted, such that judges higher in general trust made less accurate judgments with respect to targets higher in primary and total psychopathy. Results are consistent with a scenario in which psychopathic traits are maintained in human populations by negative frequency dependent selection operating through the costs of detecting psychopathy in others.

  18. General trust impedes perception of self-reported primary psychopathy in thin slices of social interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H Manson

    Full Text Available Little is known about people's ability to detect subclinical psychopathy from others' quotidian social behavior, or about the correlates of variation in this ability. This study sought to address these questions using a thin slice personality judgment paradigm. We presented 108 undergraduate judges (70.4% female with 1.5 minute video thin slices of zero-acquaintance triadic conversations among other undergraduates (targets: n = 105, 57.1% female. Judges completed self-report measures of general trust, caution, and empathy. Target individuals had completed the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP scale. Judges viewed the videos in one of three conditions: complete audio, silent, or audio from which semantic content had been removed using low-pass filtering. Using a novel other-rating version of the LSRP, judges' ratings of targets' primary psychopathy levels were significantly positively associated with targets' self-reports, but only in the complete audio condition. Judge general trust and target LSRP interacted, such that judges higher in general trust made less accurate judgments with respect to targets higher in primary and total psychopathy. Results are consistent with a scenario in which psychopathic traits are maintained in human populations by negative frequency dependent selection operating through the costs of detecting psychopathy in others.

  19. Laboratory and Self-Report Methods to Assess Reappraisal and Distraction in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Alexandra H; Henry, Lauren; Prussien, Kemar V; Vreeland, Allison; Smith, Michele; Adery, Laura H; Compas, Bruce E

    2018-06-07

    Coping and emotion regulation are central features of risk and resilience in childhood and adolescence, but research on these constructs has relied on different methods of assessment. The current study aimed to bridge the gap between questionnaire and experimental methods of measuring secondary control coping strategies, specifically distraction and cognitive reappraisal, and examine associations with symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. A community sample of 70 youth (ages 9-15) completed a novel experimental coping and emotion regulation paradigm and self-report measures of coping and emotion regulation and symptoms. Findings indicate that use of distraction and reappraisal during the laboratory paradigm was associated with lower levels of negative emotion during the task. Youth emotion ratings while implementing distraction, but not reappraisal, during the laboratory task were associated with youth self-reported use of secondary control coping in response to family stress. Youth symptoms of anxiety and depression were also significantly positively associated with negative emotion ratings during the laboratory task, and both laboratory task and self-reported coping and emotion regulation accounted for significant variance in symptoms in youth. Both questionnaire and laboratory methods to assess coping and emotion regulation in youth are important for understanding these processes as possible mechanisms of risk and resilience and continued integration of these methods is a priority for future research.

  20. Validity of LIDAS (LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report): a self-report online assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, M; Middeldorp, C M; de Geus, E J C; Lau, H M; Sinke, M; van Nieuwenhuizen, B; Smit, J H; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of valid, brief instruments for the assessment of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) that can be used in, for example, large-scale genomics, imaging or biomarker studies on depression. We developed the LIfetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), which assesses lifetime MDD diagnosis according to DSM criteria, and is largely based on the widely used Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Here, we tested the feasibility and determined the sensitivity and specificity for measuring lifetime MDD with this new questionnaire, with a regular CIDI as reference. Sensitivity and specificity analyses of the online lifetime MDD questionnaire were performed in adults with (n = 177) and without (n = 87) lifetime MDD according to regular index CIDIs, selected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Feasibility was tested in an additional non-selective, population-based sample of NTR participants (n = 245). Of the 753 invited persons, 509 (68%) completed the LIDAS, of which 419 (82%) did this online. User-friendliness of the instrument was rated high. Median completion time was 6.2 min. Sensitivity and specificity for lifetime MDD were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80-91%] and 80% (95% CI 72-89%), respectively. This LIDAS instrument gave a lifetime MDD prevalence of 20.8% in the population-based sample. Measuring lifetime MDD with an online instrument was feasible. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. The instrument gave a prevalence of lifetime MDD in line with reported population prevalences. LIDAS is a promising tool for rapid determination of lifetime MDD status in large samples, such as needed for genomics studies.

  1. International survey of self-reported medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ebba H; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine gender, age, and country variations in adolescents' self-reported medicine use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional school surveys of representative samples of 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys were used. The 1997/1998 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was referenced. A sta...

  2. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.; Aben, K.K.; Verrneulen, S.H.; den Heijer, M.; van Oort, I.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.; Schalken, JA; Kiemeney, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  3. Self-reported acne is not associated with prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Oort, I.M. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Schalken, J.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested an inverse association between acne vulgaris and the acne-related bacterium Propionibacterium acnes and prostate cancer (PCa). Self-reported acne might be an easily obtainable marker to identify men at relatively low risk of PCa and might be incorporated into

  4. Children's self-reported pain at the dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, J.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to get an insight into the pain report of children over two sequential dental visits. Furthermore, it was studied whether age, previous dental experience, level of dental anxiety and injection site were of influence on the self-reported pain of children during the

  5. Readability of Self-Report Measures of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Behar, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    As the demand for accountability in service provision settings increases, the need for valid methods for assessing clinical outcomes is of particular importance. Self-report measures of functioning are particularly useful in the assessment of psychological functioning, but a vital factor in their validity and transportability is the reading level…

  6. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ......BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now...... there is very little information published on this subject. METHODS: We conducted a study to validate the questionnaire used in an ongoing international case-control study on cellular phone use, the "Interphone study". Self-reported cellular phone use from 68 of 104 participants who took part in our study...... was compared with information derived from the network providers over a period of 3 months (taken as the gold standard). RESULTS: Using Spearman's rank correlation, the correlation between self-reported phone use and information from the network providers for cellular phone use in terms of the number of calls...

  7. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  8. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  9. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In conclusion, self-reported barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating well was a facilitator. These findings emphasise the need for better communication between patients and ...

  10. A Self-Report Measure of Assertiveness in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jane M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reported a self-report measure of adolescents' assertiveness. Items for the scale were presented to sixth-grade students. Factor analysis revealed factors of submissiveness, aggressiveness, and assertiveness. After the validational study, a small assertiveness training program indicated that training effects were obtained and could be generalized…

  11. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  12. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  13. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  14. Personality, Organizational Orientations and Self-Reported Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, David; Castka, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify competencies connecting personality, organizational orientations and self-reported learning outcomes (as measured by concise Likert-type scales), for individuals who are learning for their organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Five concise factor scales were constructed to represent aspects of personality. Three further…

  15. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roudijk, B.; Donders, R.; Stalmeier, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural

  16. Cognitive Abilities Relate to Self-Reported Hearing Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; George, Erwin L. J.; Houtgast, Tammo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH; Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Tobi, 1996) and…

  17. Cognitive abilities relate to self-reported hearing disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; George, E.L.J.; Houtgast, T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this explorative study, the authors investigated the relationship between auditory and cognitive abilities and self-reported hearing disability. Method: Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate hearing loss completed the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap (AIADH;

  18. Correlation between self-reported gestational age and ultrasound measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We studied the agreement between different measurements of gestational age, i.e. self-reported gestational age in the Danish National Birth Cohort Study, ultrasound-estimated gestational age from the medical records in one Danish county and gestational age from the Danish National...

  19. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  20. Self-reported sexual behaviour among adolescent girls in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Information about risk factors revealed in individual interviews and by the midwives taking a history was incongruent. Any approach for management of STIs, which is built on self-reported risk factors, needs careful assessment of reliability. Keywords: Adolescents, Risk factors, reliability, STI, Uganda

  1. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  2. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  3. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV

  4. Blouse sizing using self-reported body dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Byvoet, Michel B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The challenge for companies selling clothing over the internet is to combine a minimal requested effort of the visitor in entering (body) information with low-percentage no-fit returns. The purpose of this paper is to present a method that converts self-reported information to individual

  5. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  6. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Joost; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881

  7. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  8. Hierarchy in directed random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks have been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present some (qualitative) analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate, mainly numerically, the effects of different types of correlations. The behavior of the hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that the hierarchy does not change monotonically with the correlations and there is an optimal level of nonzero correlations maximizing the level of hierarchy.

  9. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  10. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  11. Self-reported trait mindfulness and affective reactivity: a motivational approach using multiple psychophysiological measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cosme

    Full Text Available As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51 passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN and late positive potential (LPP amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses

  12. Self-Reported Trait Mindfulness and Affective Reactivity: A Motivational Approach Using Multiple Psychophysiological Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Danielle; Wiens, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    As a form of attention, mindfulness is qualitatively receptive and non-reactive, and is thought to facilitate adaptive emotional responding. One suggested mechanism is that mindfulness facilitates disengagement from an affective stimulus and thereby decreases affective reactivity. However, mindfulness has been conceptualized as a state, intervention, and trait. Because evidence is mixed as to whether self-reported trait mindfulness decreases affective reactivity, we used a multi-method approach to study the relationship between individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness and electrocortical, electrodermal, electromyographic, and self-reported responses to emotional pictures. Specifically, while participants (N = 51) passively viewed pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant IAPS pictures, we recorded high-density (128 channels) electrocortical, electrodermal, and electromyographic data to the pictures as well as to acoustic startle probes presented during the pictures. Afterwards, participants rated their subjective valence and arousal while viewing the pictures again. If trait mindfulness spontaneously reduces general emotional reactivity, then for individuals reporting high rather than low mindfulness, response differences between emotional and neutral pictures would show relatively decreased early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes, decreased skin conductance responses, and decreased subjective ratings for valence and arousal. High mindfulness would also be associated with decreased emotional modulation of startle eyeblink and P3 amplitudes. Although results showed clear effects of emotion on the dependent measures, in general, mindfulness did not moderate these effects. For most measures, effect sizes were small with rather narrow confidence intervals. These data do not support the hypothesis that individual differences in self-reported trait mindfulness are related to spontaneous emotional responses during picture

  13. A note on the dispersionless BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-T.; Tu, M.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We study the integrable hierarchy underlying topological Landau-Ginzburg models of D-type proposed by Takasaki. Since this integrable hierarchy contains the dBKP hierarchy as a sub-hierarchy, we refer it to the extended dBKP (EdBKP) hierarchy. We give a dressing formulation to the EdBKP hierarchy and investigate additional symmetries associated with the solution space of the hierarchy. We obtain hodograph solutions of its finite-dimensional reductions via Riemann-Hilbert problem (twistor construction) and derive Baecklund transformations of the (2 + 1)-dimensional dBKP equation from additional flows. Finally, the modified partner of the dBKP hierarchy is also established through a Miura transformation

  14. The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self-reported

  16. Self-reported halitosis and emotional state: impact on oral conditions and treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimarchi Giuseppe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Halitosis represents a common dental condition, although sufferers are often not conscious of it. The aim of this study was to examine behavior in a sample of Italian subjects with reference to self-reported halitosis and emotional state, and specifically the presence of dental anxiety. Methods The study was performed on Italian subjects (N = 1052; range 15-65 years. A self-report questionnaire was used to detect self-reported halitosis and other variables possibly linked to it (sociodemographic data, medical and dental history, oral hygiene, and others, and a dental anxiety scale (DAS divided into two subscales that explore a patient's dental anxiety and dental anxiety concerning dentist-patient relations. Associations between self-reported halitosis and the abovementioned variables were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Correlations between the two groups, with self-perceived halitosis and without, were also investigated with dental anxiety and with the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Results The rate of self-reported halitosis was 19.39%. The factors linked with halitosis were: anxiety regarding dentist patient relations (relational dental anxiety (OR = 1.04, CI = 1.01-1.07, alcohol consumption (OR = 0.47, CI = 0.34-0.66, gum diseases (OR = 0.39, CI = 0.27-0.55, age > 30 years (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.00-1.02, female gender (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.98, poor oral hygiene (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.43-0.98, general anxiety (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.49-0.90, and urinary system pathologies (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.30-0.70. Other findings emerged concerning average differences between subjects with or without self-perceived halitosis, dental anxiety and the importance attributed to one's own mouth and that of others. Conclusions Halitosis requires professional care not only by dentists, but also psychological support as it is a problem that leads to avoidance behaviors and thereby limits relationships. It

  17. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  18. Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)

  19. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  20. A note on the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depireux, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, given the two boson representation of the conformal algebra W ∞ , the second Hamiltonian structure of the KP hierarchy, the author constructs a bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy for the two associated currents. The KP hierarchy appears as a composite of this new and simpler system. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the new hierarchy gives naturally all the Hamiltonian structures of the KP system

  1. A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, Blair

    2018-01-01

    Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This ‘hierarchy model’ takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies and generalizes it to c...

  2. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs

  3. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratyn, H. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs.

  4. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, N.; De Groot, M.; Hollowood, T.; Miramontes, L.

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical W-algebras, which arise as the second hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the W n (l) -algebras. (orig.)

  5. BBGKY hierarchy and dynamics of correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polishchuk, D.O.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the BBGKY hierarchy for the Fermi and Bose many-particle systems, using the von Neumann hierarchy for the correlation operators. The solution of the Cauchy problem of the formulated hierarchy in the case of an n-body interaction potential is constructed in the space of sequences of trace-class operators.

  6. Self-reported leisure time physical activity: a useful assessment tool in everyday health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödjer, Lars; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Rosengren, Annika; Björck, Lena; Grimby, Gunnar; Thelle, Dag S; Lappas, Georgios; Börjesson, Mats

    2012-08-24

    The individual physical activity level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, as well as a possible target for improving health outcome. However, today's widely adopted risk score charts, typically do not include the level of physical activity. There is a need for a simple risk assessment tool, which includes a reliable assessment of the level of physical activity. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyse the association between the self-reported levels of physical activity, according to the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS) question, and cardiovascular risk factors, specifically focusing on the group of individuals with the lowest level of self-reported PA. We used cross sectional data from the Intergene study, a random sample of inhabitants from the western part of Sweden, totalling 3588 (1685 men and 1903 women, mean age 52 and 51). Metabolic measurements, including serum-cholesterol, serum-triglycerides, fasting plasma-glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure and resting heart rate, as well as smoking and self-reported stress were related to the self-reported physical activity level, according to the modernized version of the SGPALS 4-level scale. There was a strong negative association between the self-reported physical activity level, and smoking, weight, waist circumference, resting heart rate, as well as to the levels of fasting plasma-glucose, serum-triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and self-reported stress and a positive association with the levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The individuals reporting the lowest level of PA (SGPALS, level 1) had the highest odds-ratios (OR) for having pre-defined levels of abnormal risk factors, such as being overweight (men OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.51-3.19; women OR 2.57, 95 % CI: 1.78-3.73), having an increased waist circumference (men OR 3.76, 95 % CI: 2.61-5.43; women OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.94-4.35) and for reporting stress (men OR 3.59, 95 % CI: 2

  7. Self-reported leisure time physical activity: a useful assessment tool in everyday health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödjer Lars

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The individual physical activity level is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death, as well as a possible target for improving health outcome. However, today´s widely adopted risk score charts, typically do not include the level of physical activity. There is a need for a simple risk assessment tool, which includes a reliable assessment of the level of physical activity. The aim of this study was therefore, to analyse the association between the self-reported levels of physical activity, according to the Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS question, and cardiovascular risk factors, specifically focusing on the group of individuals with the lowest level of self-reported PA. Methods We used cross sectional data from the Intergene study, a random sample of inhabitants from the western part of Sweden, totalling 3588 (1685 men and 1903 women, mean age 52 and 51. Metabolic measurements, including serum-cholesterol, serum-triglycerides, fasting plasma-glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure and resting heart rate, as well as smoking and self-reported stress were related to the self-reported physical activity level, according to the modernized version of the SGPALS 4-level scale. Results There was a strong negative association between the self-reported physical activity level, and smoking, weight, waist circumference, resting heart rate, as well as to the levels of fasting plasma-glucose, serum-triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, and self-reported stress and a positive association with the levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL. The individuals reporting the lowest level of PA (SGPALS, level 1 had the highest odds-ratios (OR for having pre-defined levels of abnormal risk factors, such as being overweight (men OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.51-3.19; women OR 2.57, 95 % CI: 1.78-3.73, having an increased waist circumference (men OR 3.76, 95 % CI: 2.61-5.43; women OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1

  8. Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through...

  9. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-reported oral and general health in relation to socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2017-07-26

    During the past two decades, several scientific publications from different countries have shown how oral health in the population varies with social determinants. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-reported oral and general health in relation to different measures of socioeconomic position. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of the adult population in Sweden (n = 3500, mean age 53.4 years, 53.1% women). The response rate was 49.7%. Subjects were interviewed by telephone, using a questionnaire including items on self-reported oral and general health, socioeconomic position and lifestyle. A significant gradient was found for both oral and general health: the lower the socioeconomic position, the poorer the health. Socioeconomic position and, above all, economic measures were strongly associated with general health (OR 3.95) and with oral health (OR 1.76) if having an income below SEK 200,000 per year. Similar results were found in multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender and lifestyle variables. For adults, there are clear socioeconomic gradients in self-reported oral and general health, irrespective of different socioeconomic measures. Action is needed to ensure greater equity of oral and general health.

  11. Weight Bias: A Systematic Review of Characteristics and Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Emilie; Alberga, Angela; Russell-Mathew, Shelly; McLaren, Lindsay; von Ranson, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias. We rated each questionnaire's psychometric properties based on initial validation reports and subsequent use, and examined item language. Our systematic review identified 40 original self-report questionnaires. Most questionnaires were brief, demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and tapped key cognitive and affective dimensions of weight bias such as stereotypes and blaming. Current psychometric evidence is incomplete for many questionnaires, particularly with regard to the properties of test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change as well as discriminant and structural validity. Most questionnaires were developed prior to debate surrounding terminology preferences, and do not employ people-first language in the items administered to participants. We provide information and recommendations for clinicians and researchers in selecting psychometrically sound measures of weight bias for various purposes and populations, and discuss future directions to improve measurement of this construct. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  12. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  13. Self-reported racial discrimination and endothelial reactivity to acute stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Tennen, Howard; Finan, Patrick H; Ghuman, Nimrta; Burg, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of self-reported racial discrimination on endothelial responses to acute laboratory mental stress among post-menopausal women. One-hundred thirteen women (n = 94 self-identified as White and n = 19 self-identified as racial/ethnic minority), 43% with type 2 diabetes, reported lifetime experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination. Repeated assessments of flow-mediated dilation were performed at baseline, immediately after 5 min of mental arithmetic and at 20-min recovery. Both White and racial/ethnic minority women reported lifetime discrimination, with rates significantly higher among minorities. Self-reported lifetime discrimination was associated with attenuated flow-mediated dilation at recovery. Confounding variables, including clinical characteristics, mood, personality traits, other life stressors and general distress, did not better account for the effect of racial discrimination. Neither race/ethnicity nor diabetes status moderated the effect. The perceived stressfulness of the mental arithmetic was not associated with the endothelial response. In conclusion, self-reported lifetime discrimination is associated with attenuated endothelial recovery from acute mental stress. Elucidating the effects of discrimination and the biological mechanisms through which it affects the vasculature may suggest interventions to improve health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Emotional skills and competence questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Takšić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of emotional intelligence (EI initially appeared in academic journals in the early 1990s. The majority of studies on emotional intelligence have relied on self-ratings. In spite of the critics of self-report scales, there are a large number of self-report measures of EI present in recent literature. The main aim of this paper is to present the constructing procedure, together with the basic psychometric properties of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ as a self-report measure of EI. Originally, this measure was developed in Croatian settings, using the theoretical framework from the Mayer-Salovey emotional intelligence model. The ESCQ instrument has been translated into several languages. The results have showed that ESCQ has three subscales with decent reliability. They share some amount of common variance with similar well-established constructs such as alexithymia, social skills, and personality traits, but they are not correlated with cognitive abilities. However, due to its sufficient reliability, a great deal of unique variance remains. This unique variance of the ESCQ scales has an incremental contribution in explaining life satisfaction and empathy (as the crucial criteria for EI, and has significant relations with relevant real-life criteria such as quality of leadership, health risk behaviors, and school achievement.

