WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchy nasa world

  1. Brane world model and hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wrote description of Kaluza-Klein model. Also I wrote how we can solve the hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum model. In fact, it's my motivation to study this part of theoretical physics

  2. World Wind: NASA's Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.

    2007-12-01

    infrastructure. The open-source community plays a crucial role in advancing virtual globe technology. This world community identifies, tracks and resolves technical problems, suggests new features and source code modifications, and often provides high-resolution data sets and other types of user-generated content, all while extending the functionality of virtual globe technology. NASA World Wind is one example of open source virtual globe technology that provides the world with the ability to build any desired functionality and make any desired data accessible.

  3. NASA World Wind: A New Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Gaskins, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are well into their first generation, providing increasingly rich and beautiful visualization of more types and quantities of information. However, they are still mostly single and proprietary programs, akin to a web browser whose content and functionality are controlled and constrained largely by the browser's manufacturer. Today Google and Microsoft determine what we can and cannot see and do in these programs. NASA World Wind started out in nearly the same mode, a single program with limited functionality and information content. But as the possibilities of virtual globes became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information visualization, we were also getting in the way. Many users want to provide World Wind functionality and information in their programs, not ours. They want it in their web pages. They want to include their own features. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential of the technology be truly realized. World Wind therefore changed its mission: from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating one program, we create components to be used in any number of programs. World Wind is NASA open source software. With the source code being fully visible, anyone can readily use it and freely extend it to serve any use. Imagery and other information provided by the World Wind servers is also free and unencumbered, including the server technology to deliver geospatial data. World Wind developers can therefore provide exclusive and custom solutions based on user needs.

  4. Scales and hierarchies in warped compactifications and brane worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Giddings, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    Warped compactifications with branes provide a new approach to the hierarchy problem and generate a diversity of four-dimensional thresholds. We investigate the relationships between these scales, which fall into two classes. Geometrical scales, such as thresholds for Kaluza-Klein, excited string, and black hole production, are generically determined solely by the spacetime geometry. Dynamical scales, notably the scale of supersymmetry breaking and moduli masses, depend on other details of the model. We illustrate these relationships in a class of solutions of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual fluxes. After identifying the geometrical scales and the resulting hierarchy, we determine the gravitino and moduli masses through explicit dimensional reduction, and estimate their value to be near the four-dimensional Planck scale. In the process we obtain expressions for the superpotential and Kaehler potential, including the effects of warping. We identify matter living on certain branes to be effectively sequestered from the supersymmetry breaking fluxes: specifically, such 'visible sector' fields receive no tree-level masses from the supersymmetry breaking. However, loop corrections are expected to generate masses, at the phenomenologically viable TeV scale

  5. Brane world perspective on the cosmological constant and the hierarchy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Eanna; Jones, Nicholas; Stoica, Horace; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira

    2001-01-01

    We elaborate on the recently proposed static brane world scenario, where the effective 4D cosmological constant is exponentially small when parallel 3-branes are far apart. We extend this result to a compactified model with two positive tension branes. In addition to an exponentially small effective 4D cosmological constant, this model incorporates a Randall-Sundrum-like solution to the hierarchy problem. Furthermore, the exponential factors for the hierarchy problem and the cosmological constant problem obey an inequality that is satisfied in nature. This inequality implies that the cosmological constant problem can be explained if the hierarchy problem is understood. The basic idea generalizes to the multibrane world scenario. We discuss models with piecewise adjustable bulk cosmological constants (to be determined by the 5-dimensional Einstein equation), a key element of the scenario. We also discuss the global structure of this scenario and clarify the physical properties of the particle (Rindler) horizons that are present. Finally, we derive a 4D effective theory in which all observers on all branes not separated by particle horizons measure the same Newton's constant and 4D cosmological constant

  6. Global black p-brane world: a new approach to stable mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sei-Hoon; Rey, Soo-Jong; Kim, Yoonbai

    2001-01-01

    We find a class of extremal black hole-like global p-brane in higher-dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant. The region inside the p-brane horizon possesses all essential features required for the Randall-Sundrum type brane world scenario. The set-up allows to interpret the horizon size as the compactification size in that the Planck scale M Pl is determined by the fundamental scale M * and the horizon size r H via the familiar relation M Pl 2 ∼M * 2+n r H n , and the gravity behaves as expected in a world with n-extra dimensions compactified with size r H . Most importantly, a stable mass hierarchy between M Pl and M * can be generated from topological charge of the p-brane and the horizon size r H therein. We also offer a new perspective on various issues associated to the brane world scenarios including the cosmological constant problem

  7. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  8. Grooming Up the Hierarchy: The Exchange of Grooming and Rank-Related Benefits in a New World Primate

    OpenAIRE

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth’s model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies o...

  9. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  10. Grooming up the hierarchy: the exchange of grooming and rank-related benefits in a new world primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddi, Barbara; Aureli, Filippo; Schino, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Seyfarth's model assumes that female primates derive rank-related benefits from higher-ranking females in exchange for grooming. As a consequence, the model predicts females prefer high-ranking females as grooming partners and compete for the opportunity to groom them. Therefore, allogrooming is expected to be directed up the dominance hierarchy and to occur more often between females with adjacent ranks. Although data from Old World primates generally support the model, studies on the relation between grooming and dominance rank in the New World genus Cebus have found conflicting results, showing considerable variability across groups and species. In this study, we investigated the pattern of grooming in wild tufted capuchin females (Cebus apella nigritus) in Iguazú National Park, Argentina by testing both the assumption (i.e., that females gain rank-related return benefits from grooming) and predictions (i.e., that females direct grooming up the dominance hierarchy and the majority of grooming occurs between females with adjacent ranks) of Seyfarth's model. Study subjects were 9 adult females belonging to a single group. Results showed that grooming was given in return for tolerance during naturally occurring feeding, a benefit that higher-ranking females can more easily grant. Female grooming was directed up the hierarchy and was given more often to partners with similar rank. These findings provide supporting evidence for both the assumption and predictions of Seyfarth's model and represent, more generally, the first evidence of reciprocal behavioural interchanges driven by rank-related benefits in New World female primates.

  11. NASA's Discovery Mission to (16) Psyche: Visiting a Metal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Bell, J. F., III

    2017-09-01

    The Psyche mission is one of NASA's most recent Discovery mission selections. It is designed to explore the large metallic Main Belt asteroid (16) Psyche and test the hypothesis that it is the exposed core of an ancient differentiated planetesimal.

  12. NASA World Wind, Open Source 4D Geospatial Visualization Platform: *.NET & Java*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Coughlan, J.

    2006-12-01

    NASA World Wind has only one goal, to provide the maximum opportunity for geospatial information to be experienced, be it education, science, research, business, or government. The benefits to understanding for information delivered in the context of its 4D virtual reality are extraordinary. The NASA World Wind visualization platform is open source and therefore lends itself well to being extended to service *any* requirements, be they proprietary and commercial or simply available. Data accessibility is highly optimized using standard formats including internationally certified open standards (W*S). Although proprietary applications can be built based on World Wind, and proprietary data delivered that leverage World Wind, there is nothing proprietary about the visualization platform itself or the multiple planetary data sets readily available, including global animations of live weather. NASA World Wind is being used by NASA research teams as well as being a formal part of high school and university curriculum. The National Guard uses World Wind for emergency response activities and State governments have incorporated high resolution imagery for GIS management as well as for their cross-agency emergency response activities. The U.S. federal government uses NASA World Wind for a myriad of GIS and security-related issues (NSA, NGA, DOE, FAA, etc.).

  13. NASA World Wind, Open Source 4D Geospatial Visualization Platform: *.NET & Java* for EDUCATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Kuehnel, F.

    2006-12-01

    NASA World Wind has only one goal, to provide the maximum opportunity for geospatial information to be experienced, be it education, science, research, business, or government. The benefits to understanding for information delivered in the context of its 4D virtual reality are extraordinary. The NASA World Wind visualization platform is open source and therefore lends itself well to being extended to service *any* requirements, be they proprietary and commercial or simply available. Data accessibility is highly optimized using standard formats including internationally certified open standards (W*S). Although proprietary applications can be built based on World Wind, and proprietary data delivered that leverage World Wind, there is nothing proprietary about the visualization platform itself or the multiple planetary data sets readily available, including global animations of live weather. NASA World Wind is being used by NASA research teams as well as being a formal part of high school and university curriculum. The National Guard uses World Wind for emergency response activities and State governments have incorporated high resolution imagery for GIS management as well as for their cross-agency emergency response activities. The U.S. federal government uses NASA World Wind for a myriad of GIS and security-related issues (NSA, NGA, DOE, FAA, etc.).

  14. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  15. NASA-ESA Joint Mission to Explore Two Worlds of Great Astrobiological Interest - Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, K.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Matson, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rugged shorelines, laced with canyons, leading to ethane/methane seas glimpsed through an organic haze, vast fields of dunes shaped by alien sciroccos… An icy moon festooned with plumes of water-ice and organics, whose warm watery source might be glimpsed through surface cracks that glow in the infrared… The revelations by Cassini-Huygens about Saturn's crown jewels, Titan and Enceladus, have rocked the public with glimpses of new worlds unimagined a decade before. The time is at hand to capitalize on those discoveries with a broad mission of exploration that combines the widest range of planetary science disciplines—Geology, Geophysics, Atmospheres, Astrobiology,Chemistry, Magnetospheres—in a single NASA/ESA collaboration. The Titan Saturn System Mission will explore these exciting new environments, flying through Enceladus' plumes and plunging deep into Titan's atmosphere with instruments tuned to find what Cassini could only hint at. Exploring Titan with an international fleet of vehicles; from orbit, from the surface of a great polar sea, and from the air with the first hot air balloon to ride an extraterrestrial breeze, TSSM will turn our snapshot gaze of these worlds into an epic film. This paper will describe a collaborative NASA-ESA Titan Saturn System Mission that will open a new phase of planetary exploration by projecting robotic presence on the land, on the sea, and in the air of an active, organic-rich world.

  16. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  17. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  18. Fifteen Years of Operation at NASA's National Transonic Facility with the World's Largest Adjustable Speed Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Bhatia, Ram; Krattiger, Hansueli; Mylius, Justus; Schafer, D.

    2012-01-01

    In September 1995, a project was initiated to replace the existing drive line at NASA's most unique transonic wind tunnel, the National Transonic Facility (NTF), with a single 101 MW synchronous motor driven by a Load Commutated Inverter (LCI). This Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) system also included a custom four-winding transformer, harmonic filter, exciter, switch gear, control system, and feeder cable. The complete system requirements and design details have previously been presented and published [1], as well as the commissioning and acceptance test results [2]. The NTF was returned to service in December 1997 with the new drive system powering the fan. Today, this installation still represents the world s largest horizontal single motor/drive combination. This paper describes some significant events that occurred with the drive system during the first 15 years of service. These noteworthy issues are analyzed and root causes presented. Improvements that have substantially increased the long term viability of the system are given.

  19. Some lessons from NACA/NASA aerodynamic studies following World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An historical account is presented of the new departures in aerodynamic research conducted by NACA, and subsequently NASA, as a result of novel aircraft technologies and operational regimes encountered in the course of the Second World War. The invention and initial development of the turbojet engine furnished the basis for a new speed/altitude regime in which numerous aerodynamic design problems arose. These included compressibility effects near the speed of sound, with attendant lift/drag efficiency reductions and longitudinal stability enhancements that were accompanied by a directional stability reduction. Major research initiatives were mounted in the investigation of swept, delta, trapezoidal and variable sweep wing configurations, sometimes conducted through flight testing of the 'X-series' aircraft. Attention is also given to the development of the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft.

  20. A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, Blair

    2018-01-01

    Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This ‘hierarchy model’ takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies and generalizes it to c...

  1. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    projects works in the interface between communication and organisation. Third, the methodological purpose is to show that handling of these participatory hierarchies ought to become a goal in OAR projects to be included along with producing practical and theoretical results. The article argues...

  2. VISUALIZATION OF VGI DATA THROUGH THE NEW NASA WEB WORLD WIND VIRTUAL GLOBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Brovelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available GeoWeb 2.0, laying the foundations of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI systems, has led to platforms where users can contribute to the geographic knowledge that is open to access. Moreover, as a result of the advancements in 3D visualization, virtual globes able to visualize geographic data even on browsers emerged. However the integration of VGI systems and virtual globes has not been fully realized. The study presented aims to visualize volunteered data in 3D, considering also the ease of use aspects for general public, using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS. The new Application Programming Interface (API of NASA, Web World Wind, written in JavaScript and based on Web Graphics Library (WebGL is cross-platform and cross-browser, so that the virtual globe created using this API can be accessible through any WebGL supported browser on different operating systems and devices, as a result not requiring any installation or configuration on the client-side, making the collected data more usable to users, which is not the case with the World Wind for Java as installation and configuration of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM is required. Furthermore, the data collected through various VGI platforms might be in different formats, stored in a traditional relational database or in a NoSQL database. The project developed aims to visualize and query data collected through Open Data Kit (ODK platform and a cross-platform application, where data is stored in a relational PostgreSQL and NoSQL CouchDB databases respectively.

  3. Visualization of Vgi Data Through the New NASA Web World Wind Virtual Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Kilsedar, C. E.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    GeoWeb 2.0, laying the foundations of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) systems, has led to platforms where users can contribute to the geographic knowledge that is open to access. Moreover, as a result of the advancements in 3D visualization, virtual globes able to visualize geographic data even on browsers emerged. However the integration of VGI systems and virtual globes has not been fully realized. The study presented aims to visualize volunteered data in 3D, considering also the ease of use aspects for general public, using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). The new Application Programming Interface (API) of NASA, Web World Wind, written in JavaScript and based on Web Graphics Library (WebGL) is cross-platform and cross-browser, so that the virtual globe created using this API can be accessible through any WebGL supported browser on different operating systems and devices, as a result not requiring any installation or configuration on the client-side, making the collected data more usable to users, which is not the case with the World Wind for Java as installation and configuration of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is required. Furthermore, the data collected through various VGI platforms might be in different formats, stored in a traditional relational database or in a NoSQL database. The project developed aims to visualize and query data collected through Open Data Kit (ODK) platform and a cross-platform application, where data is stored in a relational PostgreSQL and NoSQL CouchDB databases respectively.

  4. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula

  5. Improving World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates by Integrating NASA Remote Sensing Soil Moisture Data into USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board Decision Making Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, W. L.; de Jeu, R. A.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Kempler, S. J.; Shannon, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by developing monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main objective of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE. Soil moisture is a primary data gap at WAOB. Soil moisture data, generated by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM, developed by NASA GSFC and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) and customized to WAOB's requirements, will be directly integrated into GLADSE, as well as indirectly by first being integrated into USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS)'s Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) crop model. The LPRM-enhanced EPIC will be validated using three major agricultural regions important to WAOB and then integrated into GLADSE. Project benchmarking will be based on retrospective analyses of WAOB's analog year comparisons. The latter are between a given year and historical years with similar weather patterns. WAOB is the focal point for economic intelligence within the USDA. Thus, improving WAOB's agricultural estimates by integrating NASA satellite observations and model outputs will visibly demonstrate the value of NASA resources and maximize the societal benefits of NASA investments.

  6. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  7. The power of Virtual Globes for valorising cultural heritage and enabling sustainable tourism: NASA World Wind applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, M.; Hogan, P.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the visionary idea of Digital Earth, as well as from the tremendous improvements in geo-technologies, use of virtual globes has been changing the way people approach to geographic information on the Web. Unlike the traditional 2D-visualization typical of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), virtual globes offer multi-dimensional, fully-realistic content visualization which allows for a much richer user experience. This research investigates the potential for using virtual globes to foster tourism and enhance cultural heritage. The paper first outlines the state of the art for existing virtual globes, pointing out some possible categorizations according to license type, platform-dependence, application type, default layers, functionalities and freedom of customization. Based on this analysis, the NASA World Wind virtual globe is the preferred tool for promoting tourism and cultural heritage. This is because its open source nature allows unlimited customization (in terms of both data and functionalities), and its Java core supports platform-independence. Relevant tourism-oriented World Wind-based applications, dealing with both the Web promotion of historical cartography and the setup of a participatory Web platform exploiting crowd-sourced data, are described. Finally, the paper presents a project focusing on the promotion of the Via Regina area (crossing the border between Italy and Switzerland) through an ad hoc World Wind customization. World Wind can thus be considered an ideal virtual globe for tourism applications, as it can be shaped to increase awareness of cultural history and, in turn, enhance touristic experience.

  8. Viking GCMS Data Restoral and Perceiving Temperature on Other Worlds: Astrobiology Projects at NASA Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary task for the summer was to procure the GCMS data from the National Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and to assess the current state of the data set for possible reanalysis opportunities. After procurement of the Viking GCMS data set and analysis of its current state, the internship focus shifted to preparing a plan for restoral and archiving of the GCMS data set. A proposal was prepared and submitted to NASA Headquarters to restore and make available the 8000 mass chromatographs that are the basic data generated by the Viking GCMS instrument. The relevance of this restoral and the methodology we propose for restoral is presented. The secondary task for the summer is to develop a thermal model for the perceived temperature of a human standing on Mars, Titan, or Europa. Traditionally, an equation called "Fanger's comfort equation" is used to measure the perceived temperature by a human in a given reference environment. However, there are limitations to this model when applied to other planets. Therefore, the approach for this project has been to derive energy balance equations from first principles and then develop a methodology for correlating "comfort" to energy balance. Using the -20 C walk-in freezer in the Space Sciences building at NASA Ames, energy loss of a human subject is measured. Energy loss for a human being on Mars, Titan and Europa are calculated from first principles. These calculations are compared to the freezer measurements, e.g. for 1 minute on Titan, a human loses as much energy as x minutes in a -20 C freezer. This gives a numerical comparison between the environments. These energy calculations are used to consider the physiological comfort of a human based on the calculated energy losses.

  9. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  10. The Long, Hard Journey: Expanding the Use of NASA Data and Models for Sustainable Development Planning Around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maudood; Limaye, Ashutosh; Crosson, William; Unal, Alper; Kete, nancy; Rickman, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council's committee on Extending Observations and Research Results to Practical Applications recommended that NASA's Applied Science Program (ASP) directly engage with a broader community of users - not just federal agencies. Soon afterwards, scientists at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center began discussions on a collaborative research project with EMBARQ - the World Resource Institute's Center for Sustainable Transport. The discussions initially focused on how best to utilize satellite observations and atmospheric models for assessing the impact of a proposed transportation project on land use and air quality. Discussions exposed the participants to a broad spectrum of science and policy challenges that these diverse organizations face on a routine basis. It brought into clear focus the need for an observation-modeling system that will allow a proactive approach towards development planning, and the fact that satellite systems do not always provide the spatial and temporal resolution useful for urban-scale applications, underscoring the need for earth system models to bridge this gap. Realizing the significant risk that unplanned urbanization and climate change pose to the social and functional stability of large cities, both organizations decided to expand the scope of their preliminary discussion to include water resources and agriculture. A pilot project, funded by NASA ASP, EMBARQ and Istanbul Technical University focused on quantifying the magnitude and extent of urbanization in Istanbul, and analyzed the combined effect of urbanization and projected climate change on local climate, air quality, and its consequent effects on agricultural productivity. Preliminary results show that Istanbul has undergone a significant amount of Land Use/Land Cover change over the past two decades. While some forested areas have been lost to urban-landscapes, urbanization has mostly occurred over former croplands due to the fact that in

  11. On the ILW hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutiya, Y.; Satsuma, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new hierarchy which includes the intermediate long wave (ILW) equation at the lowest order. This hierarchy is thought to be a novel reduction of the 1st modified KP type hierarchy. The framework of our investigation is Sato theory

  12. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) is responsible for monitoring weather and climate impacts on domestic and foreign crop development. One of WAOB's primary goals is to determine the net cumulative effect of weather and climate anomalies on final crop yields. To this end, a broad array of information is consulted, including maps, charts, and time series of recent weather, climate, and crop observations; numerical output from weather and crop models; and reports from the press, USDA attach s, and foreign governments. The resulting agricultural weather assessments are published in the Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin, to keep farmers, policy makers, and commercial agricultural interests informed of weather and climate impacts on agriculture. Because both the amount and timing of precipitation significantly affect crop yields, WAOB often uses precipitation time series to identify growing seasons with similar weather patterns and help estimate crop yields for the current growing season, based on observed yields in analog years. Historically, these analog years are visually identified; however, the qualitative nature of this method sometimes precludes the definitive identification of the best analog year. Thus, one goal of this study is to derive a more rigorous, statistical approach for identifying analog years, based on a modified coefficient of determination, termed the analog index (AI). A second goal is to compare the performance of AI for time series derived from surface-based observations vs. satellite-based measurements (NASA TRMM and other data).

  13. Improving Expression Power in Modeling OLAP Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Elzbieta

    Data warehouses and OLAP systems form an integral part of modern decision support systems. In order to exploit both systems to their full capabilities hierarchies must be clearly defined. Hierarchies are important in analytical applications, since they provide users with the possibility to represent data at different abstraction levels. However, even though there are different kinds of hierarchies in real-world applications and some are already implemented in commercial tools, there is still a lack of a well-accepted conceptual model that allows decision-making users express their analysis needs. In this paper, we show how the conceptual multidimensional model can be used to facilitate the representation of complex hierarchies in comparison to their representation in the relational model and commercial OLAP tool, using as an example Microsoft Analysis Services.

  14. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  15. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  16. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  17. Integral hierarchies and percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Stell, G.

    1985-01-01

    For a variation of the Potts model which has been shown to describe continuum percolation, we derive a hierarchy of integral equations of Kirkwood-Salsburg type. The distribution functions which are the solutions of this hierarchy can be simply related to the connectedness functions in continuum percolation. From this hierarchy a second set of equations is derived from which the connectedness functions can be obtained directly. This approach is extremely useful when investigating properties of systems far from the percolation transition. These hierarchies are solved exactly in the mean-field (Kac-Baker) limit and possible implications for cluster growth are discussed. The relation between the Potts model for continuum percolation and the Widom-Rowlinson model is also noted

  18. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  19. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  20. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  1. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  2. Integrable Hierarchies and Dispersionless Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Takebe, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierar...

  3. In praise of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, E

    1990-01-01

    Hierarchy has not had its day. After 3,000 years as the preferred structure for large organizations, managerial hierarchy is still the most natural and effective organizational form that a big company can employ. Now, as in the past, the key to organizational success is individual accountability, and hierarchy preserves unambiguous accountability for getting work done. Unfortunately, hierarchy is widely misunderstood and abused. Pay grades are confused with real layers of responsibility, for example, and incompetent bosses abound. As a result, many experts now urge us to adopt group-oriented or "flat" structures. But groups are never held accountable as groups for what they do or fail to do, and groups don't have careers. The proper use of hierarchy derives from the nature of work. As organizational tasks range from simple to very complex, there are sharp jumps in the level of difficulty and responsibility. Surprisingly, people in hundreds of companies in dozens of countries agree on where these jumps take place. They are tied to an objective measure-the time span of the longest task or program assigned to each managerial role-and they occur at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 20 years. As the time span increases, so does the level of experience, knowledge, and mental stamina required to do the work. This increasing level of mental capacity lets companies put people in jobs they can do, it allows managers to add value to the work of their subordinates, it creates hierarchical layers acceptable to everyone in the organization, and it allows employees to be evaluated by people they accept as organizational superiors. Best of all, understanding hierarchy allows organizations to set up hierarchies with no more than seven layers-often fewer-and to know what the structure is good for and how it ought to perform.

