WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchy multiple grid

  1. Multiple Hierarchies and Organizational Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Peter B.

    1975-01-01

    Uses a control-loss model to explore the effects of multiple channels in formal organizations, and presents an argument for the superior control properties of dual hierarchies. Two variant forms of multiple hierarchies are considered. (Author)

  2. Renewable energy integration in smart grids-multicriteria assessment using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    JANJIC, ALEKSANDAR; SAVIC, SUZANA; VELIMIROVIC, LAZAR; NIKOLIC, VESNA

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the traditional way of efficiency assessment of renewable energy sources integration, the smart grid concept is introducing new goals and objectives regarding increased use of renewable electricity sources, grid security, energy conservation, energy efficiency, and deregulated energy market. Possible benefits brought by renewable sources integration are evaluated by the degree of the approach to the ideal smart grid. In this paper, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process methodology for the...

  3. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  4. Static multiresolution grids with inline hierarchy information for cosmic ray propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gero, E-mail: gero.mueller@physik.rwth-aachen.de [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    For numerical simulations of cosmic-ray propagation fast access to static magnetic field data is required. We present a data structure for multiresolution vector grids which is optimized for fast access, low overhead and shared memory use. The hierarchy information is encoded into the grid itself, reducing the memory overhead. Benchmarks show that in certain scenarios the differences in deflections introduced by sampling the magnetic field model can be significantly reduced when using the multiresolution approach.

  5. A Hierarchy of Network Performance Characteristics for Grid Applications and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowekamp, B

    2004-07-06

    This document describes a standard set of network characteristics that are useful for Grid applications and services as well as a classification hierarchy for these characteristics. The goal of this work is to identify the various types of network measurements according to the network characteristic they measure and the network entity on which they are taken. This document defines standard terminology to describe those measurements, but it does not attempt to define new standard measurement methodologies or attempt to define the best measurement methodologies to use for grid applications. However, it does attempt to point out the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methodologies. This document was motivated by the need for the interchange of measurements taken by various systems in the Grid and to develop a common dictionary to facilitate discussions about and specifications for measurement systems. The application of this naming system will facilitate the creation of common schemata for describing network monitoring data in Grid Monitoring and Discovery Services, and thus help to address portability issues between the wide variety of network measurements used between sites of a Grid.

  6. Resilience of Urban Smart Grids Involving Multiple Control Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Theilgaard; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent control of energy distribution grids is implemented via a hierarchy of control loops with different input values and different control targets, which also work on different time-scales. This control is enabled by a bi-directional communication flow, which can be interrupted due to ICT...

  7. Standard model fermion hierarchies with multiple Higgs doublets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaguren-Beascoa Negre, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchies between the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixing angles and the origin of neutrino masses are two of the biggest mysteries in particle physics. We extend the SM with new Higgs doublets to solve these issues. The lightest fermion masses and the mixing angles are generated through radiative effects, correctly reproducing the hierarchy pattern. Neutrino masses are generated in the see-saw mechanism.

  8. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  9. Coordinated learning of grid cell and place cell spatial and temporal properties: multiple scales, attention and oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Pilly, Praveen K

    2014-02-05

    A neural model proposes how entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells may develop as spatial categories in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps (SOMs). The model responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning both grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales, and place cells with one or more firing fields, that match neurophysiological data about their development in juvenile rats. Both grid and place cells can develop by detecting, learning and remembering the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The model's parsimonious properties include: similar ring attractor mechanisms process linear and angular path integration inputs that drive map learning; the same SOM mechanisms can learn grid cell and place cell receptive fields; and the learning of the dorsoventral organization of multiple spatial scale modules through medial entorhinal cortex to hippocampus (HC) may use mechanisms homologous to those for temporal learning through lateral entorhinal cortex to HC ('neural relativity'). The model clarifies how top-down HC-to-entorhinal attentional mechanisms may stabilize map learning, simulates how hippocampal inactivation may disrupt grid cells, and explains data about theta, beta and gamma oscillations. The article also compares the three main types of grid cell models in the light of recent data.

  10. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  11. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO 1 sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {r x (angular coordinates)} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN Γ-tilde i (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor φ as for Γ-tilde i and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m 2 = 0.6, I present evolutions to t ∼> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme

  12. Black-hole excision with multiple grid patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-08-07

    When using black-hole excision to numerically evolve a black-hole spacetime with no continuous symmetries, most 3 + 1 finite differencing codes use a Cartesian grid. It is difficult to do excision on such a grid because the natural r = constant excision surface must be approximated either by a very different shape such as a contained cube, or by an irregular and non-smooth 'LEGO{sup 1} sphere' which may introduce numerical instabilities into the evolution. In this paper I describe an alternate scheme which uses multiple {l_brace}r x (angular coordinates){r_brace} grid patches, each patch using a different (nonsingular) choice of angular coordinates. This allows excision on a smooth r = constant 2-sphere. I discuss the key design choices in such a multiple-patch scheme, including the choice of ghost-zone versus internal-boundary treatment of the interpatch boundaries (I use a ghost-zone scheme), the number and shape of the patches (I use a 6-patch 'inflated-cube' scheme), the details of how the ghost zones are 'synchronized' by interpolation from neighbouring patches, the tensor basis for the Einstein equations in each patch, and the handling of non-tensor field variables such as the BSSN {gamma}-tilde{sup i} (I use a scheme which requires ghost zones which are twice as wide for the BSSN conformal factor {phi} as for {gamma}-tilde{sup i} and the other BSSN field variables). I present sample numerical results from a prototype implementation of this scheme. This code simulates the time evolution of the (asymptotically flat) spacetime around a single (excised) black hole, using fourth-order finite differencing in space and time. Using Kerr initial data with J/m{sup 2} = 0.6, I present evolutions to t {approx}> 1500m. The lifetime of these evolutions appears to be limited only by outer boundary instabilities, not by any excision instabilities or by any problems inherent to the multiple-patch scheme.

  13. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  14. Mass hierarchy sensitivity of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong-Xin, E-mail: hxwang@iphy.me [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhan, Liang; Li, Yu-Feng; Cao, Guo-Fu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Shen-Jian [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-05-15

    We report the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) determination of medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with multiple detectors, where the sensitivity of measuring the MH can be significantly improved by adding a near detector. Then the impact of the baseline and target mass of the near detector on the combined MH sensitivity has been studied thoroughly. The optimal selections of the baseline and target mass of the near detector are ∼12.5 km and ∼4 kton respectively for a far detector with the target mass of 20 kton and the baseline of 52.5 km. As typical examples of future medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments, the optimal location and target mass of the near detector are selected for the specific configurations of JUNO and RENO-50. Finally, we discuss distinct effects of the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum uncertainty for setups of a single detector and double detectors, which indicate that the spectrum uncertainty can be well constrained in the presence of the near detector.

  15. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  16. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

  17. Hydrologic extremes - an intercomparison of multiple gridded statistical downscaling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Arelia T.; Cannon, Alex J.

    2016-04-01

    Gridded statistical downscaling methods are the main means of preparing climate model data to drive distributed hydrological models. Past work on the validation of climate downscaling methods has focused on temperature and precipitation, with less attention paid to the ultimate outputs from hydrological models. Also, as attention shifts towards projections of extreme events, downscaling comparisons now commonly assess methods in terms of climate extremes, but hydrologic extremes are less well explored. Here, we test the ability of gridded downscaling models to replicate historical properties of climate and hydrologic extremes, as measured in terms of temporal sequencing (i.e. correlation tests) and distributional properties (i.e. tests for equality of probability distributions). Outputs from seven downscaling methods - bias correction constructed analogues (BCCA), double BCCA (DBCCA), BCCA with quantile mapping reordering (BCCAQ), bias correction spatial disaggregation (BCSD), BCSD using minimum/maximum temperature (BCSDX), the climate imprint delta method (CI), and bias corrected CI (BCCI) - are used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model over the snow-dominated Peace River basin, British Columbia. Outputs are tested using split-sample validation on 26 climate extremes indices (ClimDEX) and two hydrologic extremes indices (3-day peak flow and 7-day peak flow). To characterize observational uncertainty, four atmospheric reanalyses are used as climate model surrogates and two gridded observational data sets are used as downscaling target data. The skill of the downscaling methods generally depended on reanalysis and gridded observational data set. However, CI failed to reproduce the distribution and BCSD and BCSDX the timing of winter 7-day low-flow events, regardless of reanalysis or observational data set. Overall, DBCCA passed the greatest number of tests for the ClimDEX indices, while BCCAQ, which is designed to more accurately resolve event

  18. An AC/AC Direct Power Conversion Topology Having Multiple Power Grid Connections with Adjustable Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    independent producers/consumers to connect to multiple distribution grids in order to optimise the electricity price, as this will vary during the day from one power distribution company to another one. It will be needed to have a load that can smoothly adjust the power consumed from each power grid in order......Normally, a power converter has one supply port to connect to the power grid and one or multiple output ports to connect to AC loads that require variable voltage and variable frequency. As the trend on the energy market is towards deregulation, new converter topologies are needed to allow...... to minimize the overall energy cost or in case of special applications, to improve the system redundancy. Also, having a generator that can simultaneously feed fractions of its power into multiple grids which are not coupled (different voltage, frequency, displacement angle) and continuously adjust...

  19. Modularization and epistatic hierarchy determine homeostatic actions of multiple blood pressure quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Cristina; Crespo, Kimberley; Ménard, Annie; Roy, Julie; Deng, Alan Y

    2013-11-15

    Hypertension, the most frequently diagnosed clinical condition world-wide, predisposes individuals to morbidity and mortality, yet its underlying pathological etiologies are poorly understood. So far, a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified in both humans and animal models, but how they function together in determining overall blood pressure (BP) in physiological settings is unknown. Here, we systematically and comprehensively performed pair-wise comparisons of individual QTLs to create a global picture of their functionality in an inbred rat model. Rather than each of numerous QTLs contributing to infinitesimal BP increments, a modularized pattern arises: two epistatic 'blocks' constitute basic functional 'units' for nearly all QTLs, designated as epistatic module 1 (EM1) and EM2. This modularization dictates the magnitude and scope of BP effects. Any EM1 member can contribute to BP additively to that of EM2, but not to those of the same module. Members of each EM display epistatic hierarchy, which seems to reflect a related functional pathway. Rat homologues of 11 human BP QTLs belong to either EM1 or EM2. Unique insights emerge into the novel genetic mechanism and hierarchy determining BP in the Dahl salt-sensitive SS/Jr (DSS) rat model that implicate a portion of human QTLs. Elucidating the pathways underlying EM1 and EM2 may reveal the genetic regulation of BP.

  20. Autonomous management of a recursive area hierarchy for large scale wireless sensor networks using multiple parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan Vee [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Delgado-Frias, Jose [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  1. Disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy: effect of host spatial structure and of inoculum quantity and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosme, Marie; Lucas, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Spatial patterns of both the host and the disease influence disease spread and crop losses. Therefore, the manipulation of these patterns might help improve control strategies. Considering disease spread across multiple scales in a spatial hierarchy allows one to capture important features of epidemics developing in space without using explicitly spatialized variables. Thus, if the system under study is composed of roots, plants, and planting hills, the effect of host spatial pattern can be studied by varying the number of plants per planting hill. A simulation model based on hierarchy theory was used to simulate the effects of large versus small planting hills, low versus high level of initial infections, and aggregated versus uniform distribution of initial infections. The results showed that aggregating the initially infected plants always resulted in slower epidemics than spreading out the initial infections uniformly. Simulation results also showed that, in most cases, disease epidemics were slower in the case of large host aggregates (100 plants/hill) than with smaller aggregates (25 plants/hill), except when the initially infected plants were both numerous and spread out uniformly. The optimal strategy for disease control depends on several factors, including initial conditions. More importantly, the model offers a framework to account for the interplay between the spatial characteristics of the system, rates of infection, and aggregation of the disease.

  2. Biased Competition in Visual Processing Hierarchies: A Learning Approach Using Multiple Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepperth, Alexander R T; Rebhan, Sven; Hasler, Stephan; Fritsch, Jannik

    2011-03-01

    In this contribution, we present a large-scale hierarchical system for object detection fusing bottom-up (signal-driven) processing results with top-down (model or task-driven) attentional modulation. Specifically, we focus on the question of how the autonomous learning of invariant models can be embedded into a performing system and how such models can be used to define object-specific attentional modulation signals. Our system implements bi-directional data flow in a processing hierarchy. The bottom-up data flow proceeds from a preprocessing level to the hypothesis level where object hypotheses created by exhaustive object detection algorithms are represented in a roughly retinotopic way. A competitive selection mechanism is used to determine the most confident hypotheses, which are used on the system level to train multimodal models that link object identity to invariant hypothesis properties. The top-down data flow originates at the system level, where the trained multimodal models are used to obtain space- and feature-based attentional modulation signals, providing biases for the competitive selection process at the hypothesis level. This results in object-specific hypothesis facilitation/suppression in certain image regions which we show to be applicable to different object detection mechanisms. In order to demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we apply the system to the detection of cars in a variety of challenging traffic videos. Evaluating our approach on a publicly available dataset containing approximately 3,500 annotated video images from more than 1 h of driving, we can show strong increases in performance and generalization when compared to object detection in isolation. Furthermore, we compare our results to a late hypothesis rejection approach, showing that early coupling of top-down and bottom-up information is a favorable approach especially when processing resources are constrained.

  3. Multitasking for flows about multiple body configurations using the chimera grid scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, F. C.; Morgan, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The multitasking of a finite-difference scheme using multiple overset meshes is described. In this chimera, or multiple overset mesh approach, a multiple body configuration is mapped using a major grid about the main component of the configuration, with minor overset meshes used to map each additional component. This type of code is well suited to multitasking. Both steady and unsteady two dimensional computations are run on parallel processors on a CRAY-X/MP 48, usually with one mesh per processor. Flow field results are compared with single processor results to demonstrate the feasibility of running multiple mesh codes on parallel processors and to show the increase in efficiency.