  15. Faculty self-reported experience with racial and ethnic discrimination in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Neeraja B; Friedman, Robert H; Ash, Arlene S; Franco, Shakira; Carr, Phyllis L

    2004-03-01

    Despite the need to recruit and retain minority faculty in academic medicine, little is known about the experiences of minority faculty, in particular their self-reported experience of racial and ethnic discrimination at their institutions. To determine the frequency of self-reported experience of racial/ethnic discrimination among faculty of U.S. medical schools, as well as associations with outcomes, such as career satisfaction, academic rank, and number of peer-reviewed publications. A 177-item self-administered mailed survey of U.S. medical school faculty. Twenty-four randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 1,979 full-time faculty, stratified by medical school, specialty, graduation cohort, and gender. Frequency of self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic bias and discrimination. The response rate was 60%. Of 1,833 faculty eligible, 82% were non-Hispanic white, 10% underrepresented minority (URM), and 8% non-underrepresented minority (NURM). URM and NURM faculty were substantially more likely than majority faculty to perceive racial/ethnic bias in their academic environment (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; P discrimination by a superior or colleague. Faculty with such reported experiences had lower career satisfaction scores than other faculty (P discrimination achieved academic productivity similar to that of other faculty.

  16. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Brissos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P<0.001, presented significantly worse family support (P=0.0236, and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers’ SWL was significantly correlated to patients’ quality of sleep (P<0.0001 for all domains. Patient’ and caregivers’ SWL was negatively affected by patients’ poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.

  17. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609

  18. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  19. Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamieson Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. Methods 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was used to calculate risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Results REALD-30 scores were lower among those who believed teeth should be infrequently brushed, believed cordial was good for teeth, did not own a toothbrush or owned a toothbrush but brushed irregularly. Tooth removal risk indicators included being older, problem-based dental attendance and believing cordial was good for teeth. Poor self-rated oral health risk indicators included being older, healthcare card ownership, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance, believing teeth should be brushed infrequently and irregular brushing. Perceived need for dental care risk indicators included being female and problem-based dental attendance. Perceived gum disease risk indicators included being older and irregular brushing. Feeling uncomfortable about oro-facial appearance risk indicators included problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Food avoidance risk indicators were being female, difficulty paying dental bills, problem-based dental attendance and irregular brushing. Poor oral health-related quality of life risk indicators included difficulty paying dental bills and problem-based dental attendance. Conclusions REALD-30 was significantly associated with oral health literacy-related outcomes. Oral health literacy-related outcomes were risk indicators for each of the poor self-reported oral health domains among this marginalised population.

  20. Tobacco use and self-reported morbidity among rural Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-09-01

    Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of

  1. Concordance of self-reported and medical chart information on cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Xiao Ou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information is an important tool for collecting clinical information for epidemiologic studies and in clinical settings where electronic medical records are not employed and shared. Methods Using data collected from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (SBCSS, a population-based, prospective cohort study of 5,042 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Shanghai, China, we compared the concordance of patient questionnaire responses to a survey administered approximately 6 months after cancer diagnosis with medical chart information obtained from the diagnostic hospitals for several disease and treatment-related variables. Results Of 5,042 SBCSS participants, medical chart information was available for 4,948 women (98.1%. Concordance between patient self-reported and medical chart information was high for the majority of disease-related variables, including: diagnosing hospital (agreement: 98.7%, kappa: 0.99, type of surgery conducted (94.0%, 0.53, ER/PR status (94.5%, 0.91, and tumor position (98.2%, 0.97, as well as for important calendar dates, such as date of diagnosis, surgery, and first chemotherapy treatment. The 10 most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs were all reported with agreement rates of at least 82%, with associated kappa values that ranged from 0.41 for calcium folinate to 0.76 for vinorelbine. Conclusions Our study found high validity for patient self-reported information for a variety of disease and treatment-related variables, suggesting the utility of self-reports as an important source of clinical information for both epidemiological research and patient care.

  2. Social capital, political trust and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.

  3. Accurate assessment of adherence: self-report and clinician report vs electronic monitoring of nebulizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Goodacre, Lynne; Sutton, Chris; Pollard, Kim; Conway, Steven; Peckham, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    People with cystic fibrosis have a high treatment burden. While uncertainty remains about individual patient level of adherence to medication, treatment regimens are difficult to tailor, and interventions are difficult to evaluate. Self- and clinician-reported measures are routinely used despite criticism that they overestimate adherence. This study assessed agreement between rates of adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments when measured by self-report, clinician report, and electronic monitoring suitable for long-term use. Seventy-eight adults with cystic fibrosis were questioned about their adherence to prescribed nebulizer treatments over the previous 3 months. Self-report was compared with clinician report and stored adherence data downloaded from the I-Neb nebulizer system. Adherence measures were expressed as a percentage of the prescribed regimen, bias was estimated by the paired difference in mean (95% CI) patient and clinician reported and actual adherence. Agreement between adherence measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI), and disagreements for individuals were displayed using Bland-Altman plots. Patient-identified prescriptions matched the medical record prescription. Median self-reported adherence was 80% (interquartile range, 60%-95%), whereas median adherence measured by nebulizer download was 36% (interquartile range, 5%-84.5%). Nine participants overmedicated and underreported adherence. Median clinician report ranged from 50% to 60%, depending on profession. Extensive discrepancies between self-report and clinician report compared with nebulizer download were identified for individuals. Self- and clinician-reporting of adherence does not provide accurate measurement of adherence when compared with electronic monitoring. Using inaccurate measures has implications for treatment burden, clinician prescribing practices, cost, and accuracy of trial data.

  4. Clinical retrospective study of self-reported penicillin allergy on dental implant failures and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David; Noroozi, Mehdi; Shariati, Batoul; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated according to the life table method and the Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to data. Out of 5,106 implants placed in patients taking penicillin it was found that 0.8% failed, while 2.1% failed of the 470 implants placed for patients with self-reported allergy to penicillin (P = .002). Odds of failure for implants placed in penicillin-allergic patients were 3.1 times higher than in non-allergic patients. For immediate implant placement, penicillin-allergic patients had a failure rate 10-times higher than the non-allergic cohort. Timing of implant failure occurring within 6 months following implantation was 80% in the penicillin-allergic group versus 54% in the non-allergic group. From the 48 implant sites showing postoperative infection: penicillin-allergic patients had an infection rate of 3.4% (n = 16/470) versus 0.6% in the non-allergic group (n = 32/5,106) (P penicillin allergy was associated with a higher rate of infection, and primarily affected early implant failure.

  5. Perceptions of community, social capital, and how they affect self-reported health: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, O; Meissen, G J; Merkle, E C

    2017-11-01

    The link between social capital and self-reported health has been widely explored. On the other hand, we know less about the relationship between social capital, community socioeconomic characteristics, and non-social capital-related individual differences, and about their impact on self-reported health in community settings. Cross-sectional study design with a proportional sample of 7965 individuals from 20 US communities were analyzed using multilevel linear regression models, where individuals were nested within communities. The response rates ranged from 13.5% to 25.4%. Findings suggest that perceptions of the community and individual level socioeconomic characteristics were stronger predictors of self-reported health than were social capital or community socioeconomic characteristics. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing social capital should first assess community member's perceptions of their communities to uncover potential assets to help increase social capital. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  7. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  8. Assessing Adult Learning Preferences Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doris; McCool, John; Napieralski, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Graduate students (n=134) used the analytic hierarchy process, which weights expressed preferences, to rate four learning activities: lectures, discussion/reflection, individual projects, and group projects. Their preferences for discussion/reflection and individual projects were independent of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.…

  9. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  10. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  11. Information, Authority, and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; In-Uck, Park

    2010-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. By studying a model with one principal and two agents where one agent can gather information that is valuable for the principal's project choice and the other agent provides effort to the chosen project, we study when the principal can benefit from such delegation relative to centralization. We show that beneficial delegation is possible when complete con...

  12. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  13. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. A Self-report of reading disabilities for adults: ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Giménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a self-report questionnaire on reading-writing difficulties for adults in Spanish (ATLAS is presented. Studies that use self-report questionnaires as a tool for screening of reading-writing difficulties in adults were reviewed. Two studies were carried out to determine the validity and reliability of ATLAS. The first study was aimed to select the critical items and to assess their reliability and their ability to discriminate. In the second study the assessment reported through the answers to the questionnaire was contrasted with the results of psychometric tests. Results showed that (a items were suitable descriptors for adult difficulties, (b there were significant correlations between self-report scores and reading measures, and (c the items discriminate between good and poor readers. The results of this study demonstrated that ATLAS is a sensitive tool to screen adults with reading difficulties. As a further advantage, ATLAS is an easy-to-use and time-saving instrument.

  15. Readability and comprehension of self-report binge eating measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lauren K; McHugh, R Kathryn; Pratt, Elizabeth M; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2013-04-01

    The validity of self-report binge eating instruments among individuals with limited literacy is uncertain. This study aims to evaluate reading grade level and multiple domains of comprehension of 13 commonly used self-report assessments of binge eating for use in low-literacy populations. We evaluated self-report binge eating measures with respect to reading grade levels, measure length, formatting and linguistic problems. All measures were written at a reading grade level higher than is recommended for patient materials (above the 5th to 6th grade level), and contained several challenging elements related to comprehension. Correlational analyses suggested that readability and comprehension elements were distinct contributors to measure difficulty. Individuals with binge eating who have low levels of educational attainment or limited literacy are often underrepresented in measure validation studies. Validity of measures and accurate assessment of symptoms depend on an individual's ability to read and comprehend instructions and items, and these may be compromised in populations with lower levels of literacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  17. A model of Yukawa hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.K.; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present a model for the observed hierarchies among the Yukawa couplings of the standard model in the context of an effective low energy theory with an anomalous U(1) symmetry. This symmetry, a generic feature of superstring compactification, is a remnant of the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism. The gauge group is that of the standard model, augmented by X, the anomalous U(1), and two family-dependent phase symmetries Y (1) and Y (2) . The correct hierarchies are reproduced only when sin 2 θ w = 3/8 at the cut-off. To cancel anomalies, right-handed neutrinos and other standard model singlets must be introduced. Independently of the charges of the right-handed neutrinos, this model produces the same neutrino mixing matrix and an inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. The heaviest is the electron neutrino with a mass ∼ 1 meV, and mixing of the order of λ c 3 with each of the other two neutrinos

  18. Impact of Burnout on Self-Reported Patient Care Among Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave W. Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout is a syndrome of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment. Emergency physicians (EPs experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians. Burnout is associated with greater rates of self-reported suboptimal care among surgeons and internists. The association between burnout and suboptimal care among EPs is unknown. The objective of the study was to evaluate burnout rates among attending and resident EPs and examine their relationship with self-reported patient care practices. Methods: In this cross-sectional study burnout was measured at two university-based emergency medicine residency programs with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We also measured depression, quality of life (QOL and career satisfaction using validated questionnaires. Six items assessed suboptimal care and the frequency with which they were performed. Results: We included 77 out of 155 (49.7% responses. The EP burnout rate was 57.1%, with no difference between attending and resident physicians. Residents were more likely to screen positive for depression (47.8% vs 18.5%, p=0.012 and report lower QOL scores (6.7 vs 7.4 out of 10, p=0.036 than attendings. Attendings and residents reported similar rates of career satisfaction (85.2% vs 87.0%, p=0.744. Burnout was associated with a positive screen for depression (38.6% vs 12.1%, p=0.011 and lower career satisfaction (77.3% vs 97.0%, p=0.02. EPs with high burnout were significantly more likely to report performing all six acts of suboptimal care. Conclusion: A majority of EPs demonstrated high burnout. EP burnout was significantly associated with higher frequencies of self-reported suboptimal care. Future efforts to determine if provider burnout is associated with negative changes in actual patient care are necessary.

  19. Self-reported temporomandibular disorder symptoms and severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Ekholm, Heidi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Peltomäki, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically. Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056). In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.

  20. The (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral relativistic Toda hierarchy related to the generalized discrete Painleve hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zuonong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will concentrate on the topic of integrable discrete hierarchies in 2+1 dimensions, and their connection with discrete Painleve hierarchies. By considering a (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral discrete linear problem, two new (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies-the 2+1 nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the 2+1 nonisospectral negative relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy-are constructed. It is shown that the reductions of the two new 2+1 nonisospectral lattice hierarchies lead to the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral Volterra lattice hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral negative Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain two new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies and two new ordinary difference hierarchies which are direct reductions of the two 2+1 nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies. One of the two difference hierarchies yields our previously obtained generalized discrete first Painleve (dP I ) hierarchy and another one yields a generalized alternative discrete second Painleve (alt-dP II ) hierarchy

  1. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Relationship between Self-Reported Executive Functioning and Risk-Taking Behavior in Urban Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Joshua; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Smith, Dale; Hunter, Scott J

    2018-01-03

    Introduction: Almost 2 million U.S. youth are estimated to live on the streets, in shelters, or in other types of temporary housing at some point each year. Both their age and living situations make them more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, particularly during adolescence, a time of increased risk taking. Much of self-control appears related to the development of the prefrontal cortex, which is at a particularly crucial period of elaboration and refinement during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Executive processes like decision-making, inhibition, planning, and reasoning may be vulnerable to adversity experienced as a result of homelessness and related impoverishment during childhood and adolescence. No study to date, to our knowledge, has directly investigated differences in risk-taking by homeless youth as it relates to their developing executive control. Objective: Examine the relationship between the level of self-reported executive function (EF) and engagement in risk taking behaviors among a sample of shelter-living urban homeless youth. We predicted that homeless youth who have lower levels of self-reported EF would more readily engage in risky behaviors that could lead to negative outcomes. Participants: One hundred and forty-nine youths between 18 and 22 years of age were recruited from homeless agencies in Chicago. Of this study sample, 53% were female and 76% African American. Measures: All participants completed, as part of a broader neuropsychological assessment, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Analyses: Groups were separated based on level of self-reported EF, with two groups identified: High self-reported EF fell >1 SD above the normative average, and low self-reported EF fell >1 SD below the normative average. All analyses utilized Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results and

  3. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Rhead

    Full Text Available As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence.Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560 provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates.94.3% (528/560 and 92.7% (519/560 of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well.Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that

  4. Might ART Adherence Estimates Be Improved by Combining Biomarker and Self-Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhead, Rebecca; Masimirembwa, Collen; Cooke, Graham; Takaruza, Albert; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mutsimhi, Cosmas; Gregson, Simon

    2016-01-01

    As we endeavour to examine rates of viral suppression in PLHIV, reliable data on ART adherence are needed to distinguish between the respective contributions of poor adherence and treatment failure on high viral load. Self-reported data are susceptible to response bias and although biomarker data on drug presence and concentration can provide a superior, alternative method of measurement, complications due to drug-drug interactions and genetic variations can cause some inaccuracies. We investigate the feasibility of combining both biomarker and self-report data to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Data were taken from a large general-population survey in the Manicaland province, Zimbabwe, conducted in 2009-2011. HIV-infected adults who had initiated ART (N = 560) provided self-report data on adherence and dried blood spot samples that were analysed for traces of ART medication. A new three-category measure of ART adherence was constructed, based on biomarker data but using self-report data to adjust for cases with abnormally low and high drug concentrations due to possible drug-drug interactions and genetic factors, and was assessed for plausibility using survey data on socio-demographic correlates. 94.3% (528/560) and 92.7% (519/560) of the sample reported faithful adherence to their medication and had traces of ART medication, respectively. The combined measure estimated good evidence of ART adherence at 69% and excellent evidence of adherence at 53%. The regression analysis results showed plausible patterns of ART adherence by socio-demographic status with men and younger participants being more likely to adhere poorly to medication, and higher socio-economic status individuals and those living in more urban locations being more likely to adhere well. Biomarker and self-reported measures of adherence can be combined in a meaningful way to produce a potentially more accurate measure of ART adherence. Results indicate that ART adherence

  5. Self-report and long-term field measures of MP3 player use: how accurate is self-report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnuff, C D F; Fligor, B J; Arehart, K H

    2013-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usage patterns of portable listening device (PLD) listeners, and the relationships between self-report measures and long-term dosimetry measures of listening habits. This study used a descriptive correlational design. Participants (N = 52) were 18-29 year old men and women who completed surveys. A randomly assigned subset (N = 24) of participants had their listening monitored by dosimetry for one week. Median weekly noise doses reported and measured through dosimetry were low (9-93%), but 14.3% of participants reported exceeding a 100% noise dose weekly. When measured by dosimetry, 16.7% of participants exceeded a 100% noise dose weekly. The self-report question that best predicted the dosimetry-measured dose asked participants to report listening duration and usual listening level on a visual-analog scale. This study reports a novel dosimetry system that can provide accurate measures of PLD use over time. When not feasible, though, the self-report question described could provide a useful research or clinical tool to estimate exposure from PLD use. Among the participants in this study, a small but substantial percentage of PLD users incurred exposure from PLD use alone that increases their risk of music-induced hearing loss.

  6. Quality issues of self-report of hypertension: analysis of a population representative sample of older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alan Chung-Hong; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the quality of self-report of hypertension and examine the factors associated with under- and over-reporting of hypertension in older Taiwanese. Data for this analysis were from the Social Environment and Biomarkers Study in Taiwan 2000, which involved a national sample of 1021 Taiwanese over 54 years of age. We performed binary classification tests to compare the prevalence rates of self-reported vs. clinically measured hypertension according to World Health Organization (WHO) (blood pressure ≥ 160/95 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) and JNC-6 (140/90 mm Hg or on hypertension medication) definitions. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the potential factors associated with under- or over-reporting of blood pressure status. Results showed the test characteristics of self-reports were: sensitivity 73%, specificity 93%, and kappa = 0.68 (p WHO definition; and sensitivity 51%, specificity 95% and kappa = 0.43 (p definition. Old age was associated with over-reporting whereas having no health checkup during the past 12 months was associated with under-reporting. The relatively low agreement between self-reports and clinically measured hypertension (JNC-6 definition) was mainly due to the lack of a well-defined hypertension practice guideline and the failure of clinicians to clearly inform patients of their diagnoses. The consistency of hypertension practice guidelines and the effectiveness of informing the patients of their diagnoses are two main factors impacting the quality of self-report of hypertension in elderly Taiwanese. Better self-reports of health data can improve the efficiency of public health surveillance efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  8. A differential-difference hierarchy associated with relativistic Toda and Volterra hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui; Dai Huihui

    2008-01-01

    By embedding a free function into a compatible zero curvature equation, we enlarge the original differential-difference hierarchy into a new hierarchy with the free function which still admits zero curvature representation. The new hierarchy not only includes the original hierarchy, but also the well-known relativistic Toda hierarchy and the Volterra hierarchy as special reductions by properly choosing the free function. Infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformation for a representative differential-difference system are constructed based on its Lax representation. The exact solutions follow by applying the Darboux transformation

  9. Self-Reported Appetite and Intake Adequacy In Patients With Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.

  10. Agreement between self-reported and physically verified male circumcision status in Nyanza region, Kenya: Evidence from the TASCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoyo-June, Elijah; Agot, Kawango; Mboya, Edward; Grund, Jonathan; Musingila, Paul; Emusu, Donath; Soo, Leonard; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    significantly by age group based on chi-square test. Rate of consenting to physical verification of MC status differed by client characteristics; unemployed men were more likely to consent to physical verification (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48, (95% CI, 1.30-1.69) compared to employed men and those with post-secondary education were less likely to consent to physical verification than those with primary education or less (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, (95% CI, 0.51-0.74). In this Kenyan context, both sensitivity and specificity of self-reported MC status was high; therefore, MC prevalence estimates based on self-reported MC status should be deemed accurate and applicable for planning. However MC programs should assess accuracy of self-reported MC status periodically for any secular changes that may undermine its usefulness for estimating community MC prevalence in their unique settings.