  4. The Testing Behind The Test Facility: The Acoustic Design of the NASA Glenn Research Center's World-Class Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is leading the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, USA. Benham Companies, LLC is currently constructing modal, base-shake sine and reverberant acoustic test facilities to support the future testing needs of NASA's space exploration program. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) will be approximately 101,000 cu ft in volume and capable of achieving an empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world's known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. The key to achieving the expected acoustic test spectra for a range of many NASA space flight environments in the RATF is the knowledge gained from a series of ground acoustic tests. Data was obtained from several NASA-sponsored test programs, including testing performed at the National Research Council of Canada's acoustic test facility in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and at the Redstone Technical Test Center acoustic test facility in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. The majority of these tests were performed to characterize the acoustic performance of the modulators (noise generators) and representative horns that would be required to meet the desired spectra, as well as to evaluate possible supplemental gas jet noise sources. The knowledge obtained in each of these test programs enabled the design of the RATF sound generation system to confidently advance to its final acoustic design and subsequent on-going construction.

  5. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  6. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... on delegation by providing insights into when and how interrelated decisions are delegated across multiple levels of an organizational hierarchy....

  7. Comments on gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in a O(N) model is discussed. It is shown the existence of an upper bound for the hierarchy of order α- 1 / 2 , as proposed by Gildener. This same constraint appears when the breaking is made by the radiative corrections in a scheme elaborated by Weinberg. It is found that fine tunning or redefinition of coupling constants to improve hieracrchy, as proposed in several papers, cannot be done before the calculation of higher order contributions to the effective potential. (Author) [pt

  8. Materials with structural hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Roderic

    1993-01-01

    The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

  9. Toda hierarchies and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2018-05-01

    The 2D Toda hierarchy occupies a central position in the family of integrable hierarchies of the Toda type. The 1D Toda hierarchy and the Ablowitz–Ladik (aka relativistic Toda) hierarchy can be derived from the 2D Toda hierarchy as reductions. These integrable hierarchies have been applied to various problems of mathematics and mathematical physics since 1990s. A recent example is a series of studies on models of statistical mechanics called the melting crystal model. This research has revealed that the aforementioned two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy underlie two different melting crystal models. Technical clues are a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, special algebraic relations therein called shift symmetries, and a matrix factorization problem. The two melting crystal models thus exhibit remarkable similarity with the Hermitian and unitary matrix models for which the two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy play the role of fundamental integrable structures.

  10. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  11. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  12. Retrospective Analog Year Analyses Using NASA Satellite Precipitation and Soil Moisture Data to Improve USDA's World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Shannon, Harlan; Mladenova, Iliana; Fang, Fan

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is to expand markets for U.S. agricultural products and support global economic development. The USDA World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) supports this goal by coordinating monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) for the U.S. and major foreign producing countries. Because weather has a significant impact on crop progress, conditions, and production, WAOB prepares frequent agricultural weather assessments, in a GIS-based, Global Agricultural Decision Support Environment (GLADSE). The main goal of this project, thus, is to improve WAOB's estimates by integrating NASA remote sensing soil moisture observations and research results into GLADSE (See diagram below). Soil moisture is currently a primary data gap at WAOB.

  13. Ninth Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. World Class Excellence: The Journey Continues. Conference presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Geoffrey B. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: The George M. Low Trophy; total quality assessment and measurement; using award criteria to improve organizational effectiveness; results--keeping an eye on the bottom line; capturing customer satisfaction; moving from management to leadership; leadership versus management; transforming the management team; leadership success stories; success stories in the quest for excellence; small business successes; education success stories; government success stories; tools and techniques for total quality management (TQM) integration; planning and organizing for TQM integration; successful stories for implementing system level TQM/CI tools; assessing TQM results; establishing an environment for continuous improvement at NASA; empowerment; synergism of partnering; and partnerships in education.

  14. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  15. Hierarchy from baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We study a recently proposed mechanism to solve the hierarchy problem in the context of the landscape, where the solution of the hierarchy problem is connected to the requirement of having baryons in our Universe via electroweak baryogenesis. The phase transition is triggered by the fermion condensation of a new gauge sector which becomes strong at a scale Λ determined by dimensional transmutation, and it is mediated to the standard model by a new singlet field. In a 'friendly' neighborhood of the landscape, where only the relevant operators are ''scanned'' among the vacua, baryogenesis is effective only if the Higgs mass m h is comparable to this low scale Λ, forcing m h ∼Λ, and solving the hierarchy problem. A new CP violating phase is needed coupling the new singlet and the Higgs field to new matter fields. We study the constraints on this model given by baryogenesis and by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), and we briefly comment on gauge coupling unification and on dark matter relic abundance. We find that next generation experiments on the EDM will be sensitive to essentially the entire viable region of the parameter space, so that absence of a signal would effectively rule out the model

  16. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (∼10 19 GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ∼10 16 between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at ∼10 -3 eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass-shifts at the TeV level, the zero-mode contribution to Casimir energy is overshadowed

  17. Extension of noncommutative soliton hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A linear system, which generates a Moyal-deformed two-dimensional soliton equation as an integrability condition, can be extended to a three-dimensional linear system, treating the deformation parameter as an additional coordinate. The supplementary integrability conditions result in a first-order differential equation with respect to the deformation parameter, the flow of which commutes with the flow of the deformed soliton equation. In this way, a deformed soliton hierarchy can be extended to a bigger hierarchy by including the corresponding deformation equations. We prove the extended hierarchy properties for the deformed AKNS hierarchy, and specialize to the cases of deformed NLS, KdV and mKdV hierarchies. Corresponding results are also obtained for the deformed KP hierarchy. A deformation equation determines a kind of Seiberg-Witten map from classical solutions to solutions of the respective 'noncommutative' deformed equation

  18. Supporting the planning for the evolution of the EOSDIS through an in-depth understanding of user requirements for NASA's world-class Earth science data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, V. L.; Behnke, J.; Maiden, M.; Fontaine, K.

    2004-12-01

    commissioned a comprehensive survey to determine user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) approach. The results show that, overall, the users are highly satisfied with the EOSDIS systems and services as the EOSDIS ACSI score outperformed both the averages for U.S. companies and for Federal Agencies. Noteworthy was the fact that there was no statistical difference in the quality scores received by the various EOSDIS data centers. The response indicated that customer support provided by the EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is "world class" and that a very high number of users intend to use EOSDIS in the future (90%) and to recommend it to their colleagues (86%). The survey highlighted areas that, if improved, could lead to increased user satisfaction, including overall product quality, product documentation, and product selection and ordering processes. These results will be factored into NASA's evolution planning.

  19. AOD Distributions and Trends of Major Aerosol Species over a Selection of the World's Most Populated Cities Based on the 1st Version of NASA's MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Simon; Kishcha, Pavel; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Elhacham, Emily; Alpert, Pinhas

    2017-01-01

    NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load. Environmental regulations and the recent global economic recession have helped to decrease the AOD and sulfate aerosols in most cities in North America, Europe and Japan. Rapid industrialization in China over the last two decades resulted in Chinese cities having the highest AOD values in the world. China has nevertheless recently implemented emission control measures which are showing early signs of success in many cities of Southern China where AOD has decreased substantially over the last 13 years. The AOD over South American cities, which is dominated by carbonaceous aerosols, has also decreased over the last decade due to an increase in commodity prices which slowed deforestation activities in the Amazon rainforest. At the opposite, recent urbanization and industrialization in India and Bangladesh resulted in a strong increase of AOD, sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols in most cities of these two countries. The AOD over most cities in Northern Africa and Western Asia changed little over the last decade. Emissions of natural aerosols, which cities in these two regions tend to be mostly composed of, don't tend to

  20. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  1. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  3. On the supersymmetric BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; Stanciu, Sonia

    1994-01-01

    We prove that the supersymmetric BKP-hierarchy of Yu (SBKP 2 ) is hamiltonian with respect to a nonlinear extension of the N=1 super-Virasoro algebra (W SBKP ) by fields of spin k, where k>[3]/[2] and 2k≡0,3 (mod 4). Moreover, we show how to associate in a similar manner an N=1 W-superalgebra with every integrable hierarchy of the SKdV-type. We also show using dressing transformations how to extend, in a way which is compatible with the hamiltonian structure, the SBKP 2 hierarchy by odd flows, as well as the equivalence of this extended hierarchy to the SBKP-hierarchy of Manin-Radul. ((orig.))

  4. An extended Harry Dym hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    An extended Harry Dym hierarchy is constructed by using eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions of the spectral problems of the Harry Dym hierarchy associated with the pseudo-differential operator L = u∂ + u 0 + u 1 ∂ -1 + .... The corresponding Lax presentation possesses a self-consistent source involving squared eigenfunctions. The resulting extended Harry Dym hierarchy is reduced to the Harry Dym hierarchy with self-consistent sources under the n-reduction, L n = (L n ) ≥2 , and the k-constrained Harry Dym hierarchy under the k-constraint, L k = (L k ) ≥2 + Σ N i=1 q i ∂ -1 r i ∂ 2 . A few particular examples are computed, together with their Lax pairs.

  5. Conformal fields. From Riemann surfaces to integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    I discuss the idea of translating ingredients of conformal field theory into the language of hierarchies of integrable differential equations. Primary conformal fields are mapped into (differential or matrix) operators living on the phase space of the hierarchy, whereas operator insertions of, e.g., a current or the energy-momentum tensor, become certain vector fields on the phase space and thus acquire a meaning independent of a given Riemann surface. A number of similarities are observed between the structures arising on the hierarchy and those of the theory on the world-sheet. In particular, there is an analogue of the operator product algebra with the Cauchy kernel replaced by its 'off-shell' hierarchy version. Also, hierarchy analogues of certain operator insertions admit two (equivalent, but distinct) forms, resembling the 'bosonized' and 'fermionized' versions respectively. As an application, I obtain a useful reformulation of the Virasoro constraints of the type that arise in matrix models, as a system of equations on dressing (or Lax) operators (rather than correlation functions, i.e., residues or traces). This also suggests an interpretation in terms of a 2D topological field theory, which might be extended to a correspondence between Virasoro-constrained hierarchies and topological theories. (orig.)

  6. Dynamical hierarchies - A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Olesen, M.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper summarizes some of the problems associated with the generation of higher order emergent structures in formal dynamical systems. In biological systems, higher order hyperstructures occur both in an intuitive and a formal sense: monomers, polymers, membranes, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, etc. constitute an observable hierarchy, apparently generated by the underlying biomolecular process. However, in models and simulations of these systems, it has turned out to be quite difficult to produce higher order emergent structures from first principles. The first problem is to agree on what a higher order structure is. An emergent structure can be defined through an introduction of an observational function. If a property can be observed in the dynamics, but not at the level of the fundamental first order interacting structures, we define it to be emergent. It is well known that second order structures occur relatively easy in simulation, so the problem is how to proceed to third and higher order without external interference. A third order structure is defined through the interaction of second order structures forming a new observable not found at the lower levels.

  7. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  8. Gauge-symmetry hierarchies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildener, E.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown by the author in a previous paper that in each order of perturbation theory there is an upper bound on the range of validity of a gauge hierarchy. Thus constructing a large hierarchy requires a fine-tuning of the scalar-field parameters. It was stated that the possibility of an inherent bound on the hierarchy exists, but the question of the actual existence of such a bound was left completely open. Since then several authors have addressed this problem. Some of what the author asserted was misunderstood, and incorrect conclusions have been drawn from recent computations. It has been claimed that the existence of large hierarchies has been demonstrated. It is the purpose of this paper to refute this claim, to help clarify the situation, and to explain why the status of this problem has in fact not really changed in recent years (author)

  9. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  10. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  11. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  12. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  13. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  14. Visualising large hierarchies with Flextree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongzhi; Curran, Edwin P.; Sterritt, Roy

    2003-05-01

    One of the main tasks in Information Visualisation research is creating visual tools to facilitate human understanding of large and complex information spaces. Hierarchies, being a good mechanism in organising such information, are ubiquitous. Although much research effort has been spent on finding useful representations for hierarchies, visualising large hierarchies is still a difficult topic. One of the difficulties is how to show both tructure and node content information in one view. Another is how to achieve multiple foci in a focus+context visualisation. This paper describes a novel hierarchy visualisation technique called FlexTree to address these problems. It contains some important features that have not been exploited so far. In this visualisation, a profile or contour unique to the hierarchy being visualised can be gained in a histogram-like layout. A normalised view of a common attribute of all nodes can be acquired, and selection of this attribute is controllable by the user. Multiple foci are consistently accessible within a global context through interaction. Furthermore it can handle a large hierarchy that contains several thousand nodes in a PC environment. In addition results from an informal evaluation are also presented.

  15. Special polynomials associated with some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2008-01-01

    Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of a hierarchy of equations of Painleve type are introduced. The hierarchy arises by similarity reduction from the Fordy-Gibbons hierarchy of partial differential equations. Some relations for these special polynomials are given. Differential-difference hierarchies for finding special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to obtain special polynomials associated with the hierarchy studied. It is shown that rational solutions of members of the Schwarz-Sawada-Kotera, the Schwarz-Kaup-Kupershmidt, the Fordy-Gibbons, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchies can be expressed through special polynomials of the hierarchy studied

  16. Grassmannian approach to super-KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, Michiaki.

    1995-06-01

    We present a theory of 'maximal' super-KP (SKP) hierarchy whose flows are maximally extended to include all those of known SKP hierarchies, including, for example, the MRSKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul and the Jacobian SKP (JSKP) introduced by Mulase and Rabin. It is shown that SKP hierarchies has a natural field theoretic description in terms of the B-C system, in analogous way as the ordinary KP hierarchy. For this SKP hierarchy, we construct the vertex operators by using Kac-van de Leur superbosonization. The vertex operators act on the τ-function and then produce the wave function and the dual wave function of the hierarchy. Thereby we achieve the description of the 'maximal' SKP hierarchy in terms of the τ-function, which seemed to be lacking till now. Mutual relations among the SKP hierarchies are clarified. The MRSKP and the JSKP hierarchies are obtained as special cases when the time variables are appropriately restricted. (author)

  17. Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Kay, Aaron C; Eibach, Richard P; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchies are a ubiquitous form of human social organization. We hypothesized that 1 reason for the prevalence of hierarchies is that they offer structure and therefore satisfy the core motivational needs for order and control relative to less structured forms of social organization. This hypothesis is rooted in compensatory control theory, which posits that (a) individuals have a basic need to perceive the world as orderly and structured, and (b) personal and external sources of control are capable of satisfying this need because both serve the comforting belief that the world operates in an orderly fashion. Our first 2 studies confirmed that hierarchies were perceived as more structured and orderly relative to egalitarian arrangements (Study 1) and that working in a hierarchical workplace promotes a feeling of self-efficacy (Study 2). We threatened participants' sense of personal control and measured perceptions of and preferences for hierarchy in 5 subsequent experiments. Participants who lacked control perceived more hierarchy occurring in ambiguous social situations (Study 3) and preferred hierarchy more strongly in workplace contexts (Studies 4-5). We also provide evidence that hierarchies are indeed appealing because of their structure: Preference for hierarchy was higher among individuals high in Personal Need for Structure and a control threat increased preference for hierarchy even among participants low in Personal Need for Structure (Study 5). Framing a hierarchy as unstructured reversed the effect of control threat on hierarchy (Study 6). Finally, hierarchy-enhancing jobs were more appealing after control threat, even when they were low in power and status (Study 7). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiusheng; He Jingsong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.

  19. Virasoro algebra action on integrable hierarchies and Virasoro contraints in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The action of the Virasoro algebra on integrable hierarchies of non-linear equations and on related objects ('Schroedinger' differential operators) is investigated. The method consists in pushing forward the Virasoro action to the wave function of a hierarchy, and then reconstructing its action on the dressing and Lax operators. This formulation allows one to observe a number of suggestive similarities between the structures involved in the description of the Virasoro algebra on the hierarchies and the structure of conformal field theory on the world-sheet. This includes, in particular, an 'off-shell' hierarchy version of operator products and of the Cauchy kernel. In relation to matrix models, which have been observed to be effectively described by integrable hierarchies subjected to Virasoro constraints, I propose to define general Virasoro-constrained hierarchies also in terms of dressing operators, by certain equations which carry the information of the hierarchy and the Virasoro algebra simultaneously and which suggest an interpretation as operator versions of recursion/loop equations in topological theories. These same equations provide a relation with integrable hierarchies with quantized spectral parameter introduced recently. The formulation in terms of dressing operators allows a scaling (continuum limit) of discrete (i.e. lattice) hierarchies with the Virasoro constraints into 'continuous' Virasoro-constrained hierarchies. In particular, the KP hierarchy subjected to the Virasoro constraints is recovered as a scaling limit of the Virasoro-constrained Toda hierarchy. The dressing operator method also makes is straightforward to identify the full symmetry algebra of Virasoro-constrained hierarchies, which is related to the family of W ∞ (J) algebras introduced recently. (orig./HS)

  20. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  1. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  2. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  3. New supersymmetrizations of the generalized KDV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Stanciu, S.

    1993-03-01

    Recently we investigated a new supersymmetrization procedure for the KdV hierarchy inspired in some recent work on supersymmetric matrix models. We extend this procedure here for the generalized KdV hierarchies. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchies are generically nonlocal, expect for the case of Boussinesque which we treat in detail. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchy is integrable and bihamiltonian and contains the Boussinesque hierarchy as a subhierarchy. In a particular realization, we extend it by defining supersymmetric odd flows. We end with some comments on a slight modification of this supersymmetrization which yields local equations for any generalized KdV hierarchy. (orig.)

  4. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  5. NASA Thesaurus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) and the NTRS...

  6. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  7. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Joost; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881

  8. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  9. Hierarchy in directed random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks have been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present some (qualitative) analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate, mainly numerically, the effects of different types of correlations. The behavior of the hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that the hierarchy does not change monotonically with the correlations and there is an optimal level of nonzero correlations maximizing the level of hierarchy.

  10. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  11. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  12. A note on the dispersionless BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-T.; Tu, M.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We study the integrable hierarchy underlying topological Landau-Ginzburg models of D-type proposed by Takasaki. Since this integrable hierarchy contains the dBKP hierarchy as a sub-hierarchy, we refer it to the extended dBKP (EdBKP) hierarchy. We give a dressing formulation to the EdBKP hierarchy and investigate additional symmetries associated with the solution space of the hierarchy. We obtain hodograph solutions of its finite-dimensional reductions via Riemann-Hilbert problem (twistor construction) and derive Baecklund transformations of the (2 + 1)-dimensional dBKP equation from additional flows. Finally, the modified partner of the dBKP hierarchy is also established through a Miura transformation

  13. The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)

  15. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  16. A note on the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depireux, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, given the two boson representation of the conformal algebra W ∞ , the second Hamiltonian structure of the KP hierarchy, the author constructs a bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy for the two associated currents. The KP hierarchy appears as a composite of this new and simpler system. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the new hierarchy gives naturally all the Hamiltonian structures of the KP system

  17. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs

  18. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratyn, H. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs.

  19. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, N.; De Groot, M.; Hollowood, T.; Miramontes, L.

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical W-algebras, which arise as the second hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the W n (l) -algebras. (orig.)

  20. BBGKY hierarchy and dynamics of correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polishchuk, D.O.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the BBGKY hierarchy for the Fermi and Bose many-particle systems, using the von Neumann hierarchy for the correlation operators. The solution of the Cauchy problem of the formulated hierarchy in the case of an n-body interaction potential is constructed in the space of sequences of trace-class operators.

  1. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  2. Analytic Hierarchy Process Expansion for Innovation Performance Measurement Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Kyoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a top strategic priority for the majority of companies. The need for innovation becomes more and more evident in the current corporate world, and the purpose of innovation is to create business value. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions. This paper is targeting the framework design of the innovation performance criteria and provides the general guidelines to evaluate the relationship between the criteria by using AHP expansion.

  3. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  4. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  5. Information, Authority, and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; In-Uck, Park

    2010-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. By studying a model with one principal and two agents where one agent can gather information that is valuable for the principal's project choice and the other agent provides effort to the chosen project, we study when the principal can benefit from such delegation relative to centralization. We show that beneficial delegation is possible when complete con...

  6. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  7. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  8. A model of Yukawa hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.K.; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present a model for the observed hierarchies among the Yukawa couplings of the standard model in the context of an effective low energy theory with an anomalous U(1) symmetry. This symmetry, a generic feature of superstring compactification, is a remnant of the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism. The gauge group is that of the standard model, augmented by X, the anomalous U(1), and two family-dependent phase symmetries Y (1) and Y (2) . The correct hierarchies are reproduced only when sin 2 θ w = 3/8 at the cut-off. To cancel anomalies, right-handed neutrinos and other standard model singlets must be introduced. Independently of the charges of the right-handed neutrinos, this model produces the same neutrino mixing matrix and an inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. The heaviest is the electron neutrino with a mass ∼ 1 meV, and mixing of the order of λ c 3 with each of the other two neutrinos

  9. The (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral relativistic Toda hierarchy related to the generalized discrete Painleve hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zuonong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will concentrate on the topic of integrable discrete hierarchies in 2+1 dimensions, and their connection with discrete Painleve hierarchies. By considering a (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral discrete linear problem, two new (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies-the 2+1 nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the 2+1 nonisospectral negative relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy-are constructed. It is shown that the reductions of the two new 2+1 nonisospectral lattice hierarchies lead to the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral Volterra lattice hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral negative Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain two new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies and two new ordinary difference hierarchies which are direct reductions of the two 2+1 nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies. One of the two difference hierarchies yields our previously obtained generalized discrete first Painleve (dP I ) hierarchy and another one yields a generalized alternative discrete second Painleve (alt-dP II ) hierarchy

  10. A differential-difference hierarchy associated with relativistic Toda and Volterra hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui; Dai Huihui

    2008-01-01

    By embedding a free function into a compatible zero curvature equation, we enlarge the original differential-difference hierarchy into a new hierarchy with the free function which still admits zero curvature representation. The new hierarchy not only includes the original hierarchy, but also the well-known relativistic Toda hierarchy and the Volterra hierarchy as special reductions by properly choosing the free function. Infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformation for a representative differential-difference system are constructed based on its Lax representation. The exact solutions follow by applying the Darboux transformation

  11. Neutrino mass matrix and hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaus, Peter; Meshkov, Sydney

    2003-01-01

    We build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δsol and Δatm, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, Mν and a mixing matrix, U, where both Mν and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ2 = m2/m3 = √(Δsol/Δatm) ≅ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m1, (m1 ρΛ4m3), while κ scales s13 to the experimental upper limit, s13 = κΛ2 ≅ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β-decay experiments is 4 x 10-3eV if s13 = 0 and 6 x 10-3eV if s13 is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation

  12. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  13. Zipf’s law, 1/f noise, and fractal hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► I developed a general scaling method based on hierarchies of cites. ► Hierarchy is classified into three types based on monofractal and multifractals. ► Zipf’s law can be used to estimate the capacity dimension of a multifractal set. ► I derive the self-similar hierarchy from the rank-size distribution. ► The hierarchical scaling method can be applied to the 1/f spectra. - Abstract: Fractals, 1/f noise, and Zipf’s laws are frequently observed within the natural living world as well as in social institutions, representing three signatures of complex systems. All these observations are associated with scaling laws and therefore have created much research interest in many diverse scientific circles. However, the inherent relationships between these scaling phenomena are not yet clear. In this paper, theoretical demonstration and mathematical experiments based on urban studies are employed to reveal the analogy between fractal patterns, 1/f spectra, and the Zipf distribution. First, the multifractal process empirically suggests the Zipf distribution. Second, a 1/f spectrum is mathematically identical to Zipf’s law. Third, both 1/f spectra and Zipf’s law can be converted into a self-similar hierarchy. Fourth, fractals, 1/f spectra, Zipf’s law can be rescaled with similar exponential laws and power laws. The self-similar hierarchy is a more general scaling method which can be used to unify different scaling phenomena and rules in both physical and social systems such as cities, rivers, earthquakes, fractals, 1/f noise, and rank-size distributions. The mathematical laws of this hierarchical structure can provide us with a holistic perspective of looking at complexity and complex systems.