  4. Harmonic resonance assessment of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverters system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an eigenvalue-based impedance stability analytical method of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverter system. Different from the conventional impedance-based stability criterion, this work first built the state-space model of paralleled grid-connected inverters. On the basis...... of this, a bridge between the state-space-based modelling and impedance-based stability criterion is presented. The proposed method is able to perform stability assessment locally at the connection points of the component. Meanwhile, the eigenvalue-based sensitivity analysis is adopted to identify...

  5. Higgsplosion: Solving the hierarchy problem via rapid decays of heavy states into multiple Higgs bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We introduce and discuss two inter-related mechanisms operative in the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at high energies. Higgsplosion, the first mechanism, occurs at some critical energy in the 25 to 103 TeV range, and leads to an exponentially growing decay rate of highly energetic particles into multiple Higgs bosons. We argue that this is a well-controlled non-perturbative phenomenon in the Higgs-sector which involves the final state Higgs multiplicities n in the regime nλ ≫ 1 where λ is the Higgs self-coupling. If this mechanism is realised in nature, the cross-sections for producing ultra-high multiplicities of Higgs bosons are likely to become observable and even dominant in this energy range. At the same time, however, the apparent exponential growth of these cross-sections at even higher energies will be tamed and automatically cut-off by a related Higgspersion mechanism. As a result, and in contrast to previous studies, multi-Higgs production does not violate perturbative unitarity. Building on this approach, we then argue that the effects of Higgsplosion alter quantum corrections from very heavy states to the Higgs boson mass. Above a certain energy, which is much smaller than their masses, these states would rapidly decay into multiple Higgs bosons. The heavy states become unrealised as they decay much faster than they are formed. The loop integrals contributing to the Higgs mass will be cut off not by the masses of the heavy states, but by the characteristic loop momenta where their decay widths become comparable to their masses. Hence, the cut-off scale would be many orders of magnitude lower than the heavy mass scales themselves, thus suppressing their quantum corrections to the Higgs boson mass.

  6. Using Multiple Monthly Water Balance Models to Evaluate Gridded Precipitation Products over Peninsular Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Senent-Aparicio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of precipitation data is the key driver in the application of hydrological models when simulating streamflow. Ground weather stations are regularly used to measure precipitation. However, spatial coverage is often limited in low-population areas and mountain areas. To overcome this limitation, gridded datasets from remote sensing have been widely used. This study evaluates four widely used global precipitation datasets (GPDs: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B43, the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN, and the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP, against point gauge and gridded dataset observations using multiple monthly water balance models (MWBMs in four different meso-scale basins that cover the main climatic zones of Peninsular Spain. The volumes of precipitation obtained from the GPDs tend to be smaller than those from the gauged data. Results underscore the superiority of the national gridded dataset, although the TRMM provides satisfactory results in simulating streamflow, reaching similar Nash-Sutcliffe values, between 0.70 and 0.95, and an average total volume error of 12% when using the GR2M model. The performance of GPDs highly depends on the climate, so that the more humid the watershed is, the better results can be achieved. The procedures used can be applied in regions with similar case studies to more accurately assess the resources within a system in which there is scarcity of recorded data available.

  7. Short term scheduling of multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cells for microgrid applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkh, M.Y.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M.S. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a short term scheduling scheme for multiple grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) connected to supply electrical and thermal energy to a microgrid community. As in the case of regular power plants, short term scheduling of FCPP is also a cost-based optimization problem that includes the cost of operation, thermal power recovery, and the power trade with the local utility grid. Due to the ability of the microgrid community to trade power with the local grid, the power balance constraint is not applicable, other constraints like the real power operating limits of the FCPP, and minimum up and down time are therefore used. To solve the short term scheduling problem of the FCPPs, a hybrid technique based on evolutionary programming (EP) and hill climbing technique (HC) is used. The EP is used to estimate the optimal schedule and the output power from each FCPP. The HC technique is used to monitor the feasibility of the solution during the search process. The short term scheduling problem is used to estimate the schedule and the electrical and thermal power output of five FCPPs supplying a maximum power of 300 kW. (author)

  8. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... on delegation by providing insights into when and how interrelated decisions are delegated across multiple levels of an organizational hierarchy....

  9. Advanced correlation grid: Analysis and visualisation of functional connectivity among multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Mohammad Shahed; Borisyuk, Roman; Stuart, Liz

    2017-07-15

    This study analyses multiple spike trains (MST) data, defines its functional connectivity and subsequently visualises an accurate diagram of connections. This is a challenging problem. For example, it is difficult to distinguish the common input and the direct functional connection of two spike trains. The new method presented in this paper is based on the traditional pairwise cross-correlation function (CCF) and a new combination of statistical techniques. First, the CCF is used to create the Advanced Correlation Grid (ACG) correlation where both the significant peak of the CCF and the corresponding time delay are used for detailed analysis of connectivity. Second, these two features of functional connectivity are used to classify connections. Finally, the visualization technique is used to represent the topology of functional connections. Examples are presented in the paper to demonstrate the new Advanced Correlation Grid method and to show how it enables discrimination between (i) influence from one spike train to another through an intermediate spike train and (ii) influence from one common spike train to another pair of analysed spike trains. The ACG method enables scientists to automatically distinguish between direct connections from spurious connections such as common source connection and indirect connection whereas existing methods require in-depth analysis to identify such connections. The ACG is a new and effective method for studying functional connectivity of multiple spike trains. This method can identify accurately all the direct connections and can distinguish common source and indirect connections automatically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the Reliability of Optimised Link State Routing in a Smart Grid Neighbour Area Network based Wireless Mesh Network Using Multiple Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Tsado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable communication is the backbone of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI. Within the AMI, the neighbourhood area network (NAN transports a multitude of traffic, each with unique requirements. In order to deliver an acceptable level of reliability and latency, the underlying network, such as the wireless mesh network(WMN, must provide or guarantee the quality-of-service (QoS level required by the respective application traffic. Existing WMN routing protocols, such as optimised link state routing (OLSR, typically utilise a single metric and do not consider the requirements of individual traffic; hence, packets are delivered on a best-effort basis. This paper presents a QoS-aware WMN routing technique that employs multiple metrics in OLSR optimal path selection for AMI applications. The problems arising from this approach are non deterministic polynomial time (NP-complete in nature, which were solved through the combined use of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP algorithm and pruning techniques. For smart meters transmitting Internet Protocol (IP packets of varying sizes at different intervals, the proposed technique considers the constraints of NAN and the applications’ traffic characteristics. The technique was developed by combining multiple OLSR path selection metrics with the AHP algorithminns-2. Compared with the conventional link metric in OLSR, the results show improvements of about 23% and 45% in latency and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, respectively, in a 25-node grid NAN.

  11. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    projects works in the interface between communication and organisation. Third, the methodological purpose is to show that handling of these participatory hierarchies ought to become a goal in OAR projects to be included along with producing practical and theoretical results. The article argues...

  12. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  13. Novel Control Strategy for Multiple Run-of-the-River Hydro Power Plants to Provide Grid Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    Electricity generated by Hydropower Plants (HPPs) contributes a considerable portion of bulk electricity generation and delivers it with a low carbon footprint. In fact, HPP electricity generation provides the largest share from renewable energy resources, which includes solar and wind energy. The increasing penetration of wind and solar penetration leads to a lowered inertia in the grid and hence poses stability challenges. In recent years, breakthrough in energy storage technologies have demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of extensive deployments in power grids. Multiple ROR HPPs if integrated with scalable, multi time-step energy storage so that the total output can be controlled. Although, the size of a single energy storage is far smaller than that of a typical reservoir, cohesively managing multiple sets of energy storage distributed in different locations is proposed. The ratings of storages and multiple ROR HPPs approximately equals the rating of a large, conventional HPP. The challenges associated with the system architecture and operation are described. Energy storage technologies such as supercapacitors, flywheels, batteries etc. can function as a dispatchable synthetic reservoir with a scalable size of energy storage will be integrated. Supercapacitors, flywheels, and battery are chosen to provide fast, medium, and slow responses to support grid requirements. Various dynamic and transient power grid conditions are simulated and performances of integrated ROR HPPs with energy storage is provided. The end goal of this research is to investigate the inertial equivalence of a large, conventional HPP with a unique set of multiple ROR HPPs and optimally rated energy storage systems.

  14. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  15. Improved hybridization of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) algorithm with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiwani, B. E.; Zarlis, M.; Efendi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, the improvement of hybridization algorithm of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) with Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) in selecting the best bank chief inspector based on several qualitative and quantitative criteria with various priorities. To improve the performance of the above research, FAHP algorithm hybridization with Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making - Simple Additive Weighting (FMADM-SAW) algorithm was adopted, which applied FAHP algorithm to the weighting process and SAW for the ranking process to determine the promotion of employee at a government institution. The result of improvement of the average value of Efficiency Rate (ER) is 85.24%, which means that this research has succeeded in improving the previous research that is equal to 77.82%. Keywords: Ranking and Selection, Fuzzy AHP, Fuzzy TOPSIS, FMADM-SAW.

  16. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, Andrew; Zhu Zuonong

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula

  17. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  18. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  19. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  20. Visualising large hierarchies with Flextree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongzhi; Curran, Edwin P.; Sterritt, Roy

    2003-05-01

    One of the main tasks in Information Visualisation research is creating visual tools to facilitate human understanding of large and complex information spaces. Hierarchies, being a good mechanism in organising such information, are ubiquitous. Although much research effort has been spent on finding useful representations for hierarchies, visualising large hierarchies is still a difficult topic. One of the difficulties is how to show both tructure and node content information in one view. Another is how to achieve multiple foci in a focus+context visualisation. This paper describes a novel hierarchy visualisation technique called FlexTree to address these problems. It contains some important features that have not been exploited so far. In this visualisation, a profile or contour unique to the hierarchy being visualised can be gained in a histogram-like layout. A normalised view of a common attribute of all nodes can be acquired, and selection of this attribute is controllable by the user. Multiple foci are consistently accessible within a global context through interaction. Furthermore it can handle a large hierarchy that contains several thousand nodes in a PC environment. In addition results from an informal evaluation are also presented.

  1. How entorhinal grid cells may learn multiple spatial scales from a dorsoventral gradient of cell response rates in a self-organizing map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Grossberg

    Full Text Available Place cells in the hippocampus of higher mammals are critical for spatial navigation. Recent modeling clarifies how this may be achieved by how grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC input to place cells. Grid cells exhibit hexagonal grid firing patterns across space in multiple spatial scales along the MEC dorsoventral axis. Signals from grid cells of multiple scales combine adaptively to activate place cells that represent much larger spaces than grid cells. But how do grid cells learn to fire at multiple positions that form a hexagonal grid, and with spatial scales that increase along the dorsoventral axis? In vitro recordings of medial entorhinal layer II stellate cells have revealed subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (MPOs whose temporal periods, and time constants of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs, both increase along this axis. Slower (faster subthreshold MPOs and slower (faster EPSPs correlate with larger (smaller grid spacings and field widths. A self-organizing map neural model explains how the anatomical gradient of grid spatial scales can be learned by cells that respond more slowly along the gradient to their inputs from stripe cells of multiple scales, which perform linear velocity path integration. The model cells also exhibit MPO frequencies that covary with their response rates. The gradient in intrinsic rhythmicity is thus not compelling evidence for oscillatory interference as a mechanism of grid cell firing. A response rate gradient combined with input stripe cells that have normalized receptive fields can reproduce all known spatial and temporal properties of grid cells along the MEC dorsoventral axis. This spatial gradient mechanism is homologous to a gradient mechanism for temporal learning in the lateral entorhinal cortex and its hippocampal projections. Spatial and temporal representations may hereby arise from homologous mechanisms, thereby embodying a mechanistic "neural relativity" that

  2. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    essentially means it is applicable to any EV complying with IEC 61851 and SAE J1772 standards. The field test validation is conducted in a real Danish distribution grid with a Nissan Leaf providing three ancillary services through unidirectional AC charging, namely congestion management, local voltage support...

  3. Topology identification for multiple-bus DC MicroGrids via primary control perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Least Squares Estimation procedure for estimating the admittance matrix of multi-bus DC MicroGrids (MGs). In the proposed solution, the generators simultaneously inject training signals in the form of small deterministic perturbations of the primary droop control parameters and measure...

  4. Grid Synchronization of Power Converters using Multiple Second Order Generalized Integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Candela, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new frequency-adaptive synchronization method for grid-connected power converters which allows estimating not only the positive- and negative- sequence components of the power signal at the fundamental frequency, but also other sequence components at higher frequencies. The ...

  5. Novel Control Strategy for Multiple Run-of-the-River Hydro Power Plants to Provide Grid Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanpurkar, Manish; Luo, Yusheng; Hovsapian, Rob; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Koritarov, Vladimir

    2017-07-12

    Hydropower plant (HPP) generation comprises a considerable portion of bulk electricity generation and is delivered with a low-carbon footprint. In fact, HPP electricity generation provides the largest share from renewable energy resources, which include wind and solar. Increasing penetration levels of wind and solar lead to a lower inertia on the electric grid, which poses stability challenges. In recent years, breakthroughs in energy storage technologies have demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of extensive deployments of renewable energy resources on electric grids. If integrated with scalable, multi-time-step energy storage so that the total output can be controlled, multiple run-of-the-river (ROR) HPPs can be deployed. Although the size of a single energy storage system is much smaller than that of a typical reservoir, the ratings of storages and multiple ROR HPPs approximately equal the rating of a large, conventional HPP. This paper proposes cohesively managing multiple sets of energy storage systems distributed in different locations. This paper also describes the challenges associated with ROR HPP system architecture and operation.