  11. Accuracy of self-reports of fecal occult blood tests and test results among individuals in the carpentry trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Samsa, Gregory P; Dement, John; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Green, La Sonya G; Pompeii, Lisa; Ransohoff, David F

    2003-11-01

    Inaccuracy in self-reports of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening procedures (e.g., over- or underreporting) may interfere with individuals adhering to appropriate screening intervals, and can blur the true effects of physician recommendations to screen and the effects of interventions designed to promote screening. We assessed accuracy of self-report of having a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within a 1-year window based on receipt of FOBT kits among individuals aged 50 and older in the carpentry trade (N = 658) who were off-schedule for having had a FOBT. Indices of evaluating accuracy of self-reports (concordance, specificity, false-positive and false-negative rates) were calculated relative to receipt of a mailed FOBT. Among those who mailed a completed FOBT, we assessed accuracy of reporting the test result. Participants underestimated having performed a FOBT (false-negative rate of 44%). Accuracy was unrelated to perceptions of getting or worrying about CRC or family history. Self-reports of having a negative FOBT result more consistently matched the laboratory result (specificity 98%) than having a positive test result (sensitivity 63%). Contrary to other findings, participants under- rather than over reported FOBT screening. Results suggest greater efforts are needed to enhance accurate recall of FOBT screening.

  12. Neutrino mass matrix and hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaus, Peter; Meshkov, Sydney

    2003-01-01

    We build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δsol and Δatm, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, Mν and a mixing matrix, U, where both Mν and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ2 = m2/m3 = √(Δsol/Δatm) ≅ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m1, (m1 ρΛ4m3), while κ scales s13 to the experimental upper limit, s13 = κΛ2 ≅ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β-decay experiments is 4 x 10-3eV if s13 = 0 and 6 x 10-3eV if s13 is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation

  13. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  14. Self-reported Medication Adherence and CKD Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Cedillo-Couvert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the general population, medication nonadherence contributes to poorer outcomes. However, little is known about medication adherence among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We evaluated the association of self-reported medication adherence with CKD progression and all-cause death in patients with CKD. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 3305 adults with mild-to-moderate CKD enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC Study, the baseline self-reported medication adherence was assessed by responses to 3 questions and categorized as high, medium, and low. CKD progression (50% decline in eGFR or incident end-stage renal disease and all-cause death were measured using multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Results: Of the patients, 68% were categorized as high adherence, 17% medium adherence, and 15% low adherence. Over a median follow-up of 6 years, there were 969 CKD progression events and 675 deaths. Compared with the high-adherence group, the low-adherence group experienced increased risk for CKD progression (hazard ratio = 1.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.54 after adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, cardiovascular medications, number of medication types, and depressive symptoms. A similar association existed between low adherence and all-cause death, but did not reach standard statistical significance (hazard ratio = 1.14 95% confidence interval = 0.88, 1.47. Conclusion: Baseline self-reported low medication adherence was associated with an increased risk for CKD progression. Future work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this association and to develop interventions to improve adherence. Keywords: CKD, death, medication adherence, progression

  15. Adjusting to future demands in healthcare: Curriculum changes and nursing students' self-reported professional competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theander, Kersti; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Carlsson, Marianne; Florin, Jan; Gardulf, Ann; Johansson, Eva; Lindholm, Christina; Nordström, Gun; Nilsson, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Nursing competence is of significant importance for patient care. Newly graduated nursing students rate their competence as high. However, the impact of different designs of nursing curricula on nursing students' self-reported nursing competence areas is seldom reported. To compare newly graduated nursing students' self-reported professional competence before and after the implementation of a new nursing curriculum. The study had a descriptive comparative design. Nursing students, who graduated in 2011, having studied according to an older curriculum, were compared with those who graduated in 2014, after a new nursing curriculum with more focus on person-centered nursing had been implemented. A higher education nursing program at a Swedish university. In total, 119 (2011 n=69, 2014 n=50) nursing students responded. Nursing students' self-reported professional competencies were assessed with the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups of nursing students, who graduated in 2011 and 2014, respectively, with regard to age, sex, education, or work experience. Both groups rated their competencies as very high. Competence in value-based nursing was perceived to be significantly higher after the change in curriculum. The lowest competence, both in 2011 and 2014, was reported in education and supervision of staff and students. Our findings indicate that newly graduated nursing students - both those following the old curriculum and the first batch of students following the new one - perceive that their professional competence is high. Competence in value-based nursing, measured with the NPC scale, was reported higher after the implementation of a new curriculum, reflecting curriculum changes with more focus on person-centered nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity of self-reported exposure to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmä, Mikko; Koskinen, Aki; Ropponen, Annina; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience. 8% of the night shift workers changed to day work during the follow-up. Using pay-roll data as reference, questions on 'shift work with night shifts' and 'permanent night work' showed high sensitivity (96% and 90%) and specificity (92% and 97%). Self-reported 'regular day work' showed moderate sensitivity (73%), but high specificity (99%) and 'shift work without night shifts' showed low sensitivity (62%) and moderate specificity (87%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the age-adjusted, sex-adjusted and baseline fatigue-adjusted association between 'shift work without night shifts' and leisure-time fatigue was lower for self-reported compared with objective assessment (1.30, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.82, n=1707 vs 1.89, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.39, n=1627). In contrast, shift work with night shifts, compared with permanent day work, was similarly associated with fatigue in the two assessments (2.04, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.57, n=2311 vs 1.82, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.58, n=1804). The validity of self-reported assessment of shift work varies between work schedules. Exposure misclassification in self-reported data may contribute to bias towards the null in shift work without night shifts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Unrecorded alcohol has increased in the Nordic countries during recent years, above all in terms of cross-border trade. This implies that trends and levels of per capita consumption would look different without estimates of this source of alcohol, estimates that in Sweden and other countries are made through surveys. The overall aim is to analyse the validity of Swedish survey estimates of alcohol bought in the cross-border trade and possibly to develop weights that can be applied to such estimates. The analysis consists of comparing self-reported purchases of spirits, wine, cider/alcopops and beer at retail monopoly (Systembolaget) during 2008 (n = 18,000) with actual sales during the same period overall and monthly. Of the recorded amount of purchases at Systembolaget, 87% was reported in the survey, compared with the 40-60% usually found for self-reported consumption. Significant differences across beverages were revealed, showing a lower coverage rate for beer and spirits and a higher coverage rate for wine and cider. Changes in purchases of all beverages were captured fairly well, at least changes taking place from one month to another. Self-reported alcohol purchases achieve a higher coverage rate than found typically in studies based on self-reported use of alcohol. If adjustments are to be made to correct for underreporting in self-reported data on alcohol purchases, different weights should be applied to different beverages. Furthermore, at least major changes in how much alcohol is purchased in the population can be monitored using well-designed population surveys.

  18. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  19. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  20. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  1. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  2. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  3. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  4. Alcohol consumption and self-reported (SF12) physical and mental health among working aged-men in a typical Russian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Nete; Gil, Artyom; Keenan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION: Among working age male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting......AIM: To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING: The city...... of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-9. PARTICIPANTS: 1031 men aged 25 to 60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol...

  5. Self-Reported Health Among Recently Incarcerated Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    We examined self-reported health among formerly incarcerated mothers. We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 4096), a longitudinal survey of mostly unmarried parents in urban areas, to estimate the association between recent incarceration (measured as any incarceration in the past 4 years) and 5 self-reported health conditions (depression, illicit drug use, heavy drinking, fair or poor health, and health limitations), net of covariates including health before incarceration. In adjusted logistic regression models, recently incarcerated mothers, compared with their counterparts, have an increased likelihood of depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 2.17), heavy drinking (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.68), fair or poor health (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.08, 2.06), and health limitations (OR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.50). This association is similar across racial/ethnic subgroups and is larger among mothers who share children with fathers who have not been recently incarcerated. Recently incarcerated mothers struggle with even more health conditions than expected given the disadvantages they experience before incarceration. Furthermore, because incarceration is concentrated among those who are most disadvantaged, incarceration may increase inequalities in population health.

  6. Self-Reported Acute and Chronic Voice Disorders in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Barbosa, Luiza Augusta Rosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Morais, Renata Martins; de Sousa, Kamilla Ferreira; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify factors associated with self-reported acute and chronic voice disorders among municipal elementary school teachers in the city of Montes Claros, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The dependent variable, self-reported dysphonia, was determined via a single question, "Have you noticed changes in your voice quality?" and if so, a follow-up question queried the duration of this change, acute or chronic. The independent variables were dichotomized and divided into five categories: sociodemographic and economic data; lifestyle; organizational and environmental data; health-disease processes; and voice. Analyses of associated factors were performed via a hierarchical multiple logistic regression model. The present study included 226 teachers, of whom 38.9% reported no voice disorders, 35.4% reported an acute disorder, and 25.7% reported a chronic disorder. Excessive voice use daily, consuming more than one alcoholic drink per time, and seeking medical treatment because of voice disorders were associated factors for acute and chronic voice disorders. Consuming up to three glasses of water per day was associated with acute voice disorders. Among teachers who reported chronic voice disorders, teaching for over 15 years and the perception of disturbing or unbearable noise outside the school were both associated factors. Identification of organizational, environmental, and predisposing risk factors for voice disorders is critical, and furthermore, a vocal health promotion program may address these issues. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Reported Disability in Adults with Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported disability in performing daily life activities was assessed in adults with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ. 262 participants were recruited into three BMI groups: Group I: 35–39.99 kg/m2; Group II: 40–44.99 kg/m2; Group III: ≥45.0 kg/m2. Progressively increasing HAQ scores were documented with higher BMI; Group I HAQ score: 0.125 (median (range: 0–1.75; Group II HAQ score: 0.375 (0–2.5; Group III HAQ score: 0.75 (0–2.65 (Group III versus II P 0. The prevalence of this degree of disability increased with increasing BMI and age. It also correlated to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and clinical depression, but not to gender. Our data suggest that severe obesity is associated with self-reported disability in performing common daily life activities, with increasing degree of disability as BMI increases over 35 kg/m2. Functional assessment is crucial in obesity management, and establishing the disability profiles of obese patients is integral to both meet the specific healthcare needs of individuals and develop evidence-based public health programs, interventions, and priorities.

  8. Self-reported occupational physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether workers with the combination of high occupational physical activity (OPA) and low cardiorespiratory fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards......) and cardiorespiratory fitness (low, same and higher as peers) at baseline. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 257 and 852 individuals died from CVD and any cause, respectively. In the fully-adjusted model, an increased risk for CVD mortality was found for those with low compared to high self......-reported cardiorespiratory fitness [hazard ratio (HR) 2.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-3.38), for those with high compared to low OPA (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.05-2.00), and for those with high compared to low OPA within the strata of low self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness (HR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.46). Moreover...

  9. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Frequency of self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in Brazil: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lylla Winzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of official data on rape has been a challenge for researchers in Brazil. Two recently published studies were based on law enforcement and medical records. Although these studies represent important progress in research on rape in the country, they have several limitations. In order to obtain more realistic rates, the current article reviews Brazilian studies on self-reported sexual aggression and victimization in individuals over 14 years of age. Forty-one studies were identified through electronic searches and reference verification. From 1% to 40% of women and 1% to 35% of men reported some form of victimization in the previous year. The male perpetration incidence ranged from 2% to 44%. Despite the wide variability, these rates were much higher than those provided by official data. The results suggest that sexual orientation is associated with vulnerability. Mixed findings were found concerning race. Most studies were based on convenience samples and focused on female victimization. Male victimization has received increasing attention, but studies on self-reported perpetration are still limited.

  11. Self-reported mood, general health, wellbeing and employment status in adults with suspected DCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Amanda; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-04-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affects around 2-6% of the population and is diagnosed on the basis of poor motor coordination in the absence of other neurological disorders. Its psychosocial impact has been delineated in childhood but until recently there has been little understanding of the implications of the disorder beyond this. This study aims to focus on the longer term impact of having DCD in adulthood and, in particular, considers the effect of employment on this group in relation to psychosocial health and wellbeing. Self-reported levels of life satisfaction, general health and symptoms of anxiety and depression were investigated in a group of adults with a diagnosis of DCD and those with suspected DCD using a number of published self-report questionnaire measures. A comparison between those in and out of employment was undertaken. As a group, the unemployed adults with DCD reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Whilst there was no significant difference between those who were employed and unemployed on General Health Questionnaire scores; both groups reported numbers of health related issues reflective of general health problems in DCD irrespective of employment status. While both groups reported high levels of depressive symptoms and rated their satisfaction with life quite poorly, the unemployed group reported significantly more depressive symptoms and less satisfaction. Additionally, the results identified high levels of self-reported anxiety in both groups, with the majority sitting outside of the normal range using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. These findings add to the small but increasing body of literature on physical and mental health and wellbeing in adults with DCD. Furthermore, they are the first to provide insight into the possible mediating effects of employment status in adults with DCD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  13. Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlow, Christopher J; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3 cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9 ± 14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (allwork hours (ρ=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (ρ=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health Behaviors and Self-Reported Health Among Cancer Survivors by Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2015-03-01

    Health behaviors and self-reported health are important for understanding cancer survivor health. However, there is a paucity of published research about how cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-rated health vary by sexual orientation. This study examined cancer survivors' health behaviors and self-reported health by sexual orientation. This study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2010. Self-reported health and cancer-related health behaviors were compared by sexual orientation. Propensity score adjustment was used to account for differences in age, race, education, gender and health insurance status. Of the 602 survivors eligible for the study, 4.3% identified as sexual minorities. Sexual minorities were 2.6 times more likely to report a history of illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04, 5.35), and 60% less likely to report their current health status as good (aOR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.89), compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. These disparities persisted even after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that sexual minority cancer survivors may be at greater risk for poorer outcomes after cancer than other survivors. A possible explanation for the observed differences involves minority stress. Future research should test stress as an explanation for these differences. However, using population-methods to achieve this goal requires larger samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) cancer survivors.

  15. Physical activity, sleep quality, and self-reported fatigue across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Anita D; Seery, Emily; Kent, Jane A

    2016-05-01

    Deteriorating sleep quality and increased fatigue are common complaints of old age, and poor sleep is associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality rates. To date, little attention has been given to the potential effects of physical activity on sleep quality and fatigue in aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between activity, sleep and fatigue across the adult lifespan. Sixty community-dwelling adults were studied; 22 younger (21-29 years), 16 middle-aged (36-64 years), and 22 older (65-81 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Self-reported fatigue was evaluated with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Regression analysis revealed a positive relationship between activity and sleep quality in the older (r(2)=0.18, p=0.05), but not the younger (r(2) = 0.041, p = 0.35) or middle-aged (r(2) = 0.001, p = 0.93) groups. This association was mainly established by the relationship between moderate-vigorous activity and sleep quality (r(2)=0.37, p=0.003) in older adults. No association was observed between physical activity and self-reported fatigue in any of the groups (r(2) ≤ 0.14, p ≥ 0.15). However, an inverse relationship was found between sleep quality and fatigue in the older (r(2) = 0.29, p = 0.05), but not the younger or middle-aged (r(2) ≤ 0.13, p ≥ 0.10) groups. These results support the hypothesis that physical activity may be associated with sleep quality in older adults, and suggest that improved sleep may mitigate self-reported fatigue in older adults in a manner that is independent of activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do other-reports of counterproductive work behavior provide an incremental contribution over self-reports? A meta-analytic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Barratt, Clare L

    2012-05-01

    Much of the recent research on counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) has used multi-item self-report measures of CWB. Because of concerns over self-report measurement, there have been recent calls to collect ratings of employees' CWB from their supervisors or coworkers (i.e., other-raters) as alternatives or supplements to self-ratings. However, little is still known about the degree to which other-ratings of CWB capture unique and valid incremental variance beyond self-report CWB. The present meta-analysis investigates a number of key issues regarding the incremental contribution of other-reports of CWB. First, self- and other-ratings of CWB were moderately to strongly correlated with each other. Second, with some notable exceptions, self- and other-report CWB exhibited very similar patterns and magnitudes of relationships with a set of common correlates. Third, self-raters reported engaging in more CWB than other-raters reported them engaging in, suggesting other-ratings capture a narrower subset of CWBs. Fourth, other-report CWB generally accounted for little incremental variance in the common correlates beyond self-report CWB. Although many have viewed self-reports of CWB with skepticism, the results of this meta-analysis support their use in most CWB research as a viable alternative to other-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. On the robustness of Herlihy's hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Prasad

    1993-01-01

    A wait-free hierarchy maps object types to levels in Z(+) U (infinity) and has the following property: if a type T is at level N, and T' is an arbitrary type, then there is a wait-free implementation of an object of type T', for N processes, using only registers and objects of type T. The infinite hierarchy defined by Herlihy is an example of a wait-free hierarchy. A wait-free hierarchy is robust if it has the following property: if T is at level N, and S is a finite set of types belonging to levels N - 1 or lower, then there is no wait-free implementation of an object of type T, for N processes, using any number and any combination of objects belonging to the types in S. Robustness implies that there are no clever ways of combining weak shared objects to obtain stronger ones. Contrary to what many researchers believe, we prove that Herlihy's hierarchy is not robust. We then define some natural variants of Herlihy's hierarchy, which are also infinite wait-free hierarchies. With the exception of one, which is still open, these are not robust either. We conclude with the open question of whether non-trivial robust wait-free hierarchies exist.

  18. Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Xia Tie-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)

  19. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  20. Solution of the gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a novel solution to the gauge hierarchy problem in theories with softly broken supersymmetry. Quantum effects can resuscitate classically sick theories, producing the large scale from the small supersymmetry breaking scale. We use this mechanism to construct realistic SU(6) and SU(5) GUTs which do not suffer from gauge hierarchy or fine tuning problems. (orig.)

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Self-Reported Aggression in Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; T'Sjoen, Guy; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-05-01

    Although research on the relation between testosterone and aggression in humans is inconclusive, guidelines (including the World Professional Association for Transgender Health Standards of Care, edition 7) have warned for an increase in aggression in transgender men taking testosterone treatment. To investigate the association between levels of testosterone and aggression in treatment-seeking transgender people and explore the role of mental health psychopathology (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and social support in aggression in this population. Every transgender person invited for assessment at a national transgender health clinic in the United Kingdom during a 3-year period (2012-2015) completed self-report measures for interpersonal problems, including levels of aggression (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems [IIP-32]), symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and experiences of transphobia before and 1 year after the initiation of gender-affirming hormonal therapy. Correlations between prospective scores for the IIP-32 factor "too aggressive" and prospective levels of sex steroids, prospective psychological (HADS), and baseline psychosocial measurements were tested. Prospective scores for the factor "too aggressive" were not correlated to prospective serum testosterone levels. Results of 140 people (56 transgender men, 84 transgender women) were analyzed. A prospective increase in scores for the factor "too aggressive" of the IIP-32 in transgender men 1 year after being treated with testosterone treatment or a decrease of the IIP-32 aggression scores in transgender women 1 year after gender-affirming hormonal therapy was not found. However, a positive correlation was found between increasing HADS anxiety scores and increasing scores for the IIP-32 "too aggressive" score in the entire study population and a positive correlation with lower support

  2. q-Deformed KP Hierarchy and q-Deformed Constrained KP Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingsong; Li, Yinghua; Cheng, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Using the determinant representation of gauge transformation operator, we have shown that the general form of $au$ function of the $q$-KP hierarchy is a $q$-deformed generalized Wronskian, which includes the $q$-deformed Wronskian as a special case. On the basis of these, we study the $q$-deformed constrained KP ($q$-cKP) hierarchy, i.e. $l$-constraints of $q$-KP hierarchy. Similar to the ordinary constrained KP (cKP) hierarchy, a large class of solutions of $q$-cKP hierarchy can be represent...