  14. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  16. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  17. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  18. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  19. Cortical hierarchies perform Bayesian causal inference in multisensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rohe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To form a veridical percept of the environment, the brain needs to integrate sensory signals from a common source but segregate those from independent sources. Thus, perception inherently relies on solving the "causal inference problem." Behaviorally, humans solve this problem optimally as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference; yet, the underlying neural mechanisms are unexplored. Combining psychophysics, Bayesian modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and multivariate decoding in an audiovisual spatial localization task, we demonstrate that Bayesian Causal Inference is performed by a hierarchy of multisensory processes in the human brain. At the bottom of the hierarchy, in auditory and visual areas, location is represented on the basis that the two signals are generated by independent sources (= segregation. At the next stage, in posterior intraparietal sulcus, location is estimated under the assumption that the two signals are from a common source (= forced fusion. Only at the top of the hierarchy, in anterior intraparietal sulcus, the uncertainty about the causal structure of the world is taken into account and sensory signals are combined as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference. Characterizing the computational operations of signal interactions reveals the hierarchical nature of multisensory perception in human neocortex. It unravels how the brain accomplishes Bayesian Causal Inference, a statistical computation fundamental for perception and cognition. Our results demonstrate how the brain combines information in the face of uncertainty about the underlying causal structure of the world.

  20. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  1. Innovation @ NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  2. NASA: Investing in Our Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A short explanation of NASA's accomplishments and goals are discussed in this video. Space Station Freedom, lunar bases, manned Mars mission, and robotic spacecrafts to explore other worlds are briefly described.

  3. On the robustness of Herlihy's hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Prasad

    1993-01-01

    A wait-free hierarchy maps object types to levels in Z(+) U (infinity) and has the following property: if a type T is at level N, and T' is an arbitrary type, then there is a wait-free implementation of an object of type T', for N processes, using only registers and objects of type T. The infinite hierarchy defined by Herlihy is an example of a wait-free hierarchy. A wait-free hierarchy is robust if it has the following property: if T is at level N, and S is a finite set of types belonging to levels N - 1 or lower, then there is no wait-free implementation of an object of type T, for N processes, using any number and any combination of objects belonging to the types in S. Robustness implies that there are no clever ways of combining weak shared objects to obtain stronger ones. Contrary to what many researchers believe, we prove that Herlihy's hierarchy is not robust. We then define some natural variants of Herlihy's hierarchy, which are also infinite wait-free hierarchies. With the exception of one, which is still open, these are not robust either. We conclude with the open question of whether non-trivial robust wait-free hierarchies exist.

  4. Models of neutrino masses: Anarchy versus hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the ability of models with different levels of hierarchy to reproduce the solar neutrino solutions, in particular the LA solution. As a flexible testing ground we consider models based on SU(5)xU(1) F . In this context, we have made statistical simulations of models with different patterns from anarchy to various types of hierarchy: normal hierarchical models with and without automatic suppression of the 23 (sub)determinant and inverse hierarchy models. We find that, not only for the LOW or VO solutions, but even in the LA case, the hierarchical models have a significantly better success rate than those based on anarchy. The normal hierarchy and the inverse hierarchy models have comparable performances in models with see-saw dominance, while the inverse hierarchy models are particularly good in the no see-saw versions. As a possible distinction between these categories of models, the inverse hierarchy models favour a maximal solar mixing angle and their rate of success drops dramatically as the mixing angle decreases, while normal hierarchy models are far more stable in this respect. (author)

  5. Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Xia Tie-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)

  6. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  7. Solution of the gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a novel solution to the gauge hierarchy problem in theories with softly broken supersymmetry. Quantum effects can resuscitate classically sick theories, producing the large scale from the small supersymmetry breaking scale. We use this mechanism to construct realistic SU(6) and SU(5) GUTs which do not suffer from gauge hierarchy or fine tuning problems. (orig.)

  8. q-Deformed KP Hierarchy and q-Deformed Constrained KP Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingsong; Li, Yinghua; Cheng, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Using the determinant representation of gauge transformation operator, we have shown that the general form of $au$ function of the $q$-KP hierarchy is a $q$-deformed generalized Wronskian, which includes the $q$-deformed Wronskian as a special case. On the basis of these, we study the $q$-deformed constrained KP ($q$-cKP) hierarchy, i.e. $l$-constraints of $q$-KP hierarchy. Similar to the ordinary constrained KP (cKP) hierarchy, a large class of solutions of $q$-cKP hierarchy can be represent...

  9. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constrained KP models as integrable matrix hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    We formulate the constrained KP hierarchy (denoted by cKP K+1,M ) as an affine [cflx sl](M+K+1) matrix integrable hierarchy generalizing the Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy. Using an algebraic approach, including the graded structure of the generalized Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy, we are able to find several new universal results valid for the cKP hierarchy. In particular, our method yields a closed expression for the second bracket obtained through Dirac reduction of any untwisted affine Kac endash Moody current algebra. An explicit example is given for the case [cflx sl](M+K+1), for which a closed expression for the general recursion operator is also obtained. We show how isospectral flows are characterized and grouped according to the semisimple non-regular element E of sl(M+K+1) and the content of the center of the kernel of E. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  12. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  13. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  14. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  16. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W. van de Leur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981, 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]. We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense variables.

  17. NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division enables advances in high-end computing technologies and in modeling and simulation methods to tackle some of the toughest science and engineering challenges facing NASA today. The name "NAS" has long been associated with leadership and innovation throughout the high-end computing (HEC) community. We play a significant role in shaping HEC standards and paradigms, and provide leadership in the areas of large-scale InfiniBand fabrics, Lustre open-source filesystems, and hyperwall technologies. We provide an integrated high-end computing environment to accelerate NASA missions and make revolutionary advances in science. Pleiades, a petaflop-scale supercomputer, is used by scientists throughout the U.S. to support NASA missions, and is ranked among the most powerful systems in the world. One of our key focus areas is in modeling and simulation to support NASA's real-world engineering applications and make fundamental advances in modeling and simulation methods.

  18. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  19. A quark interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a physical interpretation of the second level of the combinatorial hierarchy in terms of three quarks, three antiquarks and the vacuum. This interpretation allows us to introduce a new quantum number, which measures electromagnetic mass splitting of the quarks. We extend our argument by analogue to baryons, and find some SU(3) and some new mass formulas for baryons. The generalization of our approach to other hierarchy levels is discussed. We present also an empirical mass formula for baryons, which seems to be loosely connected with the combinatorial hierarchy. (author)

  20. NASA reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, John E.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Aldrich, Arnold A.; Utsman, Thomas E.; Griffin, Michael D.; Cohen, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Activities and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs, both ongoing and planned, are described by NASA administrative personnel from the offices of Space Science and Applications, Space Systems Development, Space Flight, Exploration, and from the Johnson Space Center. NASA's multi-year strategic plan, called Vision 21, is also discussed. It proposes to use the unique perspective of space to better understand Earth. Among the NASA programs mentioned are the Magellan to Venus and Galileo to Jupiter spacecraft, the Cosmic Background Explorer, Pegsat (the first Pegasus payload), Hubble, the Joint U.S./German ROSAT X-ray Mission, Ulysses to Jupiter and over the sun, the Astro-Spacelab Mission, and the Gamma Ray Observatory. Copies of viewgraphs that illustrate some of these missions, and others, are provided. Also discussed were life science research plans, economic factors as they relate to space missions, and the outlook for international cooperation.

  1. Hierarchy in the eye of the beholder: (Anti-)egalitarianism shapes perceived levels of social inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour S; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Ho, Arnold K

    2017-01-01

    Debate surrounding the issue of inequality and hierarchy between social groups has become increasingly prominent in recent years. At the same time, individuals disagree about the extent to which inequality between advantaged and disadvantaged groups exists. Whereas prior work has examined the ways in which individuals legitimize (or delegitimize) inequality as a function of their motivations, we consider whether individuals' orientation toward group-based hierarchy motivates the extent to which they perceive inequality between social groups in the first place. Across 8 studies in both real-world (race, gender, and class) and artificial contexts, and involving members of both advantaged and disadvantaged groups, we show that the more individuals endorse hierarchy between groups, the less they perceive inequality between groups at the top and groups at the bottom. Perceiving less inequality is associated with rejecting egalitarian social policies aimed at reducing it. We show that these differences in hierarchy perception as a function of individuals' motivational orientation hold even when inequality is depicted abstractly using images, and even when individuals are financially incentivized to accurately report their true perceptions. Using a novel methodology to assess accurate memory of hierarchy, we find that differences may be driven by both antiegalitarians underestimating inequality, and egalitarians overestimating it. In sum, our results identify a novel perceptual bias rooted in individuals' chronic motivations toward hierarchy-maintenance, with the potential to influence their policy attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  3. Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Daniel W

    2013-04-08

    Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  5. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  6. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification

  7. NASA Water Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  8. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  9. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sovan

    2013-01-01

    The rise time of electron antineutrino lightcurve from a Galactic supernova (SN), observable at the IceCube Cherenkov detector, can provide signature of the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ 13 . In the early accretion phase of the SN, the neutrino oscillations are nontrivial. Due to the matter suppression of collective effects at these early post bounce times, only the MSW resonances in the outer layers of the SN influence the neutrino flux. When the oscillations are taken into account, the signal in IceCube shows sufficiently fast rise time for the inverted mass hierarchy compared to the normal hierarchy. An investigation with an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, provides both qualitative and quantitative robustness of these features. Thus opening another avenue to explore the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

  10. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  11. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  12. A hierarchy of Ramsey-like cardinals

    OpenAIRE

    Holy, Peter; Schlicht, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of large cardinals between weakly compact and measurable cardinals, that is closely related to the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced by Victoria Gitman, and is based on certain infinite filter games, however also has a range of equivalent characterizations in terms of elementary embeddings. The aim of this paper is to locate the Ramsey-like cardinals studied by Gitman, and other well-known large cardinal notions, in this hierarchy.

  13. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  14. Hierarchy among Automata on Linear Orderings

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère , Véronique; Carton , Olivier

    2005-01-01

    In a preceding paper, automata and rational expressions have been introduced for words indexed by linear orderings, together with a Kleene-like theorem. We here pursue this work by proposing a hierarchy among the rational sets. Each class of the hierarchy is defined by a subset of the rational operations that can be used. We then characterize any class by an appropriate class of automata, leading to a Kleene theorem inside the class. A characterization by particular classes of orderings is al...

  15. Shrinking population and the urban hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether population shrinkage leads to changes in the urban hierarchy in terms of relative sizes of cities and their functions onomic geography. We work backwards in a racetrack economy with eight cities in a long-run equilibrium. Initial distribution of population is chosen to satisfy both the rank-size rule and central place hierarchy. We have a short-run equilibrium in which firms choose prices and consumers choose consumption taking the number of workers in each region ...

  16. Hierarchy generation in compactified supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of generating a large hierarchy in compactified supersymmetric models is re-examined. It is shown how, even for the class of models for which Str M 2 is non-vanishing, a combination of non-perturbative effects and radiative corrections may lead to an exponentially large hierarchy. A corollary is that the couplings of the effective field theory in the visible sector should be small, i.e., perturbation theory should be applicable. (orig.)

  17. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  18. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  19. Solutions of the bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The (N, M)-bigraded Toda hierarchy is an extension of the original Toda lattice hierarchy. The pair of numbers (N, M) represents the band structure of the Lax matrix which has N upper and M lower diagonals, and the original one is referred to as the (1, 1)-bigraded Toda hierarchy. Because of this band structure, one can introduce M + N - 1 commuting flows which give a parametrization of a small phase space for a topological field theory. In this paper, first we show that there exists a natural symmetry between the (N, M)- and (M, N)-bigraded Toda hierarchies. We then derive the Hirota bilinear form for those commuting flows, which consist of two-dimensional Toda hierarchy, the discrete KP hierarchy and its Baecklund transformations. We also discuss the solution structure of the (N, M)-bigraded Toda equation in terms of the moment matrix defined via the wave operators associated with the Lax operator and construct some of the explicit solutions. In particular, we give the rational solutions which are expressed by the products of the Schur polynomials corresponding to the non-rectangular Young diagrams.

  20. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  1. Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianhua; Li Yuqi

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)

  2. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groß, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit

  3. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  4. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  5. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  6. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Srayan; Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution.

  7. On the Hierarchy of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Urban, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of neutrino masses combining the seesaw mechanism and strong Dirac mass hierarchy and at the same time exhibiting a significantly reduced hierarchy at the level of active neutrino masses. The heavy Majorana masses are assumed to be degenerate. The suppression of the hierarchy is due to a symmetric and unitary operator R whose role is discussed. The model gives realistic mixing and mass spectrum. The mixing of atmospheric neutrinos is attributed to the charged lepton sector whereas the mixing of solar neutrinos is due to the neutrino sector. Small U e3 is a consequence of the model. The masses of the active neutrinos are given by μ 3 ≅ √(Δm 2 O ) and μ 1 /μ 2 = ≅ tan 2 (θ O ). (author)

  8. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  9. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  10. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  11. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new ‘product’ of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings–leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution. PMID:29474409

  12. Toward Transparent Data Management in Multi-layer Storage Hierarchy for HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Bharti [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Butt, Ali R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    2018-04-17

    Upcoming exascale high performance computing (HPC) systems are expected to comprise multi-tier storage hierarchy, and thus will necessitate innovative storage and I/O mechanisms. Traditional disk and block-based interfaces and file systems face severe challenges in utilizing capabilities of storage hierarchies due to the lack of hierarchy support and semantic interfaces. Object-based and semantically-rich data abstractions for scientific data management on large scale systems offer a sustainable solution to these challenges. Such data abstractions can also simplify users involvement in data movement. Here, we take the first steps of realizing such an object abstraction and explore storage mechanisms for these objects to enhance I/O performance, especially for scientific applications. We explore how an object-based interface can facilitate next generation scalable computing systems by presenting the mapping of data I/O from two real world HPC scientific use cases: a plasma physics simulation code (VPIC) and a cosmology simulation code (HACC). Our storage model stores data objects in different physical organizations to support data movement across layers of memory/storage hierarchy. Our implementation sclaes well to 16K parallel processes, and compared to the state of the art, such as MPI-IO and HDF5, our object-based data abstractions and data placement strategy in multi-level storage hierarchy achieves up to 7 X I/O performance improvement for scientific data.

  13. On self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    1989-01-01

    In this note, motivated by the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy of integrable nonlinear evolution equations, a GL(n,C) self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) hierarchy is presented; it is an infinite system of SDYM equations having an infinite number of independent variables and being outside of the KP hierarchy. A relationship between the KP hierarchy and the SDYM hierarchy is discussed. It is also shown that GL(∞) SDYM equations introduced in this note are reduced to the GL(n,C) SDYM hierarchy by imposing an algebraic constraint. (orig.)

  14. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  15. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  16. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  17. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  18. Program information architecture/document hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  20. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  1. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified ‘levels’ of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily ‘local’ and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended—many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry. PMID:23386966

  2. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.

    2008-12-01

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  4. The hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-01-01

    We obtain the two hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (orig.)

  5. A note on the substructural hierarchy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066

  6. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  7. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  8. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  9. The Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-08-01

    We obtain the two Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (author). 18 refs

  10. A hierarchy of systems of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one-dimensional Dirac operator yields an infinite hierarchy of systems of chiral invariant nonlinear partial differential equations. The same system is obtained through a Lax pair construction and finally a formulation in terms of Kac-Moody generators is given. (Author)

  11. New solutions to the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    After summarizing the status of the Standard Model, we focus on the Hierarchy Problem and why we believe this strongly suggests the need for new physics at the TeV scale. We then concentrate on theories with extra dimensions and their possible manifestations at this scale. (author)

  12. Prioritization of Programmer's Productivity Using Analytic Hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model in the context of prioritizing programmer's productivity in University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP model can be used to select the best programmer for the purpose of developing software ...

  13. Classification hierarchies for product data modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction is an essential element in data modelling that appears mainly in one of the following forms: generalisation, classification or aggregation. In the design of complex products classification hierarchies can be found product families that are viewed as classes of product types, while

  14. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  15. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  16. NASA Risk-Informed Decision Making Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Stamatelatos, Michael; Maggio, Gaspare; Everett, Christopher; Youngblood, Robert; Rutledge, Peter; Benjamin, Allan; Williams, Rodney; Smith, Curtis; Guarro, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance for conducting risk-informed decision making in the context of NASA risk management (RM), with a focus on the types of direction-setting key decisions that are characteristic of the NASA program and project life cycles, and which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant to be prescriptive. Instead, it is meant to be general enough, and contain a sufficient diversity of examples, to enable the reader to adapt the methods as needed to the particular decision problems that he or she faces. The handbook highlights major issues to consider when making decisions in the presence of potentially significant uncertainty, so that the user is better able to recognize and avoid pitfalls that might otherwise be experienced.

  17. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: Phase Space Statistics of Cold Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Tassev, Svetlin

    2010-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the "Helmholtz Hierarchy") of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys...

  18. Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2009-01-01

    New special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve hierarchies are introduced. The Hirota relations for these special polynomials are found. Differential-difference hierarchies to find special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to search special polynomials associated with the hierarchies. It is shown that rational solutions of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon, the Kaup-Kupershmidt and the modified hierarchy for these ones can be obtained using new special polynomials.

  19. Method and System for Making OLAP Hierarchies Summarisable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when the hierarc......Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when...

  20. Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.

  1. Operator approach to solutions of the constrained BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hsin-Fu; Lee, Niann-Chern; Tu, Ming-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The operator formalism to the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy is presented. We solve the Hirota bilinear equations of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy via the method of neutral free fermion. In particular, by choosing suitable group element of O(∞), we construct rational and soliton solutions of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy.

  2. A Vision for Spaceflight Reliability: NASA's Objectives Based Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Evans, John; Hall, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In defining the direction for a new Reliability and Maintainability standard, OSMA has extracted the essential objectives that our programs need, to undertake a reliable mission. These objectives have been structured to lead mission planning through construction of an objective hierarchy, which defines the critical approaches for achieving high reliability and maintainability (R M). Creating a hierarchy, as a basis for assurance implementation, is a proven approach; yet, it holds the opportunity to enable new directions, as NASA moves forward in tackling the challenges of space exploration.

  3. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20–30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is

  4. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a

  5. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M

    2008-08-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  6. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Benner, Steven A.; Boss, Alan P.; Deamer, David; Falkowski, Paul G.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hedges, S. Blair; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Knoll, Andrew H.; hide

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: How does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own solar system, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high-priority efforts for the next 3-5 years. These 18 objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  7. Correspondence of Concept Hierarchies in Semantic Web Based upon Global Instances and its Application to Facility Management Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Nishi, Yuusuke; Gion, Tomohiro; Minami, Shinichi; Fukunaga, Tatsuya; Ogata, Jiro; Yoshie, Osamu

    Semantic Web is the technology which determines the relevance of data over the Web using meta-data and which enables advanced search of global information. It is now desired to develop and apply this technology to many situations of facility management. In facility management, vocabulary should be unified to share the database of facilities for generating optimal maintenance schedule and so on. Under such situations, ontology databases are usually used to describe composition or hierarchy of facility parts. However, these vocabularies used in databases are not unified even between factories of same company, and this situation causes communication hazard between them. Moreover, concept involved in the hierarchy cannot be corresponded each other. There are some methods to correspond concepts of different hierarchy. But these methods have some defects, because they only attend target hierarchy itself and the number of instances. We propose improved method for corresponding concepts between different concepts' hierarchies, which uses other hierarchies all over the world of Web and the distance of instances to identify their relations. Our method can work even if the sets of instances belonging to the concepts are not identical.

  8. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: phase space statistics of cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the ''Helmholtz Hierarchy'') of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys causality to all orders. We present an interpretation of the hierarchy in terms of effective particle trajectories

  9. The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit

  10. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hierarchie ve vietnamské komunitě na území Prahy

    OpenAIRE

    Srnec, František

    2015-01-01

    - english This bachelor's thesis focuses on the current situation regarding hierarchy in the Vietnamese minority in Prague, its reasons and consequences. The first part of the thesis briefly describes the Vietnamese society after World War II and the main reasons for the Vietnamese immigration to Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. The second and third parts focus on the history of the Vietnamese coming to the Czech Republic and the social stratification of the Vietnamese minority. The fou...

  12. The basis of clinical tribalism, hierarchy and stereotyping: a laboratory-controlled teamwork experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Clay-Williams, Robyn; Vecellio, Elia; Marks, Danielle; Hooper, Tamara; Westbrook, Mary; Westbrook, Johanna; Blakely, Brette; Ludlow, Kristiana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the basis of multidisciplinary teamwork. In real-world healthcare settings, clinicians often cluster in profession-based tribal silos, form hierarchies and exhibit stereotypical behaviours. It is not clear whether these social structures are more a product of inherent characteristics of the individuals or groups comprising the professions, or attributable to a greater extent to workplace factors. Setting Controlled laboratory environment with well-appointed, quiet rooms ...

  13. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  14. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  15. Scale hierarchy in high-temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Because of asymptotic freedom, QCD becomes weakly interacting at high temperature: this is the reason for the transition to a deconfined phase in Yang-Mills theory at temperature $T_c$. At high temperature $T \\gg T_c$, the smallness of the running coupling $g$ induces a hierachy betwen the "hard", "soft" and "ultrasoft" energy scales $T$, $g T$ and $g^2 T$. This hierarchy allows for a very successful effective treatment where the "hard" and the "soft" modes are successively integrated out. However, it is not clear how high a temperature is necessary to achieve such a scale hierarchy. By numerical simulations, we show that the required temperatures are extremely high. Thus, the quantitative success of the effective theory down to temperatures of a few $T_c$ appears surprising a posteriori.

  16. Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

  17. Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Rattazzi, R.