  6. WISDOM-II: Screening against multiple targets implicated in malaria using computational grid infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuous efforts of the international community to reduce the impact of malaria on developing countries, no significant progress has been made in the recent years and the discovery of new drugs is more than ever needed. Out of the many proteins involved in the metabolic activities of the Plasmodium parasite, some are promising targets to carry out rational drug discovery. Motivation Recent years have witnessed the emergence of grids, which are highly distributed computing infrastructures particularly well fitted for embarrassingly parallel computations like docking. In 2005, a first attempt at using grids for large-scale virtual screening focused on plasmepsins and ended up in the identification of previously unknown scaffolds, which were confirmed in vitro to be active plasmepsin inhibitors. Following this success, a second deployment took place in the fall of 2006 focussing on one well known target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, and on a new promising one, glutathione-S-transferase. Methods In silico drug design, especially vHTS is a widely and well-accepted technology in lead identification and lead optimization. This approach, therefore builds, upon the progress made in computational chemistry to achieve more accurate in silico docking and in information technology to design and operate large scale grid infrastructures. Results On the computational side, a sustained infrastructure has been developed: docking at large scale, using different strategies in result analysis, storing of the results on the fly into MySQL databases and application of molecular dynamics refinement are MM-PBSA and MM-GBSA rescoring. The modeling results obtained are very promising. Based on the modeling results, In vitro results are underway for all the targets against which screening is performed. Conclusion The current paper describes the rational drug discovery activity at large scale, especially molecular docking using FlexX software

  7. ‘Domesticating’ low carbon thermal technologies: Diversity, multiplicity and variability in older person, off grid households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrapson, Wendy; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of low carbon heating technologies forms an important part of government strategies to reduce carbon emissions. Yet our understanding of why such technologies are adopted and how they are engaged with post-adoption, particularly by older adults living in off-grid areas, is limited. Drawing on a contextualised, socio-technical approach to domestic heating, we present findings from 51 in-depth interviews with a sample of 17 older person households in the South West of England, with ages ranging from 60 to 89 years. Diverse and multiple configurations of heating devices and fuels were found that varied considerably, with some households using five different fuels. The design of the study ensured that approximately half the sample used some form of low carbon thermal technology, such as heat pumps and biomass boilers. Many factors were reported to influence the adoption of low carbon heating; environmental motives were not primary influences and the avoidance of financial risks associated with ‘peak oil’ was expressed. Low carbon thermal technologies were typically integrated into rather than replaced existing heating systems so that valued services provided by conventional technologies could be retained. Implications of the findings for policies to reduce carbon emissions, particularly in older adult, off-grid households, are discussed. - Highlights: • We interviewed 17 households with conventional/low carbon thermal technologies (LCTTs) in South West England. • Older adult, off grid households commonly use multiple, diverse and variable heating technologies and fuels. • Reducing fuel costs was a key reason for installing LCTTs. • LCTTs more commonly were integrated with, rather than replaced, conventional technologies. • Expected reductions in domestic carbon emissions due to LCTTs may not be realised

  8. gLibrary/DRI: A grid-based platform to host multiple repositories for digital content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calanducci, A.; Gonzalez Martin, J. M.; Ramos Pollan, R.; Rubio del Solar, M.; Tcaci, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present the gLibrary/DRI (Digital Repositories Infrastructure) platform. gLibrary/DRI extends gLibrary, a system with a easy-to-use web front-end designed to save and organize multimedia assets on Grid-based storage resources. The main goal of the extended platform is to reduce the cost in terms of time and effort that a repository provider spends to get its repository deployed. This is achieved by providing a common infrastructure and a set of mechanisms (APIs and specifications) that the repository providers use to define the data model, the access to the content (by navigation trees and filters) and the storage model. DRI offers a generic way to provide all this functionality; nevertheless the providers can add specific behaviours to the default functions for their repositories. The architecture is Grid based (VO system, data federation and distribution, computing power, etc). A working example based on a mammograms repository is also presented. (Author)

  9. Toppling hierarchies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests how we should study media and information literacies (MIL) and do so at a time, when young people nurture these literacies through multiple media practices and across spaces of learning. Our basic argument is this: in order to gain a robust knowledge base for the development...... of MIL we need to study literacy practices beyond print literacy and numeracy, and we need to study these practices beyond formal spaces of learning. The argument is unfolded with particular focus on ethnic minority youth since this group routinely figures as under-achieving in studies of school literacy......, such as Programme for International Student Assessment. Based on a brief overview of literacy studies in view of digitization and a critical examination of recent studies of youthful media practices and ethnicity, the argument is illustrated through an empirical analysis that draws on results from a nationally...

  10. On the ILW hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutiya, Y.; Satsuma, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new hierarchy which includes the intermediate long wave (ILW) equation at the lowest order. This hierarchy is thought to be a novel reduction of the 1st modified KP type hierarchy. The framework of our investigation is Sato theory

  11. Smart transactive energy framework in grid-connected multiple home microgrids under independent and coalition operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Azarinejadian, Fatemeh; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a smart Transactive energy (TE) framework in which home microgrids (H-MGs) can collaborate with each other in a multiple H-MG system by forming coalitions for gaining competitiveness in the market. Profit allocation due to coalition between H-MGs is an important issue...... for ensuring the optimal use of installed resources in the whole multiple H-MG system. In addition, considering demand fluctuations, energy production based on renewable resources in the multiple H-MG can be accomplished by demand-side management strategies that try to establish mechanisms to allow...... for a flatter demand curve. In this regard, demand shifting potential can be tapped through shifting certain amounts of energy demand from some time periods to others with lower expected demand, typically to match price values and to ensure that existing generation will be economically sufficient. It is also...

  12. Smart transactive energy framework in grid-connected multiple home microgrids under independent and coalition operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzband, Mousa; Azarinejadian, Fatemeh; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a smart Transactive energy (TE) framework in which home microgrids (H-MGs) can collaborate with each other in a multiple H-MG system by forming coalitions for gaining competitiveness in the market. Profit allocation due to coalition between H-MGs is an important issue...

  13. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Multiple Photovoltaic Inverters' Volt-Var Control with Real-Time Grid Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Anderson

    2016-12-12

    Traditional testing methods fall short in evaluating interactions between multiple smart inverters providing advanced grid support functions due to the fact that such interactions largely depend on their placements on the electric distribution systems with impedances between them. Even though significant concerns have been raised by the utilities on the effects of such interactions, little effort has been made to evaluate them. In this paper, power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) based testing was utilized to evaluate autonomous volt-var operations of multiple smart photovoltaic (PV) inverters connected to a simple distribution feeder model. The results provided in this paper show that depending on volt-var control (VVC) parameters and grid parameters, interaction between inverters and between the inverter and the grid is possible in some extreme cases with very high VVC slopes, fast response times and large VVC response delays.

  14. A Stackelberg Game Approach for Energy Outage-Aware Power Distribution of an Off-Grid Base Station over Multiple Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyun Jeon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of power distribution for an off-grid base station (BS that operates sustainably without an electrical grid. We consider that multiple retailers with heterogeneous renewable energy sources (RESs compete to maximize their revenues by individually setting the unit power price. Energy outages (EOs, which cause the power supply to fall below that which is sufficient for ensuring the traffic arrival rate required for the off-grid BS, critically affect the users’ service quality. To minimize EOs and operational expenditure (OPEX, the off-grid BS manages the power supply by reacting to the retailers’ pricing decisions. We analyze the economic benefits of power distribution to the off-grid BS from the perspective of the retailers’ pricing competition, by designing a hierarchical decision-making scheme as a multi-leader single-follower Stackelberg game. We derive a closed form expression for the optimal behavior of the off-grid BS and retailers, based on well-designed utility functions. Finally, numerical results demonstrate the proposed solution with its practical convergence time.

  15. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  16. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  17. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  18. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. Lastly, we show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV

  19. Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhong; He Jingsong; Cheng Yi

    2004-01-01

    We study the Baecklund transformation of the noncommutative Gelfand-Dickey(ncGD) hierarchy. By factorizing its Lax operator into the multiplication form of first order differential operator, the noncommutative modified KdV(ncMKdV) hierarchy and the Miura transformations are defined. Our results show that the ncMKdV equations are invariant under the cyclic permutation, and hence induces the Baecklund transformation of the ncGD hierarchy. (author)

  20. Integral hierarchies and percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Stell, G.

    1985-01-01

    For a variation of the Potts model which has been shown to describe continuum percolation, we derive a hierarchy of integral equations of Kirkwood-Salsburg type. The distribution functions which are the solutions of this hierarchy can be simply related to the connectedness functions in continuum percolation. From this hierarchy a second set of equations is derived from which the connectedness functions can be obtained directly. This approach is extremely useful when investigating properties of systems far from the percolation transition. These hierarchies are solved exactly in the mean-field (Kac-Baker) limit and possible implications for cluster growth are discussed. The relation between the Potts model for continuum percolation and the Widom-Rowlinson model is also noted

  1. MODFLOW–LGR—Documentation of ghost node local grid refinement (LGR2) for multiple areas and the boundary flow and head (BFH2) package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the addition of ghost node Local Grid Refinement (LGR2) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model. LGR2 provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow using multiple block-shaped higher-resolution local grids (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR2 accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the grid-refinement interface boundary. LGR2 can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled ghost-node method of LGR2 provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR2, evaluates accuracy and performance for two-and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH2) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR2.

  2. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  3. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  5. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  6. Learning of Alignment Rules between Concept Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichise, Ryutaro; Takeda, Hideaki; Honiden, Shinichi

    With the rapid advances of information technology, we are acquiring much information than ever before. As a result, we need tools for organizing this data. Concept hierarchies such as ontologies and information categorizations are powerful and convenient methods for accomplishing this goal, which have gained wide spread acceptance. Although each concept hierarchy is useful, it is difficult to employ multiple concept hierarchies at the same time because it is hard to align their conceptual structures. This paper proposes a rule learning method that inputs information from a source concept hierarchy and finds suitable location for them in a target hierarchy. The key idea is to find the most similar categories in each hierarchy, where similarity is measured by the κ(kappa) statistic that counts instances belonging to both categories. In order to evaluate our method, we conducted experiments using two internet directories: Yahoo! and LYCOS. We map information instances from the source directory into the target directory, and show that our learned rules agree with a human-generated assignment 76% of the time.

  7. Integrable Hierarchies and Dispersionless Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Takebe, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Analogues of the KP and the Toda lattice hierarchy called dispersionless KP and Toda hierarchy are studied. Dressing operations in the dispersionless hierarchies are introduced as a canonical transformation, quantization of which is dressing operators of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy. An alternative construction of general solutions of the ordinary KP and Toda hierarchy is given as twistor construction which is quatization of the similar construction of solutions of dispersionless hierar...

  8. In praise of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, E

    1990-01-01

    Hierarchy has not had its day. After 3,000 years as the preferred structure for large organizations, managerial hierarchy is still the most natural and effective organizational form that a big company can employ. Now, as in the past, the key to organizational success is individual accountability, and hierarchy preserves unambiguous accountability for getting work done. Unfortunately, hierarchy is widely misunderstood and abused. Pay grades are confused with real layers of responsibility, for example, and incompetent bosses abound. As a result, many experts now urge us to adopt group-oriented or "flat" structures. But groups are never held accountable as groups for what they do or fail to do, and groups don't have careers. The proper use of hierarchy derives from the nature of work. As organizational tasks range from simple to very complex, there are sharp jumps in the level of difficulty and responsibility. Surprisingly, people in hundreds of companies in dozens of countries agree on where these jumps take place. They are tied to an objective measure-the time span of the longest task or program assigned to each managerial role-and they occur at 3 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 20 years. As the time span increases, so does the level of experience, knowledge, and mental stamina required to do the work. This increasing level of mental capacity lets companies put people in jobs they can do, it allows managers to add value to the work of their subordinates, it creates hierarchical layers acceptable to everyone in the organization, and it allows employees to be evaluated by people they accept as organizational superiors. Best of all, understanding hierarchy allows organizations to set up hierarchies with no more than seven layers-often fewer-and to know what the structure is good for and how it ought to perform.

  9. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C; Vigsoe, D [eds.

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  10. Comments on gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in a O(N) model is discussed. It is shown the existence of an upper bound for the hierarchy of order α- 1 / 2 , as proposed by Gildener. This same constraint appears when the breaking is made by the radiative corrections in a scheme elaborated by Weinberg. It is found that fine tunning or redefinition of coupling constants to improve hieracrchy, as proposed in several papers, cannot be done before the calculation of higher order contributions to the effective potential. (Author) [pt

  11. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  12. Materials with structural hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Roderic

    1993-01-01

    The role of structural hierarchy in determining bulk material properties is examined. Dense hierarchical materials are discussed, including composites and polycrystals, polymers, and biological materials. Hierarchical cellular materials are considered, including cellular solids and the prediction of strength and stiffness in hierarchical cellular materials.

  13. Toda hierarchies and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2018-05-01

    The 2D Toda hierarchy occupies a central position in the family of integrable hierarchies of the Toda type. The 1D Toda hierarchy and the Ablowitz–Ladik (aka relativistic Toda) hierarchy can be derived from the 2D Toda hierarchy as reductions. These integrable hierarchies have been applied to various problems of mathematics and mathematical physics since 1990s. A recent example is a series of studies on models of statistical mechanics called the melting crystal model. This research has revealed that the aforementioned two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy underlie two different melting crystal models. Technical clues are a fermionic realization of the quantum torus algebra, special algebraic relations therein called shift symmetries, and a matrix factorization problem. The two melting crystal models thus exhibit remarkable similarity with the Hermitian and unitary matrix models for which the two reductions of the 2D Toda hierarchy play the role of fundamental integrable structures.