  3. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  4. Surveillane of Middle and High School Mental Health Risk by Student Self-Report Screener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget V Dever

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 2009 National Academies of Sciences report on child mental health prevention and treatment concluded that screening for mental health risk is an essential component of service delivery. To date, however, there are few practical assessments available or practices in place that measure individual child risk, or risk aggregated at the school or community level. This study examined the utility of a 30-item paper and pencil student self-report screener of behavioral and emotional risk (BER for surveying community risk among 7 schools. Methods: In 2010, 2,222 students in 3 middle and 4 high schools in a medium-sized school district in Georgia were administered the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Self-Report Child/Adolescent form (BESS Student. The BESS is designed to measure 4 sub-syndromal BER factors for developing mental health disorders: inattention/hyperactivity, internalizing, school problems, and personal adjustment. Analysis of Variance and Chi Square analyses were used to assess the association between adolescent self-reported BER as an indicator of school BER, grade level, child ethnic identification and gender, socioeconomic status, and special education placement status.Results: BESS scores differentiated well between schools for overall BER and special education status, as well as between grade levels, ethnicity, and gender groups. One high school, known by the school administration to have numerous incidents of student behavior problems, had the most deviant 4 BER domain scores of all 7 schools. Girls rated themselves as having a higher prevalence of BER (14% than boys (12%; middle school students reported fewer difficulties than high school students.Conclusion: Middle and high school students were capable of identifying significant differences in their own BER across schools, suggesting that universal mental health risk screening viastudent self-report is potentially useful for identifying aggregated community

  5. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Constrained KP models as integrable matrix hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    We formulate the constrained KP hierarchy (denoted by cKP K+1,M ) as an affine [cflx sl](M+K+1) matrix integrable hierarchy generalizing the Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy. Using an algebraic approach, including the graded structure of the generalized Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy, we are able to find several new universal results valid for the cKP hierarchy. In particular, our method yields a closed expression for the second bracket obtained through Dirac reduction of any untwisted affine Kac endash Moody current algebra. An explicit example is given for the case [cflx sl](M+K+1), for which a closed expression for the general recursion operator is also obtained. We show how isospectral flows are characterized and grouped according to the semisimple non-regular element E of sl(M+K+1) and the content of the center of the kernel of E. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  8. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  9. [Self-reported substance abuse related emergencies: frequency and nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, G; Smoltczyk, H; Dengler, W; Buchkremer, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and nature of self-reported and drug-related emergencies. 47 patients of a ward for opiate detoxification were interviewed about their experiences with drug-related emergencies. Typical categories had to be found like overdoses, seizures, accidents and suicide attempts respectively. 68% had own experience with drug-related emergency. A majority suffered opiate overdose with different extensions as unconsciousness or breath-depression. Alcohol and polydrug use was associated with overdose. Drug-related accidents were only reported by men. Half the number of drug-related emergencies were treated in hospital. Most emergencies occurred alone either in a home environment or outside. Harm reduction interventions like observed user rooms should be established. Furthermore other strategies to reduce the number of emergencies as sharing naloxon or resuscitation programs in wards for detoxification could also be an effective method to prevent near fatal or fatal overdoses in dependent subjects.

  10. Self-reported quality care for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerås, N; Jordan, K P; Clausen, B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of osteoarthritis (OA) management in primary healthcare in Denmark, Norway, Portugal and the UK. METHODS: Participants consulting with clinical signs and symptoms of knee OA were identified in 30 general practices and invited to complete...... a cross-sectional survey including quality indicators (QI) for OA care. A QI was considered as eligible if the participant had checked 'Yes' or 'No', and as achieved if the participant had checked 'Yes' to the indicator. The median percentage (with IQR and range) of eligible QIs achieved by country...... was determined and compared in negative binominal regression analysis. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. The median percentage of eligible QIs achieved (checked 'Yes') was 48...

  11. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  12. Physical activity in police beyond self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sandra L; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Moon, Mikyung; Tseng, Hui-Chen; Wilson, Annerose; Hein, Maria; Hood, Kristin; Franke, Warren D

    2014-03-01

    Police officers have a higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Reductions in occupational physical activity may contribute to the risk, yet there have been few efforts to characterize the physical demands of police work beyond self-report. To compare measured physical activity between work and off-duty hours and assess the effects of stress on physical activity. Officers (n = 119) from six departments wore a pattern recognition monitor for 96 hours to measure total energy expenditure (kilocalorie per hour) (1k/cal = 4184 joules), activity intensity, and step count per hour. Participants were more active on their off-duty days than at work; the effects of stress on physical activity seemed moderated by sex. Police work is primarily a sedentary occupation, and officers tend to be more active on their off-duty days than during their work hours.

  13. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  14. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. Methods We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002–04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Results Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for “poor” or “very poor” self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for “severe” or “extreme” on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and

  15. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS: utility in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD enrolled in colleges and universities has increased markedly over the past few decades, giving rise to questions about how best to document symptoms and impairment in the post-secondary setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility and psychometric properties of a widely-used rating scale for adults with ADHD, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-V1.1, in a sample of post-secondary students with ADHD.Methods. A total of 135 college students (mean age = 24, 42% males with ADHD were recruited from Student Disability Services in post-secondary institutions. We compared informant responses on the ASRS administered via different modalities. First, students’ self-report was ascertained using the ASRS Screener administered via telephone interview, in which they were asked to provide real-life examples of behavior for each of the six items. Next, students self-reported symptoms on the 18-item paper version of the ASRS Symptom Checklist administered about 1–2 weeks later, and a collateral report using an online version of the 18-item ASRS Symptom Checklist. Students also completed self-report measures of everyday cognitive failure (CFQ and executive functioning (BDEFS.Results. Results revealed moderate to good congruency between the 18-item ASRS-Self and ASRS-Collateral reports (correlation = .47, and between student self-report on the 6-item telephone-based and paper versions of the ASRS, with the paper version administered two weeks later (correlation = .66. The full ASRS self-report was related to impairment, such as in executive functioning (correlation = .63 and everyday cognitive failure (correlation = .74. Executive functioning was the only significant predictor of ASRS total scores.Discussion. Current findings suggest that the ASRS provides an easy-to-use, reliable, and cost-effective approach for gathering information about current

  16. A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Verdes, Emese; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-07-30

    While surveys in high-income countries show that women generally have poorer self-reported health than men, much less is known about gender differences in other regions of the world. Such data can be used to examine the determinants of sex differences. We analysed data on respondents 18 years and over from the World Health Surveys 2002-04 in 59 countries, which included multiple measures of self-reported health, eight domains of functioning and presumptive diagnoses of chronic conditions. The age-standardized female excess fraction was computed for all indicators and analysed for five regional groups of countries. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the association between country gaps in self-reported health between the sexes with societal and other background characteristics. Women reported significantly poorer health than men on all self-reported health indicators. The excess fraction was 15 % for the health score based on the eight domains, 28 % for "poor" or "very poor" self-rated health on the single question, and 26 % for "severe" or "extreme" on a single question on limitations. The excess female reporting of poorer health occurred at all ages, but was smaller at ages 60 and over. The female excess was observed in all regions, and was smallest in the European high-income countries. Women more frequently reported problems in specific health domains, with the excess fraction ranging from 25 % for vision to 35 % for mobility, pain and sleep, and with considerable variation between regions. Angina, arthritis and depression had female excess fractions of 33, 32 and 42 % respectively. Higher female prevalence of the presumptive diagnoses was observed in all regional country groups. The main factors affecting the size of the gender gap in self-reported health were the female-male gaps in the prevalence of chronic conditions, especially arthritis and depression and gender characteristics of the society. Large female-male differences in self-reported

  17. Distribution and Correlates of Self-Reported Crimes of Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Morris, Robert G.; Gerber, Jurg; Covey, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution and correlates of a special class of property crimes, crimes of trust, using longitudinal and cross sectional self-report data from a national sample. We begin by defining crimes of trust and consider their conceptual relationship to “conventional” property crimes, which we here characterize as crimes of stealth, and to white collar crimes, which are defined in terms of the social status of the perpetrators. Crimes of trust are here defined as property crimes that typically involve deliberate contact with the victim or, where there is more than one victim, with at least one or more victims, in which there is typically more of a focus on concealing the fact that a crime has been committed than on concealing the identity of the perpetrator (as is the case in crimes of stealth), without regard to the socioeconomic status of the perpetrator (thus including but not limited to white collar crimes). The focus here is on crimes of trust committed by individuals (as opposed to corporate crime). We first examine their distribution by sociodemographic characteristics, then examine the correlation of crimes of trust with other types of illegal behavior, using data from the National Youth Survey Family Study, including (1) longitudinal self-report data from a nationally representative panel of individuals who were 11–18 years old in 1976–77 and who were followed through early middle age (ages 36–44) in 2002–2003, plus (2) cross-sectional data on these individuals plus their parents, spouses, and children age 11 and older in 2002–2003 (total age range 11–88). The results suggest that crimes of trust have a different age-crime curve from conventional crimes, and that they are not as strongly correlated with problem substance use, gender, and other socioeconomic indicators as conventional crimes. PMID:22347761

  18. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  19. Marijuana Use and Self-reported Quality of Eyesight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akano, Obinna F

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing use of marijuana among young adults and more states in the United States are legalizing medical marijuana use. A number of studies have revealed both the beneficial and harmful effects of marijuana to the human system. Despite some beneficial effects, studies have shown marijuana to have a lot of deleterious effects on the visual system, which subsequently reduces the quality of eyesight. The aim of this study was to investigate if heavy marijuana smoking is associated with a poor quality of eyesight compared with light/no use of marijuana. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young men and women surveyed in 1979 to 2010 was used for this study. The quality of eyesight of 1304 heavy marijuana users was compared with 1304 respondents with light or no marijuana use. The t test, multivariate and weighted logistic regression were used in the data analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the self-reported quality of eyesight among heavy marijuana smokers compared with youths who never used marijuana or are light marijuana users. Among heavy marijuana smokers, males and high school graduates have decreased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight, whereas blacks have increased odds of reporting a poor quality of eyesight. The self-reported quality of eyesight among marijuana users can aid clinicians and other health practitioners facilitate the development of sex-, racial/ethnic-, and educational level-informed prevention and early intervention programs and also help characterize public opinions regarding cannabis, which are particularly relevant given the ongoing debate concerning the medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the United States.

  20. Self-reported sexual assault in convicted sex offenders and community men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael A; Bolen, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    Although self-reported sexual assault perpetrated by men against women has been well documented among college men, less is known about self-reported perpetration among convicted sex offenders and community men. This study provides unique descriptive and comparative information on sexual assaults in these understudied populations. Participants were 40 convicted sex offenders and 49 demographically comparable community men who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES; Abbey, Parkhill, & Koss, 2005; Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987) and other surveys to capture the promiscuous sex and hostile masculinity pathways posited by the confluence model (Malamuth, 2003). We found notably few differences between sex offenders and community men in the rate and severity of sexual assault perpetration and the tactics used to obtain unwanted sexual contact. Specifically, 68% of sex offenders and 59% of community men acknowledged they had perpetrated sexual assault. Both groups used guilt and anger as the most frequent tactics to obtain unwanted sexual activity from their female victims. Consistent with the confluence model, an impersonal orientation toward sexual relationships was associated with sexual assault for both sex offenders and community men. Future directions for research on sexual assault perpetration and violence prevention efforts are discussed in light of these findings.

  1. Stress in crisis managers: evidence from self-report and psychophysiological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Fischer, L; Perakakis, P; Guerra, P; Duschek, S

    2015-12-01

    Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.

  2. Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Tabibnia, Golnaz; Julson, Erica; Kober, Hedy; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be beneficial for smoking cessation and the treatment of other addictive disorders. One way that mindfulness may facilitate smoking cessation is through the reduction of craving to smoking cues. The present work considers whether mindful attention can reduce self-reported and neural markers of cue-induced craving in treatment seeking smokers. Forty-seven (n = 47) meditation-naïve treatment-seeking smokers (12-h abstinent from smoking) viewed and made ratings of smoking and neutral images while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were trained and instructed to view these images passively or with mindful attention. Results indicated that mindful attention reduced self-reported craving to smoking images, and reduced neural activity in a craving-related region of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Moreover, a psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed that mindful attention reduced functional connectivity between sgACC and other craving-related regions compared to passively viewing smoking images, suggesting that mindfulness may decouple craving neurocircuitry when viewing smoking cues. These results provide an initial indication that mindful attention may describe a ‘bottom-up’ attention to one’s present moment experience in ways that can help reduce subjective and neural reactivity to smoking cues in smokers. PMID:22114078

  3. Pathological changes in the subsynovial connective tissue increase with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients’ perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. Methods The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Results Compared to controls (n=25), patients (n=35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. Conclusion These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. PMID:26938027

  5. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Pasternack

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20% DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27% of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140. The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH.

  6. Self-Reported Fractures in Dermatitis Herpetiformis Compared to Coeliac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Camilla; Mansikka, Eriika; Kaukinen, Katri; Hervonen, Kaisa; Reunala, Timo; Collin, Pekka; Mattila, Ville M.

    2018-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a cutaneous manifestation of coeliac disease. Increased bone fracture risk is known to associate with coeliac disease, but this has been only scantly studied in DH. In this study, self-reported fractures and fracture-associated factors in DH were investigated and compared to coeliac disease. Altogether, 222 DH patients and 129 coeliac disease-suffering controls were enrolled in this study. The Disease Related Questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires were mailed to participants; 45 out of 222 (20%) DH patients and 35 out of 129 (27%) of the coeliac disease controls had experienced at least one fracture (p = 0.140). The cumulative lifetime fracture incidence did not differ between DH and coeliac disease patients, but the cumulative incidence of fractures after diagnosis was statistically significantly higher in females with coeliac disease compared to females with DH. The DH patients and the coeliac disease controls with fractures reported more severe reflux symptoms compared to those without, and they also more frequently used proton-pump inhibitor medication. To conclude, the self-reported lifetime bone fracture risk is equal for DH and coeliac disease. After diagnosis, females with coeliac disease have a higher fracture risk than females with DH. PMID:29538319

  7. Self-report vs. objectively assessed physical activity: which is right for public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Tom; Standage, Martyn; Thompson, Dylan; Sebire, Simon J; Cumming, Sean

    2011-01-01

    To examine the agreement between self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity (PA) according to current public health recommendations. One-hundred and fourteen British University students wore a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart; AHR) to estimate 24-hour energy expenditure over 7 consecutive days. Data were extracted based on population-based MET-levels recommended to improve and maintain health. On day 8, participants were randomly assigned to complete either the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) or the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ). Estimates of duration (IPAQ; N = 46) and frequency (LTEQ; N = 41) of PA were compared with those recorded by the AHR. Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias between the IPAQ and AHR to be small for moderate-intensity and total PA, however the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were wide. The mean number of moderate bouts of PA estimated by the LTEQ was similar to those derived by the AHR but the 95% LOA between the 2 measures were large. Although self-report questionnaires may provide an approximation of PA at a population level, they may not determine whether an individual is participating in the type, intensity, and amount of PA advocated in current public health recommendations. ©2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  8. Self-reported motivation to smoke in schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.

  9. Suicidal behavior, negative affect, gender, and self-reported delinquency in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.

  10. The effects of self-report cognitive failures and cognitive load on antisaccade performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBerggren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting high levels of distractibility in everyday life show impaired performance in standard laboratory tasks measuring selective attention and inhibitory processes. Similarly, increasing cognitive load leads to more errors/distraction in a variety of cognitive tasks. How these two factors interact is currently unclear; highly distractible individuals may be affected more when their cognitive resources are taxed, or load may linearly affect performance for all individuals. We investigated the relationship between self-reported levels of cognitive failuresin daily life and performance in the antisaccade task, a widely used tool examining attentional control. Levels of concurrent cognitive demand were manipulated using a secondary auditory discrimination task. We found that both levels of self-reported cognitive failures and task load increased antisaccade latencies while having no effect on prosaccade eye-movements. However individuals rating themselves as suffering few daily life distractions showed a comparable load cost to those who experience many. These findings suggest that the likelihood of distraction is governed by the addition of both internal susceptibility and the external current load placed on working memory.

  11. Parental separation in childhood and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2016-12-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and self-reported psychological health, adjusting for social capital, social support, civil status and economic stress in childhood. A cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in the autumn of 2012 in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and self-reported psychological health (GHQ12) were investigated using logistic regressions. A 16.1% proportion of all men 22.4% of all women reported poor psychological health. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18 years, the corresponding prevalence among women was 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with poor self-rated psychological health among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4, and among women with this experience at ages 0-4, 10-14 and 15-18. These significant associations remained throughout the multiple analyses. The results support the notion that the experience of parental separation/divorce in childhood may influence psychological health in adulthood, particularly if it is experienced in the age interval 0-4 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perception of faces in schizophrenia: Subjective (self-report) vs. objective (psychophysics) assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Ekstrom, Tor

    2016-05-01

    Face perception impairment in schizophrenia has been demonstrated, mostly through experimental studies. How this laboratory-defined behavioral impairment is associated with patients' perceptual experience of various faces in everyday life is however unclear. This question is important because a first-person account of face perception has direct consequences on social functioning of patients. In this study, we adapted and administered a self-reported questionnaire on narrative perceptual experience of faces along with psychophysical assessments of face perception in schizophrenia. The self-reported questionnaire includes six rating items of face-related functioning in everyday life, providing a subjective measure of face perception. The psychophysical assessment determines perceptual threshold for discriminating different facial identities, providing an objective measure of face perception. Compared to controls (n = 25), patients (n = 35) showed significantly lower scores (worse performance) in the subjective assessment and significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) in the objective assessment. The subjective and objective face perception assessments were moderately correlated in controls but not in patients. The subjective face perception assessments were significantly correlated with measurements of a social cognitive ability (Theory of Mind), again in controls but not in patients. These results suggest that in schizophrenia the quality of face-related functioning in everyday life is degraded and the role that basic face discrimination capacity plays in face-related everyday functioning is disrupted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reported and reported injury patterns in contemporary dance students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jo; Scott, Daniel; Watkins, Katherine; Keegan-Turcotte, Sheramy; Wyon, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Injury is a major concern among dancers, as currently rates are reported as being high. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence and details of injuries across an academic year at a full-time contemporary dance school. A questionnaire was distributed to 57 dancers at the end of their first academic year. Reported injury information was also retrieved from a database as collected from a physiotherapist over the same period. Differences were found between the reported and self-reported information, particularly with reference to shin injuries. The majority of injuries occurred in November and May, noted to be close to assessment periods. Injury rates in contemporary dance are high; notably, 89% of dancers reported one or more injuries. This problem is particularly evident in the lower limb. Med Probl Perform Art 2010; 25:10-15.

  14. Self-reported musculoskeletal pain predicts long-term increase in general health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Davidsen, Michael; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    reported during the past two weeks from the Danish National Cohort Study were merged with data from the Danish National Health Insurance Registry and the National Patient Registry containing information on consultations in the Danish primary and secondary care sector. Absolute and relative rates for all......Aims: Musculoskeletal pain and disability is a modern epidemic and a major reason for seeking health care. The aim of this study is to determine absolute and relative rates of care seeking over 20 years for adults reporting musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Interview data on musculoskeletal pain...... to any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS SELF-REPORT OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN REPORTED WITHIN THE PAST TWO WEEKS PREDICTS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT LONG-TERM INCREASE IN GENERAL USE OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN BOTH THE PRIMARY AND THE SECONDARY HEALTH CARE SECTOR:...

  15. Self-report fatigue questionnaires in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and stroke: a systematic review of measurement properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elbers, Roy G.; Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Verhoef, John; Kramer, Sharon F.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To critically appraise, compare and summarize the measurement properties of self-report fatigue questionnaires validated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus were searched. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. A qualitative data synthesis was performed to rate the mea...

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a multiethnic US cohort LUMINA (XLI): factors predictive of self-reported work disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, A M; Fernández, M; Alarcón, G S; Vilá, L M; Reveille, J D

    2007-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for self-reported work disability in patients from the LUpus in MInorities: NAture vs. Nurture cohort with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE of Hispanic (Texas and Puerto Rico), African American and Caucasian ethnicity were studied. Work disability was defined by patients' self-report. Only patients known to be employed at the baseline visit were included. The probabilities of self-reporting work disability over time were examined by the Kaplan-Meier method; differences between ethnic groups were examined by the log-rank test. The relationship of baseline socioeconomic-demographic, clinical, behavioural and psychological features with work disability was examined by standard statistical tests. Variables with prate of self-reported work disability among the 273 patients studied was 19% at 5 years; it was numerically higher for the African Americans (25%) than for the Hispanics from Texas (19%) and the Caucasians (18%). The rate for the Hispanics from Puerto Rico was 7% at 2 years; 5-year rates could not be estimated for this ethnic subgroup (shorter follow-up in the cohort). In the regression analysis, age, male sex, poverty, total disease duration, disease activity and damage accrual were predictors of work disability. The rate of work disability was 19% at 5 years. Patients with SLE with more severe disease and with lower socioeconomic status are at high risk of becoming disabled. The toll SLE imposes could possibly be reduced in patients at risk if, in addition to medical treatment, services needed to overcome their disadvantageous socioeconomic status are provided.