    1992-01-01

    Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses is investigated. The authors suggest that the mass hierarchy is first generated in a sector of heavy isosinglet fermions due to radiative effects and then projected in the inverted way to the usual quarks by means of a universal seesaw. The simple left-right symmetric gauge model is presented with the P- and CP-parities and the exact isotopical symmetry which are softly (or spontaneously) broken in the Higgs potential. This approach naturally explains the observed pattern of quark masses and mixing, providing the quantitatively correct formula for the Cabibbo angle. Top quark is predicted to be in the 90-150 GeV range

  18. World-System Mobility and Economic Growth, 1980-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2010-01-01

    World-system scholars have traditionally emphasized the stability of the core/periphery hierarchy. However, prior network studies employing both categorical and continuous measures of world-system position reveal substantial mobility across time, whereby a number of developing states have become more integrated in the world economy over the past…

  19. Explorations of the extended ncKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A recently obtained extension (xncKP) of the Moyal-deformed KP hierarchy (ncKP hierarchy) by a set of evolution equations in the Moyal-deformation parameters is further explored. Formulae are derived to compute these equations efficiently. Reductions of the xncKP hierarchy are treated, in particular to the extended ncKdV and ncBoussinesq hierarchies. Furthermore, a good part of the Sato formalism for the KP hierarchy is carried over to the generalized framework. In particular, the well-known bilinear identity theorem for the KP hierarchy, expressed in terms of the (formal) Baker-Akhiezer function, extends to the xncKP hierarchy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that N-soliton solutions of the ncKP equation are also solutions of the first few deformation equations. This is shown to be related to the existence of certain families of algebraic identities

  20. Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs

  1. Gauge equivalence between two-boson KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper it is explained the status of the two-boson KP hierarchy, which appears in this setting as an invariant subspace of the coadjoint orbit within the KP l=1 hierarchy. We will work with two main cases of two-boson KP hierarchies, one defined within KP l=1 hierarchy will be called Faa di Bruno KP hierarchy, while the second defined within KP hierarchy for a quadratic two-boson KP hierarchy. It will be established for them the gauge invariance playing the role of generalized Miura transformations. It is emphasized the symplectic character of equivalence of KP l=1 and KP. It is also made a point that the gauge equivalence established for two-boson systems is valid for an arbitrary n-th Poisson bracket structure and not only the first Poisson bracket structure. (author). 7 refs

  2. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  3. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.B.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Chang, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  4. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Alsallakh; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  5. Integral equation hierarchy for continuum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis a projection operator technique is presented that yields hierarchies of integral equations satisfied exactly by the n-point connectedness functions in a continuum version of the site-bond percolation problem. The n-point connectedness functions carry the same structural information for a percolation problem as then-point correlation functions do for a thermal problem. This method extends the Potts model mapping of Fortuin and Kastelyn to the continuum by exploiting an s-state generalization of the Widom-Rowlinson model, a continuum model for phase separation. The projection operator technique is used to produce an integral equation hierarchy for percolation similar to the Born-Green heirarchy. The Kirkwood superposition approximation (SA) is extended to percolation in order to close this hierarchy and yield a nonlinear integral equation for the two-point connectedness function. The fact that this function, in the SA, is the analytic continuation to negative density of the two-point correlation function in a corresponding thermal problem is discussed. The BGY equation for percolation is solved numerically, both by an expansion in powers of the density, and by an iterative technique due to Kirkwood. It is argued both analytically and numerically, that the BYG equation for percolation, unlike its thermal counterpart, shows non-classical critical behavior, with η = 1 and γ = 0.05 ± .1. Finally a sequence of refinements to the superposition approximations based in the theory of fluids by Rice and Lekner is discussed

  6. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Kitching, Thomas D.; Heavens, Alan; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    The combination of current large-scale structure and cosmic microwave background anisotropies data can place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses. Here we show that future cosmic shear experiments, in combination with cosmic microwave background constraints, can provide the statistical accuracy required to answer questions about differences in the mass of individual neutrino species. Allowing for the possibility that masses are nondegenerate we combine Fisher matrix forecasts for a weak lensing survey like Euclid with those for the forthcoming Planck experiment. Under the assumption that neutrino mass splitting is described by a normal hierarchy we find that the combination Planck and Euclid will possibly reach enough sensitivity to put a constraint on the mass of a single species. Using a Bayesian evidence calculation we find that such future experiments could provide strong evidence for either a normal or an inverted neutrino hierarchy. Finally we show that if a particular neutrino hierarchy is assumed then this could bias cosmological parameter constraints, for example, the dark energy equation of state parameter, by > or approx. 1σ, and the sum of masses by 2.3σ. We finally discuss the impact of uncertainties on the theoretical modeling of nonlinearities. The results presented in this analysis are obtained under an approximation to the nonlinear power spectrum. This significant source of uncertainty needs to be addressed in future work.

  7. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  8. Random walk hierarchy measure: What is more hierarchical, a chain, a tree or a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czégel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Signs of hierarchy are prevalent in a wide range of systems in nature and society. One of the key problems is quantifying the importance of hierarchical organisation in the structure of the network representing the interactions or connections between the fundamental units of the studied system. Although a number of notable methods are already available, their vast majority is treating all directed acyclic graphs as already maximally hierarchical. Here we propose a hierarchy measure based on random walks on the network. The novelty of our approach is that directed trees corresponding to multi level pyramidal structures obtain higher hierarchy scores compared to directed chains and directed stars. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit the hierarchy measure of regular trees is converging to a well defined limit depending only on the branching number. When applied to real networks, our method is computationally very effective, as the result can be evaluated with arbitrary precision by subsequent multiplications of the transition matrix describing the random walk process. In addition, the tests on real world networks provided very intuitive results, e.g., the trophic levels obtained from our approach on a food web were highly consistent with former results from ecology. PMID:26657012

  9. Cultural factors influencing Japanese nurses' assertive communication: Part 2 - hierarchy and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2018-03-23

    Hierarchy and power characterize health-care relationships around the world, constituting a barrier to assertive communication and a risk to patient safety. This issue is more problematic and complex in countries such as Japan, where deep-seated cultural values related to hierarchy and power persist. The current paper is the second of two that present the findings from a study exploring Japanese nurses' views and experiences of how cultural values impact assertive communication for health-care professionals. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 registered nurses, following which data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Two overarching themes emerged from the analysis: hierarchy/power and collectivism. In the present study, we focus on cultural values related to hierarchy and power, including differences in professional status, gender imbalance, seniority/generation gap, bullying, and humility/modesty. The findings from our research provide meaningful insights into how Japanese cultural values influence and constrain nurses' communication and speaking up behaviors, and can be used to inform educational programs designed to teach assertiveness skills. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Random walk hierarchy measure: What is more hierarchical, a chain, a tree or a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czégel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely

    2015-12-10

    Signs of hierarchy are prevalent in a wide range of systems in nature and society. One of the key problems is quantifying the importance of hierarchical organisation in the structure of the network representing the interactions or connections between the fundamental units of the studied system. Although a number of notable methods are already available, their vast majority is treating all directed acyclic graphs as already maximally hierarchical. Here we propose a hierarchy measure based on random walks on the network. The novelty of our approach is that directed trees corresponding to multi level pyramidal structures obtain higher hierarchy scores compared to directed chains and directed stars. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit the hierarchy measure of regular trees is converging to a well defined limit depending only on the branching number. When applied to real networks, our method is computationally very effective, as the result can be evaluated with arbitrary precision by subsequent multiplications of the transition matrix describing the random walk process. In addition, the tests on real world networks provided very intuitive results, e.g., the trophic levels obtained from our approach on a food web were highly consistent with former results from ecology.

  11. Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan

    Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non

  12. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  13. Hierarchies in Quantum Gravity: Large Numbers, Small Numbers, and Axions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, John Eldon

    Our knowledge of the physical world is mediated by relatively simple, effective descriptions of complex processes. By their very nature, these effective theories obscure any phenomena outside their finite range of validity, discarding information crucial to understanding the full, quantum gravitational theory. However, we may gain enormous insight into the full theory by understanding how effective theories with extreme characteristics--for example, those which realize large-field inflation or have disparate hierarchies of scales--can be naturally realized in consistent theories of quantum gravity. The work in this dissertation focuses on understanding the quantum gravitational constraints on these "extreme" theories in well-controlled corners of string theory. Axion monodromy provides one mechanism for realizing large-field inflation in quantum gravity. These models spontaneously break an axion's discrete shift symmetry and, assuming that the corrections induced by this breaking remain small throughout the excursion, create a long, quasi-flat direction in field space. This weakly-broken shift symmetry has been used to construct a dynamical solution to the Higgs hierarchy problem, dubbed the "relaxion." We study this relaxion mechanism and show that--without major modifications--it can not be naturally embedded within string theory. In particular, we find corrections to the relaxion potential--due to the ten-dimensional backreaction of monodromy charge--that conflict with naive notions of technical naturalness and render the mechanism ineffective. The super-Planckian field displacements necessary for large-field inflation may also be realized via the collective motion of many aligned axions. However, it is not clear that string theory provides the structures necessary for this to occur. We search for these structures by explicitly constructing the leading order potential for C4 axions and computing the maximum possible field displacement in all compactifications of

  14. The NASA Astrophysics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  15. NASA's Interests in Bioregenerative Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2018-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies and around the world have had long-standing interest in using plants and biological approaches for regenerative life support. In particular, NASA's Kennedy Space Center, has conducted research in this area for over 30 years. One unique aspect to this testing was NASA's Biomass Production Chamber, which had four vertically stacked growing shelves inside a large, 113 cubic meter chamber. This was perhaps one of the first working examples of a vertical agriculture system in the world. A review of some of this research along with some of the more salient findings will be presented.

  16. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. A health hierarchy of effects model: a synthesis of advertising and health hierarchy conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, R A

    1991-01-01

    Work by both advertising and health researchers has independently yielded hierarchy of effects models which can be used to predict campaign success. Unfortunately, however, previous work has been criticized as "common sense" approaches which are more "assumed" than "proven." This analysis argues that much of the problem is due to the lack of precision often associated with over-simplified "uni-dimensional" models. Instead, this perspective synthesized a "two-dimensional" health hierarchy of effects model and outlines a pragmatic strategy for campaign measurement.

  18. NASA's Contribution to Global Space Geodesy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John M.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Space Geodesy program continues to be a major provider of space geodetic data for the international earth science community. NASA operates high performance Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Global Positioning System (GPS) ground receivers at well over 30 locations around the world and works in close cooperation with space geodetic observatories around the world. NASA has also always been at the forefront in the quest for technical improvement and innovation in the space geodesy technologies to make them even more productive, accurate and economical. This presentation will highlight the current status of NASA's networks; the plans for partnerships with international groups in the southern hemisphere to improve the geographic distribution of space geodesy sites and the status of the technological improvements in SLR and VLBI that will support the new scientific thrusts proposed by interdisciplinary earth scientists. In addition, the expanding role of the NASA Space geodesy data archive, the CDDIS will be described.

  19. Emergent Intentionality in Perception-Action Subsumption Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Windridge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A cognitively autonomous artificial agent may be defined as one able to modify both its external world-model and the framework by which it represents the world, requiring two simultaneous optimization objectives. This presents deep epistemological issues centered on the question of how a framework for representation (as opposed to the entities it represents may be objectively validated. In this article, formalizing previous work in this field, it is argued that subsumptive perception-action learning has the capacity to resolve these issues by (a building the perceptual hierarchy from the bottom up so as to ground all proposed representations and (b maintaining a bijective coupling between proposed percepts and projected action possibilities to ensure empirical falsifiability of these grounded representations. In doing so, we will show that such subsumptive perception-action learners intrinsically incorporate a model for how intentionality emerges from randomized exploratory activity in the form of “motor babbling.” Moreover, such a model of intentionality also naturally translates into a model for human–computer interfacing that makes minimal assumptions as to cognitive states.

  20. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  1. Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, T.; Noyes, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2 127 -1 approx. =10 38 ) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π + , π 0 , π - ). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU 2 X SU 3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α 2 m/sub e/c 2 . Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables

  2. Asymptotic density and the Ershov hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Rod; Jockusch, Carl; McNicholl, Timothy H.; Schupp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We classify the asymptotic densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets according to their level in the Ershov hierarchy. In particular, it is shown that for $n \\geq 2$, a real $r \\in [0,1]$ is the density of an $n$-c.e.\\ set if and only if it is a difference of left-$\\Pi_2^0$ reals. Further, we show that the densities of the $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets coincide with the densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets, and there are $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets whose density is not the density of an $n$-c.e. set for any $n \\in \\ome...

  3. From fusion hierarchy to excited state TBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juettner, G.; Kluemper, A.

    1998-01-01

    Functional relations among the fusion hierarchy of quantum transfer matrices give a novel derivation of the TBA equations, namely without string hypothesis. This is demonstrated for two important models of 1D highly correlated electron systems, the supersymmetric t-J model and the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model. As a consequence, ''the excited state TBA'' equations, which characterize correlation lengths, are explicitly derived for the t-J model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first explicit derivation of excited state TBA equations for 1D lattice electron systems. (orig.)

  4. Revaluing the hierarchy of paper recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samakovlis, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities

  5. A Machian solution of the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, M.

    2008-01-01

    The new interpretation of Mach's principle of mass of a particle being a measure of the interactions of this particle with all other gravitating particles inside its causal spheres is introduced. It is shown that within some alternative model of gravitation that incorporates this principle, the Machian influence of the universe can reduce Planck's scale to the electro-weak scale and the large number that is needed to explain the hierarchy between the scales is the amount of gravitating particles inside the universe horizon. Our model can lead to new observable effects at cosmological distances and close to the sources of a strong gravitational field. (orig.)

  6. Stability of mass hierarchy in models with a sliding singlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.; Tainov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the broad class of models with a heavy sliding singlet and softly broken supersymmetry (e.g. by the effects of N=1 supergravity) it is shown that the doublet-triplet hierarchy obtained at the tree level is not destroyed by quantum correction at any loop order. As an example the simplest SU(5) model with a stable doublet-triplet hierarchy is proposed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the hierarchy stability are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhong; He Jingsong; Cheng Yi

    2004-01-01

    We study the Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey(ncGD) hierarchy. By factorizing its Lax operator into the multiplication form of first order differential operator, the noncommutative modified KdV(ncMKdV) hierarchy and the Miura transformations are defined. Our results show that the ncMKdV equations are invariant under the cyclic permutation, and hence induces the Baecklund transformation of the ncGD hierarchy. (author)

  8. Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Mathias; McLean, Emily; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social d...

  9. A hierarchy of Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-05-12

    Based on a discrete four-by-four matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations with two potentials is derived. Two Hamiltonian forms are constructed for each lattice equation in the resulting hierarchy by means of the discrete variational identity. A strong symmetry operator of the resulting hierarchy is given. Finally, it is shown that the resulting lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  10. The Theory of Ratio Scale Estimation: Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T. Harker; Luis G. Vargas

    1987-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process developed by Saaty (Saaty, T. L. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.) has proven to be an extremely useful method for decision making and planning. However, some researchers in these areas have raised concerns over the theoretical basis underlying this process. This paper addresses currently debated issues concerning the theoretical foundations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We also illustrate through proof and through examples the v...

  11. NASA's Propulsion Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The grand opening of NASA's new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies located at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, took place in July 2004. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory (PRL) serves as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of innovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility is the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, features a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility allows it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellant propulsion. An important area of emphasis is the development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and sets the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  12. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  13. The Toda lattice hierarchy and deformation of conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors point out that the Toda lattice hierarchy known in soliton theory is relevant for the description of the deformations of conformal field theories while the KP hierarchy describes unperturbed conformal theories. It is shown that the holomorphic parts of the conserved currents in the perturbed system (the Toda lattice hierarchy) coincide with the conserved currents in the KP hierarchy and can be written in terms of the W-algebraic currents. Furthermore, their anti-holomorphic counterparts are obtained

  14. On Recursion Operator of the q -KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ke-Lei; Zhu Xiao-Ming; He Jing-Song

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of the present article to give a general expression of flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy. The distinct difference between the q-KP hierarchy and the KP hierarchy is due to q-binomial and the action of q-shift operator θ, which originates from the Leibnitz rule of the quantum calculus. We further show that the n-reduction leads to a recursive scheme for these flow equations. The recursion operator for the flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy under the n-reduction is also derived. (paper)

  15. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  16. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  17. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  18. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2018-01-01

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. On hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1988-01-01

    It is thought that the gravitational clustering of galaxies in the universe may approach a scale-invariant, hierarchical form in the small separation, large-clustering regime. Past attempts to solve the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy in this regime have assumed a certain separable hierarchical form for the higher order correlation functions of galaxies in phase space. It is shown here that such separable solutions to the BBGKY equations must satisfy the condition that the clustered component of the solution has cluster-cluster correlations equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations to all orders. The solutions also admit the presence of an arbitrary unclustered component, which plays no dyamical role in the large-clustering regime. These results are a particular property of the specific separable model assumed for the correlation functions in phase space, not an intrinsic property of spatially hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy. The observed distribution of galaxies does not satisfy the required conditions. The disagreement between theory and observation may be traced, at least in part, to initial conditions which, if Gaussian, already have cluster correlations greater than galaxy correlations.

  20. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schmaltz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale

  2. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illia Tchernikov

    Full Text Available Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  3. Gauge hierarchy problem in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhendi, H.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    In grand unification schemes, several mass scales are to be introduced, with some of them much larger than all the others, to cope with experimental observations, in which elementary particles of higher masses require higher energy to observe them than elementary particles of lower masses. There have been controversial arguments in the literature on such hierarchical scale structure, when radiative corrections are taken into account. It has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy depends on the choice of the subtraction point (in the classical field space), of the four-point function at zero external momentum. It also has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy problem whenever it is possible to be maintained in one sector of particles, it also is possible to be maintained in the other sectors. These two problems have been studied in a prototype model, namely an 0(3)-model with two triplets of real scalar Higgs fields. Our analysis shows that, within ordinary perturbation theory, none of these two problems is quite correct

  4. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  5. Natural gauge hierarchy in SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Barr, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a natural gauge hierarchy and doublet-triplet splitting can be achieved in SO(10) using the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism. Artificial cancellations (fine-tuning) and arbitrary forms of the superpotential are avoided, the superpotential being the most general compatible with a symmetry. It is shown by example that the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism can be protected against the effects of higher-dimension operators possibly induced by Planck-scale physics. Natural implementation of the mechanisms leads to an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry. The same local symmetries that would protect the gauge hierarchy against Planck-scale effects tend to protect the axion also. How realistic quark and lepton masses might arise in this framework is discussed. It is shown how the theory may remain perturbative up to the Planck scale. It is also argued that ''weak suppression'' of proton decay can be implemented more economically than can ''strong suppression,'' offering some grounds to hope [in the context of SO(10)] that proton decay could be seen at SuperKamiokande

  6. A hierarchy of unhealthy food promotion effects: identifying methodological approaches and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; King MPsy, Lesley; Chapman Mnd, Kathy; Boyland, Emma; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the evidence for a conceptual "hierarchy of effects" of marketing, to guide understanding of the relationship between children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing and poor diets and overweight, and drive the research agenda. We reviewed studies assessing the impact of food promotions on children from MEDLINE, Web of Science, ABI Inform, World Health Organization library database, and The Gray Literature Report. We included articles published in English from 2009 to 2013, with earlier articles from a 2009 systematic review. We grouped articles by outcome of exposure and assessed outcomes within a framework depicting a hierarchy of effects of marketing exposures. Evidence supports a logical sequence of effects linking food promotions to individual-level weight outcomes. Future studies should demonstrate the sustained effects of marketing exposure, and exploit variations in exposures to assess differences in outcomes longitudinally.

  7. Biological hierarchies and the nature of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congreve, Curtis R; Falk, Amanda R; Lamsdell, James C

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate. In particular, long-term palaeontological data often show that large-scale (macro) patterns of evolution are predominantly dictated by shifts in the abiotic environment, while short-term (micro) modern biological studies stress the importance of biotic interactions. We propose that thinking about ecological and evolutionary interactions in a hierarchical framework is a fruitful way to resolve these conflicts. Hierarchy theory suggests that changes occurring at lower hierarchical levels can have unexpected, complex effects at higher scales due to emergent interactions between simple systems. In this way, patterns occurring on short- and long-term time scales are equally valid, as changes that are driven from lower levels will manifest in different forms at higher levels. We propose that the dual hierarchy framework fits well with our current understanding of evolutionary and ecological theory. Furthermore, we describe how this framework can be used to understand major extinction events better. Multi-generational attritional loss of reproductive fitness (MALF) has recently been proposed as the primary mechanism behind extinction events, whereby extinction is explainable solely through processes that result in extirpation of populations through a shutdown of reproduction. While not necessarily explicit, the push to explain extinction through solely population-level dynamics

  8. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are ...

  9. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  10. An alternative approach to KP hierarchy in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Xiong, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    We show that there exists an alternative procedure in order to extract differential hierarchies, such as the KdV hierarchy, from one-matrix models, without taking a continuum limit. To prove this we introduce the Toda lattice and reformulate it in operator form. We then consider the reduction to the systems appropriate for a one-matrix model. (orig.)

  11. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  12. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy

  13. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlet, G.; van de Leur, J.; Posthuma, H.; Shadrin, S.

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider the Hirota and Lax formulations of the

  14. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, Johannes; Carlet, Guido; Shadrin, Sergey; Posthuma, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider theHirota and Lax formulations of the

  15. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  16. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Hohm, Olaf; Huebscher, Mechthild; Ortin, Tomas; Hübscher, Mechthild

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of

  17. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  18. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  19. Inverted hierarchy and asymptotic freedom in grand unified supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1983-01-01

    The interrelation between an inverted hierarchy mechanism and asymptotic freedom in supersymmetric theories is analyzed in two models for which we performed a detailed analysis of the effective potentials and effective couplings. We find it difficult to accommodate an inverted hierarchy together with asymptotic freedom for the matter-Yukawa couplings. (orig.)

  20. A Computational Glimpse at the Leibniz and Frege Hierarchies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moraschini, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-20 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * Leibniz hierarchy * Frege hierarchy Leibniz congruence * decidability * Diophantine equations * relation algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  1. 'Universality' of the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekslerchik, V.E.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize some recently obtained relations between the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy (ALH) and other integrable equations. It has been shown that solutions of finite subsystems of the ALH can be used to derive a wide range of solutions for, e.g., the 2D Toda lattice, nonlinear Schroedinger, Davey-Stewartson, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (DP) and some other equations. Similar approach has been used to construct new integrable models: O(3,1) and multi field sigma models. Such 'universality' of the ALH becomes more transparent in the framework of the Hirota's bilinear method. The ALH, which is usually considered as an infinite set of differential-difference equations, has been presented as a finite system of functional-difference equations, which can be viewed as a generalization of the famous bilinear identities for the KP tau-functions. (author)

  2. What's Up with the Storage Hierarchy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago, Jim Gray observed that flash was about to replace magnetic disks. He also predicted that the need for low latency would make main memory databases commonplace. Most of his predictions have proven accurate. Today, who can make predictions about the future of the storage hierarchy......? Both main memory and storage systems are undergoing profound transformations. First, their design goals are increasingly complex (reconfigurable infrastructure at low latency, high resource utilization and stable energy footprint). Second, the status quo is not an option due to the shortcomings...... of existing solutions (memory bandwidth gap, inefficiency of generic memory/storage controllers). Third, new technologies are emerging (hybrid memories, non-volatile memories still under non-disclosure agreements, near-data processing in memory and storage). The impact of these transformations on the storage...