  14. Functional representations of integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2006-01-01

    We consider a general framework for integrable hierarchies in Lax form and derive certain universal equations from which 'functional representations' of particular hierarchies (such as KP, discrete KP, mKP, AKNS), i.e. formulations in terms of functional equations, are systematically and quite easily obtained. The formalism genuinely applies to hierarchies where the dependent variables live in a noncommutative (typically matrix) algebra. The obtained functional representations can be understood as 'noncommutative' analogues of 'Fay identities' for the KP hierarchy

  15. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  16. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  17. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  18. Hierarchy from baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senatore, Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    We study a recently proposed mechanism to solve the hierarchy problem in the context of the landscape, where the solution of the hierarchy problem is connected to the requirement of having baryons in our Universe via electroweak baryogenesis. The phase transition is triggered by the fermion condensation of a new gauge sector which becomes strong at a scale Λ determined by dimensional transmutation, and it is mediated to the standard model by a new singlet field. In a 'friendly' neighborhood of the landscape, where only the relevant operators are ''scanned'' among the vacua, baryogenesis is effective only if the Higgs mass m h is comparable to this low scale Λ, forcing m h ∼Λ, and solving the hierarchy problem. A new CP violating phase is needed coupling the new singlet and the Higgs field to new matter fields. We study the constraints on this model given by baryogenesis and by the electron electric dipole moment (EDM), and we briefly comment on gauge coupling unification and on dark matter relic abundance. We find that next generation experiments on the EDM will be sensitive to essentially the entire viable region of the parameter space, so that absence of a signal would effectively rule out the model

  19. A New Generalized Two-Stage Direct Power Conversion Topology to Independently Supply Multiple AC Loads from Multiple Power Grids with Adjustable Power Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    ) and continuously adjust these power fractions will become a desired feature. This paper presents a generalized Direct Power Converter topology, which is able to connect to multiple AC supplies proving complete decoupling and no circulating power between the input ports and to independently control multiple AC...

  20. Short-Term Multiple Forecasting of Electric Energy Loads for Sustainable Demand Planning in Smart Grids for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeshina Y. Alani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the form of fuel or electricity is ubiquitous globally. Among energy types, electricity is crucial to human life in terms of cooking, warming and cooling of shelters, powering of electronic devices as well as commercial and industrial operations. Users of electronic devices sometimes consume fluctuating amounts of electricity generated from smart-grid infrastructure owned by the government or private investors. However, frequent imbalance is noticed between the demand and supply of electricity, hence effective planning is required to facilitate its distribution among consumers. Such effective planning is stimulated by the need to predict future consumption within a short period. Although several interesting classical techniques have been used for such predictions, they still require improvement for the purpose of reducing significant predictive errors when used for short-term load forecasting. This research develops a near-zero cooperative probabilistic scenario analysis and decision tree (PSA-DT model to address the lacuna of enormous predictive error faced by the state-of-the-art models. The PSA-DT is based on a probabilistic technique in view of the uncertain nature of electricity consumption, complemented by a DT to reinforce the collaboration of the two techniques. Based on detailed experimental analytics on residential, commercial and industrial data loads, the PSA-DT model outperforms the state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy to a near-zero error rate. This implies that its deployment for electricity demand planning will be of great benefit to various smart-grid operators and homes.

  1. LexGrid: a framework for representing, storing, and querying biomedical terminologies from simple to sublime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jyotishman; Solbrig, Harold R; Buntrock, James D; Johnson, Thomas M; Chute, Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Many biomedical terminologies, classifications, and ontological resources such as the NCI Thesaurus (NCIT), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), and Gene Ontology (GO) have been developed and used to build a variety of IT applications in biology, biomedicine, and health care settings. However, virtually all these resources involve incompatible formats, are based on different modeling languages, and lack appropriate tooling and programming interfaces (APIs) that hinder their wide-scale adoption and usage in a variety of application contexts. The Lexical Grid (LexGrid) project introduced in this paper is an ongoing community-driven initiative, coordinated by the Mayo Clinic Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, designed to bridge this gap using a common terminology model called the LexGrid model. The key aspect of the model is to accommodate multiple vocabulary and ontology distribution formats and support of multiple data stores for federated vocabulary distribution. The model provides a foundation for building consistent and standardized APIs to access multiple vocabularies that support lexical search queries, hierarchy navigation, and a rich set of features such as recursive subsumption (e.g., get all the children of the concept penicillin). Existing LexGrid implementations include the LexBIG API as well as a reference implementation of the HL7 Common Terminology Services (CTS) specification providing programmatic access via Java, Web, and Grid services.

  2. A Two-Dimensional Gridded Solar Forecasting System using Situation-Dependent Blending of Multiple Weather Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S.; Hwang, Y.; Shao, X.; Hamann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we reported the application of a "weather situation" dependent multi-model blending approach to improve the forecast accuracy of solar irradiance and other atmospheric parameters. The approach uses machine-learning techniques to classify "weather situations" by a set of atmospheric parameters. The "weather situation" classification is location-dependent and each "weather situation" has characteristic forecast errors from a set of individual input numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The input models are thus corrected or combined differently for different "weather situations" to minimize the overall forecast error. While the original implementation of the model-blending is applicable to only point-like locations having historical data of both measurements and forecasts, here we extend the approach to provide two-dimensional (2D) gridded forecasts. An experimental 2D forecasting system has been set up to provide gridded forecasts of solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance), temperature, wind speed, and humidity for the contiguous United States (CONUS). Validation results show around 30% enhancement of 0 to 48 hour ahead solar irradiance forecast accuracy compared to the best input NWP model. The forecasting system may be leveraged by other site- or region-specific solar energy forecast products. To enable the 2D forecasting system, historical solar irradiance measurements from around 1,600 selected sites of the remote automated weather stations (RAWS) network have been employed. The CONUS was divided into smaller sub-regions, each containing a group of 10 to 20 RAWS sites. A group of sites, as classified by statistical analysis, have similar "weather patterns", i.e. the NWPs have similar "weather situation" dependent forecast errors for all sites in a group. The model-blending trained by the historical data from a group of sites is then applied for all locations in the corresponding sub-region. We discuss some key techniques developed for

  3. Extension of noncommutative soliton hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A linear system, which generates a Moyal-deformed two-dimensional soliton equation as an integrability condition, can be extended to a three-dimensional linear system, treating the deformation parameter as an additional coordinate. The supplementary integrability conditions result in a first-order differential equation with respect to the deformation parameter, the flow of which commutes with the flow of the deformed soliton equation. In this way, a deformed soliton hierarchy can be extended to a bigger hierarchy by including the corresponding deformation equations. We prove the extended hierarchy properties for the deformed AKNS hierarchy, and specialize to the cases of deformed NLS, KdV and mKdV hierarchies. Corresponding results are also obtained for the deformed KP hierarchy. A deformation equation determines a kind of Seiberg-Witten map from classical solutions to solutions of the respective 'noncommutative' deformed equation

  4. Spiking neurons in a hierarchical self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Pilly

    Full Text Available Medial entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells provide neural correlates of spatial representation in the brain. A place cell typically fires whenever an animal is present in one or more spatial regions, or places, of an environment. A grid cell typically fires in multiple spatial regions that form a regular hexagonal grid structure extending throughout the environment. Different grid and place cells prefer spatially offset regions, with their firing fields increasing in size along the dorsoventral axes of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The spacing between neighboring fields for a grid cell also increases along the dorsoventral axis. This article presents a neural model whose spiking neurons operate in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws. This spiking GridPlaceMap model simulates how grid cells and place cells may develop. It responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with one or more firing fields that match neurophysiological data about these cells and their development in juvenile rats. The place cells represent much larger spaces than the grid cells, which enable them to support navigational behaviors. Both self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The current results build upon a previous rate-based model of grid and place cell learning, and thus illustrate a general method for converting rate-based adaptive neural models, without the loss of any of their analog properties, into models whose cells obey spiking dynamics. New properties of the spiking GridPlaceMap model include the appearance of theta band modulation. The spiking model also opens a path for implementation in brain-emulating nanochips comprised of networks of noisy spiking neurons with multiple-level adaptive weights for controlling autonomous

  5. ClustalXeed: a GUI-based grid computation version for high performance and terabyte size multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Taeho

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing demand to assemble and align large-scale biological sequence data sets. The commonly used multiple sequence alignment programs are still limited in their ability to handle very large amounts of sequences because the system lacks a scalable high-performance computing (HPC environment with a greatly extended data storage capacity. Results We designed ClustalXeed, a software system for multiple sequence alignment with incremental improvements over previous versions of the ClustalX and ClustalW-MPI software. The primary advantage of ClustalXeed over other multiple sequence alignment software is its ability to align a large family of protein or nucleic acid sequences. To solve the conventional memory-dependency problem, ClustalXeed uses both physical random access memory (RAM and a distributed file-allocation system for distance matrix construction and pair-align computation. The computation efficiency of disk-storage system was markedly improved by implementing an efficient load-balancing algorithm, called "idle node-seeking task algorithm" (INSTA. The new editing option and the graphical user interface (GUI provide ready access to a parallel-computing environment for users who seek fast and easy alignment of large DNA and protein sequence sets. Conclusions ClustalXeed can now compute a large volume of biological sequence data sets, which were not tractable in any other parallel or single MSA program. The main developments include: 1 the ability to tackle larger sequence alignment problems than possible with previous systems through markedly improved storage-handling capabilities. 2 Implementing an efficient task load-balancing algorithm, INSTA, which improves overall processing times for multiple sequence alignment with input sequences of non-uniform length. 3 Support for both single PC and distributed cluster systems.

  6. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  7. Formulation of an explicit-multiple-time-step time integration method for use in a global primitive equation grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    With appropriate modifications, a recently proposed explicit-multiple-time-step scheme (EMTSS) is incorporated into the UCLA model. In this scheme, the linearized terms in the governing equations that generate the gravity waves are split into different vertical modes. Each mode is integrated with an optimal time step, and at periodic intervals these modes are recombined. The other terms are integrated with a time step dictated by the CFL condition for low-frequency waves. This large time step requires a special modification of the advective terms in the polar region to maintain stability. Test runs for 72 h show that EMTSS is a stable, efficient and accurate scheme.

  8. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  9. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  10. Hierarchies in Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Peter; Jensen, Kurt; Shapiro, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    constructs, and it illustrates them by means of two examples. The hierarchy constructs can be used for theoretical considerations, but their main use is to describe and analyse large real-world systems. All of the hierarchy constructs are supported by the editing and analysis facilities in the CPN Palette...

  11. Completing the land resource hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Land Resource Hierarchy of the NRCS is a hierarchal landscape classification consisting of resource areas which represent both conceptual and spatially discrete landscape units stratifying agency programs and practices. The Land Resource Hierarchy (LRH) scales from discrete points (soil pedon an...

  12. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  13. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  14. On the supersymmetric BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; Stanciu, Sonia

    1994-01-01

    We prove that the supersymmetric BKP-hierarchy of Yu (SBKP 2 ) is hamiltonian with respect to a nonlinear extension of the N=1 super-Virasoro algebra (W SBKP ) by fields of spin k, where k>[3]/[2] and 2k≡0,3 (mod 4). Moreover, we show how to associate in a similar manner an N=1 W-superalgebra with every integrable hierarchy of the SKdV-type. We also show using dressing transformations how to extend, in a way which is compatible with the hamiltonian structure, the SBKP 2 hierarchy by odd flows, as well as the equivalence of this extended hierarchy to the SBKP-hierarchy of Manin-Radul. ((orig.))

  15. An extended Harry Dym hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenxiu

    2010-01-01

    An extended Harry Dym hierarchy is constructed by using eigenfunctions and adjoint eigenfunctions of the spectral problems of the Harry Dym hierarchy associated with the pseudo-differential operator L = u∂ + u 0 + u 1 ∂ -1 + .... The corresponding Lax presentation possesses a self-consistent source involving squared eigenfunctions. The resulting extended Harry Dym hierarchy is reduced to the Harry Dym hierarchy with self-consistent sources under the n-reduction, L n = (L n ) ≥2 , and the k-constrained Harry Dym hierarchy under the k-constraint, L k = (L k ) ≥2 + Σ N i=1 q i ∂ -1 r i ∂ 2 . A few particular examples are computed, together with their Lax pairs.

  16. A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927

  17. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  18. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  19. Dynamical hierarchies - A summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Barrett, C.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Olesen, M.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper summarizes some of the problems associated with the generation of higher order emergent structures in formal dynamical systems. In biological systems, higher order hyperstructures occur both in an intuitive and a formal sense: monomers, polymers, membranes, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, etc. constitute an observable hierarchy, apparently generated by the underlying biomolecular process. However, in models and simulations of these systems, it has turned out to be quite difficult to produce higher order emergent structures from first principles. The first problem is to agree on what a higher order structure is. An emergent structure can be defined through an introduction of an observational function. If a property can be observed in the dynamics, but not at the level of the fundamental first order interacting structures, we define it to be emergent. It is well known that second order structures occur relatively easy in simulation, so the problem is how to proceed to third and higher order without external interference. A third order structure is defined through the interaction of second order structures forming a new observable not found at the lower levels.

  20. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  1. Gauge-symmetry hierarchies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildener, E.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown by the author in a previous paper that in each order of perturbation theory there is an upper bound on the range of validity of a gauge hierarchy. Thus constructing a large hierarchy requires a fine-tuning of the scalar-field parameters. It was stated that the possibility of an inherent bound on the hierarchy exists, but the question of the actual existence of such a bound was left completely open. Since then several authors have addressed this problem. Some of what the author asserted was misunderstood, and incorrect conclusions have been drawn from recent computations. It has been claimed that the existence of large hierarchies has been demonstrated. It is the purpose of this paper to refute this claim, to help clarify the situation, and to explain why the status of this problem has in fact not really changed in recent years (author)

  2. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  3. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  4. Quantify entanglement by concurrence hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We define the concurrence hierarchy as d-1 independent invariants under local unitary transformations in d-level quantum system. The first one is the original concurrence defined by Wootters et al in 2-level quantum system and generalized to d-level pure quantum states case. We propose to use this concurrence hierarchy as measurement of entanglement. This measurement does not increase under local quantum operations and classical communication.