  17. Body Mass Index: Accounting for Full Time Sedentary Occupation and 24-Hr Self-Reported Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Schuna, John M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Liu, Wei; Hamrick, Karen S.; Johnson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We used linked existing data from the 2006–2008 American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the Current Population Survey (CPS, a federal survey that provides on-going U.S. vital statistics, including employment rates) and self-reported body mass index (BMI) to answer: How does BMI vary across full time occupations dichotomized as sedentary/non-sedentary, accounting for time spent in sleep, other sedentary behaviors, and light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activities? Methods We classifie...

  18. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  19. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  20. Relationship between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement and self-reported symptoms in patients treated for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Cingolani, Antonella; Fanti, Iuri; Colafigli, Manuela; Tamburrini, Enrica; Cauda, Roberto; Navarra, Pierluigi; De Luca, Andrea; Murri, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore relationships between self-reported adherence, antiretroviral drug concentration measurement (TDM) and self-reported symptoms. We systematically administered to human immunodeficiency (HIV)-infected outpatients a questionnaire evaluating measures of self-reported adherence (missing doses during last week, deviations from the prescribed timing of therapy, self-initiated discontinuations for > 24 or 48 h, exhausting drugs and present sense of how patients are taking therapy) and a panel of referred symptoms (a symptom score was built summing self-reported scores for each listed symptom). We selected patients who completed the questionnaire and also had a TDM (mainly reflecting adherence in the past few days or weeks), thus comparing these two tools as measures of adherence. A total of 130 patients (64.6% males, median age 44 years, 76.2% with HIV RNA HIV RNA symptom score was associated with a lower self-reported adherence and with a higher proportion of undetectable drug levels. Self-reported adherence and TDM showed a correlation and seemed to be comparable tools for adherence estimation. Self-reported symptoms were associated with lower adherence and undetectable drug levels.

  1. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  2. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  3. A quark interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a physical interpretation of the second level of the combinatorial hierarchy in terms of three quarks, three antiquarks and the vacuum. This interpretation allows us to introduce a new quantum number, which measures electromagnetic mass splitting of the quarks. We extend our argument by analogue to baryons, and find some SU(3) and some new mass formulas for baryons. The generalization of our approach to other hierarchy levels is discussed. We present also an empirical mass formula for baryons, which seems to be loosely connected with the combinatorial hierarchy. (author)

  4. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  5. Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Daniel W

    2013-04-08

    Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  7. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  8. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification

  9. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  10. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  11. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  12. Accuracy of self-reported smoking abstinence in clinical trials of hospital-initiated smoking interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Rigotti, Nancy A; Cummins, Sharon E; Harrington, Kathleen F; Sherman, Scott E; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Tindle, Hilary A; Preacher, Kristopher J

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and predictors of failed biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence among participants enrolled in trials of hospital-initiated smoking cessation interventions. Comparison of characteristics between participants who verified and those who failed to verify self-reported abstinence. Multi-site randomized clinical trials conducted between 2010 and 2014 in hospitals throughout the United States. Recently hospitalized smokers who reported tobacco abstinence 6 months post-randomization and provided a saliva sample for verification purposes (n = 822). Outcomes were salivary cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at 10 and 15 ng/ml cut-points. Predictors and correlates included participant demographics and tobacco use; hospital diagnoses and treatment; and study characteristics collected via surveys and electronic medical records. Usable samples were returned by 69.8% of the 1178 eligible trial participants who reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence. The proportion of participants verified as quit was 57.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 54.4, 61.2; 10 ng/ml cut-off] or 60.6% (95% CI = 57.2, 63.9; 15 ng/ml). Factors associated independently with verification at 10 ng/ml were education beyond high school education [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.11], continuous abstinence since hospitalization (OR = 2.82; 95% CI = 2.02, 3.94), mailed versus in-person sample (OR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.96, 5.21) and race. African American participants were less likely to verify abstinence than white participants (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.93). Findings were similar for verification at 15 ng/ml. Verification rates did not differ by treatment group. In the United States, high rates (40%) of recently hospitalized smokers enrolled in smoking cessation trials fail biochemical verification of their self-reported abstinence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; Villeneuve, Paul J; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18-79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep. Conclusions are based on WTN levels averaged over 1 y and, in

  14. Validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Teppei; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nishihara, Akiko; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Working long hours is a potential health hazard. Although self-reporting of working hours in various time frames has been used in epidemiologic studies, its validity is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the validity and reproducibility of self-reported working hours among Japanese male employees. Methods: The participants were 164 male employees of four large-scale companies in Japan. For validity, the Spearman correlation between self-reported working hours in th...

  15. Frequency, stability and differentiation of self-reported school fear and truancy in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Müller, Nora; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Surprisingly little is known about the frequency, stability, and correlates of school fear and truancy based on self-reported data of adolescents. Methods Self-reported school fear and truancy were studied in a total of N = 834 subjects of the community-based Zurich Adolescent Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS) at two times with an average age of thirteen and sixteen years. Group definitions were based on two behavioural items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Comp...

  16. Accuracy of self-reported tobacco assessments in a head and neck cancer treatment population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Graham W.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Valentino, Joseph P.; Gal, Thomas J.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Singh, Anurag K.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Cummings, K. Michael; Marshall, James R.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective analysis was performed of self-reported and biochemically confirmed tobacco use in 50 head and neck cancer patients during treatment. With 93.5% compliance to complete weekly self-report and biochemical confirmatory tests, 29.4% of smokers required biochemical assessment for identification. Accuracy increased by 14.9% with weekly vs. baseline self-reported assessments. Data confirm that head and neck cancer patients misrepresent true tobacco use during treatment.

  17. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (women. Autocratic leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  18. Peering into the Brain to Predict Behavior: Peer-Reported, but not Self-Reported, Conscientiousness Links Threat-Related Amygdala Activity to Future Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769

  19. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prescribed and self-reported seasonal training of distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; Hopkins, W G

    1995-12-01

    A survey of 123 distance-running coaches and their best runners was undertaken to describe prescribed seasonal training and its relationship to the performance and self-reported training of the runners. The runners were 43 females and 80 males, aged 24 +/- 8 years (mean +/- S.D.), training for events from 800 m to the marathon, with seasonal best paces of 86 +/- 6% of sex- and age-group world records. The coaches and runners completed a questionnaire on typical weekly volumes of interval and strength training, and typical weekly volumes and paces of moderate and hard continuous running, for build-up, pre-competition, competition and post-competition phases of a season. Prescribed training decreased in volume and increased in intensity from the build-up through to the competition phase, and had similarities with 'long slow distance' training. Coaches of the faster runners prescribed longer build-ups, greater volumes of moderate continuous running and slower relative paces of continuous running (r = 0.19-0.36, P training close to competition pace. The mean training volumes and paces prescribed by the coaches were similar to those reported by the runners, but the correlations between prescribed and reported training were poor (r = 0.2-0.6). Coaches may therefore need to monitor their runners' training more closely.

  1. Athlete Self-Report Measure Use and Associated Psychological Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Saw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of athletes and practitioners has led to the suggestion that use of an athlete self-report measure (ASRM may increase an athlete’s self-awareness, satisfaction, motivation, and confidence. This study sought to provide empirical evidence for this assertion by evaluating psychological alterations associated with ASRM use across a diverse athlete population. Athletes (n = 335 had access to an ASRM for 16 weeks and completed an online survey at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 16. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between ASRM compliance and outcome measures. Compared to baseline, confidence and extrinsic motivation were most likely increased at weeks 4, 8, and 16. Satisfaction and intrinsic motivation were most likely decreased at week 4, but no different to baseline values at weeks 8 and 16. Novice athletes and those who were instructed to use an ASRM (rather than using one autonomously were less responsive to ASRM use. This study provides preliminary evidence for ASRM to prompt initial dissatisfaction and decreased intrinsic motivation which, along with increased confidence and extrinsic motivation, may provide the necessary stimulus to improve performance-related behaviors. Novice and less autonomous athletes may benefit from support to develop motivation, knowledge, and skills to use the information gleaned from an ASRM effectively.

  2. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudijk, Bram; Donders, Rogier; Stalmeier, Peep

    2017-06-01

    Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural dimensions using the World Values Survey (WVS), namely the traditional/rational-secular and the survival/self-expression dimension. We investigate whether there is an association between the WVS cultural dimensions and SRH, both within and between countries. Data from 51 countries in the WVS is used and combined with macroeconomic data from the Worldbank database. The association between SRH and the WVS cultural dimensions is tested within each of the 51 countries and multilevel mixed models are used to test differences between these countries. Socio-demographic and macroeconomic variables are used to correct for non-cultural variables related to SRH. Within countries, the survival/self-expression dimension was positively associated with SRH, while in most countries there was a negative association for the traditional/rational-secular dimension. Values range between 4 and 17% within countries. Further analyses show that the associations within countries and between countries are similar. Controlling for macroeconomic and socio-demographic factors did not change our results. The WVS cultural dimensions predict SRH within and between countries. Contrary to our expectations, traditional/rational-secular values were negatively associated with SRH. As SRH is associated with cultural values between countries, cultural values could be considered when interpreting SRH between countries.

  3. Leadership: validation of a self-report scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marc; Frenette, Eric; Fernet, Claude

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose and test the factor structure of a new self-report questionnaire on leadership. A sample of 373 school principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada completed the initial 46-item version of the questionnaire. In order to obtain a questionnaire of minimal length, a four-step procedure was retained. First, items analysis was performed using Classical Test Theory. Second, Rasch analysis was used to identify non-fitting or overlapping items. Third, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modelling was performed on the 21 remaining items to verify the factor structure of the scale. Results show that the model with a single third-order dimension (leadership), two second-order dimensions (transactional and transformational leadership), and one first-order dimension (laissez-faire leadership) provides a good fit to the data. Finally, invariance of factor structure was assessed with a second sample of 222 vice-principals in the Province of Quebec, Canada. This model is in agreement with the theoretical model developed by Bass (1985), upon which the questionnaire is based.

  4. Self-reported executive functioning competencies and lifetime aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Breen, Cody M; Russell, Tiffany D; Nerpel, Brady P; Pogalz, Colton R

    2017-05-08

    Neuropsychological research can be advanced through a better understanding of relationships between executive functioning (EF) behavioral competencies and the expression of aggressive behavior. While performance-based EF measures have been widely examined, links between self-report indices and practical real-life outcomes have not yet been established. Executive Functioning Index subscale scores in this sample (N = 579) were linked to trait hostility (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), aggression in the natural environment (Lifetime Acts of Violence Assessment), and conduct disorder symptoms prior to age 15. Significant associations were found between all of the EFI subscales (Motivational Drive, Organization, Strategic Planning, Impulse Control, and Empathy), trait aggression, and conduct disturbance. Lifetime acts of aggression were predicted by all but Organization scores. Physical injuries inflicted on other(s) were 2 to 4 times more likely to occur among respondents generating low (z < -1) EFI subscale scores. While these EFI relationships were modest in size, they are pervasive in scope. These findings provide support for the potential role of perceived EF deficits in moderating lifetime aggression.

  5. Self-reported emotion regulation in adults with Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Helena; Wilkinson, Verity; Robertson, Mary M; Channon, Shelley

    2016-11-30

    Recent work has reported mild impairments in social and emotional processing in Tourette's syndrome (TS), but deliberate attempts to use specific emotion regulation strategies have not been investigated previously. In the present study, adult participants with TS and no comorbidities (TS-alone) were compared to healthy control participants on several self-report measures assessing habitual use of reappraisal and suppression emotion regulation strategies. There were no group differences on measures of reappraisal, but the TS-alone group reported using suppression more frequently than the control group and this was true across a range of negative emotions. The groups did not differ on symptomatology scores of anxiety or depression, although more frequent use of suppression was associated with higher depressive symptomatology for the TS-alone group only. Further work is needed to examine potential factors that may influence emotion regulation in TS, including increased emotional reactivity or expertise in applying strategies to suppress tic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The properties of self-report research measures: beyond psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Claire; Evans, Chris; Birch, Sarah; Warren, Fiona; Norton, Kingsley

    2002-06-01

    Self-report measures pertinent for personality disorder are widely used and many are available. Their relative merits are usually assessed on nomothetic psychometrics and acceptability to users is neglected. We report reactions of lay, patient and professional groups to the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-IV); Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III); the Borderline Syndrome Index (BSI); Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). These were sent to 148 professionals, ex-patients and lay people for comment. Thirty-six per cent were returned. Pattern-coding by three raters revealed problematic themes across all measures, including inappropriate length, vague items and language, cultural assumptions and slang, state-bias and response-set. Measures can be depressing and upsetting for some participants (both patients and non-patients), hence administration of measures should be sensitive. Treatment may make people more self-aware, which may compromise validity for outcome research. This evaluation raises issues and concerns, which are missed in traditional psychometric evaluation.

  7. Nano-in-Micro Self-Reporting Hydrogel Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirella, Annalisa; La Marca, Margherita; Brace, Leigh-Anne; Mattei, Giorgio; Aylott, Jonathan W; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2015-08-01

    Highly reproducible Nano-in-Micro constructs are fabricated to provide a well-defined and self-reporting biomimetic environment for hepatocytes. Based on a protein/hydrogel formulation with controlled shape, size and composition, the constructs enable efficient nutrient exchange and provide an adhesive 3D framework to cells. Co-encapsulation of hepatocytes and ratiometric optical nanosensors with pH sensitivity in the physiological range allows continuous monitoring of the microenvironment. The lobule-sized microbeads are fabricated using an automated droplet generator, Sphyga (Spherical Hydrogel Generator) combining alginate, collagen, decellularized hepatic tissue, pH-nanosensors and hepatocytes. The pH inside the Nano-in-Micro constructs is monitored during culture, while assaying media for hepatic function and vitality markers. Although the local pH changes by several units during bead fabrication, when encapsulated cells are most likely to undergo stress, it is stable and buffered by cell culture media thereafter. Albumin secretion and urea production are significantly higher in the microbeads compared with controls, indicating that the encapsulated Nano-in-Micro environment is conducive to enhanced hepatic function.

  8. Brane world model and hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wrote description of Kaluza-Klein model. Also I wrote how we can solve the hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum model. In fact, it's my motivation to study this part of theoretical physics

  9. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  10. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sovan

    2013-01-01

    The rise time of electron antineutrino lightcurve from a Galactic supernova (SN), observable at the IceCube Cherenkov detector, can provide signature of the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ 13 . In the early accretion phase of the SN, the neutrino oscillations are nontrivial. Due to the matter suppression of collective effects at these early post bounce times, only the MSW resonances in the outer layers of the SN influence the neutrino flux. When the oscillations are taken into account, the signal in IceCube shows sufficiently fast rise time for the inverted mass hierarchy compared to the normal hierarchy. An investigation with an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, provides both qualitative and quantitative robustness of these features. Thus opening another avenue to explore the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

  11. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  12. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  13. Improving Expression Power in Modeling OLAP Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Elzbieta

    Data warehouses and OLAP systems form an integral part of modern decision support systems. In order to exploit both systems to their full capabilities hierarchies must be clearly defined. Hierarchies are important in analytical applications, since they provide users with the possibility to represent data at different abstraction levels. However, even though there are different kinds of hierarchies in real-world applications and some are already implemented in commercial tools, there is still a lack of a well-accepted conceptual model that allows decision-making users express their analysis needs. In this paper, we show how the conceptual multidimensional model can be used to facilitate the representation of complex hierarchies in comparison to their representation in the relational model and commercial OLAP tool, using as an example Microsoft Analysis Services.

  14. Identifying Students Struggling in Courses by Analyzing Exam Grades, Self-reported Measures and Study Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...

  15. A hierarchy of Ramsey-like cardinals

    OpenAIRE

    Holy, Peter; Schlicht, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of large cardinals between weakly compact and measurable cardinals, that is closely related to the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced by Victoria Gitman, and is based on certain infinite filter games, however also has a range of equivalent characterizations in terms of elementary embeddings. The aim of this paper is to locate the Ramsey-like cardinals studied by Gitman, and other well-known large cardinal notions, in this hierarchy.

  16. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  17. Hierarchy among Automata on Linear Orderings

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère , Véronique; Carton , Olivier

    2005-01-01

    In a preceding paper, automata and rational expressions have been introduced for words indexed by linear orderings, together with a Kleene-like theorem. We here pursue this work by proposing a hierarchy among the rational sets. Each class of the hierarchy is defined by a subset of the rational operations that can be used. We then characterize any class by an appropriate class of automata, leading to a Kleene theorem inside the class. A characterization by particular classes of orderings is al...

  18. Shrinking population and the urban hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether population shrinkage leads to changes in the urban hierarchy in terms of relative sizes of cities and their functions onomic geography. We work backwards in a racetrack economy with eight cities in a long-run equilibrium. Initial distribution of population is chosen to satisfy both the rank-size rule and central place hierarchy. We have a short-run equilibrium in which firms choose prices and consumers choose consumption taking the number of workers in each region ...

  19. Hierarchy generation in compactified supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of generating a large hierarchy in compactified supersymmetric models is re-examined. It is shown how, even for the class of models for which Str M 2 is non-vanishing, a combination of non-perturbative effects and radiative corrections may lead to an exponentially large hierarchy. A corollary is that the couplings of the effective field theory in the visible sector should be small, i.e., perturbation theory should be applicable. (orig.)

  20. The validity of self-reported cancer screening history and the role of social disadvantage in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha; Vahabi, Mandana; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-01-29

    Self-report may not be an accurate method of determining cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening rates due to recall, acquiescence and social desirability biases, particularly for certain sociodemographic groups. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the validity of self-report of cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, both for people in the general population and for socially disadvantaged groups based on immigrant status, ethnicity, education, income, language ability, self-rated health, employment status, age category (for cervical cancer screening), and gender (for fecal occult blood testing). We linked multiple data sources for this study, including the Canadian Community Health Survey and provincial-level health databases. Using administrative data as our gold standard, we calculated validity measures for self-report (i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values), calculated report-to-record ratios, and conducted a multivariable regression analysis to determine which characteristics were independently associated with over-reporting of screening. Specificity was less than 70% overall and for all subgroups for cervical and breast cancer screening, and sensitivity was lower than 80% overall and for all subgroups for fecal occult blood testing FOBT. Report-to-record ratios were persistently significantly greater than 1 across all cancer screening types, highest for the FOBT group: 1.246 [1.189-1.306]. Regression analyses showed no consistent patterns, but sociodemographic characteristics were associated with over-reporting for each screening type. We have found that in Ontario, as in other jurisdictions, there is a pervasive tendency for people to over-report their cancer screening histories. Sociodemographic status also appears to influence over-reporting. Public health practitioners and policymakers need to be aware of the limitations of self-report and adjust their methods

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of a Self-Report Measure of Patellar Tendinopathy in Youth Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi B A; Wiley, J Preston; Walker, Richard E A; Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; Emery, Carolyn A

    2018-04-27

    Study Design Prospective diagnostic accuracy validation study. Background Engaging clinicians for diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy in large surveillance studies is often impracticable. A self-report measure, the Oslo Sports Research Trauma Centre patellar tendinopathy (OSTRC-P) Questionnaire, an adaptation of the OSTRC Questionnaire may provide a viable alternative. Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the OSTRC-P Questionnaire in detecting patellar tendinopathy in youth basketball players when compared to clinical evaluation. Methods Following the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines, 208 youth basketball players (aged 13-18 years) were recruited. Participants completed the OSTRC-P Questionnaire (index test) prior to a clinical evaluation (reference standard) by a physiotherapist blinded to OSTRC-P Questionnaire results. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values (PVs), likelihood ratios (LRs) and posttest probabilities were calculated. Linear regression was used to examine the association between OSTRC-P Questionnaire severity score and patellar tendinopathy severity rating during single leg decline squat (SLDS). Results The final analysis included 169 players. The OSTRC-P Questionnaire had a sensitivity of 79% (95%CI: 65%, 90%), specificity of 98% (95%CI: 94%, 100%), positive PV of 95%, negative PV of 92%, positive LR of 48 and negative LR of 0.21. The posttest probabilities were 95% and 8% given positive and negative results, respectively. A positive association was found between OSTRC-P Questionnaire and SLDS rating [(β = .08 (95%CI: .03, .12) (p = .001)]. Conclusions The OSTRC-P Questionnaire is an acceptable alternative to clinical evaluation for self-reporting patellar tendinopathy and grading its severity in settings involving youth basketball players. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 27 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8088.