  3. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  4. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  5. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  6. Gauge hierarchy, decoupling, and heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, York-Peng

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines the problems of a large gauge hierarchy and decoupling in theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. Attempts to show, with regard to all orders in the loop expansion, that: once a proper identification is made of the light particles and of the heavy particles at the tree level, then such a division will be maintained order by order in the loop expansion without the necessity of fine tuning; there is a local renormalizable effective Lagrangian, composed of light fields only, which can be used to reproduce all the one light particle irreducible Green's functions; and a set of renormalization group equations can be written down, wherein one stays in the lower energy region to correlate the two sets of parameters in the full and the effective light theories. The appendix gives an algebraic rearrangement method which can be efficiently used to calculate the muon effects on the electron anomalous magnetic moment

  7. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Hartong, Jelle; Huebscher, Mechthild; OrtIn, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 ≤ p ≤ D, which realize an off-shell algebra of bosonic gauge transformations. We show how these tensor hierarchies can be put on-shell by introducing a set of duality relations, thereby introducing additional scalars and a metric tensor. These so-called duality hierarchies encode the equations of motion of the bosonic part of the most general gauged supergravity theories in those dimensions, including the (projected) scalar equations of motion. We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of the same fields in the tensor hierarchy.

  8. Modelling Dominance Hierarchies Under Winner and Loser Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Animals that live in groups commonly form themselves into dominance hierarchies which are used to allocate important resources such as access to mating opportunities and food. In this paper, we develop a model of dominance hierarchy formation based upon the concept of winner and loser effects using a simulation-based model and consider the linearity of our hierarchy using existing and new statistical measures. Two models are analysed: when each individual in a group does not know the real ability of their opponents to win a fight and when they can estimate their opponents' ability every time they fight. This estimation may be accurate or fall within an error bound. For both models, we investigate if we can achieve hierarchy linearity, and if so, when it is established. We are particularly interested in the question of how many fights are necessary to establish a dominance hierarchy.

  9. A study on the hierarchy model of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Sekiya, Tamotsu

    1975-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy model of nuclear reaction is discussed, and the hierarchy model means that the compound nucleus state is formed after several steps, at least, one step of reaction. This model was applied to the analysis of the observed cross sections of 235 U and some other elements. Neglecting exchange scattering effect, the equations for the total neutron cross section of 235 U were obtained. One of these equations describes explicitly the hierarchy of the transition from intermediate reaction state Xm into the compound nucleus state Xs, and another one describes the cross section averaged over an energy interval larger than the average level spacing of compound nucleus eigenvalues. The hierarchy of reaction mechanism was investigated in more detail, and the hierarchy model was applied to the case of unresolved energy region. It was not tried to evaluate the strength function in the mass region (A>140), since the effect of nuclear deformation was neglected in the task. (Iwase, T.)

  10. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  11. A Hierarchy of Homodesmotic Reactions for Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul v. R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical equations that balance bond types and atom hybridization to different degrees are often used in computational thermochemistry, for example, to increase accuracy when lower levels of theory are employed. We expose the widespread confusion over such classes of equations and demonstrate that the two most widely used definitions of “homodesmotic” reactions are not equivalent. New definitions are introduced and a consistent hierarchy of reaction classes (RC1 – RC5) for hydrocarbons is constructed: isogyric (RC1) ⊇ isodesmic (RC2) ⊇ hypohomodesmotic (RC3) ⊇ homodesmotic (RC4) ⊇ hyperhomodesmotic (RC5). Each of these successively conserves larger molecular fragments. The concept of isodesmic bond separation reactions is generalized to all classes in this hierarchy, providing a unique sectioning of a given molecule for each reaction type. Several ab initio and density functional methods are applied to the bond separation reactions of 38 hydrocarbons containing five or six carbon atoms. RC4 and RC5 reactions provide bond separation enthalpies with errors consistently less than 0.4 kcal mol−1 across a wide range of theoretical levels, performing significantly better than the other reaction types and far superior to atomization routes. Our recommended bond separation reactions were demonstrated by determining the enthalpies of formation (at 298 K) of 1,3,5-hexatriyne (163.7 ± 0.4 kcal mol−1), 1,3,5,7-octatetrayne (217.6 ± 0.6 kcal mol−1), the larger polyynes C10H2 through C26H2, and an infinite acetylenic carbon chain. PMID:19182999

  12. The Hierarchy Problem and the Self-Localized Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; van Nierop, Leo

    2008-01-01

    We examine brane-world scenarios in which all the observed Standard Model particles reside on a brane but the Higgs is an elementary extra-dimensional scalar in the bulk. We show that, for codimension 2 branes, often-neglected interactions between the bulk Higgs and the branes cause two novel effects. First, they cause to depend only logarithmically on the UV-sensitive coefficient, m_B^2, of the mass term, m_B^2 H^*H, of the bulk potential, thus providing a new mechanism for tackling the hierarchy problem. Second, the Higgs brane couplings cause the lowest mass KK mode to localize near the brane without any need for geometrical effects like warping. We explore some preliminary implications such models have for the Higgs signature at the LHC, both in the case where the extra dimensions arise at the TeV scale, and in ADD models having Large Extra Dimensions. Novel Higgs features include couplings to fermions which are generically stronger than the Standard Model values, m_f/v, despite the fermions acquiring th...

  13. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  14. Self-organization of social hierarchy on interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujie, Ryo; Odagaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of interaction network structures on the self-organization of social hierarchy, we introduce the agent-based model: each individual as on a node of a network has its own power and its internal state changes by fighting with its neighbors and relaxation. We adopt three different networks: regular lattice, small-world network and scale-free network. For the regular lattice, we find the emergence of classes distinguished by the internal state. The transition points where each class emerges are determined analytically, and we show that each class is characterized by the local ranking relative to their neighbors. We also find that the antiferromagnetic-like configuration emerges just above the critical point. For the heterogeneous networks, individuals become winners (or losers) in descending order of the number of their links. By using mean-field analysis, we reveal that the transition point is determined by the maximum degree and the degree distribution in its neighbors

  15. The dynamic nature of social hierarchies : The role of norm violations and hierarchical concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Social hierarchy is a fundamental feature of social relations. Hierarchies are appealing psychologically because they facilitate group functioning, which explains why they tend to be reinforced and perpetuated. Hierarchies, however, can also become unstable and eventually undergo change because

  16. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  17. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  18. NASA Resources for Educators and Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    A variety of NASA Classroom Activities, Educator Guides, Lithographs, Posters and more are available to Pre ]service and In ]service Educators through Professional Development Workshops. We are here for you to engage, demonstrate, and facilitate the use of educational technologies, the NASA Website, NASA Education Homepage and more! We are here for you to inspire you by providing in-service and pre- service training utilizing NASA curriculum support products. We are here for you to partner with your local, state, and regional educational organizations to better educate ALL! NASA AESP specialists are experienced professional educators, current on education issues and familiar with the curriculum frameworks, educational standards, and systemic architecture of the states they service. These specialists provide engaging and inspiring student presentations and teacher training right at YOUR school at no cost to you! Experience free out-of-this-world interactive learning with NASA's Digital Learning Network. Students of all ages can participate in LIVE events with NASA Experts and Education Specialists. The Exploration Station provides NASA educational programs that introduce the application of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics, to students. Students participate in a variety of hands-on activities that compliment related topics taught by the classroom teacher. NASA KSC ERC can create Professional Development Workshops for teachers in groups of fifteen or more. Education/Information Specialists also assist educators in developing lessons to meet Sunshine State and national curriculum standards.

  19. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  20. An effectiveness hierarchy of preventive interventions: neglected paradigm or self-evident truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Symmetries of supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article is devoted to the systematic study of additional (non-isospectral) symmetries of constrained (reduced) supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type--the so-called SKP (R;M B ,M F ) models. The latter are supersymmetric extensions of ordinary constrained KP hierarchies which contain as special cases basic integrable systems such as (m)KdV, AKNS, Fordy-Kulish, Yajima-Oikawa, etc. As a first main result it is shown that any SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchy possesses two different mutually (anti-)commuting types of superloop superalgebra additional symmetries corresponding to the positive- and negative-grade parts of certain superloop superalgebras. The second main result is the systematic construction of the full algebra of additional Virasoro symmetries of SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies, which requires nontrivial modifications of the Virasoro flows known from the general case of unconstrained Manin-Radul super-KP hierarchies (the latter flows do not define symmetries for constrained SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies). As a third main result we provide systematic construction of the supersymmetric analogs of multi-component (matrix) KP hierarchies and show that the latter contain, among others, the supersymmetric version of the Davey-Stewartson system. Finally, we present an explicit derivation of the general Darboux-Baecklund solutions for the SKP (R;M B ,M F ) super-tau functions (supersymmetric 'soliton'-like solutions) which preserve the additional (non-isospectral) symmetries

  2. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  3. NASA strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan is a living document. It provides far-reaching goals and objectives to create stability for NASA's efforts. The Plan presents NASA's top-level strategy: it articulates what NASA does and for whom; it differentiates between ends and means; it states where NASA is going and what NASA intends to do to get there. This Plan is not a budget document, nor does it present priorities for current or future programs. Rather, it establishes a framework for shaping NASA's activities and developing a balanced set of priorities across the Agency. Such priorities will then be reflected in the NASA budget. The document includes vision, mission, and goals; external environment; conceptual framework; strategic enterprises (Mission to Planet Earth, aeronautics, human exploration and development of space, scientific research, space technology, and synergy); strategic functions (transportation to space, space communications, human resources, and physical resources); values and operating principles; implementing strategy; and senior management team concurrence.

  4. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  5. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  6. An analytical hierarchy process for decision making of high-level-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.H.C.; Jang, W.

    1995-01-01

    To prove the existence value of nuclear technology for the world of post cold war, demonstration of safe rad-waste disposal is essential. High-level-waste (HLW) certainly is the key issue to be resolved. To assist a rational and persuasive process on various disposal options, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the decision making of HLW management is presented. The basic theory and rationale are discussed, and applications are shown to illustrate the usefulness of the AHP. The authors wish that the AHP can provide a better direction for the current doomed situations of Taiwan nuclear industry, and to exchange with other countries for sharing experiences on the HLW management

  7. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  8. Decomposition of a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Hamiltonian structures for a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are established with the aid of the trace identity. Using the nonlinearization approach, the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is decomposed into a class of new finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The generating function of integrals and their generator are presented, based on which the finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems are proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are reduced to solving the compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations

  9. Boolean Operations, Joins, and the Extended Low Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Jiang, Zhigen; Rothe, Joerg; Watanabe, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    We prove that the join of two sets may actually fall into a lower level of the extended low hierarchy than either of the sets. In particular, there exist sets that are not in the second level of the extended low hierarchy, EL_2, yet their join is in EL_2. That is, in terms of extended lowness, the join operator can lower complexity. Since in a strong intuitive sense the join does not lower complexity, our result suggests that the extended low hierarchy is unnatural as a complexity measure. We...

  10. World Presidents Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour speaks to members of the World Presidents' Organization during the group's visit to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 26. WPO members from several states spent the day touring Stennis facilities and learning about the work of the nation's premier rocket engine testing site. Barbour visited with group members during a morning session in StenniSphere, the center's visitors center and museum.

  11. NASA Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Davey

    2017-01-01

    This is Block 1, the first evolution of the world's most powerful and versatile rocket, the Space Launch System, built to return humans to the area around the moon. Eventually, larger and even more powerful and capable configurations will take astronauts and cargo to Mars. On the sides of the rocket are the twin solid rocket boosters that provide more than 75 percent during liftoff and burn for about two minutes, after which they are jettisoned, lightening the load for the rest of the space flight. Four RS-25 main engines provide thrust for the first stage of the rocket. These are the world's most reliable rocket engines. The core stage is the main body of the rocket and houses the fuel for the RS-25 engines, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and the avionics, or "brain" of the rocket. The core stage is all new and being manufactured at NASA's "rocket factory," Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans. The Launch Vehicle Stage Adapter, or LVSA, connects the core stage to the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. The Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage, or ICPS, uses one RL-10 rocket engine and will propel the Orion spacecraft on its deep-space journey after first-stage separation. Finally, the Orion human-rated spacecraft sits atop the massive Saturn V-sized launch vehicle. Managed out of Johnson Space Center in Houston, Orion is the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. 2) Each element of the SLS utilizes collaborative design processes to achieve the incredible goal of sending human into deep space. Early phases are focused on feasibility and requirements development. Later phases are focused on detailed design, testing, and operations. There are 4 basic phases typically found in each phase of development.

  12. NASA Technologies for Product Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture called NanocodesTM that can be converted to a Data Matrix. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by 10 patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts virtually eliminates data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection. This presentation highlights the accomplishments of NASA in its efforts to develop

  13. NASA Risk Management Handbook. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Maggio, Gaspare; Stamatelatos, Michael; Youngblood, Robert; Guarro, Sergio; Rutledge, Peter; Sherrard, James; Smith, Curtis; hide

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidance for implementing the Risk Management (RM) requirements of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) document NPR 8000.4A, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements [1], with a specific focus on programs and projects, and applying to each level of the NASA organizational hierarchy as requirements flow down. This handbook supports RM application within the NASA systems engineering process, and is a complement to the guidance contained in NASA/SP-2007-6105, NASA Systems Engineering Handbook [2]. Specifically, this handbook provides guidance that is applicable to the common technical processes of Technical Risk Management and Decision Analysis established by NPR 7123.1A, NASA Systems Engineering Process and Requirements [3]. These processes are part of the \\Systems Engineering Engine. (Figure 1) that is used to drive the development of the system and associated work products to satisfy stakeholder expectations in all mission execution domains, including safety, technical, cost, and schedule. Like NPR 7123.1A, NPR 8000.4A is a discipline-oriented NPR that intersects with product-oriented NPRs such as NPR 7120.5D, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements [4]; NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Management Requirements [5]; and NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements [6]. In much the same way that the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook is intended to provide guidance on the implementation of NPR 7123.1A, this handbook is intended to provide guidance on the implementation of NPR 8000.4A. 1.2 Scope and Depth This handbook provides guidance for conducting RM in the context of NASA program and project life cycles, which produce derived requirements in accordance with existing systems engineering practices that flow down through the NASA organizational hierarchy. The guidance in this handbook is not meant

  14. Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, K.R.; Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)

  15. Metadata Life Cycles, Use Cases and Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Habermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used, and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation, and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions to which they need answers. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard, or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas have been developed to various degrees in several Geoscience disciplines and are being used in metadata for documenting the integrated life cycle of environmental research in the Arctic, including projects, collection sites, and datasets.

  16. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  17. NASA, Building Tomorrow's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward

    2011-01-01

    We, as NASA, continue to Dare Mighty Things. Here we are in October. In my country, the United States of America, we celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492. His story, although happening over 500 years ago, is still very valid today. It is a part of the American spirit; part of the international human spirit. Columbus is famous for discovering the new world we now call America, but he probably never envisioned what great discoveries would be revealed many generations later. But in order for Columbus to begin his great adventure, he needed a business plan. Ho would he go about obtaining the funds and support necessary to build, supply, and man the ships required for his travels? He had a lot of obstacles and distractions. He needed a strong, internal drive to achieve his plans and recruit a willing crew of explorers also ready to risk their all for the unknown journey ahead. As Columbus set sail, he said "By prevailing over all obstacles and distractions, one may unfailingly arrive at his chosen goal or destination." Columbus may not have known he was on a journey for all human exploration. Recently, Charlie Bolden, the NASA Administrator, said, "Human exploration is and has always been about making life better for humans on Earth." Today, NASA and the U.S. human spaceflight program hold many of the same attributes as did Columbus and his contemporaries - a willing, can-do spirit. We are on the threshold of exciting new times in space exploration. Like Columbus, we need a business plan to take us into the future. We need to design the best ships and utilize the best designers, with their past knowledge and experience, to build those ships. We need funding and support from governments to achieve these goals of space exploration into the unknown. NASA does have that business plan, and it is an ambitious plan for human spaceflight and exploration. Today, we have a magnificent spaceflight

  18. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  19. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P-P; Bentley, C D B; Eisfeld, A

    2018-04-07

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  20. Assessing the hierarchy of needs in levels of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The primary focus of this research project was in providing empirical evidence of a Hierarchy of Transportation : Needs. The experimental procedure, methodology, and materials for this project were designed using both : transportation stated preferen...

  1. A generalized AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tiecheng; You Fucai; Chen Dengyuan

    2005-01-01

    First we construct a new isospectral problem with 8 potentials in the present paper. And then a new Lax pair is presented. By making use of Tu scheme, a class of new soliton hierarchy of equations is derived, which is integrable in the sense of Liouville and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures. After making some reductions, the well-known AKNS hierarchy and other hierarchies of evolution equations are obtained. Finally, in order to illustrate that soliton hierarchy obtained in the paper possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures exactly, we prove that the linear combination of two-Hamiltonian operators admitted are also a Hamiltonian operator constantly. We point out that two Hamiltonian operators obtained of the system are directly derived from a recurrence relations, not from a recurrence operator

  2. Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)

  3. On natural hierarchy in dynamically broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frere, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model based on dynamical symmetry breaking provides a naturally large 'mass hierarchy'. Few fermions are needed at intermediate energies, and asymptotic freedom of usual interactions is therefore not imperiled. (orig.)

  4. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination for θ13 = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Sankar, S. Uma

    2010-01-01

    We examine the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy in the limit θ 13 = 0 using atmospheric neutrinos as the source. In this limit, θ 13 driven matter effects are absent so independent measurements of Δ 31 and Δ 32 can, in principle, lead to hierarchy determination. Since their difference is Δ 21 , one needs an experimental arrangement where Δ 21 L/E > or approx. 1 can be achieved. This can be satisfied by atmospheric neutrinos which have a large range of L and E. Still, we find that hierarchy determination in the θ 13 = 0 limit with atmospheric neutrinos is not a realistic possibility, even in conjunction with a beam experiment like T2K or NOνA. We discuss why, and also reiterate the general conditions for hierarchy determination if θ 13 = 0.

  5. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the ..... from the definitions of Lax integrability and Lax pairs [26] that the variable-coefficient ..... studying which will be the topic for our future study.

  6. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  7. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177

  8. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-P.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Eisfeld, A.

    2018-04-01

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  9. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidirectionally, with the arrows 'pointing away' from the stem cell. Recent studies, all based on genetic lineage tracing, describe various strategies employed by epithelial stem cell hierarchies to replace damaged or lost cells. While transdifferentiation from one tissue type into another ('metaplasia') appears to be generally forbidden in nonpathological contexts, plasticity within an individual tissue stem cell hierarchy may be much more common than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss recent examples of such plasticity in selected mammalian epithelia, highlighting the different modes of regeneration and their implications for our understanding of cellular hierarchy and tissue self-renewal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  11. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino. Inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrinos in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using realistic supernova and presupernova models allows us to investigate quantitatively the possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ 13 is rather large (sin 2 2θ 13 > 10 -3 ) and that θ 13 can be probed effectively by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Errors due to the uncertainty in the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed. (author)

  12. The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African household. ... activities and headship-related roles both within the private and public domains. ... conducted among African women from both formal and informal sectors, this ...

  13. The NASA Carbon Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emission inventories, forest carbon sequestration programs (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+), cap-and-trade systems, self-reporting programs, and their associated monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) frameworks depend upon data that are accurate, systematic, practical, and transparent. A sustained, observationally-driven carbon monitoring system using remote sensing data has the potential to significantly improve the relevant carbon cycle information base for the U.S. and world. Initiated in 2010, NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) project is prototyping and conducting pilot studies to evaluate technological approaches and methodologies to meet carbon monitoring and reporting requirements for multiple users and over multiple scales of interest. NASA's approach emphasizes exploitation of the satellite remote sensing resources, computational capabilities, scientific knowledge, airborne science capabilities, and end-to-end system expertise that are major strengths of the NASA Earth Science program. Through user engagement activities, the NASA CMS project is taking specific actions to be responsive to the needs of stakeholders working to improve carbon MRV frameworks. The first phase of NASA CMS projects focused on developing products for U.S. biomass/carbon stocks and global carbon fluxes, and on scoping studies to identify stakeholders and explore other potential carbon products. The second phase built upon these initial efforts, with a large expansion in prototyping activities across a diversity of systems, scales, and regions, including research focused on prototype MRV systems and utilization of COTS technologies. Priorities for the future include: 1) utilizing future satellite sensors, 2) prototyping with commercial off-the-shelf technology, 3) expanding the range of prototyping activities, 4) rigorous evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and error characterization, 5) stakeholder

  14. Consultancy services and the urban hierarchy in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    P W Daniels; J H J Van Dinteren; M C Monnayer

    1992-01-01

    A cross-national survey of the relationship between the evolving organisation and structure of consultancy service enterprises and the urban hierarchy in Europe has been undertaken. Primate cities in Europe are still the preeminent foci for business services performing strong national and international control. The relationship between markets for consultancy services and the urban hierarchy is complex, but it is possible to suggest a typology of firms on the basis of client characteristics a...

  15. An Improved Semidefinite Programming Hierarchy for Testing Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W.; Natarajan, Anand; Wu, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    We present a stronger version of the Doherty-Parrilo-Spedalieri (DPS) hierarchy of approximations for the set of separable states. Unlike DPS, our hierarchy converges exactly at a finite number of rounds for any fixed input dimension. This yields an algorithm for separability testing that is singly exponential in dimension and polylogarithmic in accuracy. Our analysis makes use of tools from algebraic geometry, but our algorithm is elementary and differs from DPS only by one simple additional collection of constraints.

  16. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depre...

  17. Quasiclassical deformation in KP hierarchy and Benney's long wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolokol'tsov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    In the paper by means of the formal variant of Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method various formulas are obtained for the generating functions of the conservation laws of Kadomtsev-Petvias hierarchy which turn into analogous formulas for Benney hierarchy in the quasiclassical limit. The generating fucntion of the conservation laws of Miura type is constructed for higher Benney equations and the simple proof of the related identities is given

  18. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show that d...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  19. Standard model fermion hierarchies with multiple Higgs doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaguren-Beascoa Negre, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchies between the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixing angles and the origin of neutrino masses are two of the biggest mysteries in particle physics. We extend the SM with new Higgs doublets to solve these issues. The lightest fermion masses and the mixing angles are generated through radiative effects, correctly reproducing the hierarchy pattern. Neutrino masses are generated in the see-saw mechanism.

  20. Earth Effects and Mass Hierarchy with Supernova Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb

    2009-01-01

    Collective neutrino flavor transformations take place deep inside a supernova if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted, even for extremely small values of θ 13 . We show that the presence (or absence) of Earth matter effects in antineutrino signal is directly related to the absence (or presence) of these collective effects, when the mixing angle θ 13 is small. Thus a neutrino signal from a galactic supernova may enable us to distinguish between the hierarchies even for small values of θ 13 .

  1. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the

  2. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  3. Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents' bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Lee, Ihno A; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-07-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (defined as within-group variation in individual status) and how they are related to bullying, a widespread form of aggression in schools. Data from 11,296 eighth- and ninth-graders (mean age = 14.57, 50.6 % female) from 583 classes in 71 schools were used to determine the direction of the association between classroom degree of status hierarchy and bullying behaviors, and to investigate prospective relationships between these two variables over a 6-month period. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that higher levels of classroom status hierarchy were concurrently associated with higher levels of bullying at the end of the school year. Higher hierarchy in the middle of the school year predicted higher bullying later in the year. No evidence was found to indicate that initial bullying predicted future hierarchy. These findings highlight the importance of a shared balance of power in the classroom for the prevention of bullying among adolescents.