  5. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  6. Recommended HSE-7 documents hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report recommends a hierarchy of waste management documents at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or ''Laboratory''). The hierarchy addresses documents that are required to plan, implement, and document waste management programs at Los Alamos. These documents will enable the waste management group and the six sections contained within that group to satisfy requirements that are imposed upon them by the US Department of Energy (DOE), DOE Albuquerque Operations, US Environmental Protection Agency, various State of New Mexico agencies, and Laboratory management

  7. The Novel Use of Life Grids in a Phenomenological Study of Family Carers of People With Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Hannah; Wilkinson, Heather

    2018-03-01

    Life grids have been used in qualitative studies for the last two decades. They provide an activity which researcher and participant can focus their attention on, help build rapport, and reduce the control the researcher may hold within a session. Here we describe the novel use of life grids at the end of a data collection phase. Used in this previously unreported way, life grids assisted the closure of the data collection phase by summarizing the data collection and marking departure from the field. Creation of a life grid produced a tangible outcome, evidencing the work undertaken within the data collection period. They served as a powerful member checking tool, allowing participants to make additions and corrections to the data. In this article, the use of life grids in this novel way is described and recommended by the authors.

  8. Special polynomials associated with some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2008-01-01

    Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of a hierarchy of equations of Painleve type are introduced. The hierarchy arises by similarity reduction from the Fordy-Gibbons hierarchy of partial differential equations. Some relations for these special polynomials are given. Differential-difference hierarchies for finding special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to obtain special polynomials associated with the hierarchy studied. It is shown that rational solutions of members of the Schwarz-Sawada-Kotera, the Schwarz-Kaup-Kupershmidt, the Fordy-Gibbons, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup-Kupershmidt hierarchies can be expressed through special polynomials of the hierarchy studied

  9. Grassmannian approach to super-KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, Michiaki.

    1995-06-01

    We present a theory of 'maximal' super-KP (SKP) hierarchy whose flows are maximally extended to include all those of known SKP hierarchies, including, for example, the MRSKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul and the Jacobian SKP (JSKP) introduced by Mulase and Rabin. It is shown that SKP hierarchies has a natural field theoretic description in terms of the B-C system, in analogous way as the ordinary KP hierarchy. For this SKP hierarchy, we construct the vertex operators by using Kac-van de Leur superbosonization. The vertex operators act on the τ-function and then produce the wave function and the dual wave function of the hierarchy. Thereby we achieve the description of the 'maximal' SKP hierarchy in terms of the τ-function, which seemed to be lacking till now. Mutual relations among the SKP hierarchies are clarified. The MRSKP and the JSKP hierarchies are obtained as special cases when the time variables are appropriately restricted. (author)

  10. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  11. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  12. Recursion Operators for Dispersionless KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiusheng; He Jingsong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the corresponding theorem between dispersionless KP (dKP) hierarchy and ħ-dependent KP (ħKP) hierarchy, a general formal representation of the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under n-reduction is given in a systematical way from the corresponding ħKP hierarchy. To illustrate this method, the recursion operators for dKP hierarchy under 2-reduction and 3-reduction are calculated in detail.

  13. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  14. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  15. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.

  16. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  17. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  18. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  19. Benefits Analysis of Smart Grid Projects. White paper, 2014-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Liping [China Southern Grid (China); Yu, JianCheng [State Grid of China (China); Zhang, Dong [State Grid of China (China); Mauzy, Josh [Southern California Edison, CA (United States); Shaffer, Brendan [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Dong, XuZhu [China Southern Grid (China); Agate, Will [Philadelphia Industrial Development Corp., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Vitiello, Silvia [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Angela Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Gang [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Zhao, Li [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Zhu, Aimee Limingming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Smart grids are rolling out internationally, with the United States (U.S.) nearing completion of a significant USD4-plus-billion federal program funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA-2009). The emergence of smart grids is widespread across developed countries. Multiple approaches to analyzing the benefits of smart grids have emerged. The goals of this white paper are to review these approaches and analyze examples of each to highlight their differences, advantages, and disadvantages. This work was conducted under the auspices of a joint U.S.-China research effort, the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) Implementation Plan, Smart Grid. We present comparative benefits assessments (BAs) of smart grid demonstrations in the U.S. and China along with a BA of a pilot project in Europe. In the U.S., we assess projects at two sites: (1) the University of California, Irvine campus (UCI), which consists of two distinct demonstrations: Southern California Edison’s (SCE) Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration Project (ISGD) and the UCI campus itself; and (2) the Navy Yard (TNY) area in Philadelphia, which has been repurposed as a mixed commercial-industrial, and possibly residential, development. In China, we cover several smart-grid aspects of the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city (TEC) and the Shenzhen Bay Technology and Ecology City (B-TEC). In Europe, we look at a BA of a pilot smart grid project in the Malagrotta area west of Rome, Italy, contributed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Irvine sub-project BAs use the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Smart Grid Computational Tool (SGCT), which is built on methods developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The TEC sub-project BAs apply Smart Grid Multi-Criteria Analysis (SG-MCA) developed by the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with fuzzy logic. The B-TEC and TNY sub-project BAs are evaluated using new

  20. New supersymmetrizations of the generalized KDV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Stanciu, S.

    1993-03-01

    Recently we investigated a new supersymmetrization procedure for the KdV hierarchy inspired in some recent work on supersymmetric matrix models. We extend this procedure here for the generalized KdV hierarchies. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchies are generically nonlocal, expect for the case of Boussinesque which we treat in detail. The resulting supersymmetric hierarchy is integrable and bihamiltonian and contains the Boussinesque hierarchy as a subhierarchy. In a particular realization, we extend it by defining supersymmetric odd flows. We end with some comments on a slight modification of this supersymmetrization which yields local equations for any generalized KdV hierarchy. (orig.)

  1. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  2. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  3. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Joost; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical organization—the recursive composition of sub-modules—is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force–the cost of connections–promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics. PMID:27280881

  4. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  5. Hierarchy in directed random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks have been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present some (qualitative) analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate, mainly numerically, the effects of different types of correlations. The behavior of the hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that the hierarchy does not change monotonically with the correlations and there is an optimal level of nonzero correlations maximizing the level of hierarchy.

  6. Void hierarchy and cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Ravi Sheth

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of hierarchical scenarios of gravitational structure formation we describe how an evolving hierarchy of voids evolves on the basis of two processes, the void-in-void process and the void-in-cloud process. The related analytical formulation in terms of a two-barrier excursion problem leads to a self-similarly evolving peaked void size distribution

  7. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  8. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  9. A note on the dispersionless BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-T.; Tu, M.-H.

    2006-01-01

    We study the integrable hierarchy underlying topological Landau-Ginzburg models of D-type proposed by Takasaki. Since this integrable hierarchy contains the dBKP hierarchy as a sub-hierarchy, we refer it to the extended dBKP (EdBKP) hierarchy. We give a dressing formulation to the EdBKP hierarchy and investigate additional symmetries associated with the solution space of the hierarchy. We obtain hodograph solutions of its finite-dimensional reductions via Riemann-Hilbert problem (twistor construction) and derive Baecklund transformations of the (2 + 1)-dimensional dBKP equation from additional flows. Finally, the modified partner of the dBKP hierarchy is also established through a Miura transformation

  10. The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Exact Solutions for Two Equation Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Lin, Zhao; Da-Jun, Zhang; Jie, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Bilinear forms and double-Wronskian solutions are given for two hierarchies, the (2+1)-dimensional breaking Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and the negative order AKNS hierarchy. According to some choices of the coefficient matrix in the Wronskian condition equation set, we obtain some kinds of solutions for these two hierarchies, such as solitons, Jordan block solutions, rational solutions, complexitons and mixed solutions. (general)

  12. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: the SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. In all three cases we find that the algebra of symmetries is isomorphic to the algebra of superdifferential operators, or equivalently SW 1+∞ . These results seem to suggest that despite their realization depending on the dynamics, the additional symmetries are kinematical in nature. (orig.)

  13. A note on the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depireux, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, given the two boson representation of the conformal algebra W ∞ , the second Hamiltonian structure of the KP hierarchy, the author constructs a bi-Hamiltonian hierarchy for the two associated currents. The KP hierarchy appears as a composite of this new and simpler system. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the new hierarchy gives naturally all the Hamiltonian structures of the KP system

  14. A Hierarchy Model of Income Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Fix, Blair

    2018-01-01

    Based on worldly experience, most people would agree that firms are hierarchically organized, and that pay tends to increase as one moves up the hierarchy. But how this hierarchical structure affects income distribution has not been widely studied. To remedy this situation, this paper presents a new model of income distribution that explores the effects of social hierarchy. This ‘hierarchy model’ takes the limited available evidence on the structure of firm hierarchies and generalizes it to c...

  15. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs

  16. Generalized Miura transformations, two-bosons KP hierarchies and their reduction to KdV hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratyn, H. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Medeiros, R.T.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-02-01

    Bracket preserving gauge equivalence is established between several two-boson generated KP type of hierarchies. These KP hierarchies reduce under symplectic reduction (via Dirac constraints) to KdV and Schwarzian KdV hierarchies. Under this reduction the gauge equivalence is taking form of the conventional Miura maps between the above KdV type of hierarchies. (author). 16 refs.

  17. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burroughs, N.; De Groot, M.; Hollowood, T.; Miramontes, L.

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical W-algebras, which arise as the second hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the W n (l) -algebras. (orig.)

  18. BBGKY hierarchy and dynamics of correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polishchuk, D.O.

    2010-01-01

    We derive the BBGKY hierarchy for the Fermi and Bose many-particle systems, using the von Neumann hierarchy for the correlation operators. The solution of the Cauchy problem of the formulated hierarchy in the case of an n-body interaction potential is constructed in the space of sequences of trace-class operators.

  19. Distributed Optimization of Sustainable Power Dispatch and Flexible Consumer Loads for Resilient Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Pirathayini

    Today's electric grid is rapidly evolving to provision for heterogeneous system components (e.g. intermittent generation, electric vehicles, storage devices, etc.) while catering to diverse consumer power demand patterns. In order to accommodate this changing landscape, the widespread integration of cyber communication with physical components can be witnessed in all tenets of the modern power grid. This ubiquitous connectivity provides an elevated level of awareness and decision-making ability to system operators. Moreover, devices that were typically passive in the traditional grid are now `smarter' as these can respond to remote signals, learn about local conditions and even make their own actuation decisions if necessary. These advantages can be leveraged to reap unprecedented long-term benefits that include sustainable, efficient and economical power grid operations. Furthermore, challenges introduced by emerging trends in the grid such as high penetration of distributed energy sources, rising power demands, deregulations and cyber-security concerns due to vulnerabilities in standard communication protocols can be overcome by tapping onto the active nature of modern power grid components. In this thesis, distributed constructs in optimization and game theory are utilized to design the seamless real-time integration of a large number of heterogeneous power components such as distributed energy sources with highly fluctuating generation capacities and flexible power consumers with varying demand patterns to achieve optimal operations across multiple levels of hierarchy in the power grid. Specifically, advanced data acquisition, cloud analytics (such as prediction), control and storage systems are leveraged to promote sustainable and economical grid operations while ensuring that physical network, generation and consumer comfort requirements are met. Moreover, privacy and security considerations are incorporated into the core of the proposed designs and these

  20. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  1. Multiple-Complex Coefficient-Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loop and Synchronization Technique for Three-phase Grid-Interfaced Converters in Distributed Utility Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Weiyang; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    and rapid extraction of the positive and negative sequence components from the polluted grid voltage, and the harmonic components can also be estimated precisely, which has the potential use for selective compensation in active filter applications. Another advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility...

  2. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  3. Additional symmetries of supersymmetric KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, S.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the additional symmetries of several supersymmetric KP hierarchies: The SKP hierarchy of Manin and Radul, the SKP 2 hierarchy, and the Jacobian SKP hierarchy. The main technical tool is the supersymmetric generalisation of a map originally due to Radul between the Lie algebra of superdifferential operators and the Lie algebra of vector fields on the space of supersymmetric Lax operators. In the case of the Manin-Radul SKP hierarchy we identify additional symmetries which form an algebra isomorphic to a subalgebra of superdifferential operators; whereas in the case of the Jacobian SKP, the (additional) symmetries are identified with the algebra itself. (orig.)

  4. Critical constraints on chiral hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R.S.; Golden, M.; Simmons, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    Critical dynamics constrains models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in which the scale of high-energy physics is far above 1 TeV. A big hierarchy requires the high-energy theory to have a second-order chiral phase transition, near which the theory is described by a low-energy effective Lagrangian with composite ''Higgs'' scalars. As scalar theories with more than one Φ 4 coupling can have a Coleman-Weinberg instability and a first-order transition, such dynamical EWSB models cannot always support a large hierarchy. If the large-N c Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model is a good approximation to the top-condensate and strong extended technicolor models, they will not produce acceptable EWSB

  5. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  6. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  7. Information, Authority, and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; In-Uck, Park

    2010-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. By studying a model with one principal and two agents where one agent can gather information that is valuable for the principal's project choice and the other agent provides effort to the chosen project, we study when the principal can benefit from such delegation relative to centralization. We show that beneficial delegation is possible when complete con...

  8. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  9. A Theorem on Grid Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZhiWei(徐志伟); BU GuanYing(卜冠英)

    2003-01-01

    The current grid security research is mainly focused on the authentication of grid systems. A problem to be solved by grid systems is to ensure consistent access control. This problem is complicated because the hosts in a grid computing environment usually span multiple autonomous administrative domains. This paper presents a grid access control model, based on asynchronous automata theory and the classic Bell-LaPadula model. This model is useful to formally study the confidentiality and integrity problems in a grid computing environment. A theorem is proved, which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions to a grid to maintain confidentiality.These conditions are the formalized descriptions of local (node) relations or relationship between grid subjects and node subjects.