  2. Association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index among adult Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Danesh, N; Dehghan, M

    2010-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity and being overweight is rising among adult Canadians and diet is recognised as one of the main causes of obesity. The consumption of fruit and vegetables is shown to be protective against obesity and being overweight but little is known about the association of fruit juice consumption and obesity and being overweight. The present study aimed to investigate the association between fruit juice consumption and self-reported body mass index (BMI) among adult Canadians. This analysis is based on the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 3.1. A regression method was used to assess the association of fruit juice consumption with self-reported BMI in 18-64-year-old Canadians who had been adjusted for sex, age, total household income, education, self-rated health, and daily energy expenditure. Because the analysis is based on a cross-sectional dataset, it does not imply a cause and effect relationship. Almost 38.6% of adult Canadians reported a fruit juice intake of 0.5-1.4 times per day and 18.2% consumed fruit juice more than 1.5 times per day. Participants with normal weight were likely to consume more fruit juice than obese individuals. Regression analysis showed a negative association between fruit juice consumption and BMI after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, income, total fruit and vegetable intake, daily energy expenditure, and self-rated health. On average, for each daily serving of fruit juice, a -0.22 unit (95% confidence interval = -0.33 to -0.11) decrease in BMI was observed. The results obtained showed a moderate negative association between fruit juice intake and BMI, which may suggest that a moderate daily consumption of fruit juice is associated with normal weight status.

  3. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  4. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  5. Solutions of the bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The (N, M)-bigraded Toda hierarchy is an extension of the original Toda lattice hierarchy. The pair of numbers (N, M) represents the band structure of the Lax matrix which has N upper and M lower diagonals, and the original one is referred to as the (1, 1)-bigraded Toda hierarchy. Because of this band structure, one can introduce M + N - 1 commuting flows which give a parametrization of a small phase space for a topological field theory. In this paper, first we show that there exists a natural symmetry between the (N, M)- and (M, N)-bigraded Toda hierarchies. We then derive the Hirota bilinear form for those commuting flows, which consist of two-dimensional Toda hierarchy, the discrete KP hierarchy and its Baecklund transformations. We also discuss the solution structure of the (N, M)-bigraded Toda equation in terms of the moment matrix defined via the wave operators associated with the Lax operator and construct some of the explicit solutions. In particular, we give the rational solutions which are expressed by the products of the Schur polynomials corresponding to the non-rectangular Young diagrams.

  6. Social gradients in self-reported health and well-being among adults aged 50 and over in Pune District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhivinayak Hirve

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: India’s older population is projected to increase up to 96 million by 2011 with older people accounting for 18% of its population by 2051. The Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health aims to improve empirical understanding of health and well-being of older adults in developing countries. Objectives: To examine age and socio-economic changes on a range of key domains in self-reported health and well-being amongst older adults. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 5,430 adults aged 50 and over using a shortened version of the SAGE questionnaire to assess self-reported assessments (scales of 1–5 of performance, function, disability, quality of life and well-being. Self-reported responses were calibrated using anchoring vignettes in eight key domains of mobility, self-care, pain, cognition, interpersonal relationships, sleep/energy, affect, and vision. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Index and WHO health scores were calculated to examine for associations with socio-demographic variables. Results: Disability in all domains increased with increasing age and decreasing levels of education. Females and the oldest old without a living spouse reported poorer health status and greater disability across all domains. Performance and functionality self-reports were similar across all SES quintiles. Self-reports on quality of life were not significantly influenced by socio-demographic variables. Discussion: The study provides standardised and comparable self-rated health data using anchoring vignettes in an older population. Though expectations of good health, function and performance decrease with age, self-reports of disability severity significantly increased with age, more so if female, if uneducated and living without a spouse. However, the presence or absence of spouse did not significantly alter quality of life self-reports, suggesting a possible protective effect provided by traditional joint family structures in India, where older

  7. Systematic Review of Self-Report Measures of Pain Intensity in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: Bridging a Period of Rapid Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Jaaniste, Tiina; Vo, Henry L T; Brunsdon, Georgie; Lao, Hsuan-Chih; Champion, G David

    2017-09-01

    Claims are made for the validity of some self-report pain scales for 3- and 4-year-old children, but little is known about their ability to use such tools. This systematic review identified self-report pain intensity measures used with 3- and/or 4- year-old participants (3-4yo) and considered their reliability and validity within this age span. The search protocol identified research articles that included 3-4yo, reported use of any pain scale, and included self-reported pain intensity ratings. A total of 1,590 articles were screened and 617 articles met inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 98% aggregated self-report data for 3-4yo with data for older children, leading to overestimates of the reliability and validity of self-report in the younger age group. In the 14 studies that provided nonaggregated data for 3-4yo, there was no evidence for 3-year-old and weak evidence for 4-year-old children being able to use published self-report pain intensity tools in a valid or reliable way. Preschool-age children have been reported to do better with fewer than the 6 response options offered on published faces scales. Simplified tools are being developed for young children; however, more research is needed before these are adopted. Some self-report pain scales have been promoted for use with 3- and 4-year-old children, but this is on the basis of studies that aggregated data for younger and older children, resulting in overestimates of reliability and validity for the preschool-age children. Scales with fewer response options show promise, at least for 4-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  9. Predictors of self-reported health among the elderly in Ghana: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonta, Cynthia Lum; Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Nwosu, Emmanuel; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia

    2017-07-31

    Self-reported health is a widely used measure of health status across individuals. As the ageing population increases, the health of the elderly also becomes of growing concern. The elderly go through life facing social, economic and financial hardships. These hardships are known to affect the health status of people as they age. The purpose of this study is to assess social and health related factors of self-reported health among the elderly in Ghana. A multivariate regression analysis in form of a binary and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine the association between socioeconomic, demographic and health related factors, on self-reported health. The data used for this study was drawn from the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. In total, out of 2613 respondent, 579 (20.1%) rated their health status as poor and 2034 (79.9%) as good. The results showed that the odds of reporting poor health was 2.5 times higher among the old-old compared to the young old. The elderly with one or more than one chronic condition had the odds of 1.6 times and 2 times respectively, of reporting poor health. Engaging in mild to moderate exercise increased the chances of reporting poor health by 1.8 times. The elderly who had never worked in a lifetime were 2 times more likely to report poor health. In the same way, residents of Eastern and Western parts of Ghana were 2 times more likely to report poor health compared to those in the Upper West region. Respondents with functional limitations and disabilities were 3.6 times and 2.4 times respectively, more likely to report poor health. On the other hand, the odds of reporting poor health was 29, 36 and 27% less among respondents in the highest income quintiles, former users of tobacco and those satisfied with certain aspects of life respectively. Also, current alcohol users were 41% less likely to report poor health. The health status of the elderly is to an extent

  10. Self-reported periodontal conditions among Dutch women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmakh, V; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    Women can experience symptoms of gingival inflammation during pregnancy. However, whether clinical signs of gingival inflammation were present already before pregnancy and whether women perceive an alteration in their periodontal health status during pregnancy compared to their periodontal health status before pregnancy remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported periodontal conditions in pregnant Dutch women as perceived before and during pregnancy. This cross-sectional survey was performed by asking women visiting two midwifery practices to complete a structured questionnaire. The data, which considered the women's oral hygiene habits, perceived periodontal health status before and during pregnancy and dental visits, were gathered and analysed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used when appropriate. Most of the respondents (mean age: 29.6 years) brushed their teeth twice a day (72.2%), and 62.0% used interdental cleaning devices. Significant differences in periodontal health before and during pregnancy were perceived. No differences with respect to periodontal disease symptoms between the three trimesters during pregnancy were found. The symptom with the greatest increase was bleeding gums. This was followed by symptoms of painful and swollen gums. Of the 61.5% women who disclosed their plans to become pregnant to their dental care practitioner, 53.9% received information regarding the possibility of alterations in oral health status during pregnancy. Because of the perceived alterations in oral health status during pregnancy, approximately 11% of the women scheduled an additional appointment with their dental care professional for advice. During the pregnancy period, perceived alterations in periodontal health status were reported as compared to the oral health situation before pregnancy. Furthermore, approximately 50% of the women who visited a dental professional and disclosed their (plans) of pregnancy did not receive

  11. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  12. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  13. Inaccuracy in self-report of fractures may underestimate association with health outcomes when compared with medical record based fracture registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Aspelund, Thor; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Mogensen, Brynjolfur; Chang, Milan; Jonsdottir, Birna; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2007-01-01

    Introduction and objective Misreporting fractures in questionnaires is known. However, the effect of misreporting on the association of fractures with subsequent health outcomes has not been examined. Methods Data from a fracture registry (FR) developed from an extensive review of radiographic and medical records were related to self-report of fracture for 2,255 participants from the AGES Reykjavik Study. This data was used to determine false negative and false positive rates of self-reported fractures, correlates of misreporting, and the potential effect of the misreporting on estimates of health outcomes following fractures. Results In women, the false positive rate decreased with age as the false negative rate increased with no clear trend with age in men. Kappa values for agreement between FR and self-report were generally higher in women than men with the best agreement for forearm fracture (men 0.64 and women 0.82) and the least for rib (men 0.28 and women 0.25). Impaired cognition was a major factor associated with discordant answers between FR and self-report, OR 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1) (P < 0.0001). We estimated the effect of misreporting on health after fracture by comparison of the association of the self-report of fracture and fracture from the FR, adjusting for those factors associated with discordance. The weighted attenuation factor measured by mobility and muscle strength was 11% (95% CI: 0-24%) when adjusted for age and sex but reduced to 6% (95% CI: -10-22%) when adjusted for cognitive impairment. Conclusion Studies of hip fractures should include an independent ascertainment of fracture but for other fractures this study supports the use of self-report

  14. Development and preliminary validation of a self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in noncriminal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, S O; Andrews, B P

    1996-06-01

    Research on psychopathology has been hindered by persisting difficulties and controversies regarding its assessment. The primary goals of this set of studies were to (a) develop, and initiate the construct validation of, a self-report measure that assesses the major personality traits of psychopathy in noncriminal populations and (b) clarify the nature of these traits via an exploratory approach to test construction. This measure, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), was developed by writing items to assess a large number of personality domains relevant to psychopathy and performing successive item-level factor analyses and revisions on three undergraduate samples. The PPI total score and its eight subscales were found to possess satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In four studies with undergraduates, the PPI and its subscales exhibited a promising pattern of convergent and discriminant validity with self-report, psychiatric interview, observer rating, and family history data. In addition, the PPI total score demonstrated incremental validity relative to several commonly used self-report psychopathy-related measures. Future construct validation studies, unresolved conceptual issues regarding the assessment of psychopathy, and potential research uses of the PPI are outlined.

  15. Comparing the predictive capacity of observed in-session resistance to self-reported motivation in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Henny A

    2011-02-01

    Self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety have been weakly and inconsistently related to outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). While clients may not be able to accurately report their motivation, ambivalence about change may nonetheless be expressed in actual therapy sessions as opposition to the direction set by the therapist (i.e., resistance). In the context of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder, the present study compared the ability of observed in-session resistance in CBT session 1 and two self-report measures of motivation for changing anxiety (the Change Questionnaire & the Client Motivational for Therapy Scale) to (1) predict client and therapist rated homework compliance (2) predict post-CBT and one-year post-treatment worry reduction, and (3) differentiate those who received motivational interviewing prior to CBT from those who received no pre-treatment. Observed in-session resistance performed very well on each index, compared to the performance of self-reported motivation which was inconsistent and weaker relative to observed resistance. These findings strongly support both clinician sensitivity to moments of client resistance in actual therapy sessions as early as session 1, and the inclusion of observational process measures in CBT research. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  17. Psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour: a survey comparing physicians and nurses in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, T; Lutze, B; Graf, K; Krauth, C; Lange, K; Schwadtke, L; Stahmeyer, J; Chaberny, I F

    2015-09-01

    Research applying psychological behaviour change theories to hand hygiene compliance is scarce, especially for physicians. To identify psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour (HHB) of physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire that applied concepts from the Health Action Process Approach on hygienic hand disinfection was conducted in 10 ICUs and two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units at Hannover Medical School, Germany. Self-reported compliance was operationalized as always disinfecting one's hands when given tasks associated with risk of infection. Using seven-point Likert scales, behavioural planning, maintenance self-efficacy and action control were assessed as psychological factors, and personnel and material resources, organizational problems and cooperation on the ward were assessed as perceived environmental factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In total, 307 physicians and 348 nurses participated in this study (response rates 70.9% and 63.4%, respectively). Self-reported compliance did not differ between the groups (72.4% vs 69.4%, P = 0.405). While nurses reported stronger planning, self-efficacy and action control, physicians indicated better personnel resources and cooperation on the ward (P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-Reported Executive Functioning in Everyday Life in Parkinson's Disease after Three Months of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.

  19. Comparison of pediatric self reports and parent proxy reports utilizing PROMIS: Results from a chiropractic practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Joel; Ohm, Jeanne; Alcantara, Junjoe

    2017-11-01

    To measure the cross-informant variant of pediatric quality of life (QoL) based on self-reports and parent proxy measures. A secondary analysis of baseline data obtained from two independent studies measuring the QoL based on the pediatric PROMIS-25 self-report and the PROMIS parent-proxy items banks. A scoring manual associated raw scores to a T score metric (mean = 50; SD = 10). Reliability of QoL ratings utilized the ICC while comparison of mean T Scores utilized the unpaired t-test. A total of 289 parent-child dyads comprised our study responders. Average age for parents and children was 41.27 years and 12.52 years, respectively. The mean T score (child self-report: parent proxy) for each QoL domains were: mobility (50.82:52.58), anxiety (46.73:44.21), depression (45.18:43.60), fatigue (45.59:43.92), peer-relationships (52.15:52.88) and pain interference (47.47:44.80). Parents tend to over-estimate their child's QoL based on measures of anxiety, depression, fatigue, peer-relationships and pain interference. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between self-reported oral health, self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, A L; Dogaru, B C; Dogaru, C D; Manolescu, B

    2011-06-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude, perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours. The study sample consisted of 198 first year medical students. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic factors, behavioural variables, self-reported oral health status, proactive coping (proactive coping subscale of the Proactive Coping Inventory), procrastination (Procrastination Scale) and proactive attitude (Proactive Attitude Scale). Significant differences were found on self-regulation, proactive coping, procrastination and proactive attitude scales between participants who rated their gingival condition as very good/excellent and those who evaluated it as being poor, very poor or normal (p procrastination level among individuals who never visit their dentist and those who visit their dentist for check-up or for tooth cleaning and scaling (p = 0.001) or when treatment is needed or when in pain (p procrastination and proactive coping are important determinants of perceived oral health and self-reported oral-health behaviours.

  1. Development of self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental barriers and facilitators for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sofia F; Hahn, Elizabeth A; Magasi, Susan; Lai, Jin-Shei; Semik, Patrick; Hammel, Joy; Heinemann, Allen W

    2015-04-01

    To describe the development of new self-report measures of social attitudes that act as environmental facilitators or barriers to the participation of people with disabilities in society. A mixed-methods approach included a literature review; item classification, selection, and writing; cognitive interviews and field testing of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), or stroke; and rating scale analysis to evaluate initial psychometric properties. General community. Individuals with SCI, TBI, or stroke participated in cognitive interviews (n=9); community residents with those same conditions participated in field testing (n=305). None. Self-report item pool of social attitudes that act as facilitators or barriers to people with disabilities participating in society. An interdisciplinary team of experts classified 710 existing social environment items into content areas and wrote 32 new items. Additional qualitative item review included item refinement and winnowing of the pool prior to cognitive interviews and field testing of 82 items. Field test data indicated that the pool satisfies a 1-parameter item response theory measurement model and would be appropriate for development into a calibrated item bank. Our qualitative item review process supported a social environment conceptual framework that includes both social support and social attitudes. We developed a new social attitudes self-report item pool. Calibration testing of that pool is underway with a larger sample to develop a social attitudes item bank for persons with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An evaluation of self-reported mobile phone use compared to billing records among a group of engineers and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Mona; Kelsh, Michael A; Sheppard, Asher R; Zhao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of potential health impacts of mobile phones rely on self-reported information, which can lead to exposure misclassification. We compared self-reported questionnaire data among 60 participants, and phone billing records over a 3-year period (2002-2004). Phone usage information was compared by the calculation of the mean and median number of calls and duration of use, as well as correlation coefficients and associated P-values. Average call duration from self-reports was slightly lower than billing records (2.1 min vs. 2.8 min, P = 0.01). Participants reported a higher number of average daily calls than billing records (7.9 vs. 4.1, P = 0.002). Correlation coefficients for average minutes per day of mobile phone use and average number of calls per day were relatively high (R = 0.71 and 0.69, respectively, P correlations between self-reported mobile phone usage and billing records and substantial variability in recall are consistent with previous studies. However, the direction of over- and under-reporting was not consistent with previous research. We did not observe increased variability over longer periods of recall or a pattern of lower accuracy among older age groups compared with younger groups. Study limitations included a relatively small sample size, low participation rates, and potential limited generalizability. The variability within studies and non-uniformity across studies indicates that estimation of the frequency and duration of phone use by questionnaires should be supplemented with subscriber records whenever practical. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Development of a Smartphone Application to Measure Physical Activity Using Sensor-Assisted Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Fridlund Dunton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the known advantages of objective physical activity monitors (e.g., accelerometers, these devices have high rates of non-wear, which leads to missing data. Objective activity monitors are also unable to capture valuable contextual information about behavior. Adolescents recruited into physical activity surveillance and intervention studies will increasingly have smartphones, which are miniature computers with built-in motion sensors. Methods: This paper describes the design and development of a smartphone application (app called Mobile Teen that combines objective and self-report assessment strategies through (1 sensor-informed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment (CS-EMA and (2 sensor-assisted end-of-day recall.Results: The Mobile Teen app uses the mobile phone’s built-in motion sensor to automatically detect likely bouts of phone non-wear, sedentary behavior, and physical activity. The app then uses transitions between these inferred states to trigger CS-EMA self-report surveys measuring the type, purpose, and context of activity in real time. The end of the day recall component of the Mobile Teen app allows users to interactively review and label their own physical activity data each evening using visual cues from automatically-detected major activity transitions from the phone’s built-in motions sensors. Major activity transitions are identified by the app, which cues the user to label that chunk, or period, of time using activity categories.Conclusions: Sensor-driven CS-EMA and end-of-day recall smartphone apps can be used to augment physical activity data collected by objective activity monitors, filling in gaps during non-wear bouts and providing additional real-time data on environmental, social, and emotional correlates of behavior. Smartphone apps such as these have potential for affordable deployment in large scale epidemiological and intervention studies.