  4. A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927

  5. Reappraising the functional implications of the primate visual anatomical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegdé, Jay; Felleman, Daniel J

    2007-10-01

    The primate visual system has been shown to be organized into an anatomical hierarchy by the application of a few principled criteria. It has been widely assumed that cortical visual processing is also hierarchical, with the anatomical hierarchy providing a defined substrate for clear levels of hierarchical function. A large body of empirical evidence seemed to support this assumption, including the general observations that functional properties of visual neurons grow progressively more complex at progressively higher levels of the anatomical hierarchy. However, a growing body of evidence, including recent direct experimental comparisons of functional properties at two or more levels of the anatomical hierarchy, indicates that visual processing neither is hierarchical nor parallels the anatomical hierarchy. Recent results also indicate that some of the pathways of visual information flow are not hierarchical, so that the anatomical hierarchy cannot be taken as a strict flowchart of visual information either. Thus, while the sustaining strength of the notion of hierarchical processing may be that it is rather simple, its fatal flaw is that it is overly simplistic.

  6. Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fubo; Ji Jie; Zhang Jianbin

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of multi-component Kaup-Newell equations are derived from an arbitrary order matrix spectral problem, including positive non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy and negative non-isospectral Kaup-Newell hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting Kaup-Newell soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  7. Leveraging Independent Management and Chief Engineer Hierarchy: Vertically and Horizontally-Derived Technical Authority Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In the development of complex spacecraft missions, project management authority is usually extended hierarchically from NASA's highest agency levels down to the implementing institution's project team level, through both the center and the program. In parallel with management authority, NASA utilizes a complementary, but independent, hierarchy of technical authority (TA) that extends from the agency level to the project, again, through both the center and the program. The chief engineers (CEs) who serve in this technical authority capacity oversee and report on the technical status and ensure sound engineering practices, controls, and management of the projects and programs. At the lowest level, implementing institutions assign project CEs to technically engage projects, lead development teams, and ensure sound technical principles, processes, and issue resolution. At the middle level, programs and centers independently use CEs to ensure the technical success of their projects and programs. At the agency level, NASA's mission directorate CEs maintain technical cognizance over every program and project in their directorate and advise directorate management on the technical, cost, schedule, and programmatic health of each. As part of this vertically-extended CE team, a program level CE manages a continually varying balance between penetration depth and breadth across his or her assigned missions. Teamwork issues and information integration become critical for management at all levels to ensure value-added use of both the synergy available between CEs at the various agency levels, and the independence of the technical authority at each organization.

  8. NASA's EOSDIS, Trust and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been in operation since August 1994, managing most of NASA's Earth science data from satellites, airborne sensors, filed campaigns and other activities. Having been designated by the Federal Government as a project responsible for production, archiving and distribution of these data through its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS) is responsible for EOSDIS, and is legally bound by the Office of Management and Budgets circular A-130, the Federal Records Act. It must follow the regulations of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) and National Archive and Records Administration (NARA). It must also follow the NASA Procedural Requirement 7120.5 (NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management). All these ensure that the data centers managed by ESDIS are trustworthy from the point of view of efficient and effective operations as well as preservation of valuable data from NASA's missions. Additional factors contributing to this trust are an extensive set of internal and external reviews throughout the history of EOSDIS starting in the early 1990s. Many of these reviews have involved external groups of scientific and technological experts. Also, independent annual surveys of user satisfaction that measure and publish the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), where EOSDIS has scored consistently high marks since 2004, provide an additional measure of trustworthiness. In addition, through an effort initiated in 2012 at the request of NASA HQ, the ESDIS Project and 10 of 12 DAACs have been certified by the International Council for Science (ICSU) World Data System (WDS) and are members of the ICSUWDS. This presentation addresses questions such as pros and cons of the certification process, key outcomes and next steps regarding certification. Recently, the ICSUWDS and Data Seal of Approval (DSA) organizations

  9. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  10. Soliton solutions by Darboux transformation and some reductions for a new Hamiltonian lattice hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shoufu; Zhang Hongqing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we start from the discrete spectral problem and construct a lattice hierarchy by properly choosing an auxiliary spectral problem V-tilde n (m) , which can reduce to the Volterra hierarchy, the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, positive and negative lattice hierarchies and a new hierarchy. The new hierarchy is integrable in involutory Lax's sense and possesses multi-Hamiltonian structure. In addition, the Darboux transformation of the lattice hierarchy is obtained when the freely adjustable function εn (1) =0 and m=1. Then some soliton solutions are obtained by using Darboux transformation. This method is also suitable for other more general spectral problems in mathematics and physics.

  11. Two hierarchies of integrable lattice equations associated with a discrete matrix spectral problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Xu Xixiang; Zhao Qiulan

    2008-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice models are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws of the positive hierarchy, then, the integrable coupling systems of the positive hierarchy are derived from enlarging Lax pair

  12. EPCOT, NASA and plant pathogens in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R

    1996-01-01

    Cooperative work between NASA and Walt Disney World's EPCOT Land Pavilion is described. Joint efforts include research about allelopathy in multi-species plant cropping in CELSS, LEDs as light sources in hydroponic systems, and the growth of plant pathogens in space.

  13. Implications of nonzero θ13 for the neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D J; Cogswell, B K; Burroughs, H R; Escamilla-Roa, J; Latimer, D C

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay, RENO, and Double Chooz experiments have discovered a large non-zero value for θ 13 . We present a global analysis that includes these three experiments, Chooz, the Super-K atmospheric data, and the ν μ → ν e T2K and MINOS experiments that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . We report preliminary results in which we fix the mixing parameters other than θ 13 to those from a recent global analysis. Given there is no evidence for a non-zero CP violation, we assume δ = 0. T2K and MINOS lie in a region of L/E where there is a hierarchy degeneracy in the limit of θ 13 → 0 and no matter interaction. For nonzero θ 13 , the symmetry is partially broken, but a degeneracy under the simultaneous exchange of both hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 remains. Matter effects break this symmetry such that the positions of the peaks in the oscillation probabilities maintain the two-fold symmetry, while the magnitude of the oscillations is sensitive to the hierarchy. This renders T2K and NOvA, with different baselines and different matter effects, better able in combination to distinguish the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . The present T2K and MINOS data do not distinguish between hierarchies or the sign of θ 13 , but the large value of θ 13 yields effects from atmospheric data that do. We find for normal hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.090 ± 0.020 and is 0.2% probable it is the correct combination; for normal hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.108 ± 0.023 and is 2.2% probable; for inverse hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.110±0.022 and is 7.1% probable; for inverse hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.113 ± 0.022 and is 90.5% probable, results that are inconsistent with two similar analyses.

  14. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Betty P. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    NASA and contractor employees achieved many notable improvements in 1989. The highlights of those improvements, described in this seventh annual Accomplishments Report, demonstrate that the people who support NASA's activities are getting more involved in quality and continuous improvement efforts. Their gains solidly support NASA's and this Nation's goal to remain a leader in space exploration and in world-wide market competition, and, when communicated to others through avenues such as this report, foster improvement efforts across government and industry. The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories in this report reflect NASA principles set forth in the 1980's and are more commonly known today as Total Quality Management (TQM): top management leadership and support; strategic planning; focus on the customer; employee training and recognition; employee empowerment and teamwork; measurement and analysis; and quality assurance.

  15. Towards Automatic Partitioning of Class Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the benefits of ontologies for information processing has lead to the creation of a number of large ontologies about real world domains. The size of these ontologies and their monolithic character cause serious problems in handling them. In other areas, e.g. software

  16. Eclipse 2017: Through the Eyes of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse across America was, by all accounts, the biggest science education program ever carried out by NASA, significantly larger than the Curiosity Mars landing and the New Horizons Pluto flyby. Initial accounting estimates over two billion people reached and website hits exceeding five billion. The NASA Science Mission Directorate spent over two years planning and developing this enormous public education program, establishing over 30 official NASA sites along the path of totality, providing imagery from 11 NASA space assets, two high altitude aircraft, and over 50 high altitude balloons. In addition, a special four focal plane ground based solar telescope was developed in partnership with Lunt Solar Systems that observed and processed the eclipse in 6K resolution. NASA EDGE and NASA TV broadcasts during the entirity of totality across the country reached hundreds of millions, world wide.This talk will discuss NASA's strategy, results, and lessons learned; and preview some of the big events we plan to feature in the near future.

  17. NASA's Bio-Inspired Acoustic Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Transportation noise pollutes our worlds cities, suburbs, parks, and wilderness areas. NASAs fundamental research in aviation acoustics is helping to find innovative solutions to this multifaceted problem. NASA is learning from nature to develop the next generation of quiet aircraft.The number of road vehicles and airplanes has roughly tripled since the 1960s. Transportation noise is audible in nearly all the counties across the US. Noise can damage your hearing, raise your heart rate and blood pressure, disrupt your sleep, and make communication difficult. Noise pollution threatens wildlife when it prevents animals from hearing prey, predators, and mates. Noise regulations help drive industry to develop quieter aircraft. Noise standards for aircraft have been developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization and adopted by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The US National Park Service is working with the Federal Aviation Administration to try to balance the demand for access to the parks and wilderness areas with preservation of the natural soundscape. NASA is helping by conceptualizing quieter, more efficient aircraft of the future and performing the fundamental research to make these concepts a reality someday. Recently, NASA has developed synthetic structures that can absorb sound well over a wide frequency range, and particularly below 1000 Hz, and which mimic the acoustic performance of bundles of natural reeds. We are adapting these structures to control noise on aircraft, and spacecraft. This technology might be used in many other industrial or architectural applications where acoustic absorbers have tight constraints on weight and thickness, and may be exposed to high temperatures or liquids. Information about this technology is being made available through reports and presentations available through the NASA Technical Report Server, http:ntrs.nasa.gov. Organizations who would like to collaborate with NASA or commercialize NASAs technology

  18. On the nesting of Painlevé hierarchies: A Hamiltonian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Explanation of nesting of Painlevé hierarchies in terms of Hamiltonian structures. ► Approach generally phrased and applicable to continuous and discrete systems. ► Importance of related integrable hierarchies in understanding Painlevé hierarchies. - Abstract: We consider the phenomenon whereby two different Painlevé hierarchies, related to the same hierarchy of completely integrable equations, are such that solutions of one member of one of the Painlevé hierarchies are also solutions of a higher-order member of the other Painlevé hierarchy. An explanation is given in terms of the Hamiltonian structures of the related underlying completely integrable hierarchies, and is sufficiently generally formulated so as to be applicable equally to both continuous and discrete Painlevé hierarchies. Special integrals of a further Painlevé hierarchy related by Bäcklund transformation to the other Painlevé hierarchy mentioned above can also be constructed. Examples of the application of this approach to Painlevé hierarchies related to the Korteweg–de Vries, dispersive water wave, Toda and Volterra integrable hierarchies are considered. Our results provide further evidence of the importance of the underlying structures of related completely integrable hierarchies in understanding the properties of Painlevé hierarchies.

  19. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  20. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy and multi-component Levi hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Wang Xiangrong

    2008-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies

  1. Objective Bayesian analysis of neutrino masses and hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Alan F.; Sellentin, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Given the precision of current neutrino data, priors still impact noticeably the constraints on neutrino masses and their hierarchy. To avoid our understanding of neutrinos being driven by prior assumptions, we construct a prior that is mathematically minimally informative. Using the constructed uninformative prior, we find that the normal hierarchy is favoured but with inconclusive posterior odds of 5.1:1. Better data is hence needed before the neutrino masses and their hierarchy can be well constrained. We find that the next decade of cosmological data should provide conclusive evidence if the normal hierarchy with negligible minimum mass is correct, and if the uncertainty in the sum of neutrino masses drops below 0.025 eV. On the other hand, if neutrinos obey the inverted hierarchy, achieving strong evidence will be difficult with the same uncertainties. Our uninformative prior was constructed from principles of the Objective Bayesian approach. The prior is called a reference prior and is minimally informative in the specific sense that the information gain after collection of data is maximised. The prior is computed for the combination of neutrino oscillation data and cosmological data and still applies if the data improve.

  2. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination via atmospheric neutrinos with future detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Mehta, Poonam; Sankar, S Uma; Shalgar, Shashank

    2008-01-01

    The issue of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the outstanding questions in neutrino physics. We consider the potential of hierarchy determination using atmospheric neutrinos as the source in three different proposed future detectors: A large Iron Calorimeter detector, a megaton Water Cerenkov detector and a large-mass Liquid Argon detector. If the mixing angle θ 13 is about 10 deg. (close to CHOOZ upper bound), the hierarchy sensitivity is essentially determined by resonant matter effects. To maximize the potential of these effects in atmospheric neutrinos, charge discrimination capability in the detector is desirable. Hence, detectors with this capability have an advantage in hierarchy determination. We compare and contrast the performance of the above three detectors in this respect. We perform a realistic analysis of the above future detectors for atmospheric neutrinos and show that it is possible to achieve a significant hierarchy sensitivity if the detector characteristics are favourable. Note: The abstract has been modified from its original form to incorporate suggestions received during the conference. The poster is being submitted in its original form.

  3. SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.

    2005-01-01

    A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials is studied. It is found that all possible types of the reflectionless potentials can be combined into one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general integral form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, is found and has a simple analytical view. It is supposed that any possible type of the reflectionless potential can be expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some presentations of the reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series). An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e., which has the form V (x) = ± α/ vertical bar x-x 0 vertical bar n (where α and x 0 are constants, n is natural number), is fulfilled. It is shown that such a potential can be reflectionless at n = 2 only. A SUSY-hierarchy of the inverse power reflectionless potentials is constructed. Isospectral expansions of this hierarchy are analyzed

  4. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebel, Stefan J; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  5. A hierarchy of time-scales and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kiebel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest that cortical anatomy recapitulates the temporal hierarchy that is inherent in the dynamics of environmental states. Many aspects of brain function can be understood in terms of a hierarchy of temporal scales at which representations of the environment evolve. The lowest level of this hierarchy corresponds to fast fluctuations associated with sensory processing, whereas the highest levels encode slow contextual changes in the environment, under which faster representations unfold. First, we describe a mathematical model that exploits the temporal structure of fast sensory input to track the slower trajectories of their underlying causes. This model of sensory encoding or perceptual inference establishes a proof of concept that slowly changing neuronal states can encode the paths or trajectories of faster sensory states. We then review empirical evidence that suggests that a temporal hierarchy is recapitulated in the macroscopic organization of the cortex. This anatomic-temporal hierarchy provides a comprehensive framework for understanding cortical function: the specific time-scale that engages a cortical area can be inferred by its location along a rostro-caudal gradient, which reflects the anatomical distance from primary sensory areas. This is most evident in the prefrontal cortex, where complex functions can be explained as operations on representations of the environment that change slowly. The framework provides predictions about, and principled constraints on, cortical structure-function relationships, which can be tested by manipulating the time-scales of sensory input.

  6. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  7. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in advertising, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the development of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest developments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adopted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  8. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.

  10. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results. 

  11. Quark mass hierarchies from the universal seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Michel, L.; Sage, M.L.; Wali, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is an extension of the previous work based on the idea of a universal seesaw mechanism to explain the hierarchies in the fermion mass spectrum. A model is proposed within the framework of left-right symmetry with a minimal Higgs system and an axial U(1) symmetry imposed to distinguish the generations. Previous work was confined, for mathematical simplifications, to the case of nonsingular mass matrices. In the present paper, singular matrices are considered. A systematic perturbative technique is developed to display the mass eigenvalues in terms of the vacuum expectation values of the assumed Higgs multiplets. The model successfully correlates the mass hierarchies among the quarks to the assumed hierarchies in the vacuum expectation values without appealing to a hierarchy in the Yukawa-type fermion--Higgs-boson couplings. By considering a general Higgs potential appropriate to the model, we study its minimization and prove that there exists an open subdomain in the parameter space where the orbit of the lowest minima of the potential corresponds to the kind of hierarchy in the vacuum expectation values needed for the success of the model

  12. NASA Technology Plan 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This NASA Strategic Plan describes an ambitious, exciting vision for the Agency across all its Strategic Enterprises that addresses a series of fundamental questions of science and research. This vision is so challenging that it literally depends on the success of an aggressive, cutting-edge advanced technology development program. The objective of this plan is to describe the NASA-wide technology program in a manner that provides not only the content of ongoing and planned activities, but also the rationale and justification for these activities in the context of NASA's future needs. The scope of this plan is Agencywide, and it includes technology investments to support all major space and aeronautics program areas, but particular emphasis is placed on longer term strategic technology efforts that will have broad impact across the spectrum of NASA activities and perhaps beyond. Our goal is to broaden the understanding of NASA technology programs and to encourage greater participation from outside the Agency. By relating technology goals to anticipated mission needs, we hope to stimulate additional innovative approaches to technology challenges and promote more cooperative programs with partners outside NASA who share common goals. We also believe that this will increase the transfer of NASA-sponsored technology into nonaerospace applications, resulting in an even greater return on the investment in NASA.

  13. Institutional Attitudes : Instituting Art in a Flat World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Today’s networked society offers us many wondrous possibilities of information, communication, mobility, and flexibility. But it also has a latent side-effect: it makes the world ‘flat’. Time-honoured hierarchies, traditions, elites and canons are subject to eroding movements that have a tendency to

  14. Migration up and down the urban hierarchy and across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, D A; Henrie, C J; Perry, M J

    2005-10-25

    In this article, we begin by reviewing the concept of step migration that originated in E. G. Ravenstein's seminal papers "The Laws of Migration" (1885, 1889). As a result of the forces of the Industrial Revolution underway in 19th century Great Britain, migrants moved from farms to villages, from villages to towns, from towns to county seats, and thence to large cities. Throughout much of the industrialization era in the United States, net population movements similarly were upward within the urban hierarchy, and step migration today remains widespread throughout much of the still developing world. Our investigations of recent data and trends, however, suggest that the latest U.S. migration-pattern regime is a strongly contrasting one. Many of the major movements in the system of internal (or domestic) migration are flows down the urban hierarchy, although we note highly differentiated patterns for persons and households at specific stages of the life course. We make use of the newly defined metropolitan and micropolitan Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) and a seven-level size typology to tabulate origin-destination-specific migration flow data from both Census 2000 and IRS tax-return administrative records for the period 1995-2000. We discuss the causes for net movements being either upward or downward in the national urban hierarchy, including the effects of spatially focused immigration, and movement preferences at various ages, including migration in young adulthood associated with entering and leaving college and the military, as well as moves characteristic of the stages of family formation, childrearing, and retirement.

  15. Non-Hamiltonian generalizations of the dispersionless 2DTL hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, L V

    2010-01-01

    We consider two-component integrable generalizations of the dispersionless two-dimensional Toda lattice (2DTL) hierarchy connected with non-Hamiltonian vector fields, similar to the Manakov-Santini hierarchy generalizing the dKP hierarchy. They form a one-parametric family connected by hodograph-type transformations. Generating equations and Lax-Sato equations are introduced, and a dressing scheme based on the vector nonlinear Riemann problem is formulated. The simplest two-component generalization of the dispersionless 2DTL equation is derived, and its differential reduction analogous to the Dunajski interpolating system is presented. A symmetric two-component generalization of the dispersionless elliptic 2DTL equation is also constructed.

  16. Hierarchy curriculum for practical skills training in optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Lin, YuanFang

    2017-08-01

    The employers in optical engineering fields hope to recruit students who are capable of applying optical principles to solve engineering problems and have strong laboratory skills. In Zhejiang University, a hierarchy curriculum for practical skill training has been constructed to satisfy this demand. This curriculum includes "Introductive practicum" for freshmen, "Opto-mechanical systems design", "Engineering training", "Electronic system design", "Student research training program (SRTP)", "National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition game", and "Offcampus externship". Without cutting optical theory credit hours, this hierarchy curriculum provides a step-by-step solution to enhance students' practical skills. By following such a hierarchy curriculum, students can smoothly advance from a novice to a qualified professional expert in optics. They will be able to utilize optical engineering tools to design, build, analyze, improve, and test systems, and will be able to work effectively in teams to solve problems in engineering and design.

  17. Hierarchy, Violence and Bullying Among Students of Public Middle Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    Full Text Available Abstract Hierarchies established in schools can lead to violence among students, particularly bullying, and this relationship is investigated in this study. A School Hierarchies Scale and a Peer Perception of Aggression Scale were applied to 274 9th grade students, both sexes, aged 14.08 years (SD = 0.81 old on average, attending four public schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The students more frequently perceived to be popular, were among the best in physical education and/or among the worst in academic subjects were also more frequently perceived to be bullies, while those more frequently perceived to be unpopular and having the worst performance in physical education were also more frequently perceived to be victims. Therefore, teachers should reflect upon the issue and fight school violence that may arise from these hierarchies.

  18. On an extended second Painlevé hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordoa, P. R.; Pickering, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present a new extension of the second Painlevé hierarchy and study its properties. In addition to Lax pairs, Bäcklund transformations, auto-Bäcklund transformations and basic special integrals, we also consider a new phenomenon whereby we obtain relations between systems of different orders but of the same form. The extension made here of the second Painlevé hierarchy is based on the use of non-isospectral scattering problems and so is quite general. We thus expect to be able to obtain similar extensions of other Painlevé hierarchies, including not only for continuous examples but also for discrete and differential-delay examples. We believe that our work is also of relevance for Painlevé classification, since it gives information about classes of equation that may be of interest and in addition provides a key to the possible identification of equations isolated in such a process.

  19. SUSY-hierarchy of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P

    2004-01-01

    A class of one-dimensional reflectionless potentials, an absolute transparency of which is concerned with their belonging to one SUSY-hierarchy with a constant potential, is studied. An approach for determination of a general form of the reflectionless potential on the basis of construction of such a hierarchy by the recurrent method is proposed. A general form of interdependence between superpotentials with neighboring numbers of this hierarchy, opening a possibility to find new reflectionless potentials, have a simple analytical view and are expressed through finite number of elementary functions (unlike some reflectionless potentials, which are constructed on the basis of soliton solutions or are shape invariant in one or many steps with involving scaling of parameters, and are expressed through series), is obtained. An analysis of absolute transparency existence for the potential which has the inverse power dependence on space coordinate (and here tunneling is possible), i.e. which has the form $V(x) = \\p...

  20. Organising evidence for environmental management decisions: a '4S' hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Lynn V; Walsh, Jessica C; Sutherland, William J

    2014-11-01

    Making decisions informed by the best-available science is an objective for many organisations managing the environment or natural resources. Yet, available science is still not widely used in environmental policy and practice. We describe a '4S' hierarchy for organising relevant science to inform decisions. This hierarchy has already revolutionised clinical practice. It is beginning to emerge for environmental management, although all four levels need substantial development before environmental decision-makers can reliably and efficiently find the evidence they need. We expose common bypass routes that currently lead to poor or biased representation of scientific knowledge. We argue that the least developed level of the hierarchy is that closest to decision-makers, placing synthesised scientific knowledge into environmental decision support systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Directions for memory hierarchies and their components: research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1978-10-01

    The memory hierarchy is usually the largest identifiable part of a computer system and making effective use of it is critical to the operation and use of the system. The levels of such a memory hierarchy are considered and the state of the art and likely directions for both research and development are described. Algorithmic and logical features of the hierarchy not directly associated with specific components are also discussed. Among the problems believed to be the most significant are the following: (a) evaluate the effectiveness of gap filler technology as a level of storage between main memory and disk, and if it proves to be effective, determine how/where it should be used, (b) develop algorithms for the use of mass storage in a large computer system, and (c) determine how cache memories should be implemented in very large, fast multiprocessor systems

  2. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino: inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ). This is an extended study of our previous study where all analyses are performed with normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using a realistic supernova and presupernova model allow us to discuss quantitatively a possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that we can break partly the degeneracy of the solar neutrino problem (LMA or SMA) and probe the magnitude of θ 13 to some extent by the ratios of high-energy events and low-energy events at SuperKamiokande and SNO and the presence of the Earth effects. Further, if the magnitude of θ 13 is known roughly, we can identify the mass hierarchy

  3. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  4. Gauge and moduli hierarchy in a multiply warped braneworld scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashmita; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of Higgs-like boson near the mass scale ∼126 Gev generates renewed interest to the gauge hierarchy problem in the standard model related to the stabilisation of the Higgs mass within Tev scale without any unnatural fine tuning. One of the successful attempts to resolve this problem has been the Randall–Sundrum warped geometry model. Subsequently this 5-dimensional model was extended to a doubly warped 6-dimensional (or higher) model which can offer a geometric explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy in the standard model of elementary particles (D. Choudhury and S. SenGupta, 2007 [1]). In an attempt to address the dark energy issue, we in this work extend such 6-dimensional warped braneworld model to include non-flat 3-branes at the orbifold fixed points such that a small but non-vanishing brane cosmological constant is induced in our observable brane. We show that the requirements of a Planck to Tev scale warping along with a vanishingly small but non-zero cosmological constant on the visible brane with non-hierarchical moduli, each with scale close to Planck length, lead to a scenario where the 3-branes can have energy scales either close to Tev or close to Planck scale. Such a scenario can address both the gauge hierarchy as well as fermion mass hierarchy problem in standard model without introducing hierarchical scales between the two moduli. Thus simultaneous resolutions to the gauge hierarchy problem, fermion mass hierarchy problem and non-hierarchical moduli problem are closely linked with the near flatness condition of our universe.