  10. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  11. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  12. A model of Yukawa hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwood, J.K.; Irges, N.; Ramond, P.

    1997-05-01

    The authors present a model for the observed hierarchies among the Yukawa couplings of the standard model in the context of an effective low energy theory with an anomalous U(1) symmetry. This symmetry, a generic feature of superstring compactification, is a remnant of the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism. The gauge group is that of the standard model, augmented by X, the anomalous U(1), and two family-dependent phase symmetries Y (1) and Y (2) . The correct hierarchies are reproduced only when sin 2 θ w = 3/8 at the cut-off. To cancel anomalies, right-handed neutrinos and other standard model singlets must be introduced. Independently of the charges of the right-handed neutrinos, this model produces the same neutrino mixing matrix and an inverted hierarchy of neutrino masses. The heaviest is the electron neutrino with a mass ∼ 1 meV, and mixing of the order of λ c 3 with each of the other two neutrinos

  13. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  14. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  15. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  16. The (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral relativistic Toda hierarchy related to the generalized discrete Painleve hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zuonong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will concentrate on the topic of integrable discrete hierarchies in 2+1 dimensions, and their connection with discrete Painleve hierarchies. By considering a (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral discrete linear problem, two new (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies-the 2+1 nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the 2+1 nonisospectral negative relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy-are constructed. It is shown that the reductions of the two new 2+1 nonisospectral lattice hierarchies lead to the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral Volterra lattice hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional nonisospectral negative Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain two new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies and two new ordinary difference hierarchies which are direct reductions of the two 2+1 nonisospectral integrable lattice hierarchies. One of the two difference hierarchies yields our previously obtained generalized discrete first Painleve (dP I ) hierarchy and another one yields a generalized alternative discrete second Painleve (alt-dP II ) hierarchy

  17. Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids

  18. OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and

  19. FermiGrid - experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Timm, S.; Yocum, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid and the WLCG. FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the Open Science Grid (OSG), EGEE and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure--the successes and the problems

  20. A differential-difference hierarchy associated with relativistic Toda and Volterra hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui; Dai Huihui

    2008-01-01

    By embedding a free function into a compatible zero curvature equation, we enlarge the original differential-difference hierarchy into a new hierarchy with the free function which still admits zero curvature representation. The new hierarchy not only includes the original hierarchy, but also the well-known relativistic Toda hierarchy and the Volterra hierarchy as special reductions by properly choosing the free function. Infinitely many conservation laws and Darboux transformation for a representative differential-difference system are constructed based on its Lax representation. The exact solutions follow by applying the Darboux transformation

  1. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. On the basis of our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges.

  2. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsworth, Kerrie, E-mail: Kerrie.unsworth@uwa.edu.au [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hodkiewicz, Melinda [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: > We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. > We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. > Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  3. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina; Hodkiewicz, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  4. Neutrino mass matrix and hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaus, Peter; Meshkov, Sydney

    2003-01-01

    We build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δsol and Δatm, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, Mν and a mixing matrix, U, where both Mν and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ2 = m2/m3 = √(Δsol/Δatm) ≅ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m1, (m1 ρΛ4m3), while κ scales s13 to the experimental upper limit, s13 = κΛ2 ≅ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β-decay experiments is 4 x 10-3eV if s13 = 0 and 6 x 10-3eV if s13 is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation

  5. Multiple low frequency dual reference PWM control of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechouma Rabiaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, power demand of industrial applications has increased significantly reaching some megawatts. The use of multilevel converters for applications of medium and high powers is proposed as a solution to drawback semiconductor technology. A multilevel converter not only achieves high power ratings, but also enables the use of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic can be easily interfaced to a multilevel converter system for a high power application. This paper presents the simulation study in Matlab/Simulink of a grid connected photovoltaic three phase Neutral Point Clamped (NPC inverter with DC/DC boost converter for constant and variable solar radiation.

  6. Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toppan, F.

    1993-11-01

    Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs

  7. Neutrino mass hierarchy and matter effects

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Matter effects modify the mixing and the effective masses of neutrinos in a way which depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy. Consequently, for normal and inverted hierarchies the oscillations and flavor conversion results are different. Sensitivity to the mass hierarchy appears whenever the matter effects on the 1-3 mixing and mass splitting become substantial. This happens in supernovae in wide energy range and in the matter of the Earth. The Earth density profile is a multi-layer medium wh...

  8. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  9. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  10. A lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a discrete spectral problem, we derive a lattice hierarchy which is integrable in Liouville's sense and possesses a multi-Hamiltonian structure. It is show that the discrete spectral problem converges to the well-known AKNS spectral problem under a certain continuous limit. In particular, we construct a sequence of equations in the lattice hierarchy which approximates the AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit

  11. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  12. Monitoring the EGEE/WLCG grid services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A; Nyczyk, P; Retico, A; Vicinanza, D

    2008-01-01

    Grids have the potential to revolutionise computing by providing ubiquitous, on demand access to computational services and resources. They promise to allow for on demand access and composition of computational services provided by multiple independent sources. Grids can also provide unprecedented levels of parallelism for high-performance applications. On the other hand, grid characteristics, such as high heterogeneity, complexity and distribution create many new technical challenges. Among these technical challenges, failure management is a key area that demands much progress. A recent survey revealed that fault diagnosis is still a major problem for grid users. When a failure appears at the user screen, it becomes very difficult for the user to identify whether the problem is in the application, somewhere in the grid middleware, or even lower in the fabric that comprises the grid. In this paper we present a tool able to check if a given grid service works as expected for a given set of users (Virtual Organisation) on the different resources available on a grid. Our solution deals with grid services as single components that should produce an expected output to a pre-defined input, what is quite similar to unit testing. The tool, called Service Availability Monitoring or SAM, is being currently used by several different Virtual Organizations to monitor more than 300 grid sites belonging to the largest grids available today. We also discuss how this tool is being used by some of those VOs and how it is helping in the operation of the EGEE/WLCG grid

  13. Two New Multi-component BKP Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongxia; Liu Xiaojun; Zeng Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    We firstly propose two kinds of new multi-component BKP (mcBKP) hierarchy based on the eigenfunction symmetry reduction and nonstandard reduction, respectively. The first one contains two types of BKP equation with self-consistent sources whose Lax representations are presented. The two mcBKP hierarchies both admit reductions to the k-constrained BKP hierarchy and to integrable (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy with self-consistent sources, which include two types of SK equation with self-consistent sources and of bi-directional SK equations with self-consistent sources.

  14. FermiGrid-experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K; Berman, E; Canal, P; Hesselroth, T; Garzoglio, G; Levshina, T; Sergeev, V; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, N; Timm, S; Yocum, D R

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. In order to better serve this community, Fermilab has placed its production computer resources in a Campus Grid infrastructure called 'FermiGrid'. The FermiGrid infrastructure allows the large experiments at Fermilab to have priority access to their own resources, enables sharing of these resources in an opportunistic fashion, and movement of work (jobs, data) between the Campus Grid and National Grids such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Collaboration (WLCG). FermiGrid resources support multiple Virtual Organizations (VOs), including VOs from the OSG, EGEE, and the WLCG. Fermilab also makes leading contributions to the Open Science Grid in the areas of accounting, batch computing, grid security, job management, resource selection, site infrastructure, storage management, and VO services. Through the FermiGrid interfaces, authenticated and authorized VOs and individuals may access our core grid services, the 10,000+ Fermilab resident CPUs, near-petabyte (including CMS) online disk pools and the multi-petabyte Fermilab Mass Storage System. These core grid services include a site wide Globus gatekeeper, VO management services for several VOs, Fermilab site authorization services, grid user mapping services, as well as job accounting and monitoring, resource selection and data movement services. Access to these services is via standard and well-supported grid interfaces. We will report on the user experience of using the FermiGrid campus infrastructure interfaced to a national cyberinfrastructure - the successes and the problems

  15. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  16. Non-Galerkin Coarse Grids for Algebraic Multigrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgout, Robert D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schroder, Jacob B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-06-26

    Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular and effective solver for systems of linear equations that arise from discretized partial differential equations. And while AMG has been effectively implemented on large scale parallel machines, challenges remain, especially when moving to exascale. Particularly, stencil sizes (the number of nonzeros in a row) tend to increase further down in the coarse grid hierarchy, and this growth leads to more communication. Therefore, as problem size increases and the number of levels in the hierarchy grows, the overall efficiency of the parallel AMG method decreases, sometimes dramatically. This growth in stencil size is due to the standard Galerkin coarse grid operator, $P^T A P$, where $P$ is the prolongation (i.e., interpolation) operator. For example, the coarse grid stencil size for a simple three-dimensional (3D) seven-point finite differencing approximation to diffusion can increase into the thousands on present day machines, causing an associated increase in communication costs. We therefore consider algebraically truncating coarse grid stencils to obtain a non-Galerkin coarse grid. First, the sparsity pattern of the non-Galerkin coarse grid is determined by employing a heuristic minimal “safe” pattern together with strength-of-connection ideas. Second, the nonzero entries are determined by collapsing the stencils in the Galerkin operator using traditional AMG techniques. The result is a reduction in coarse grid stencil size, overall operator complexity, and parallel AMG solve phase times.

  17. Implementation of Grid-computing Framework for Simulation in Multi-scale Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Data Iranata

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new grid-computing framework for simulation in multi-scale structural analysis is presented. Two levels of parallel processing will be involved in this framework: multiple local distributed computing environments connected by local network to form a grid-based cluster-to-cluster distributed computing environment. To successfully perform the simulation, a large-scale structural system task is decomposed into the simulations of a simplified global model and several detailed component models using various scales. These correlated multi-scale structural system tasks are distributed among clusters and connected together in a multi-level hierarchy and then coordinated over the internet. The software framework for supporting the multi-scale structural simulation approach is also presented. The program architecture design allows the integration of several multi-scale models as clients and servers under a single platform. To check its feasibility, a prototype software system has been designed and implemented to perform the proposed concept. The simulation results show that the software framework can increase the speedup performance of the structural analysis. Based on this result, the proposed grid-computing framework is suitable to perform the simulation of the multi-scale structural analysis.

  18. On the robustness of Herlihy's hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Prasad

    1993-01-01

    A wait-free hierarchy maps object types to levels in Z(+) U (infinity) and has the following property: if a type T is at level N, and T' is an arbitrary type, then there is a wait-free implementation of an object of type T', for N processes, using only registers and objects of type T. The infinite hierarchy defined by Herlihy is an example of a wait-free hierarchy. A wait-free hierarchy is robust if it has the following property: if T is at level N, and S is a finite set of types belonging to levels N - 1 or lower, then there is no wait-free implementation of an object of type T, for N processes, using any number and any combination of objects belonging to the types in S. Robustness implies that there are no clever ways of combining weak shared objects to obtain stronger ones. Contrary to what many researchers believe, we prove that Herlihy's hierarchy is not robust. We then define some natural variants of Herlihy's hierarchy, which are also infinite wait-free hierarchies. With the exception of one, which is still open, these are not robust either. We conclude with the open question of whether non-trivial robust wait-free hierarchies exist.

  19. Models of neutrino masses: Anarchy versus hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the ability of models with different levels of hierarchy to reproduce the solar neutrino solutions, in particular the LA solution. As a flexible testing ground we consider models based on SU(5)xU(1) F . In this context, we have made statistical simulations of models with different patterns from anarchy to various types of hierarchy: normal hierarchical models with and without automatic suppression of the 23 (sub)determinant and inverse hierarchy models. We find that, not only for the LOW or VO solutions, but even in the LA case, the hierarchical models have a significantly better success rate than those based on anarchy. The normal hierarchy and the inverse hierarchy models have comparable performances in models with see-saw dominance, while the inverse hierarchy models are particularly good in the no see-saw versions. As a possible distinction between these categories of models, the inverse hierarchy models favour a maximal solar mixing angle and their rate of success drops dramatically as the mixing angle decreases, while normal hierarchy models are far more stable in this respect. (author)

  20. Coupling Integrable Couplings of an Equation Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Xia Tie-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Based on a kind of Lie algebra G proposed by Zhang, one isospectral problem is designed. Under the framework of zero curvature equation, a new kind of integrable coupling of an equation hierarchy is generated using the methods proposed by Ma and Gao. With the help of variational identity, we get the Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchy. (general)

  1. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  2. Solution of the gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.

    1982-01-01

    We propose a novel solution to the gauge hierarchy problem in theories with softly broken supersymmetry. Quantum effects can resuscitate classically sick theories, producing the large scale from the small supersymmetry breaking scale. We use this mechanism to construct realistic SU(6) and SU(5) GUTs which do not suffer from gauge hierarchy or fine tuning problems. (orig.)

  3. q-Deformed KP Hierarchy and q-Deformed Constrained KP Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jingsong; Li, Yinghua; Cheng, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Using the determinant representation of gauge transformation operator, we have shown that the general form of $au$ function of the $q$-KP hierarchy is a $q$-deformed generalized Wronskian, which includes the $q$-deformed Wronskian as a special case. On the basis of these, we study the $q$-deformed constrained KP ($q$-cKP) hierarchy, i.e. $l$-constraints of $q$-KP hierarchy. Similar to the ordinary constrained KP (cKP) hierarchy, a large class of solutions of $q$-cKP hierarchy can be represent...

  4. Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse......, but at the same time select sites so that b-diversity is maximized. As environmental control of the biota peaked at the catchment level, the conservation of headwater stream diversity is likely to be most effective when management targets environmental conditions across multiple local sites within relatively...