  4. Self-reported skin concerns: An epidemiological study of community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Dyson, Judith; Long, Judith; Macleod, Una

    2018-03-25

    To identify the frequency and impact of self-reported skin concerns in community-dwelling older people. Globally, the population is getting older and it is essential to develop effective interventions to promote healthy ageing. Skin change with age is inevitable and renders this often neglected organ more vulnerable to damage and breakdown; this can be costly to individuals and society. Maintenance of skin health in older people presents a health challenge that has yet to be fully understood or addressed. Cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire survey in England. Patients registered with participating general practices (n = 3), aged ≥70 years, living in their own homes and able to give informed consent (n = 3,359) were sent a letter of invitation to a free health and care assessment, and 1116 responded. When asked "do you have any concerns about your skin?", 16.5% (n = 183) said yes. Of this group, the most common concerns were dry skin 80.7% (n = 146), itching 56.9% (n = 103) and aged appearance 61% (n = 113). Itch, dry skin and inflammation were rated as most bothersome. There was a significant association between the dry skin and itch χ 2 (1) = 6.9, p < .05. Many community-dwelling older people suffer from skin concerns predominantly dry skin and itching that is often bothersome. Skin health assessment is often absent in routine consultations with community-dwelling older people. Dry, itchy skin is prevalent and can be simply managed with low-cost interventions. This has the potential to reduce suffering and maintain or improve skin barrier function. Nurses and other health professionals should therefore routinely assess and advise on skin health care for this population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  6. Incisal tooth wear and self-reported TMD pain in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; John, Mike T; Lobbezoo, Frank; Setz, Juergen M; Schaller, Hans-Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Incisal tooth wear may be a sign of long-term bruxing behavior. Bruxism is purported to be a risk factor for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this population-based cross-sectional study was to determine if anterior tooth wear is associated with the self-report of TMD pain in children and adolescents. In a population sample of 1,011 children and adolescents (mean age 13.1 years, range 10 to 18 years; female 52%; response rate 85%), TMD cases were defined as subjects reporting pain in the face, jaw muscles, and temporomandibular joint during the last month according to RDC/TMD. All other subjects were considered controls. Incisal tooth wear was assessed in the clinical examination using a 0 to 2 scale (no wear, enamel wear, dentin wear) for every anterior permanent tooth. The mean wear score for the individuals was categorized into 0, 0.01 to 0.20, 0.21 to 0.40, and 0.41+. A multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for the effects of age and gender, analyzed the association between the categorized summary wear score and TMD. Specifically, the hypothesis of a trend between higher tooth wear scores and higher risk of TMD was tested. An odds ratio of 1.1 indicated, after adjusting for gender and age, no statistically significantly higher risk of TMD pain with higher tooth wear scores. Incisal tooth wear was not associated with self-reported TMD pain in 10- to 18-year-old subjects.

  7. Self-reported learning difficulties and dietary intake in Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Lüdemann, Eva; Høigaard, Rune

    2013-11-01

    The academic performance of children impacts future educational attainment which may increase socioeconomic status which again influences their health. One of several factors that might affect academic performance is the diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross sectional relation between diet and self-reported reading-, writing-, and mathematical difficulties in Norwegian adolescents. In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students out of 625 eligible ones from four different secondary schools in three different municipalities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy and unhealthy food items, questions of meal frequency and different learning difficulties. Regular breakfast was significantly associated with decreased odds of both writing and reading difficulties (OR: 0.44 (0.2-0.8), p = 0.01) and mathematical difficulties (OR: 0.33 (0.2-0.6), p ≤ 0.001). In addition, having lunch, dinner and supper regularly were associated with decreased odds of mathematical difficulties. Further, a high intake of foods representing a poor diet (sugar-sweetened soft drinks, sweets, chocolate, savory snacks, pizza and hot dogs) was significantly associated with increased odds of mathematical difficulties. Having a less-frequent intake of unhealthy foods and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of self-reported learning difficulties in Norwegian adolescents in this study. The results of this study support the need for a larger study with a more representative sample.

  8. Self-Reported Minimalist Running Injury Incidence and Severity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Katrina; Ridpath, Lance; Hanna, Jandy B

    2016-08-01

    Minimalist running entails using shoes with a flexible thin sole and is popular in the United States. Existing literature disagrees over whether minimalist running shoes (MRS) improve perceived severity of injuries associated with running in traditional running shoes (TRS). Additionally, the perceived injury patterns associated with MRS are relatively unknown. To examine whether injury incidence and severity (ie, degree of pain) by body region change after switching to MRS, and to determine if transition times affect injury incidences or severity with MRS. Runners who were either current or previous users of MRS were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey regarding self-reported injury before switching to MRS and whether self-reported pain from that injury decreased after switching. Questions regarding whether new injuries developed in respondents after switching to MRS were also included. Analyses were calculated using t tests, Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and Fischer exact tests. Forty-seven runners completed the survey, and 16 respondents reported injuries before switching to MRS. Among these respondents, pain resulting from injuries of the feet (P=.03) and knees (P=.01) decreased. Eighteen respondents (38.3%) indicated they sustained new injuries after switching to MRS, but the severity of these did not differ significantly from no injury. Neither time allowed for transition to MRS nor use or disuse of a stretching routine during this period was correlated with an increase in the incidence or severity of injuries. After switching to MRS, respondents perceived an improvement in foot and knee injuries. Additionally, respondents using MRS reported an injury rate of 38.3%, compared with the approximately 64% that the literature reports among TRS users. Future studies should be expanded to determine the full extent of the differences in injury patterns between MRS and TRS.

  9. Entrepreneurs' self-reported health, social life, and strategies for maintaining good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Josephson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the association between self-reported good health and self-valued good social life. An additional aim was to examine entrepreneur's strategies for maintaining good health. The study design included a two-wave questionnaire, with five years between the surveys (2001 and 2006), and qualitative interviews. The study group consisted of 246 entrepreneurs from the central region of Sweden and represented ten different trades. Entrepreneurs reporting good health in both 2001 and 2006 were compared with entrepreneurs reporting poor health on both occasions or with inconsistent answers. Six of the entrepreneurs were strategically chosen for the interview study. Consistent good health was reported by 56% of the entrepreneurs. Good social life in 2001 was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for consistent good health when the analyses were adjusted for physical work conditions and job satisfaction (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.07-4.17). Findings for good leisure time, weekly moderate physical exercise, and a rating of work being less or equally important as other life areas, were similar but not statistically significant when job satisfaction was considered in the analyses. Strategies for maintaining good health included good planning and control over work, flexibility at work, good social contact with family, friends and other entrepreneurs, and regular physical exercise. This study demonstrated an association between self-reported good health and good social life for entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises. In addition, the entrepreneurs emphasised strategies such as planning and control over work and physical exercise are important for maintaining good health.

  10. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  11. The impact of health on individual retirement plans: self-reported versus diagnostic measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2009-01-01

    provides evidence that men's self-report of myalgia and back problems and women's self-report of osteoarthritis possibly yield biased estimates of the impact on planned retirement age, and that this bias ranges between 1.5 and 2 years, suggesting that users of survey data should be wary of applying self...

  12. Self-Report Measures of Parent-Adolescent Attachment and Separation-Individuation: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Gover, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and critiques three self-report measures of parent-adolescent attachment (Parental Bonding Instrument, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment) and three self-report measures of parent-adolescent separation-individuation (Psychological Separation Inventory, Personal Authority in the Family System…

  13. Family Influences on Self-Reported Delinquency among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Nadine C.; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the effect of certain family processes on adolescents' self-reported delinquency and investigates whether self-esteem and locus of control mediate these effects. Results indicate that parental discipline style predicts self-reported delinquency. Also, a link between positive family relations and high self-esteem among males emerged. (RJM)

  14. Teachers' Self-Reported Pedagogical Practices toward Socially Inhibited, Hyperactive, and Average Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem T.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Van Der Leij, Aryan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined teachers' self-reported pedagogical practices toward socially inhibited, hyperactive, and average kindergartners. A self-report instrument was developed and examined in three samples of kindergartners and their teachers. Principal components analyses were conducted in four datasets pertaining to 1 child per teacher. Two…

  15. The association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, Paul S; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, John David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain.......The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain....

  16. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  17. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  18. Can You Trust Self-Report Data Provided by Homeless Mentally Ill Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and validity of self-report data provided by 178 mentally ill homeless persons were generally favorable. Self-reports of service use also generally agreed with treatment staff estimates, providing further validity evidence. Researchers and administrators can be relatively confident in using such data. (SLD)

  19. Parents with Psychosis: A Pilot Study Examining Self-Report Measures Related to Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Karen; Byrne, Linda; Barkla, Joanne; McLean, Duncan; Hearle, Jenny; McGrath, John

    2002-01-01

    Examines the utility of various self-report instruments related to family functioning in families where a parent has a psychotic disorder, and explores associations between these instruments and symptoms in the parent. There were significant associations between objective measures of negative symptoms and self-report scores related to problems in…

  20. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Design Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Setting Ecological study with assessments at

  1. Validation of self-reported cannabis dose and potency: an ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cannabis dose and potency measures. Cross-sectional study comparing self-reports with objective measures of amount of cannabis and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration. Ecological study with assessments at participants' homes or in

  2. Evolution of Self-Reporting Methods for Identifying Discrete Emotions in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…

  3. Accuracy of self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, N; Hosono, A; Shibata, K; Tsujimura, S; Oka, K; Fujita, H; Kamiya, M; Kondo, F; Wakabayashi, R; Yamada, T; Suzuki, S

    2017-12-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior studies investigating the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference, and no study has investigated the validity of self-reported waist circumference among Japanese individuals. This study used the diagnostic standard of metabolic syndrome to assess the accuracy of individual's self-reported height, weight and waist circumference in a Japanese sample. Study participants included 7,443 Japanese men and women aged 35-79 years. They participated in a cohort study's baseline survey between 2007 and 2011. Participants' height, weight and waist circumference were measured, and their body mass index was calculated. Self-reported values were collected through a questionnaire before the examination. Strong correlations between measured and self-reported values for height, weight and body mass index were detected. The correlation was lowest for waist circumference (men, 0.87; women, 0.73). Men significantly overestimated their waist circumference (mean difference, 0.8 cm), whereas women significantly underestimated theirs (mean difference, 5.1 cm). The sensitivity of self-reported waist circumference using the cut-off value of metabolic syndrome was 0.83 for men and 0.57 for women. Due to systematic and random errors, the accuracy of self-reported waist circumference was low. Therefore, waist circumference should be measured without relying on self-reported values, particularly in the case of women.

  4. Educational differences in the validity of self-reported physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winckers, Annemarie N. E.; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Compernolle, Sofie; Nicolaou, Mary; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to describe

  5. Educational differences in the validity of self-reported physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winckers, A.N.; Mackenbach, J.D.; Compernolle, S.; Nicolaou, M.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The assessment of physical activity for surveillance or population based studies is usually done with self-report questionnaires. However, bias in self-reported physical activity may be greater in lower educated than in higher educated populations. The aim of the present study is to

  6. Predicting long-term sickness absence and early retirement pension from self-reported work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sell, Lea; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market.......The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between self-reported work ability and long-term term of sickness absence or early retirement from the labour market....

  7. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  8. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  9. Validity of Self-Reported Concentration and Memory Problems: Relationship with Neuropsychological Assessment and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: This study investigated the validity of self-reported concentration and memory problems (CMP) in residents environmentally exposed to manganese (Mn). Method: Self-report of CMP from a health questionnaire (HQ) and the Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was com...

  10. Predicting inpatient aggression by self-reported impulsivity in forensic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousardt, A.M.C.; Hoogendoorn, A.W.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Hummelen, J.W.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Empirical knowledge of 'predictors' of physical inpatient aggression may provide staff with tools to prevent aggression or minimise its consequences. Aim: To test the value of a self-reported measure of impulsivity for predicting inpatient aggression. Methods: Self-report measures of

  11. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  12. Predicting physical health: implicit mental health measures versus self-report scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara McKee; Shedler, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    Researchers have traditionally relied on self-report questionnaires to assess psychological well-being, but such measures may be unable to differentiate individuals who are genuinely psychologically healthy from those who maintain a facade or illusion of mental health based on denial and self-deception. Prior research suggests that clinically derived assessment procedures that assess implicit psychological processes may have advantages over self-report mental health measures. This prospective study compared the Early Memory Index, an implicit measure of mental health/distress, with a range of familiar self-report scales as predictors of physical health. The Early Memory Index showed significant prospective associations with health service utilization and clinically verified illness. In contrast, self-report measures of mental health, perceived stress, life events stress, and mood states did not predict health outcomes. The findings highlight the limitations of self-report questionnaires and suggest that implicit measures have an important role to play in mental health research.

  13. Genetic and environmental influences on self-reported reduced hearing in the old and oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, H; Hoffman, H J

    2001-01-01

    effects. Structural-equation analyses revealed a substantial heritability for self-reported reduced hearing of 40% (95% CI = 19-53%). The remaining variation could be attributed to individuals' nonfamilial environments. CONCLUSION: We found that genetic factors play an important role in self......-reported reduced hearing in both men and women age 70 and older. Because self-reports of reduced hearing involve misclassification, this estimate of the genetic influence on hearing disabilities is probably conservative. Hence, genetic and environmental factors play a substantial role in reduced hearing among......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present twin study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in variation in self-reported reduced hearing among the old and the oldest old. DESIGN: Self-reported hearing abilities of older twins assessed at intake interview...

  14. Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianhua; Li Yuqi

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)

  15. Effects of host social hierarchy on disease persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ross S; Marion, Glenn; Hutchings, Michael R

    2008-08-07

    The effects of social hierarchy on population dynamics and epidemiology are examined through a model which contains a number of fundamental features of hierarchical systems, but is simple enough to allow analytical insight. In order to allow for differences in birth rates, contact rates and movement rates among different sets of individuals the population is first divided into subgroups representing levels in the hierarchy. Movement, representing dominance challenges, is allowed between any two levels, giving a completely connected network. The model includes hierarchical effects by introducing a set of dominance parameters which affect birth rates in each social level and movement rates between social levels, dependent upon their rank. Although natural hierarchies vary greatly in form, the skewing of contact patterns, introduced here through non-uniform dominance parameters, has marked effects on the spread of disease. A simple homogeneous mixing differential equation model of a disease with SI dynamics in a population subject to simple birth and death process is presented and it is shown that the hierarchical model tends to this as certain parameter regions are approached. Outside of these parameter regions correlations within the system give rise to deviations from the simple theory. A Gaussian moment closure scheme is developed which extends the homogeneous model in order to take account of correlations arising from the hierarchical structure, and it is shown that the results are in reasonable agreement with simulations across a range of parameters. This approach helps to elucidate the origin of hierarchical effects and shows that it may be straightforward to relate the correlations in the model to measurable quantities which could be used to determine the importance of hierarchical corrections. Overall, hierarchical effects decrease the levels of disease present in a given population compared to a homogeneous unstructured model, but show higher levels of

  16. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  17. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    intention was of a similar magnitude to that found in the literature relating to non-health professionals. This was more consistently the case for studies in which intention-behaviour correspondence was good and behaviour was self-reported. Though firm conclusions are limited by a smaller literature, our findings are consistent with that of the non-health professional literature. This review, viewed in the context of the larger populations of studies, provides encouragement for the contention that there is a predictable relationship between the intentions of a health professional and their subsequent behaviour. However, there remain significant methodological challenges.

  18. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  19. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groß, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit

  20. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  1. Self-Reported Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in High School Students: Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carroccio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. Aim: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy. A total of 555 students (mean age 17 years, 191 male, 364 female completed a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported NCWS. The subjects who self-reported NCWS were then compared with all the others. Results: Seven individuals (1.26% had an established diagnosis of CD. The prevalence of self-reported NCWS was 12.2%, and 2.9% were following a gluten-free diet (GFD. Only 15 out of 68 (23% NCWS self-reporters had consulted a doctor for this problem and only nine (14% had undergone serological tests for celiac disease. The NCWS self-reporters very often had IBS symptoms (44%. Conclusions: Self-reported NCWS was found to be common in teenagers, with a frequency of 12.2%; the frequency of GFD use was 2.9%, which was much higher than the percentage of known CD in the same population (1.26%. A greater awareness of the possible implications on the part of the subjects involved, and a more thorough medical approach to the study of self-reported wheat-induced symptoms are required.

  2. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.

  3. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI 7.9% (6.5–9.6 and 5.3% (4.1–6.7 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4, wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8. There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96. Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%. The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5. Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%. Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.

  4. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  5. The Emotional Movie Database (EMDB): a self-report and psychophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Leite, Jorge; Galdo-Álvarez, Santiago; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-12-01

    Film clips are an important tool for evoking emotional responses in the laboratory. When compared with other emotionally potent visual stimuli (e.g., pictures), film clips seem to be more effective in eliciting emotions for longer periods of time at both the subjective and physiological levels. The main objective of the present study was to develop a new database of affective film clips without auditory content, based on a dimensional approach to emotional stimuli (valence, arousal and dominance). The study had three different phases: (1) the pre-selection and editing of 52 film clips (2) the self-report rating of these film clips by a sample of 113 participants and (3) psychophysiological assessment [skin conductance level (SCL) and the heart rate (HR)] on 32 volunteers. Film clips from different categories were selected to elicit emotional states from different quadrants of affective space. The results also showed that sustained exposure to the affective film clips resulted in a pattern of a SCL increase and HR deceleration in high arousal conditions (i.e., horror and erotic conditions). The resulting emotional movie database can reliably be used in research requiring the presentation of non-auditory film clips with different ratings of valence, arousal and dominance.

  6. Self-reported injury history in Native American professional rodeo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichlow, Renée; Williamson, Steve; Geurin, Mike; Heggem, Heather

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of rodeo injury and the use of protective equipment. Cross-sectional survey. Indian National Finals Rodeo 2004 in San Jacinto, CA. One hundred sixty-nine native American, professional rodeo competitors. On-site survey completed before competition. A total of 180 native American competitors received the survey. Respondents reported the event of participation, prior injury histories (including number, type and disability), use of protective equipment, and access to health care. Main outcomes were determined before survey distribution and included self-reported injury rate, time away from rodeo secondary to injury, and protective equipment usage during competition. Total 94% response rate. There was a range of injury history-from 100% of bull riders to only 24% of tie-down ropers-reporting a history of injuries. Forty percent of competitors reported using protective equipment; of these, 32% reported wearing vests. Twenty-six percent of the competitors had a history of injury that prevented them from working an average of 3.2 months. As hypothesized, a greater injury rate resulted from rough stock events; older competitors are more likely to have had work time loss from injury; and vests are the most frequently used protective equipment in rodeo.

  7. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Srayan; Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution.

  8. On the Hierarchy of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Urban, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of neutrino masses combining the seesaw mechanism and strong Dirac mass hierarchy and at the same time exhibiting a significantly reduced hierarchy at the level of active neutrino masses. The heavy Majorana masses are assumed to be degenerate. The suppression of the hierarchy is due to a symmetric and unitary operator R whose role is discussed. The model gives realistic mixing and mass spectrum. The mixing of atmospheric neutrinos is attributed to the charged lepton sector whereas the mixing of solar neutrinos is due to the neutrino sector. Small U e3 is a consequence of the model. The masses of the active neutrinos are given by μ 3 ≅ √(Δm 2 O ) and μ 1 /μ 2 = ≅ tan 2 (θ O ). (author)

  9. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  10. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  11. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  12. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new ‘product’ of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings–leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution. PMID:29474409

  13. On self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    1989-01-01

    In this note, motivated by the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy of integrable nonlinear evolution equations, a GL(n,C) self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) hierarchy is presented; it is an infinite system of SDYM equations having an infinite number of independent variables and being outside of the KP hierarchy. A relationship between the KP hierarchy and the SDYM hierarchy is discussed. It is also shown that GL(∞) SDYM equations introduced in this note are reduced to the GL(n,C) SDYM hierarchy by imposing an algebraic constraint. (orig.)