  5. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  6. NASA Airborne Science Program: NASA Stratospheric Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducts a wide variety of remote sensing projects using several unique aircraft platforms. These vehicles have been selected and modified to provide capabilities that are particularly important for geophysical research, in particular, routine access to very high altitudes, long range, long endurance, precise trajectory control, and the payload capacity to operate multiple, diverse instruments concurrently. While the NASA program has been in operation for over 30 years, new aircraft and technological advances that will expand the capabilities for airborne observation are continually being assessed and implemented. This presentation will review the current state of NASA's science platforms, recent improvements and new missions concepts as well as provide a survey of emerging technologies unmanned aerial vehicles for long duration observations (Global Hawk and Predator). Applications of information technology that allow more efficient use of flight time and the ability to rapidly reconfigure systems for different mission objectives are addressed.

  7. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  8. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  9. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  10. Fermion mass hierarchies and flavor mixing from T' symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guijun

    2008-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric model based on T ' x Z 3 x Z 9 flavor symmetry. At the leading order, the charged lepton mass matrix is not diagonal, T ' is broken completely, and the hierarchy in the charged lepton masses is generated naturally. Nearly tribimaximal mixing is predicted, and subleading effects induce corrections of order λ 2 , where λ is the Cabibbo angle. Both the up quark and down quark mass matrices' textures of the well-known U(2) flavor theory are produced at the leading order; realistic hierarchies in quark masses and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements are obtained. The vacuum alignment and subleading corrections are discussed in detail.

  11. KdV hierarchy via Abelian coverings and operator identities

    OpenAIRE

    Eichinger, Benjamin; VandenBoom, Tom; Yuditskii, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We establish precise spectral criteria for potential functions $V$ of reflectionless Schr\\"odinger operators $L_V = -\\partial_x^2 + V$ to admit solutions to the Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) hierarchy with $V$ as an initial value. More generally, our methods extend the classical study of algebro-geometric solutions for the KdV hierarchy to noncompact Riemann surfaces by defining generalized Abelian integrals and analogues of the Baker-Akhiezer function on infinitely connected domains with a uniform...

  12. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need...... to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  13. The influence of social hierarchy on primate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2005-04-29

    Dominance hierarchies occur in numerous social species, and rank within them can greatly influence the quality of life of an animal. In this review, I consider how rank can also influence physiology and health. I first consider whether it is high- or low-ranking animals that are most stressed in a dominance hierarchy; this turns out to vary as a function of the social organization in different species and populations. I then review how the stressful characteristics of social rank have adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences. Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status.

  14. Closed hierarchy of correlations in Markovian open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žunkovič, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    We study the Lindblad master equation in the space of operators and provide simple criteria for closeness of the hierarchy of equations for correlations. We separately consider the time evolution of closed and open systems and show that open systems satisfying the closeness conditions are not necessarily of Gaussian type. In addition, we show that dissipation can induce the closeness of the hierarchy of correlations in interacting quantum systems. As an example we study an interacting optomechanical model, the Fermi–Hubbard model, and the Rabi model, all coupled to a fine-tuned Markovian environment and obtain exact analytic expressions for the time evolution of two-point correlations. (paper)

  15. Common Origin for Neutrino Anarchy and Charged Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Okui, Takemichi; Sundrum, Raman

    2009-01-01

    The generation of exponential flavor hierarchies from extra-dimensional wave function overlaps is reexamined. We find, surprisingly, that the coexistence of anarchic fermion mass matrices with such hierarchies is intrinsic and natural to this setting. The salient features of charged fermion and neutrino masses and mixings can thereby be captured within a single framework. Both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos can be realized. Implications for a variety of weak-scale scenarios, including warped compactification and supersymmetry, are discussed. When the new weak-scale physics is sensitive to the origin of flavor structure, Dirac neutrinos are preferred

  16. On hierarchy in asymptotic reconstruction of spontaneously broken isotopic symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The isotopic features of the effective current-current lagrangian of the Lsub(eff) electromagnetic-weak interaction between elementary particles are treated at large momentum transfers using the Weinberg-Salam model. Transition to other models may be made by analogy. It is shown that when the collision energies of elementary particles exceed 90 GeV one may expect the hierarchy in the asymptotic reconstruction of the isotopic symmetry. Such hierarchy could be observed, in particular, in experiments on elastic leptonic collisions at high energies

  17. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action). Since its introduction by Lewis (1900) and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925), the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of inf...

  18. Dynamical generation of hierarchy in GUTs with softly broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, K.; Umemura, I.; Yamamoto, K.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristic aspects of Dimopoulos-Georgi's mechanism for the hierarchy are investigated in a 'semi-realistic' SU(5) model by employing the renormalization group method. The hierarchy is really generated in a 'sick' theory by quantum resuscitation without any fine tuning of the coupling constants at Msub(W) approx.= 10 2 GeV. It can also be realized in a 'normal' theory by choosing the coupling constants suitably. In the latter case, the effective potential has two minima at X = 0 and Msub(G). Some suggestions are presented for constructing a realistic model. (orig.)

  19. Hierarchy plus anarchy in quark masses and mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a parametrization of the effect of unknown corrections from new physics on quark and lepton mass matrices. This parametrization is used in order to study how the hierarchies of quark masses and mixing angles are modified by random perturbations of the Yukawa matrices. We discuss several examples of flavor relations predicted by different textures, analyzing how these relations are influenced by the random perturbations. We also comment on the unlikely possibility that unknown corrections contribute significantly to the hierarchy of masses and mixings

  20. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  1. Hierarchy concepts: classification and preparation strategies for zeolite containing materials with hierarchical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Wilhelm; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Weissenberger, Tobias; Inayat, Amer; Selvam, Thangaraj; Klumpp, Michael; Inayat, Alexandra

    2016-06-13

    'Hierarchy' is a property which can be attributed to a manifold of different immaterial systems, such as ideas, items and organisations or material ones like biological systems within living organisms or artificial, man-made constructions. The property 'hierarchy' is mainly characterised by a certain ordering of individual elements relative to each other, often in combination with a certain degree of branching. Especially mass-flow related systems in the natural environment feature special hierarchically branched patterns. This review is a survey into the world of hierarchical systems with special focus on hierarchically porous zeolite materials. A classification of hierarchical porosity is proposed based on the flow distribution pattern within the respective pore systems. In addition, this review might serve as a toolbox providing several synthetic and post-synthetic strategies to prepare zeolitic or zeolite containing material with tailored hierarchical porosity. Very often, such strategies with their underlying principles were developed for improving the performance of the final materials in different technical applications like adsorptive or catalytic processes. In the present review, besides on the hierarchically porous all-zeolite material, special focus is laid on the preparation of zeolitic composite materials with hierarchical porosity capable to face the demands of industrial application.

  2. Modularization and epistatic hierarchy determine homeostatic actions of multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Cristina; Crespo, Kimberley; Ménard, Annie; Roy, Julie; Deng, Alan Y

    2013-11-15

    Hypertension, the most frequently diagnosed clinical condition world-wide, predisposes individuals to morbidity and mortality, yet its underlying pathological etiologies are poorly understood. So far, a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in both humans and animal models, but how they function together in determining overall blood pressure (BP) in physiological settings is unknown. Here, we systematically and comprehensively performed pair-wise comparisons of individual QTLs to create a global picture of their functionality in an inbred rat model. Rather than each of numerous QTLs contributing to infinitesimal BP increments, a modularized pattern arises: two epistatic 'blocks' constitute basic functional 'units' for nearly all QTLs, designated as epistatic module 1 (EM1) and EM2. This modularization dictates the magnitude and scope of BP effects. Any EM1 member can contribute to BP additively to that of EM2, but not to those of the same module. Members of each EM display epistatic hierarchy, which seems to reflect a related functional pathway. Rat homologues of 11 human BP QTLs belong to either EM1 or EM2. Unique insights emerge into the novel genetic mechanism and hierarchy determining BP in the Dahl salt-sensitive SS/Jr (DSS) rat model that implicate a portion of human QTLs. Elucidating the pathways underlying EM1 and EM2 may reveal the genetic regulation of BP.

  3. The Contribution of the Cerebellum in the Hierarchial Development of the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Dönmez, Aslıhan; Ülsalver, Barış Önen

    2015-12-01

    What distinguishes human beings from other living organisms is that a human perceives himself as a "self". The self is developed hierarchially in a multi-layered process, which is based on the evolutionary maturation of the nervous system and patterns according to the rules and demands of the external world. Many researchers have attempted to explain the different aspects of the self, as well as the related neural substrates. In this paper, we first review the previously proposed ideas regarding the neurobiology of the self. We then suggest a new hypothesis regarding the hierarchial self, which proposes that the self is developed at three stages: subjective, objective, and reflective selves. In the second part, we attempt to answer the question "Why do we need a self?" We therefore explain that different parts of the self developed in an effort to identify stability in space, stability against constantly changing objects, and stability against changing cognitions. Finally, we discuss the role of the cerebellum as the neural substrate for the self.

  4. Othering and Selfing: Reading Gender Hierarchies and Social Categories in Michel Houellebecq's Novel Soumission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wening Udasmoro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In literature, questions of the self and the other are frequently presented. The identity politics that gained prominence after the attack on the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September 2001 has occupied considerable space in this debate throughout the globe, including in France. One example of a novel dealing with the self and other is Michel Houellebecq’s Soumission (2015. This article attempts to explore the processes of selfing and othering in this work. The politics of identity that seems to present Muslims and Islam as the other and French as the self is also extended to other identities and aspects involved in the novel. This article attempts to show, first, how the French author Houellebecq positions the self and other in Soumission; second, the type of self and other the novel focuses on; and third, how its selfing and othering processes reveal the gender hierarchy and social categorization of French society. It finds that the novel presents a hierarchy in its narrative through which characters are positioned based on their gender and sexual orientation, as well as their age and ethnic heritage.

  5. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  6. NASA Image Exchange (NIX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) provides access to aerospace-related citations, full-text online documents, and images and videos. The types of information...

  7. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  8. My NASA Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MY NASA DATA (MND) is a tool that allows anyone to make use of satellite data that was previously unavailable.Through the use of MND’s Live Access Server (LAS) a...

  9. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  10. NASA Science Engagement Through "Sky Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, K. L.; Damadeo, K.

    2013-12-01

    Sky Art is a NASA-funded online community where the public can share in the beauty of nature and the science behind it. At the center of Sky Art is a gallery of amateur sky photos submitted by users that are related to NASA Earth science mission research areas. Through their submissions, amateur photographers from around the world are engaged in the process of making observations, or taking pictures, of the sky just like many NASA science instruments. By submitting their pictures and engaging in the online community discussions and interactions with NASA scientists, users make the connection between the beauty of nature and atmospheric science. Sky Art is a gateway for interaction and information aimed at drawing excitement and interest in atmospheric phenomena including sunrises, sunsets, moonrises, moonsets, and aerosols, each of which correlates to a NASA science mission. Educating the public on atmospheric science topics in an informal way is a central goal of Sky Art. NASA science is included in the community through interaction from scientists, NASA images, and blog posts on science concepts derived from the images. Additionally, the website connects educators through the formal education pathway where science concepts are taught through activities and lessons that align with national learning standards. Sky Art was conceived as part of the Education and Public Outreach program of the SAGE III on ISS mission. There are currently three other NASA mission involved with Sky Art: CALIPSO, GPM, and CLARREO. This paper will discuss the process of developing the Sky Art online website, the challenges of growing a community of users, as well as the use of social media and mobile applications in science outreach and education.

  11. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  12. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    How big is your project world? Is it big enough to contain other cultures, headquarters, hierarchies, and weird harpoon-like guns? Sure it is. The great American poet Walt Whitman said it best, 'I am large/I contain multitudes.' And so must you, Mr. and Ms. Project Manager. In this issue of ASK, we look outside the project box. See how several talented project managers have expanded their definition of project scope to include managing environments outside the systems and subsystems under their care. Here's a sampling of what we've put together for you this issue: In 'Three Screws Missing,' Mike Skidmore tells about his adventures at the Plesetek Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Ray Morgan in his story, 'Our Man in Kauai,' suggests we take a broader view of what's meant by 'the team.' Jenny Baer-Riedhart, the NASA program manager on the same Pathfinder solar-powered airplane, schools us in how to sell a program to Headquarters in 'Know Thyself--But Don't Forget to Learn About the Customer Too.' Scott Cameron of Proctor and Gamble talks about sharpening your hierarchical IQ in 'The Project Manager and the Hour Glass.' Mike Jansen in 'The Lawn Dart' describes how he and the 'voodoo crew' on the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program borrowed a harpoon-like gun from the Coast Guard to catch particles inside of a plume. These are just some of the stories you'll find in ASK this issue. We hope they cause you to stop and reflect on your own project's relationship to the world outside. We are also launching a new section this issue, 'There are No Mistakes, Only Lessons.' No stranger to ASK readers, Terry Little inaugurates this new section with his article 'The Don Quixote Complex.'

  13. Enhancing the Impact of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Using Real NASA Data in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, D. A.; SMD Astrophysics E/PO Community, NASA

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community in enhancing the coherence, efficiency, and effectiveness of SMD-funded E/PO programs. As a part of this effort, the Astrophysics Forum is coordinating a collaborative project among the NASA SMD astrophysics missions and E/PO programs to create a broader impact for the use of real NASA data in classrooms. Among NASA's major education goals is the training of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines. The use of real data, from some of the most sophisticated observatories in the world, provide educators an authentic opportunity to teach students basic science process skills, inquiry, and real-world applications of the STEM subjects. The goal of this NASA SMD astrophysics community collaboration is to find a way to maximize the reach of existing real data products produced by E/PO professionals working with NASA E/PO grants and missions in ways that enhance the teaching of the STEM subjects. We present an initial result of our collaboration: defining levels of basic science process skills that lie at the heart of authentic scientific research and national education standards (AAAS Benchmarks) and examples of NASA data products that align with those levels. Our results are the beginning of a larger goal of utilizing the new NASA education resource catalog, NASA Wavelength, for the creation of progressions that tie NASA education resources together. We aim to create an informational sampler that illustrates how an educator can use the NASA Wavelength resource catalog to connect NASA real-data resources that meet the educational goals of their class.

  14. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsworth, Kerrie, E-mail: Kerrie.unsworth@uwa.edu.au [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hodkiewicz, Melinda [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: > We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. > We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. > Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  15. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E.; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  16. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  17. Natural fermion mass hierarchy and mixings in family unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, James B.; Feger, Robert; Kephart, Thomas W.; Nandi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an SU(9) model of family unification with three light chiral families, and a natural hierarchy of charged fermion masses and mixings. The existence of singlet right handed neutrinos with masses about two orders of magnitude smaller than the GUT scale, as needed to understand the light neutrinos masses via the see-saw mechanism, is compelling in our model.

  18. Impact of hierarchy upon the values of neutrino mixing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escamilla-Roa, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    A neutrino-oscillation analysis is performed of the more finely binned Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) atmospheric, MINOS, and CHOOZ data to examine the effect of neutrino hierarchy in this data set on the value of θ 13 and the deviation of θ 23 from maximal mixing. Exact oscillation probabilities are used, thus incorporating all powers of θ 13 and ε:=θ 23 -π/4. The extracted oscillation parameters are found to be dependent on the hierarchy, particularly for θ 13 . We find, at a 90% confidence level, that these parameters are Δ 32 =2.44 -0.20 +0.26 and 2.48 -0.22 +0.25 x10 -3 eV 2 , ε=θ 23 -π/4=0.06 -0.16 +0.06 and 0.06 -0.17 +0.08 , and θ 13 =-0.07 -0.11 +0.18 and -0.13 -0.16 +0.23 , for the normal and inverted hierarchies, respectively. The inverted hierarchy is preferred at a statistically insignificant level of 0.3σ.

  19. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  20. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.

  1. The role of hierarchy in self-organizing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollfen, van W.; Romme, A.G.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of hierarchy in human systems. Two kinds of self-organizing processes are distinguished: conservative and dissipative self-organization. The former leads to rather stable, specialistic systems, whereas the latter leads to continuously changing generalistic systems. When

  2. The problem of using hierarchy for implementing organisational innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Harbers, Clementine; Harbers, C.C.E.; Kruiswijk, M.; Kruiswijk, Martine; Rijnders, Sander; Boer, Harm

    2003-01-01

    Neither science nor practice seems to regard the implementation of a continuous improvement (CI) programme as a problematic organisational innovation. Many organisations do not regard CI implementation as a major change and tend to use their existing hierarchy to organise and manage the process.

  3. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  4. Handelman's hierarchy for the maximum stable set problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Sun, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The maximum stable set problem is a well-known NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization, which can be formulated as the maximization of a quadratic square-free polynomial over the (Boolean) hypercube. We investigate a hierarchy of linear programming relaxations for this problem, based on a

  5. Symmetries of integrable hierarchies and matrix model constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, K. de

    1992-01-01

    The orbit construction associates a soliton hierarchy to every level-one vertex realization of a simply laced affine Kac-Moody algebra g. We show that the τ-function of such a hierarchy has the (truncated) Virasoro algebra as an algebra of infinitesimal symmetry transformations. To prove this we use an appropriate bilinear form of these hierarchies together with the coset construction of conformal field theory. For A 1 (1) the orbit construction gives either the Toda or the KdV hierarchy. These both occur in the one-matrix model of two-dimensional quantum gravity, before and after the double scaling limit respectively. The truncated Virasoro symmetry algebra is exactly the algebra of constraints of the one-matrix model. The partition function of the one-matrix model is therefore an invariant τ-function. We also consider the case of A 1 (1) with l>1. Surprisingly, the symmetry algebra in that case is not simply a truncated Casimir algebra. It appears that again only the Virasoro symmetry survives. We speculate on the relation with multi-matrix models. (orig.)

  6. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  7. Optimal design of nuclear mechanical dampers with analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuehua; Wen Bo; Xu Hongxiang; Qin Yonglie

    2000-01-01

    An optimal design with analytical hierarchy process on nuclear mechanical dampers manufactured by authors' university was described. By using fuzzy judgement matrix the coincidence was automatically satisfied without the need of coincidence test. The results obtained by this method have been put into the production practices

  8. A note on the extended dispersionless Toda hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Niann-Chern; Tu, Ming-Hsien

    2013-04-01

    We derive dispersionless Hirota equations for the extended dispersionless Toda hierarchy. We show that the dispersionless Hirota equations are just a direct consequence of the genus-zero topological recurrence relation for the topological ℂP1 model. Using the dispersionless Hirota equations, we compute the twopoint functions and express the result in terms of Catalan numbers

  9. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  10. The Euromanager profile: a hierarchy of competences? : a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merk, V.J.B.A.; March, D.; Salo-Lee, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this interdisciplinary workshop we will examine the competences required of the internationally oriented business-person, e.g. professional, conceptual, interpersonal and cultural (in its many varieties) and attempt to place them in a hierarchy of significance. In the discussion we intend to

  11. Bibliometric Evidence for a Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences, first formulated in the 19(th) century, predicts that, moving from simple and general phenomena (e.g. particle dynamics) to complex and particular (e.g. human behaviour), researchers lose ability to reach theoretical and methodological consensus. This hypothesis places each field of research along a continuum of complexity and "softness", with profound implications for our understanding of scientific knowledge. Today, however, the idea is still unproven and philosophically overlooked, too often confused with simplistic dichotomies that contrast natural and social sciences, or science and the humanities. Empirical tests of the hypothesis have usually compared few fields and this, combined with other limitations, makes their results contradictory and inconclusive. We verified whether discipline characteristics reflect a hierarchy, a dichotomy or neither, by sampling nearly 29,000 papers published contemporaneously in 12 disciplines and measuring a set of parameters hypothesised to reflect theoretical and methodological consensus. The biological sciences had in most cases intermediate values between the physical and the social, with bio-molecular disciplines appearing harder than zoology, botany or ecology. In multivariable analyses, most of these parameters were independent predictors of the hierarchy, even when mathematics and the humanities were included. These results support a "gradualist" view of scientific knowledge, suggesting that the Hierarchy of the Sciences provides the best rational framework to understand disciplines' diversity. A deeper grasp of the relationship between subject matter's complexity and consensus could have profound implications for how we interpret, publish, popularize and administer scientific research.

  12. Extending the applicability of the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has often been used to support decisions that only have to be made once. in this study, we explore whether the AHP can be applied to repetitive decision-making. We suggest a variant of the process to elicit implicit decision models that evaluate alternatives not

  13. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Analyze Multiattribute Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in assisting researchers to analyze decisions is discussed. The AHP is compared with other decision-analysis techniques, including multiattribute utility measurement, conjoint analysis, and general linear models. Insights that AHP can provide are illustrated with data gathered in an auditing context.…

  14. Optimizing an Immersion ESL Curriculum Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative…

  15. Assessing Adult Learning Preferences Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doris; McCool, John; Napieralski, Laura

    2000-01-01

    Graduate students (n=134) used the analytic hierarchy process, which weights expressed preferences, to rate four learning activities: lectures, discussion/reflection, individual projects, and group projects. Their preferences for discussion/reflection and individual projects were independent of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles.…

  16. Maslow's Need Hierarchy and the Adjustment of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the need hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow is used to describe stages in the adjustment process of new immigrants. This notion is developed and applied to interpreting some longitudinal data on the changing needs of immigrants to Israel during the first two years after their arrival. (Author/GC)

  17. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  18. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral exploration generally starts on small scale (small areas) and, then progresses to large scale (small area). There are many methods for achieving this goal. To achieve this goal one of these methods is Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) that is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making techniques.

  19. Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, H.; Muenchen Univ.; Plankl, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.)

  20. Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.