  5. The family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, A.; Samuel, S.

    1990-01-01

    We use a multiple Higgs system to analyze the family mass hierarchy problem in bosonic technicolor. Dependence on a wide range of Yukawa couplings, λ, for quark and lepton mass generation is greatly reduced, i.e., λ ≅ 0.1 to 1. Third and second generation masses are produced at tree-level, the latter via a see-saw mechanism. We use radiative corrections as a source for many mixing angles and first generation masses. A hierarchy of family masses with small of-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa entries naturally arises. A higher scale of 1-10 TeV for Higgs masses and supersymmetry breaking is needed to alleviate difficulties with flavor-changing effects. Such a large scale is a feature of bosonic technicolor and no fine-tuning is required to obtain electroweak breaking at ≅ 100 GeV. Bosonic technicolor is therefore a natural framework for multi-Higgs systems. (orig.)

  6. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  7. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Constrained KP models as integrable matrix hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    We formulate the constrained KP hierarchy (denoted by cKP K+1,M ) as an affine [cflx sl](M+K+1) matrix integrable hierarchy generalizing the Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy. Using an algebraic approach, including the graded structure of the generalized Drinfeld endash Sokolov hierarchy, we are able to find several new universal results valid for the cKP hierarchy. In particular, our method yields a closed expression for the second bracket obtained through Dirac reduction of any untwisted affine Kac endash Moody current algebra. An explicit example is given for the case [cflx sl](M+K+1), for which a closed expression for the general recursion operator is also obtained. We show how isospectral flows are characterized and grouped according to the semisimple non-regular element E of sl(M+K+1) and the content of the center of the kernel of E. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  10. Making Sense of the Abstraction Hierarchy in the Power Plant Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the abstraction hierarchy proposed by Rasmussen [(1986) Information processing and human-machine interaction, North-Holland] for design of human-machine interfaces for supervisory control. The purpose of the abstraction hierarchy is to represent a work domain by multiple levels...... of means-end and part-whole abstractions. It is argued in the paper that the abstraction hierarchy suffers from both methodological and conceptual problems. A cluster of selected problems are analyzed and illustrated by concrete examples from the power plant domain. It is concluded that the semantics...... in the model-building process. It is also pointed out that attempts to clarify the semantics of the abstraction hierarchy will invariably reduce the range of work domains where it can be applied....

  11. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Norscia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris from the Berenty forest (Madagascar. They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1 by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2 by calculating normalized David’s scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3 by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4 by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile

  12. The socio-matrix reloaded: from hierarchy to dominance profile in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchy influences the life quality of social animals, and its definition should in principle be based on the outcome of agonistic interactions. However, defining and comparing the dominance profile of social groups is difficult due to the different dominance measures used and because no one measure explains it all. We applied different analytical methods to winner-loser sociomatrices to determine the dominance profile of five groups of wild lemurs (species: Lemur catta, Propithecus verreauxi, and Eulemur rufus x collaris) from the Berenty forest (Madagascar). They are an excellent study model because they share the same habitat and an apparently similar dominance profile: linear hierarchy and female dominance. Data were collected over more than 1200 h of observation. Our approach included four steps: (1) by applying the binary dyadic dominance relationship method (I&SI) on either aggressions or supplant sociomatrices we verified whether hierarchy was aggression or submission based; (2) by calculating normalized David's scores and measuring steepness from aggression sociomatrices we evaluated whether hierarchy was shallow or steep; (3) by comparing the ranking orders obtained with methods 1 and 2 we assessed whether hierarchy was consistent or not; and (4) by assessing triangle transitivity and comparing it with the linearity index and the level of group cohesion we determined if hierarchy was more or less cohesive. Our results show that L. catta groups have got a steep, consistent, highly transitive and cohesive hierarchy. P. verreauxi groups are characterized by a moderately steep and consistent hierarchy, with variable levels of triangle transitivity and cohesion. E. rufus x collaris group possesses a shallow and inconsistent hierarchy, with lower (but not lowest) levels of transitivity and cohesion. A multiple analytical approach on winner-loser sociomatrices other than leading to an in-depth description of the dominance profile, allows intergroup

  13. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  14. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  15. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species. PMID:26692287

  16. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  17. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  18. Multiple-correction hybrid k-exact schemes for high-order compressible RANS-LES simulations on fully unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Grégoire; Brenner, Pierre; Cinnella, Paola; Maugars, Bruno; Robinet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    A Godunov's type unstructured finite volume method suitable for highly compressible turbulent scale-resolving simulations around complex geometries is constructed by using a successive correction technique. First, a family of k-exact Godunov schemes is developed by recursively correcting the truncation error of the piecewise polynomial representation of the primitive variables. The keystone of the proposed approach is a quasi-Green gradient operator which ensures consistency on general meshes. In addition, a high-order single-point quadrature formula, based on high-order approximations of the successive derivatives of the solution, is developed for flux integration along cell faces. The proposed family of schemes is compact in the algorithmic sense, since it only involves communications between direct neighbors of the mesh cells. The numerical properties of the schemes up to fifth-order are investigated, with focus on their resolvability in terms of number of mesh points required to resolve a given wavelength accurately. Afterwards, in the aim of achieving the best possible trade-off between accuracy, computational cost and robustness in view of industrial flow computations, we focus more specifically on the third-order accurate scheme of the family, and modify locally its numerical flux in order to reduce the amount of numerical dissipation in vortex-dominated regions. This is achieved by switching from the upwind scheme, mostly applied in highly compressible regions, to a fourth-order centered one in vortex-dominated regions. An analytical switch function based on the local grid Reynolds number is adopted in order to warrant numerical stability of the recentering process. Numerical applications demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed methodology for compressible scale-resolving computations. In particular, supersonic RANS/LES computations of the flow over a cavity are presented to show the capability of the scheme to predict flows with shocks

  19. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  20. A quark interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Kari.

    1979-01-01

    We propose a physical interpretation of the second level of the combinatorial hierarchy in terms of three quarks, three antiquarks and the vacuum. This interpretation allows us to introduce a new quantum number, which measures electromagnetic mass splitting of the quarks. We extend our argument by analogue to baryons, and find some SU(3) and some new mass formulas for baryons. The generalization of our approach to other hierarchy levels is discussed. We present also an empirical mass formula for baryons, which seems to be loosely connected with the combinatorial hierarchy. (author)

  1. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  2. The role of natural gas in smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliek, F.W.; Noort, A. van den; Roossien, B.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Wit, J. de; Velde, J. van der; Eijgelaar, M.

    2011-01-01

    PowerMatching City (see ref. (Bliek et al., 2010)) is a living lab smart grid demonstration that shows the feasibility of a market based smart grid optimization methodology. It allows simultaneous optimization of multiple goals of the various stakeholders in a smart grid: in-home optimization,

  3. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  4. Sniffing behavior communicates social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Daniel W

    2013-04-08

    Sniffing is a specialized respiratory behavior that is essential for the acquisition of odors [1-4]. Perhaps not independent of this, sniffing is commonly displayed during motivated [5-7] and social behaviors [8, 9]. No measures of sniffing among interacting animals are available, however, calling into question the utility of this behavior in the social context. From radiotelemetry recordings of nasal respiration, I found that investigation by one rat toward the facial region of a conspecific often elicits a decrease in sniffing frequency in the conspecific. This reciprocal display of sniffing was found to be dependent upon the rat's social status in two separate paradigms, with subordinates reliably decreasing their sniffing frequency upon being investigated in the face by dominant rats. Failure of subordinates to decrease their sniffing frequency shortened the latency for agonistic behavior by dominant rats, reflecting that decreases in sniffing serve as appeasement signals during social interactions. Rats rendered unable to smell persisted in displaying reciprocal sniffing behavior, demonstrating the independence of this behavior from olfaction. Oxytocin treatment in rats with established social hierarchies abolished agonistic behaviors and reciprocal sniffing displays. Together, these findings demonstrate that rodents utilize sniffing behaviors communicatively, not only to collect [6, 10-14] but also to convey information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  6. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification

  7. Making the Grid "Smart" Through "Smart" Microgrids: Real-Time Power Management of Microgrids with Multiple Distributed Generation Sources Using Intelligent Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrir, M. Hashem [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-10-20

    investigated the following: • Intelligent load control - demand response (DR) - for frequency stabilization in islanded MGs (partially supported by PNNL). • The impact of high penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV)-generated power at the distribution level (partially supported by PNNL). • The application of AI approaches to renewable (wind, PV) power forecasting (proposed by the reviewers of our proposal). • Application of AI approaches and DR for real-time MG power management (partially supported by NEC Labs-America) • Application of DR in dealing with the variability of wind power • Real-time MG power management using DR and storage (partially supported by NEC Labs-America) • Application of DR in enhancing the performance of load-frequency controller • MAS-based whole-sale and retail power market design for smart grid A

  8. Structural hierarchy of autism spectrum disorder symptoms: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsik; Keifer, Cara M; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Lerner, Matthew D; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2018-01-01

    In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. This study analyzed DSM-IV-referenced ASD symptom statements from parent and teacher versions of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R. A series of exploratory structural equation models was conducted in order to produce interpretable latent factors that account for multivariate covariance. Results indicated that ASD symptoms were structured into an interpretable hierarchy across multiple informants. This hierarchy includes five levels; key features of ASD bifurcate into different constructs with increasing specificity. This is the first study to examine an underlying structural hierarchy of ASD symptomatology using the bass-ackwards method. This hierarchy demonstrates how core features of ASD relate at differing levels of resolution, providing a model for conceptualizing ASD heterogeneity and a structure for integrating divergent theories of cognitive processes and behavioral features that define the disorder. These findings suggest that a more coherent and complete understanding of the structure of ASD symptoms may be reflected in a metastructure rather than at one level of resolution. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Brane world model and hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I wrote description of Kaluza-Klein model. Also I wrote how we can solve the hierarchy problem in Randall-Sundrum model. In fact, it's my motivation to study this part of theoretical physics

  10. Hierarchies of belief and interim rationalizability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Ely

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In games with incomplete information, conventional hierarchies of belief are incomplete as descriptions of the players' information for the purposes of determining a player's behavior. We show by example that this is true for a variety of solution concepts. We then investigate what is essential about a player's information to identify behavior. We specialize to two player games and the solution concept of interim rationalizability. We construct the universal type space for rationalizability and characterize the types in terms of their beliefs. Infinite hierarchies of beliefs over conditional beliefs, which we call Delta-hierarchies, are what turn out to matter. We show that any two types in any two type spaces have the same rationalizable sets in all games if and only if they have the same Delta-hierarchies.

  11. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Sovan

    2013-01-01

    The rise time of electron antineutrino lightcurve from a Galactic supernova (SN), observable at the IceCube Cherenkov detector, can provide signature of the neutrino mass hierarchy at “large” 1-3 leptonic mixing angle ϑ 13 . In the early accretion phase of the SN, the neutrino oscillations are nontrivial. Due to the matter suppression of collective effects at these early post bounce times, only the MSW resonances in the outer layers of the SN influence the neutrino flux. When the oscillations are taken into account, the signal in IceCube shows sufficiently fast rise time for the inverted mass hierarchy compared to the normal hierarchy. An investigation with an extensive set of stellar core-collapse simulations, provides both qualitative and quantitative robustness of these features. Thus opening another avenue to explore the neutrino mass hierarchy with the rise time of a supernova burst

  12. Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyr, Herbert Ottmar

    2003-01-01

    Planning hierarchy, modeling and sdvanced planning dystems / B. Fleischmann, H. Meyr. - In: Supply chain management / ed. by A. G. de Kok ... - Amsterdam u.a. : Elsevier, 2003. - (Handbooks in operations research and management science ; 11)

  13. The multi-component WKI hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yuqin; Zhang Yufeng

    2005-01-01

    Firstly a new loop algebra G∼ M with 3M dimensions is constructed, which is devoted to establishing a new isospectral problem. Then the multi-component WKI hierarchy of soliton equations is obtained

  14. Improving Expression Power in Modeling OLAP Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Elzbieta

    Data warehouses and OLAP systems form an integral part of modern decision support systems. In order to exploit both systems to their full capabilities hierarchies must be clearly defined. Hierarchies are important in analytical applications, since they provide users with the possibility to represent data at different abstraction levels. However, even though there are different kinds of hierarchies in real-world applications and some are already implemented in commercial tools, there is still a lack of a well-accepted conceptual model that allows decision-making users express their analysis needs. In this paper, we show how the conceptual multidimensional model can be used to facilitate the representation of complex hierarchies in comparison to their representation in the relational model and commercial OLAP tool, using as an example Microsoft Analysis Services.

  15. A hierarchy of Ramsey-like cardinals

    OpenAIRE

    Holy, Peter; Schlicht, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of large cardinals between weakly compact and measurable cardinals, that is closely related to the Ramsey-like cardinals introduced by Victoria Gitman, and is based on certain infinite filter games, however also has a range of equivalent characterizations in terms of elementary embeddings. The aim of this paper is to locate the Ramsey-like cardinals studied by Gitman, and other well-known large cardinal notions, in this hierarchy.

  16. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  17. Hierarchy among Automata on Linear Orderings

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère , Véronique; Carton , Olivier

    2005-01-01

    In a preceding paper, automata and rational expressions have been introduced for words indexed by linear orderings, together with a Kleene-like theorem. We here pursue this work by proposing a hierarchy among the rational sets. Each class of the hierarchy is defined by a subset of the rational operations that can be used. We then characterize any class by an appropriate class of automata, leading to a Kleene theorem inside the class. A characterization by particular classes of orderings is al...

  18. Shrinking population and the urban hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ho Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether population shrinkage leads to changes in the urban hierarchy in terms of relative sizes of cities and their functions onomic geography. We work backwards in a racetrack economy with eight cities in a long-run equilibrium. Initial distribution of population is chosen to satisfy both the rank-size rule and central place hierarchy. We have a short-run equilibrium in which firms choose prices and consumers choose consumption taking the number of workers in each region ...

  19. Hierarchy generation in compactified supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of generating a large hierarchy in compactified supersymmetric models is re-examined. It is shown how, even for the class of models for which Str M 2 is non-vanishing, a combination of non-perturbative effects and radiative corrections may lead to an exponentially large hierarchy. A corollary is that the couplings of the effective field theory in the visible sector should be small, i.e., perturbation theory should be applicable. (orig.)