  14. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  15. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  16. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  17. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  18. Program information architecture/document hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  20. Relationship between self-reported cognitive difficulties, objective neuropsychological test performance and psychological distress in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K S; Gibson, S J; Georgiou-Karistianis, N; Giummarra, M J

    2018-03-01

    Persons with chronic pain often report problems with cognitive abilities, such as memory or attention. There is limited understanding of whether objective performance is consistent with subjective reports, and how psychological factors contribute. We aimed to investigate these relationships in a group of patients expressing cognitive concerns, and evaluate the utility of self-report tools for pain management settings. Participants with chronic pain (n = 41) completed standardized neuropsychological tests, and self-report measures of cognitive functioning, pain, mood and sleep, as part of a broader study investigating cognitive performance in pain. Average neuropsychological test performance was subtly below normative means (within one standard deviation). Twenty-five percent of the sample scored substantially below age-adjusted norms on one or more objective tests. There were moderate-to-large associations between objective performance (e.g. Trail-Making B) and subjective cognitive complaints (e.g. Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised), controlling for age and education level. This was moderated by anxiety, such that subjective-objective relationships were particularly strong in those with higher anxiety. Poorer test performance was associated with higher pain intensity and catastrophizing. Subjective-objective cognition relationships remained after controlling for catastrophizing. Patients' self-reported cognitive concerns concurred with objectively measured performance, independent of age, education and catastrophizing. Moreover, those with severe anxiety were more accurate in predicting their cognitive performance. The findings highlight some interesting cognition-mood relationships, and suggest that easy-to-administer questionnaires, such as the Everyday Memory Questionnaire - Revised and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version, may be useful to capture cognitive concerns in clinical settings. Cognitive concerns in chronic pain

  1. Systematic content evaluation and review of measurement properties of questionnaires for measuring self-reported fatigue among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.

  2. Decrease in Self-Reported Tanning Frequency among Utah Teens following the Passage of Utah Senate Bill 41: An Analysis of the Effects of Youth-Access Restriction Laws on Tanning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Rebecca G.; Smith, Kristi; Balough, Meghan; Friedrichs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Adolescent use of indoor tanning facilities is associated with an increased risk in later development of melanoma skin cancers. States that have imposed age restrictions on access to indoor tanning generally show lower self-reported rates of indoor tanning than states with no restrictions, but currently no studies have assessed indoor tanning use before and after such restrictions. Methods. In 2013, we compared self-reported indoor tanning data collected in the Prevention Needs ...

  3. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  4. The Hierarchy of Control in the Epidemic of Farm Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosman, James; Hagel, Louise; King, Nathan; Koehncke, Niels; Kirychuk, Shelley; Trask, Catherine; Neudorf, Joshua; Day, Lesley; Voaklander, Donald; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy of control (HOC) is a well-established approach to hazard reduction in industrial workplaces. However, it has not been generally applied in farm workplaces. The objective was to determine current practices of farmers in the context of a modified HOC, and the effect of these practices on farm injury outcomes. A self-reported mail survey of 1196 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2013. Selected survey questions were used as proxy measures of the farm owner-operator's practices relevant to each of the six steps of increasing importance in a modified HOC: (1) hazard identification; (2) risk assessment; (3) personal protection; (4) administrative controls; (5) engineering controls; and (6) elimination of the hazard. Analysis used basic descriptive statistics and logistic regression to examine associations of interest. When four of the six HOC steps were adhered to, there was a significant protective effect: odds ratio (OR) = 0.32 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.74) for any injury and OR = 0.27 (95% CI: 0.07-0.99) for serious injury in the overall study population. For farm owner-operators utilizing four of the six steps in the modified HOC, there was a significant protective effect for any injury (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.11-0.83). Although there is a considerable absence of use of elements of the HOC among farm operators, for farmers who adhere to these steps, there is a significant reduction in their risk for injury. Prevention strategies that embrace the practice of these principles may be effective in the control of farm workplace injury.

  5. Avatar Web-Based Self-Report Survey System Technology for Public Health Research: Technical Outcome Results and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel, Craig; Mierzwa, Stan; Gorbach, Pamina M; Souidi, Samir; Lally, Michelle; Zimet, Gregory; Interventions, Aids

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a specific Web-based self-report data collection system that was developed for a public health research study in the United States. Our focus is on technical outcome results and lessons learned that may be useful to other projects requiring such a solution. The system was accessible from any device that had a browser that supported HTML5. Report findings include: which hardware devices, Web browsers, and operating systems were used; the rate of survey completion; and key considerations for employing Web-based surveys in a clinical trial setting.

  6. The relationship between students' self-reported aggressive communication and motives to communicate with their instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chad; Myers, Scott A

    2010-02-01

    Using a convenience sample, 172 college students' (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 2.5) motives for communicating with their instructors and their own verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness were studied using the Argumentativeness Scale, the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale, and the Student Motives to Communicate Scale. Significant negative relationships were obtained between students' self-reports of argumentativeness and the sycophantic motive and between students' self-reports of verbal aggressiveness and the functional motive, but generally, students' motives to communicate with their instructors generally were not associated with their self-reported aggressive communication behaviors.

  7. An empirical examination of self-reported work stress among U.S. managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, M A; Boswell, W R; Roehling, M V; Boudreau, J W

    2000-02-01

    This study proposes that self-reported work stress among U.S. managers is differentially related (positively and negatively) to work outcomes depending on the stressors that are being evaluated. Specific hypotheses were derived from this general proposition and tested using a sample of 1,886 U.S. managers and longitudinal data. Regression results indicate that challenge-related self-reported stress is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to job search. In contrast, hindrance-related self-reported stress is negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to job search and turnover. Future research directions are discussed.

  8. Women's experiences of self-reporting health online prior to their first midwifery visit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Clausen, Jette Aaroe; Hvidtjørn, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    personal health', 'Reducing and generating risk', and 'Bridges and gaps'. Compared to reporting physical health information, more advanced levels of health literacy might be needed to self-assess mental health and personal needs. Self-reporting health can induce feelings of being normal but also increase...... perceptions of pregnancy-related risk and concerns of being judged by the midwife. Although women want to have their self-reported information addressed, they also have a need for the midwife's expert knowledge and advice, and of not being perceived as a demanding client. CONCLUSION: Self-reported health...

  9. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  10. Parent–Youth Agreement on Self-Reported Competencies of Youth With Depressive and Suicidal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbekou, Valentin; MacNeil, Sasha; Gignac, Martin; Renaud, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A multi-informant approach is often used in child psychiatry. The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment uses this approach, gathering parent reports on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and youth reports on the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which contain scales assessing both the child’s problems and competencies. Agreement between parent and youth perceptions of their competencies on these forms has not been studied to date. Method: Our study examined the parent–youth agreement of competencies on the CBCL and YSR from a sample of 258 parent–youth dyads referred to a specialized outpatient clinic for depressive and suicidal disorders. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for all competency scales (activity, social, and academic), with further examinations based on youth’s sex, age, and type of problem. Results: Weak-to-moderate parent–youth agreements were reported on the activities and social subscales. For the activities subscale, boys’ ratings had a strong correlation with parents’ ratings, while it was weak for girls. Also, agreement on activities and social subscales was stronger for dyads with the youth presenting externalizing instead of internalizing problems. Conclusion: Agreement on competencies between parents and adolescents varied based on competency and adolescent sex, age, and type of problem. PMID:25886673

  11. The prognosis of self-reported paresthesia and weakness in disc-related sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, L; Haugen, A J; Natvig, B; Brox, J I; Grotle, M

    2013-11-01

    To explore how patients with sciatica rate the 'bothersomeness' of paresthesia (tingling and numbness) and weakness as compared with leg pain during 2 years of follow-up. Observational cohort study including 380 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation referred to secondary care. Using the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index paresthesia, weakness and leg pain were rated on a scale from 0 to 6. A symptom score of 4-6 was defined as bothersome. Along with leg pain, the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness both improved during follow-up. Those who received surgery (n = 121) reported larger improvements in both symptoms than did those who were treated without surgery. At 2 years, 18.2% of the patients reported bothersome paresthesia, 16.6% reported bothersome leg pain, and 11.5% reported bothersome weakness. Among patients with no or little leg pain, 6.7% reported bothersome paresthesia and 5.1% bothersome weakness. During 2 years of follow-up, patients considered paresthesia more bothersome than weakness. At 2 years, the percentage of patients who reported bothersome paresthesia was similar to the percentage who reported bothersome leg pain. Based on patients' self-report, paresthesia and weakness are relevant aspects of disc-related sciatica.

  12. Dental students' beliefs about culture in patient care: self-reported knowledge and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A; Redford-Badwal, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    In order to decrease the well-documented disparities in oral health and oral health care, the next generation of dentists must be prepared to serve a diverse patient population. This article describes dental students' self-reported knowledge of culture and importance of using culturally sensitive dental practices. Three consecutive graduating classes (n=111) were surveyed anonymously in their sophomore years. Students indicated their self-rated knowledge of oral health and oral health care for their own culture and the cultures of patients they are likely to see in dental practice. Students also rated their perceived importance of culturally sensitive dental practice. Overall, students reported low knowledge of the cultures of the patients they will see in practice. Few students could identify any cultural group that they knew well. However, students as a group indicated that using culturally sensitive practices in dentistry is important. Students who could identify at least one cultural group they knew well perceived cultural sensitivity in dental practice as more important than students who could not. These results suggest that students need cross-cultural training and believe that such training is important. The results also suggest that a specific curriculum that increases knowledge of other cultures may have the potential to ultimately increase the use of culturally sensitive practices.

  13. [Measurement properties of self-report questionnaires published in Korean nursing journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Eun Jung; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Soo-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for studies published in Korean nursing journals. Of 424 Korean nursing articles initially identified, 168 articles met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the measurements used in the studies and interpretability were assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. It consists of items on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, construct validity including structural validity, hypothesis testing, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity, and responsiveness. For each item of the COSMIN checklist, measurement properties are rated on a four-point scale: excellent, good, fair, and poor. Each measurement property is scored with worst score counts. All articles used the classical test theory for measurement properties. Internal consistency (72.6%), construct validity (56.5%), and content validity (38.2%) were most frequently reported properties being rated as 'excellent' by COSMIN checklist, whereas other measurement properties were rarely reported. A systematic review of measurement properties including interpretability of most instruments warrants further research and nursing-focused checklists assessing measurement properties should be developed to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies.

  14. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419

  15. Lifestyle habits of people with self-reported diabetes: changes during a five-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerija, Mario; Poljicanin, Tamara; Metelko, Zeljko

    2012-01-01

    The aims of our study were to investigate the prevalence of risk factors in persons with previously known diabetes ("old DM"), persons with diabetes developed during the 2003-2008 period ("new DM") and diabetes-free individuals within the CroHort study. Risk factors were defined as physical inactivity, unhealthy nutritional regimen, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, while diabetes status was self-reported. The most prevalent risk factor in both "old DM" and "new DM" group was physical inactivity (46.7% and 33.7% in 2003; 46.8% and 46.3% in 2008), then smoking (12.1% and 14.6%; 12.7% and 14.4%), unhealthy diet (8.8% and 13.8; 8.2% and 10.0%) and heavy alcohol consumption (11.1% and 6.0%; 7.8% and 13.8%). Diabetes-free individuals had higher rates of smoking and unhealthy diet, and lower rates of alcohol consumption and physical inactivity than both diabetes groups. These results indicate the need for comprehensive actions oriented towards persons with diabetes concerning physical activity.

  16. Knowledge, expectations, and inductive reasoning within conceptual hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. Cognition 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the "basic" level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine relations between knowledge of concepts at different hierarchical levels, expectations about conceptual coherence, and inductive inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 5- and 8-year-olds and adults listed features of living kind (Experiments 1 and 2) and artifact (Experiment 2) concepts at different hierarchical levels (e.g. plant, tree, oak, desert oak), and also rated the strength of generalizations to the same concepts. For living kinds, the level that showed a relative advantage on these two tasks differed; the greatest increase in features listed tended to occur at the life-form level (e.g. tree), whereas the greatest increase in inductive strength tended to occur at the folk-generic level (e.g. oak). Knowledge and induction also showed different developmental trajectories. For artifact concepts, the levels at which the greatest gains in knowledge and induction occurred were more varied, and corresponded more closely across tasks. In Experiment 3, adults reported beliefs about within-category similarity for concepts at different levels of animal, plant and artifact hierarchies, and rated inductive strength as before. For living kind concepts, expectations about category coherence predicted patterns of inductions; knowledge did not. For artifact concepts, both knowledge and expectations predicted patterns of induction. Results suggest that beliefs about conceptual coherence play an important role in guiding inductive inference, that this role may be largely independent of specific knowledge of concepts, and that such beliefs are especially important in reasoning about living kinds.

  17. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses' professional skills in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautava, Veli-Pekka; Palomäki, Erika; Innamaa, Tapio; Perttu, Mika; Lehto, Päivi; Palomäki, Ari

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this study was to assess nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software.During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses' skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Nurses' self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This improvement was especially

  18. Improvement in self-reported confidence in nurses’ professional skills in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills before and after an extensive Emergency Department (ED) reform in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. Methods Emergency nurses participated in transitional training commencing two years before the establishment of the new organization in 2007. Training was followed by weekly practical educational sessions in the new ED. During this process nurses improved their transition skills, defined house rules for the new clinic and improved their knowledge of new technology and instruments. The main processes involving critically ill ED patients were described and modelled with an electronic flow chart software. During the transitional training nurses compiled lists of practical skills and measures needed in the ED. These were updated after feedback from physicians in primary and secondary care and head physicians in Kanta-Häme Central Hospital. The final 189-item list comprised 15 different categories, each containing from 4 to 35 items. Based on the work described above, a questionnaire was developed to reflect ED nurses’ skills in clinical measures but also to estimate the need for professional education and practical training. Nurses working in the ED were asked to fill the questionnaire in January 2007 (response rate 97%) and in January 2011 (response rate 98%). Results Nurses’ self-reported confidence in their professional skills improved significally in eight classes out of fifteen. These classes were cannulations, urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring, cardiac patients, equipment, triage and nurse practising, psychiatric patients as well as infection risk. Best results were noted in urinary catheterizations, patient monitoring and infection risk. When studying the group of nurses participating in both surveys in 2007 and 2011, improvements were observed in all fifteen categories. All but two of these changes were significant (pskills of nurses. This

  19. An investigation of outcome expectancies as a predictor of treatment response for combat veterans with PTSD: comparison of clinician, self-report, and biological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Maples, Jessica L; Jovanovic, Tanja; Norrholm, Seth D; Heekin, Mary; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2015-06-01

    Outcome expectancy, or the degree to which a client believes that therapy will result in improvement, is related to improved treatment outcomes for multiple disorders. There is a paucity of research investigating this relation in regards to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, the bulk of the research on outcome expectancy and treatment outcomes has relied mostly on self-report outcome measures. The relation between outcome expectancy on self-report measures, clinician-rated measures, and two biological indices (fear-potentiated startle and cortisol reactivity) of PTSD symptoms was explored. The sample included combat veterans (N = 116) treated with virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD. Results supported a negative association between outcome expectancy and both self-report and clinician-rated symptoms at the conclusion of treatment, but outcome expectancy was related to the magnitude of change during treatment for self-report measures only. Outcome expectancy was unrelated to biological measures of treatment response. These findings suggest that outcome expectancy may be related to patient and clinician perceptions of outcomes, but not biological indices of outcome for PTSD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.

    2008-12-01

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  3. The hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-01-01

    We obtain the two hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (orig.)

  4. A note on the substructural hierarchy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066

  5. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  6. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  7. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  8. The Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-08-01

    We obtain the two Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (author). 18 refs

  9. A hierarchy of systems of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one-dimensional Dirac operator yields an infinite hierarchy of systems of chiral invariant nonlinear partial differential equations. The same system is obtained through a Lax pair construction and finally a formulation in terms of Kac-Moody generators is given. (Author)

  10. New solutions to the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    After summarizing the status of the Standard Model, we focus on the Hierarchy Problem and why we believe this strongly suggests the need for new physics at the TeV scale. We then concentrate on theories with extra dimensions and their possible manifestations at this scale. (author)

  11. Prioritization of Programmer's Productivity Using Analytic Hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model in the context of prioritizing programmer's productivity in University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP model can be used to select the best programmer for the purpose of developing software ...

  12. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (∼10 19 GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ∼10 16 between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at ∼10 -3 eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass-shifts at the TeV level, the zero-mode contribution to Casimir energy is overshadowed

  13. Classification hierarchies for product data modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction is an essential element in data modelling that appears mainly in one of the following forms: generalisation, classification or aggregation. In the design of complex products classification hierarchies can be found product families that are viewed as classes of product types, while

  14. Level validity of self-report whole-family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Willeke A; Cook, William L; Oud, Johan H L; Scholte, Ron H J; Janssens, Jan M A M; De Bruyn, Eric E J

    2007-12-01

    This article introduces an approach to testing the level validity of family assessment instruments (i.e., whether a family instrument measures family functioning at the level of the system it purports to assess). Two parents and 2 adolescents in 69 families rated the warmth in each of their family relationships and in the family as a whole. Family members' ratings of whole-family warmth assessed family functioning not only at the family level (i.e., characteristics of the family as a whole) but also at the individual level of analysis (i.e., characteristics of family members as raters), indicating a lack of level validity. Evidence was provided for the level validity of a latent variable based on family members' ratings of whole-family warmth. The findings underscore the importance of assessing the level validity of individual ratings of whole-family functioning.

  15. Research Paper Reliability of self report questionnaires for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scales used were: the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-esteem Questionnaire (SEQ), Harvard ... (HTQ) and Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS).

  16. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  17. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS 7.61% (6.2–9.2, SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7, celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2, wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84, self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS 6.28% (5.1–7.8, SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6, and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9. SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001 and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001. Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  18. Locus of control, optimism, and recollections of depression and self-reported cognitive functioning following treatment for colorectal cancer.

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    Wilson, Carlene; Giles, Kristy; Nettelbeck, Ted; Hutchinson, Amanda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of disposition (locus of control, optimism, and depression) on recollections of cognitive functioning following cancer treatment. Participants were survivors of colorectal cancer (n = 88) and their spouses (n = 40). Survivors retrospectively rated their cognitive functioning and depression, as experienced following treatment and currently rated their dispositions for optimism and locus of control. Survivors' spouses likewise provided their recollections of survivors' cognitive functioning and depression at time following treatment. Correlations between survivors' and spouses' ratings for cognitive functioning were statistically significant but not for depression. Results supported validity of survivors' longer term retrospective reports. Although internal locus of control correlated positively with retrospectively self-reported cognitive functioning, and negatively with retrospectively self-reported depression, moderated hierarchical multiple regression found independent contribution of internal locus of control was limited to predicting quality of life; and that, among variables tested, depression correlated strongest with cognitive functioning. Neither internal locus of control nor optimism in colorectal cancer survivors influences correlation between cognition and depression. Health care providers should note individual differences in responses to treatment and be alert to the impact of depression on perceived everyday functioning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Is there a "Scottish effect" for self reports of health? Individual level analysis of the 2001 UK census

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    Popham Frank

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland's overall health record is comparatively poor for a Western European country, particularly amongst people of working age. A number of previous studies have explored why this might be the case by comparing mortality in Scotland with England and Wales. A study in the 1980s showed that the higher prevalence of deprivation in Scotland accounted for Scotland's excess mortality risk. However, more recent studies suggest that deprivation now explains less of this excess. This has led to the suggestion that there is a yet unidentified "Scottish effect" contributing to Scotland's mortality excess. Recent research has also suggested that there could be an unidentified effect influencing Scotland's higher rate of heart disease. This paper explores whether there is also an unexplained Scottish excess, relative to England, in self reports of poor health. Methods Data came from the individual Sample of Anonymised Records, a 3% random sample of the 2001 UK census. Using logistic regression models, self reports of health (limiting illness and general health from the working age populations (aged 25 to 64 of Scotland and England were compared. Account was taken of people's country of birth. Stratified analysis by employment status allowed further exploration of Scotland's excess. Results People born and living in Scotland reported higher levels of poor general health and limiting illness compared to people born and living in England. Adjustment for socioeconomic position and employment status largely explained the higher rates. In the stratified analysis a Scottish excess was seen only amongst the economically inactive born and living in Scotland. For those in employment, people born and living in Scotland actually had slightly lower odds of reporting poor general health and limiting illness than people born and living in England. Conclusion This analysis suggests that higher rates of poor self reported health in Scotland can be

  20. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.