  1. Strong Bayesian evidence for the normal neutrino hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Fergus; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (UB-IEEC), Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona, 08028 (Spain); Pena-Garay, Carlos, E-mail: fergus2@gmail.com, E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: penagaray@gmail.com, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [I2SysBio, CSIC-UVEG, P.O. 22085, Valencia, 46071 (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    The configuration of the three neutrino masses can take two forms, known as the normal and inverted hierarchies. We compute the Bayesian evidence associated with these two hierarchies. Previous studies found a mild preference for the normal hierarchy, and this was driven by the asymmetric manner in which cosmological data has confined the available parameter space. Here we identify the presence of a second asymmetry, which is imposed by data from neutrino oscillations. By combining constraints on the squared-mass splittings [1] with the limit on the sum of neutrino masses of Σ m {sub ν} < 0.13 eV [2], and using a minimally informative prior on the masses, we infer odds of 42:1 in favour of the normal hierarchy, which is classified as 'strong' in the Jeffreys' scale. We explore how these odds may evolve in light of higher precision cosmological data, and discuss the implications of this finding with regards to the nature of neutrinos. Finally the individual masses are inferred to be m {sub 1}=3.80{sup +26.2}{sub -3.73}meV; m {sub 2}=8.8{sup +18}{sub -1.2}meV; m {sub 3}=50.4{sup +5.8}{sub -1.2}meV (95% credible intervals).

  2. A formula relating infinitesimal Backlund transformations to hierarchy generating operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, B.Y.; Tu, G.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Let u'=Bsub(eta)u and l be, respectively, the elementary Backlund transformation and hierarchy generating operators for the AKNS equations. It is shown that (dB/d eta)(Bsub(eta)) - 1 =σ 3 /(l-eta). A similar formula relating to the general NxN matrix spectral problem is also derived. (author)

  3. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina; Hodkiewicz, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  4. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an "alternative school" in an urban school system for students having trouble in the regular secondary setting. The program was based upon "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and is described in detail. The initial assessment of the program produced very positive results.

  5. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur

  6. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  7. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free...

  8. The non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lingjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove the existence of the non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction and construct the matrix form Darboux transformation. Using this Darboux transformation, the solutions of the relevant nonlinear equations can be expressed explicitly

  9. Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-10-05

    In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.

  10. Can nonstandard interactions jeopardize the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, K. N.; Goswami, Srubabati; Nath, Newton

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of nonstandard interactions (NSIs) on the propagation of neutrinos through the Earth's matter and how it affects the hierarchy sensitivity of the DUNE experiment. We emphasize the special case when the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e=-1 , nullifying the standard matter effect. We show that if, in addition, C P violation is maximal then this gives rise to an exact intrinsic hierarchy degeneracy in the appearance channel, irrespective of the baseline and energy. Introduction of the off diagonal NSI parameter, ɛe τ, shifts the position of this degeneracy to a different ɛe e. Moreover the unknown magnitude and phases of the off diagonal NSI parameters can give rise to additional degeneracies. Overall, given the current model independent limits on NSI parameters, the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE can get seriously impacted. However, a more precise knowledge of the NSI parameters, especially ɛe e, can give rise to an improved sensitivity. Alternatively, if a NSI exists in nature, and still DUNE shows hierarchy sensitivity, certain ranges of the NSI parameters can be excluded. Additionally, we briefly discuss the implications of ɛe e=-1 (in the Earth) on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the Sun.

  11. Pupil dilation indexes the metrical hierarchy of unattended rhythmic violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damsma, Atser; van Rijn, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    When we listen to music, we perceive regularities that drive our expectations. This is reflected in beat perception, in which a listener infers a regular pulse from a rhythm. However, it is still an open question whether attention to the music is necessary to establish the perception of a hierarchy

  12. Organizational Hierarchy, Employee Status, and Use of Employee Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Lawrence; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined role of organizational hierarchy and staff status in number of Employee Assistance Program (EAP) referrals made by potential helpers and relationship of these variables to personal EAP use among 157 supervisors and 232 employees. Supervisors suggested more EAP referrals than did employees. Middle level staff received EAP services more…

  13. Evaluating Modeling Sessions Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Proper, H.A.; Persson, A.; Stirna, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, which is methodological in nature, we propose to use an established method from the field of Operations Research, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in the integrated, stakeholder- oriented evaluation of enterprise modeling sessions: their language, pro- cess, tool (medium), and

  14. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  15. Agile and Resilient Hierarchies for Defense Departments: Lofty Ideal or an Actionable Proposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Desouza, Kevin C

    2006-01-01

    ... only consideration. Completely agile structures may lose the benefits bestowed by hierarchies. Rather the Defense Department should work towards agile and resilient hierarchies that can recover quickly following setbacks.

  16. Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling of the Jaulent-Miodek hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Fan, Engui

    2006-01-01

    A scheme for deducing Hamiltonian structures of the higher-dimensional hierarchies of evolution equations is presented which is devoting to obtaining the Hamiltonian structures of integrable coupling of the Jaulent-Miodek hierarchy

  17. Origami world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja

    2004-01-01

    We paste together patches of AdS 6 to find solutions which describe two 4-branes intersecting on a 3-brane with non-zero tension. We construct explicitly brane arrays with Minkowski, de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter geometries intrinsic to the 3-brane, and describe how to generalize these solutions to the case of AdS 4+n, n > 2, where n n+2-branes intersect on a 3-brane. The Minkowski and de Sitter solutions localize gravity to the intersection, leading to 4D Newtonian gravity at large distances. We show this explicitly in the case of Minkowski origami by finding the zero-mode graviton, and computing the couplings of the bulk gravitons to the matter on the intersection. In de Sitter case, this follows from the finiteness of the bulk volume. The effective 4D Planck scale depends on the square of the fundamental 6D Planck scale, the AdS 6 radius and the angles between the 4-branes and the radial AdS direction, and for the Minkowski origami it is M 4 2 = {2/3}(tan α 1 +tan α 2 )M * 4 L 2 . If M * ∼ few x TeV this may account for the Planck-electroweak hierarchy even if L ∼ 10 -4 m, with a possibility for sub-millimeter corrections to the Newton's law. We comment on the early universe cosmology of such models. (author)

  18. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Yu Fajun

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  19. A new multi-component hierarchy and its integrable expanding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Liang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, it follows that a type of new loop algebra is presented and multi-component integrable hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one and a type of integrable coupling system is worked out. As reduction of the hierarchy, some well-known hierarchy such as DNLS, KN, CLL hierarchy are established

  20. Supersymmetric KP hierarchy in N=1 superspace and its N=2 reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenfeld, O.; Sorin, A.

    2000-01-01

    A wide class of N=2 reductions of the supersymmetric KP hierarchy in N=1 superspace is described. This class includes a new N=2 supersymmetric generalization of the Toda chain hierarchy. The Lax pair representations of the bosonic and fermionic flows, local and non-local Hamiltonians, finite and infinite discrete symmetries, first two Hamiltonian structures and the recursion operator of this hierarchy are constructed. Its secondary reduction to new N=2 supersymmetric modified KdV hierarchy is discussed

  1. A modified Toda spectral problem and its hierarchy of bi-Hamiltonian lattice equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu; Xu Xixiang

    2004-01-01

    Starting from a modified Toda spectral problem, a hierarchy of generalized Toda lattice equations with two arbitrary constants is constructed through discrete zero curvature equations. It is shown that the hierarchy possesses a bi-Hamiltonian structure and a hereditary recursion operator, which implies that there exist infinitely many common commuting symmetries and infinitely many common commuting conserved functionals. Two cases of the involved constants present two specific integrable sub-hierarchies, one of which is exactly the Toda lattice hierarchy

  2. Supersymmetric KP hierarchy in N=1 superspace and its N=2 reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenfeld, O.; Sorin, A.

    1999-01-01

    A wide class of N=2 reductions of the supersymmetric KP hierarchy in N=1 superspace is described. This class includes a new N=2 supersymmetric generalization of the Toda chain hierarchy. The Lax pair representations of the bosonic and fermionic flows, local and nonlocal Hamiltonians, finite and infinite discrete symmetries, first two Hamiltonian structures and the recursion operator of this hierarchy are constructed. Its secondary reduction to new N=2 supersymmetric modified KdV hierarchy is discussed

  3. Hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations and theirs integrable couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jie; Yao Yuqin; Zhu Fubo; Chen Dengyuan

    2008-01-01

    First, a new multi-component modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvill (mKP) spectral problem is constructed by k-constraint imposed on a general pseudo-differential operator. Then, two hierarchies of multi-component mKP equations are derived, including positive non-isospectral mKP hierarchy and negative non-isospectral mKP hierarchy. Moreover, new integrable couplings of the resulting mKP soliton hierarchies are constructed by enlarging the associated matrix spectral problem

  4. A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guo-cheng; Zhang, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.

  5. An integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Li Li

    2009-01-01

    In [E.G. Fan, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 6368], Fan present a lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits. In this Letter, we extend this method, by introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, a coupling lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new sequence of combinations of complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable coupling couplings of soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit.

  6. A generalized Tu formula and Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guo-cheng, E-mail: wuguocheng2002@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Numerical Simulation of Sichuan Province, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); College of Mathematics and Information Science, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan 641112 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: zhshaeng@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-10-03

    In this Letter, a generalized Tu formula is firstly presented to construct Hamiltonian structures of fractional soliton equations. The obtained results can be reduced to the classical Hamiltonian hierarchy of AKNS in ordinary calculus. -- Highlights: → A generalized Tu formula is first established based on the fractional variational theory for non-differentiable functions. → Hamiltonian structures of fractional AKNS hierarchy are obtained. → The classical AKNS hierarchy is just a special case of the fractional hierarchy.

  7. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-09-21

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  8. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  9. Incorporating therapeutic drug monitoring into the World Health Organization hierarchy of tuberculosis diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, Samiksha; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Sturkenboom, Marieke G G; Akkerman, Onno W; de Lange, Wiel C M; van der Werf, Tjip S; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    Tuberculosis (TB), once considered as a disease of the past generally afflicting poor people, still claims 1.5 million lives annually [1]. Although 86% of patients with drug susceptible TB are cured with established first-line drugs, treatment is often longer than 6 months due to slow response,

  10. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  11. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  12. A unified expressing model of the AKNS hierarchy and the KN hierarchy, as well as its integrable coupling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fukui; Zhang Yufeng

    2004-01-01

    A new subalgebra of loop algebra A-tilde 1 is first constructed. Then a new Lax pair is presented, whose compatibility gives rise to a new Liouville integrable system(called a major result), possessing bi-Hamiltonian structures. It is remarkable that two symplectic operators obtained in this paper are directly constructed in terms of the recurrence relations. As reduction cases of the new integrable system obtained, the famous AKNS hierarchy and the KN hierarchy are obtained, respectively. Second, we prove a conjugate operator of a recurrence operator is a hereditary symmetry. Finally, we construct a high dimension loop algebra G-bar to obtain an integrable coupling system of the major result by making use of Tu scheme. In addition, we find the major result obtained is a unified expressing integrable model of both the AKNS and KN hierarchies, of course, we may also regard the major result as an expanding integrable model of the AKNS and KN hierarchies. Thus, we succeed to find an example of expanding integrable models being Liouville integrable

  13. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  14. Darboux transformation and soliton solutions for the Boiti-Pempinelli-Tu (BPT) hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiong

    2005-01-01

    Starting from a spectral problem, we derive the well-known Boiti-Pempinelli-Tu (BPT) hierarchy. An explicit and universal Darboux transformation for the whole hierarchy is constructed. The soliton solutions for the BPT hierarchy are obtained by applying the Darboux transformation

  15. W-algebra symmetries of generalised Drinfel'd-Sokolov hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, B.

    1992-01-01

    Using the zero curvature formulation, it is shown that W-algebra transformations are symmetries of corresponding generalised Drinfel'd-Sokolov hierarchies. This result is illustrated with the examples of the KdV and Boussinesque hierarchies, and the hierarchy associated to the Polyakov-Bershadsky W-algebra. (orig.)

  16. Two New Reformulation Convexification Based Hierarchies for 0-1 MIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Ouzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First, we introduce two new reformulation convexification based hierarchies called RTC and RSC for which the rank d continuous relaxations are denoted by P^RTCd and P^RSCd, respectively. These two hierarchies are obtained using two different convexification schemes: term convexification in the case of the RTC hierarchy and standard convexification in the case of the RSC hierarchy. Secondly, we compare the strength of these two hierarchies. We will prove that (i the hierarchy RTC is equivalent to the RLT hierarchy of Sherali-Adams, (ii the hierarchy RTC dominates the hierarchy RSC, and (iii the hierarchy RSC is dominated by the Lift-and-Project hierarchy. Thirdly, for every rank d, we will prove that convTd∩Etd⊆P^RTCd⊆Td and convSd∩Esd⊆P^RSCd⊆Sd where the sets Td and Sd are convex, while Etd and Esd are two nonconvex sets with empty interior (all these sets depend on the convexification step. The first inclusions allow, in some cases, an explicit characterization (in the space of the original variables of the RLT relaxations. Finally, we will discuss weak version of both RTC and RSC hierarchies and we will emphasize some connections between them.

  17. New Integrable Couplings of Generalized Kaup-Newell Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tiecheng; Zhang Gailian; Fan Engui

    2011-01-01

    A new isospectral problem is firstly presented, then we derive integrable system of soliton hierarchy. Also we obtain new integrable couplings of the generalized Kaup-Newell soliton equations hierarchy and its Hamiltonian structures by using Tu scheme and the quadratic-form identity. The method can be generalized to other soliton hierarchy. (general)

  18. Block (or Hamiltonian) Lie Symmetry of Dispersionless D-Type Drinfeld–Sokolov Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuan-Zhong; He Jing-Song; Su Yu-Cai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the dispersionless D-type Drinfeld–Sokolov hierarchy, i.e. a reduction of the dispersionless two-component BKP hierarchy, is studied. The additional symmetry flows of this hierarchy are presented. These flows form an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of Block type as well as a Lie algebra of Hamiltonian type

  19. Wronskian type solutions for the vector k-constrained KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youjin.

    1995-07-01

    Motivated by a relation of the 1-constrained Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy with the 2 component KP hierarchy, the tau-conditions of the vector k-constrained KP hierarchy are constructed by using an analogue of the Baker-Akhiezer (m + 1)-point function. These tau functions are expressed in terms of Wronskian type determinants. (author). 20 refs

  20. Optimal City Hierarchy: A Dynamic Programming Approach to Central Place Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tai Hsu; Thomas J. Holmes

    2009-01-01

    It is an empirically plausible description of cities and is route to explain empirical regularities in city size distribution and industrial locations. This paper formalizes central place hierarchy by providing a rationale for it via a social planner's problem. The optimal city hierarchy is then compared with the equilibrium city hierarchy in Hsu (2008).

  1. A Discrete Spectral Problem and Related Hierarchy of Discrete Hamiltonian Lattice Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xixiang; Cao Weili

    2007-01-01

    Staring from a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of lattice soliton equations is presented though discrete zero curvature representation. The resulting lattice soliton equations possess non-local Lax pairs. The Hamiltonian structures are established for the resulting hierarchy by the discrete trace identity. Liouville integrability of resulting hierarchy is demonstrated.

  2. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-03-14

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  3. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  4. NASA Accountability Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    NASA is piloting fiscal year (FY) 1997 Accountability Reports, which streamline and upgrade reporting to Congress and the public. The document presents statements by the NASA administrator, and the Chief Financial Officer, followed by an overview of NASA's organizational structure and the planning and budgeting process. The performance of NASA in four strategic enterprises is reviewed: (1) Space Science, (2) Mission to Planet Earth, (3) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (4) Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology. Those areas which support the strategic enterprises are also reviewed in a section called Crosscutting Processes. For each of the four enterprises, there is discussion about the long term goals, the short term objectives and the accomplishments during FY 1997. The Crosscutting Processes section reviews issues and accomplishments relating to human resources, procurement, information technology, physical resources, financial management, small and disadvantaged businesses, and policy and plans. Following the discussion about the individual areas is Management's Discussion and Analysis, about NASA's financial statements. This is followed by a report by an independent commercial auditor and the financial statements.

  5. Technological Innovations from NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    The challenge of human space exploration places demands on technology that push concepts and development to the leading edge. In biotechnology and biomedical equipment development, NASA science has been the seed for numerous innovations, many of which are in the commercial arena. The biotechnology effort has led to rational drug design, analytical equipment, and cell culture and tissue engineering strategies. Biomedical research and development has resulted in medical devices that enable diagnosis and treatment advances. NASA Biomedical developments are exemplified in the new laser light scattering analysis for cataracts, the axial flow left ventricular-assist device, non contact electrocardiography, and the guidance system for LASIK surgery. Many more developments are in progress. NASA will continue to advance technologies, incorporating new approaches from basic and applied research, nanotechnology, computational modeling, and database analyses.

  6. NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Horace G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1988, the Scientific Visualization Studio(SVS) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has produced scientific visualizations of NASA s scientific research and remote sensing data for public outreach. These visualizations take the form of images, animations, and end-to-end systems and have been used in many venues: from the network news to science programs such as NOVA, from museum exhibits at the Smithsonian to White House briefings. This presentation will give an overview of the major activities and accomplishments of the SVS, and some of the most interesting projects and systems developed at the SVS will be described. Particular emphasis will be given to the practices and procedures by which the SVS creates visualizations, from the hardware and software used to the structures and collaborations by which products are designed, developed, and delivered to customers. The web-based archival and delivery system for SVS visualizations at svs.gsfc.nasa.gov will also be described.

  7. Ariane: NASA's European rival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The successful test launch of two three-quarter ton satellites in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane rocket last June firmly placed ESA in competition with NASA for the lucrative and growing satellite launching market. Under the auspices of the private (but largely French-government financed) Arianespace company, ESA is already attracting customers to its three-stage rocket by offering low costs.According to recent reports [Nature, 292, pp. 785 and 788, 1981], Arianespace has been able to win several U.S. customers away from NASA, including Southern Pacific Communications, Western Union, RCA, Satellite Television Corporation, and GTE. Nature [292, 1981] magazine in an article entitled ‘More Trouble for the Hapless Shuttle’ suggests that it will be possible for Ariane to charge lower prices for a launch than NASA, even with the space shuttle.

  8. A multi-component matrix loop algebra and a unified expression of the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the multi-component BPT hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    A set of multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devote to obtaining a new loop algebra A-bar M-1 . It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the bi-Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and the formalism of the multi-component BPT hierarchy are given, respectively

  9. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  10. Origami world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja E-mail: kaloper@solid.ucdavis.edu

    2004-05-01

    We paste together patches of AdS{sub 6} to find solutions which describe two 4-branes intersecting on a 3-brane with non-zero tension. We construct explicitly brane arrays with Minkowski, de Sitter and Anti-de Sitter geometries intrinsic to the 3-brane, and describe how to generalize these solutions to the case of AdS{sub 4+n,} n > 2, where n n+2-branes intersect on a 3-brane. The Minkowski and de Sitter solutions localize gravity to the intersection, leading to 4D Newtonian gravity at large distances. We show this explicitly in the case of Minkowski origami by finding the zero-mode graviton, and computing the couplings of the bulk gravitons to the matter on the intersection. In de Sitter case, this follows from the finiteness of the bulk volume. The effective 4D Planck scale depends on the square of the fundamental 6D Planck scale, the AdS{sub 6} radius and the angles between the 4-branes and the radial AdS direction, and for the Minkowski origami it is M{sub 4}{sup 2} = {l_brace}2/3{r_brace}(tan {alpha}{sub 1}+tan {alpha}{sub 2})M{sub *}{sup 4}L{sup 2}. If M{sub *} {approx} few x TeV this may account for the Planck-electroweak hierarchy even if L {approx} 10{sup -4}m, with a possibility for sub-millimeter corrections to the Newton's law. We comment on the early universe cosmology of such models. (author)

  11. NASA research in aeropropulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.L.; Weber, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    Future advances in aircraft propulsion systems will be aided by the research performed by NASA and its contractors. This paper gives selected examples of recent accomplishments and current activities relevant to the principal classes of civil and military aircraft. Some instances of new emerging technologies with potential high impact on further progress are discussed. NASA research described includes noise abatement and fuel economy measures for commercial subsonic, supersonic, commuter, and general aviation aircraft, aircraft engines of the jet, turboprop, diesel and rotary types, VTOL, X-wing rotocraft, helicopters, and ''stealth'' aircraft. Applications to military aircraft are also discussed.

  12. 〈査読付論文〉The Necessity to Advance Disclosing Fair Value by the Hierarchy: Evidence from Literature Review about Fair Value Hierarchy Information

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JIAO

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]This paper aims to discuss the necessity to advance disclosing fair value by hierarchy in Japan by reviewing the literature about fair value hierarchy information in the U.S. In Japan, ASBJ published the Exposure Draft "Accounting Standards on Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure" in 2010 which specifies that the fair value should be reported by hierarchy. However, it has not published as formal standard until March 2016. Furthermore, some commenters suggested that the hierarchy an...

  13. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  14. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  15. ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP UNTUK PENENTUAN RANGKING PENGGUNAAN LAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Theresia Kurniawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In urban spatial planning, the Local Government prioritizes land use to support planning development. The use of available land in an area must be adjusted to the function. So far, sometimes in an area the use of available land in an area does not fit with its function. Therefore, in this research will be determined the priority and ranking of land use by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Ranking is based on four aspect criterias: social demography, economic, spatial and regional plan (RTRW, and environmental aspect. Based on the alternatives and criteria and also subcriteria, the decision hierarchy model is made. Then it will be assessed for the comparison between criterias and subcriterias and their consistency value. The result is achieved by using Expert Choice software version 11 and analysis, it showed that the main priority of land allocation in Sidoarjo regency was used as agricultural land (31.9%.

  16. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-08-01

    The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect of human ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated with the dissipation of resources that are needed to sustain the social links, is revealed.

  17. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Why we live in hierarchies? a quantitative treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Zafeiris, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically interprets and documents new, unifying principles and basic laws describing the most relevant aspects of hierarchy. To do so, it discusses recent experiments and models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the observations, and develops concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many organisms. The book covers systems ranging from flocks of birds to groups of people.   Although it focuses on hierarchical collective behavior in general, two aspects pop up in the majority of cases: collective motion and dynamically changing, partially directed networks (and the natural relation between the two). In addition, it offers a brief description of the most relevant definitions and concepts involved in the context of hierarchies, presenting both a review of the current literature and a number of new experimental and computational results in more detail. It is a valuable resource for students and scholars pursuing research on the structure of in...

  19. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of large communities is inherently associated with the creation of social structures. Connections between individuals are indispensable for cooperative action of agents building social groups. Moreover, social groups usually evolve and their structure changes over time. Consequently, an underlying network connecting individuals is not static, reflecting an ongoing adaptation to new conditions. The evolution of social connections is influenced by the relative position (hierarchy) of individuals building the system as well as by the availability of resources. We explore this aspect of human ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated with the dissipation of resources that are needed to sustain the social links, is revealed. (paper)

  20. Gauge hierarchy in an SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiyong, Z.

    1982-01-01

    An SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified model is constructed in which the gauge hierarchy problem may be solved. Using Higgs superfields belonging to the SO(10) representations 16, 10 and 54, it is found that if SO(10) is broken down to SU(3)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1) via SO(6)xSO(4)approximately equal to SU(4)sub(c)xSU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R) at unification mass scales without supersymmetry breaking, the gauge hierarchy puzzle might be carried away. It is also shown that the colour-triplet Higgs, which mediates proton decay, is superheavy by an incredibly accurate, but 'natural' adjustment of parameters in the potential. (author)