  20. Selection of power market structure using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhes Bhattacharyya; Prasanta Kumar Dey

    2003-01-01

    Selection of a power market structure from the available alternatives is an important activity within an overall power sector reform program. The evaluation criteria for selection are both subjective as well as objective in nature and the selection of alternatives is characterised by their conflicting nature. This study demonstrates a methodology for power market structure selection using the analytic hierarchy process, a multiple attribute decision- making technique, to model the selection methodology with the active participation of relevant stakeholders in a workshop environment. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical case of a State Electricity Board reform in India. (author)

  1. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  2. Solutions of the bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanzhong

    2011-01-01

    The (N, M)-bigraded Toda hierarchy is an extension of the original Toda lattice hierarchy. The pair of numbers (N, M) represents the band structure of the Lax matrix which has N upper and M lower diagonals, and the original one is referred to as the (1, 1)-bigraded Toda hierarchy. Because of this band structure, one can introduce M + N - 1 commuting flows which give a parametrization of a small phase space for a topological field theory. In this paper, first we show that there exists a natural symmetry between the (N, M)- and (M, N)-bigraded Toda hierarchies. We then derive the Hirota bilinear form for those commuting flows, which consist of two-dimensional Toda hierarchy, the discrete KP hierarchy and its Baecklund transformations. We also discuss the solution structure of the (N, M)-bigraded Toda equation in terms of the moment matrix defined via the wave operators associated with the Lax operator and construct some of the explicit solutions. In particular, we give the rational solutions which are expressed by the products of the Schur polynomials corresponding to the non-rectangular Young diagrams.

  3. A comprehensive grid to evaluate case management's expected effectiveness for community-dwelling frail older people: results from a multiple, embedded case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Durme, Thérèse; Schmitz, Olivier; Cès, Sophie; Anthierens, Sibyl; Maggi, Patrick; Delye, Sam; De Almeida Mello, Johanna; Declercq, Anja; Macq, Jean; Remmen, Roy; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-06-18

    Case management is a type of intervention expected to improve the quality of care and therefore the quality of life of frail, community-dwelling older people while delaying institutionalisation in nursing homes. However, the heterogeneity, multidimensionality and complexity of these interventions make their evaluation by the means of classical approaches inadequate. Our objective was twofold: (i) to propose a tool allowing for the identification of the key components that explain the success of case management for this population and (ii) to propose a typology based on the results of this tool. The process started with a multiple embedded case study design in order to identify the key components of case management. Based on the results of this first step, data were collected among 22 case management interventions, in order to evaluate their expected effectiveness. Finally, multiple correspondence analyses was conducted to propose a typology of case management. The overall approach was informed by Wagner's Chronic Care Model and the theory of complexity. The study identified a total of 23 interacting key components. Based on the clustering of response patterns of the 22 case management projects included in our study, three types of case management programmes were evidenced, situated on a continuum from a more "socially-oriented" type towards a more "clinically-oriented" type of case management. The type of feedback provided to the general practitioner about both the global geriatric assessment and the result of the intervention turned out to be the most discriminant component between the types. The study design allowed to produce a tool that can be used to distinguish between different types of case management interventions and further evaluate their effect on frail older people in terms of the delaying institutionalisation, functional and cognitive status, quality of life and societal costs.

  4. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  5. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  6. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  7. MrGrid: a portable grid based molecular replacement pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Schmidberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. CONCLUSIONS: MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success.

  8. Constraints and Soliton Solutions for KdV Hierarchy and AKNS Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nianhua; Li Yuqi

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator. We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the n-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable. (general)

  9. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

  10. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  11. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  12. Grid Databases for Shared Image Analysis in the MammoGrid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Hauer, T; Manset, D; McClatchey, R; Odeh, M; Reading, T; Rogulin, D; Schottlander, D; Solomonides, T

    2004-01-01

    The MammoGrid project aims to prove that Grid infrastructures can be used for collaborative clinical analysis of database-resident but geographically distributed medical images. This requires: a) the provision of a clinician-facing front-end workstation and b) the ability to service real-world clinician queries across a distributed and federated database. The MammoGrid project will prove the viability of the Grid by harnessing its power to enable radiologists from geographically dispersed hospitals to share standardized mammograms, to compare diagnoses (with and without computer aided detection of tumours) and to perform sophisticated epidemiological studies across national boundaries. This paper outlines the approach taken in MammoGrid to seamlessly connect radiologist workstations across a Grid using an "information infrastructure" and a DICOM-compliant object model residing in multiple distributed data stores in Italy and the UK

  13. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groß, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit

  14. Boltzmann hierarchy for interacting neutrinos I: formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the collisional Boltzmann equation, we derive for the first time and from first principles the Boltzmann hierarchy for neutrinos including interactions with a scalar particle. Such interactions appear, for example, in majoron-like models of neutrino mass generation. We study two limits of the scalar mass: (i) An extremely massive scalar whose only role is to mediate an effective 4-fermion neutrino-neutrino interaction, and (ii) a massless scalar that can be produced in abundance and thus demands its own Boltzmann hierarchy. In contrast to, e.g., the first-order Boltzmann hierarchy for Thomson-scattering photons, our interacting neutrino/scalar Boltzmann hierarchies contain additional momentum-dependent collision terms arising from a non-negligible energy transfer in the neutrino-neutrino and neutrino-scalar interactions. This necessitates that we track each momentum mode of the phase space distributions individually, even if the particles were massless. Comparing our hierarchy with the commonly used (c eff 2 ,c vis 2 )-parameterisation, we find no formal correspondence between the two approaches, which raises the question of whether the latter parameterisation even has an interpretation in terms of particle scattering. Lastly, although we have invoked majoron-like models as a motivation for our study, our treatment is in fact generally applicable to all scenarios in which the neutrino and/or other ultrarelativistic fermions interact with scalar particles

  15. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  16. Low Complexity Parameter Estimation For Off-the-Grid Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, a derived cost function is usually evaluated and optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms

  17. Group Decision Making with the Analytic Hierarchy Process in Benefit-Risk Assessment: A Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; Bridges, John; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria.

  18. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Decision-Making in Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    1997-01-01

    Land management activities on public lands combine multiple objectives in order to create a plan of action over a finite time horizon. Because management activities are constrained by time and money, it is critical to make the best use of available agency resources. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) offers a structure for multi-objective decisionmaking so that...

  19. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  20. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  1. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  2. Determination of Optimal Opening Scheme for Electromagnetic Loop Networks Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying optimization and decision for opening electromagnetic loop networks plays an important role in planning and operation of power grids. First, the basic principle of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is introduced, and then an improved FAHP-based scheme evaluation method is proposed for decoupling electromagnetic loop networks based on a set of indicators reflecting the performance of the candidate schemes. The proposed method combines the advantages of analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. On the one hand, AHP effectively combines qualitative and quantitative analysis to ensure the rationality of the evaluation model; on the other hand, the judgment matrix and qualitative indicators are expressed with trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to make decision-making more realistic. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the application results on the real power system of Liaoning province of China.

  3. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Srayan; Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new 'product' of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings-leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution.

  4. On the Hierarchy of Neutrino Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezabek, M.; Urban, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of neutrino masses combining the seesaw mechanism and strong Dirac mass hierarchy and at the same time exhibiting a significantly reduced hierarchy at the level of active neutrino masses. The heavy Majorana masses are assumed to be degenerate. The suppression of the hierarchy is due to a symmetric and unitary operator R whose role is discussed. The model gives realistic mixing and mass spectrum. The mixing of atmospheric neutrinos is attributed to the charged lepton sector whereas the mixing of solar neutrinos is due to the neutrino sector. Small U e3 is a consequence of the model. The masses of the active neutrinos are given by μ 3 ≅ √(Δm 2 O ) and μ 1 /μ 2 = ≅ tan 2 (θ O ). (author)

  5. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  6. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  7. A generative model for scientific concept hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Eytan

    2018-01-01

    In many scientific disciplines, each new ‘product’ of research (method, finding, artifact, etc.) is often built upon previous findings–leading to extension and branching of scientific concepts over time. We aim to understand the evolution of scientific concepts by placing them in phylogenetic hierarchies where scientific keyphrases from a large, longitudinal academic corpora are used as a proxy of scientific concepts. These hierarchies exhibit various important properties, including power-law degree distribution, power-law component size distribution, existence of a giant component and less probability of extending an older concept. We present a generative model based on preferential attachment to simulate the graphical and temporal properties of these hierarchies which helps us understand the underlying process behind scientific concept evolution and may be useful in simulating and predicting scientific evolution. PMID:29474409

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    A spacer grid for a nuclear fuel assembly is comprised of a lattice of grid plates forming multiple cells that are penetrated by fuel elements. Resilient protrusions and rigid protrusions projecting into the cells from the plates bear against the fuel element to effect proper support and spacing. Pairs of intersecting grid plates, disposed in a longitudinally spaced relationship, cooperate with other plates to form a lattice wherein each cell contains adjacent panels having resilient protrusions arranged opposite adjacent panels having rigid protrusions. The peripheral band bounding the lattice is provided solely with rigid protrusions projecting into the peripheral cells. (Auth.)

  9. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  10. On self-dual Yang-Mills hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    1989-01-01

    In this note, motivated by the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy of integrable nonlinear evolution equations, a GL(n,C) self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) hierarchy is presented; it is an infinite system of SDYM equations having an infinite number of independent variables and being outside of the KP hierarchy. A relationship between the KP hierarchy and the SDYM hierarchy is discussed. It is also shown that GL(∞) SDYM equations introduced in this note are reduced to the GL(n,C) SDYM hierarchy by imposing an algebraic constraint. (orig.)

  11. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  12. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  13. Contrastive hierarchies, privative features, and Portuguese vowels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dresher’s (2009 Contrastive hierarchy theory (CHT is intended to provide a unified account of both sides of phonological primes: contrastivity and behaviour. This article explores the point and the possibility of extending CHT, which is based on binary features, to a system of monovalent elements that is much indebted to Schane’s (1984 Particle Phonology. It shows how several aspects of the phonology of European Portuguese nuclei that seem prima facie independent from one another – such as reduction patterns and the inventory of diphthongs and nasal vowels – are constrained by element hierarchy, and, thus, receive a unitary account.

  14. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  15. Program information architecture/document hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a ''program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  17. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  18. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  19. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  20. Visualization of big SPH simulations via compressed octree grids

    KAUST Repository

    Reichl, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Interactive and high-quality visualization of spatially continuous 3D fields represented by scattered distributions of billions of particles is challenging. One common approach is to resample the quantities carried by the particles to a regular grid and to render the grid via volume ray-casting. In large-scale applications such as astrophysics, however, the required grid resolution can easily exceed 10K samples per spatial dimension, letting resampling approaches appear unfeasible. In this paper we demonstrate that even in these extreme cases such approaches perform surprisingly well, both in terms of memory requirement and rendering performance. We resample the particle data to a multiresolution multiblock grid, where the resolution of the blocks is dictated by the particle distribution. From this structure we build an octree grid, and we then compress each block in the hierarchy at no visual loss using wavelet-based compression. Since decompression can be performed on the GPU, it can be integrated effectively into GPU-based out-of-core volume ray-casting. We compare our approach to the perspective grid approach which resamples at run-time into a view-aligned grid. We demonstrate considerably faster rendering times at high quality, at only a moderate memory increase compared to the raw particle set. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. On Hierarchical Extensions of Large-Scale 4-regular Grid Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Patel, A.; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    It is studied how the introduction of ordered hierarchies in 4-regular grid network structures decreses distances remarkably, while at the same time allowing for simple topological routing schemes. Both meshes and tori are considered; in both cases non-hierarchical structures have power law depen...

  2. Fuzzy Logic and Arithmetical Hierarchy III

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2001), s. 129-142 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : fuzzy logic * basic fuzzy logic * Lukasiewicz logic * Godel logic * product logic * arithmetical hierarchy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S.

    2008-12-01

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  4. The hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-01-01

    We obtain the two hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (orig.)

  5. A note on the substructural hierarchy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, 1-2 (2016), s. 102-110 ISSN 0942-5616 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : substructural hierarchy * full Lambek calculus * extension variables Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/malq.201500066

  6. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these stud...

  7. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  8. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  9. The Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Panda, S.; Huang Wenjui

    1991-08-01

    We obtain the two Hamiltonian structures of the KP hierarchy following the method of Drinfeld and Sokolov. We point out how the second structure of Drinfeld and Sokolov needs to be modified in the present case. We briefly comment on the connection between these structures and the W 1+∞ algebra. (author). 18 refs

  10. A hierarchy of systems of nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    Imposing isospectral invariance for the one-dimensional Dirac operator yields an infinite hierarchy of systems of chiral invariant nonlinear partial differential equations. The same system is obtained through a Lax pair construction and finally a formulation in terms of Kac-Moody generators is given. (Author)

  11. New solutions to the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdman, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    After summarizing the status of the Standard Model, we focus on the Hierarchy Problem and why we believe this strongly suggests the need for new physics at the TeV scale. We then concentrate on theories with extra dimensions and their possible manifestations at this scale. (author)

  12. Prioritization of Programmer's Productivity Using Analytic Hierarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model in the context of prioritizing programmer's productivity in University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. This is achieved by evaluating the way in which the AHP model can be used to select the best programmer for the purpose of developing software ...

  13. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (∼10 19 GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ∼10 16 between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at ∼10 -3 eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass-shifts at the TeV level, the zero-mode contribution to Casimir energy is overshadowed

  14. Classification hierarchies for product data modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction is an essential element in data modelling that appears mainly in one of the following forms: generalisation, classification or aggregation. In the design of complex products classification hierarchies can be found product families that are viewed as classes of product types, while

  15. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  16. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, María Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2007-11-01

    Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1) by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2) by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests) in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between "specific" individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  17. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  18. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: Phase Space Statistics of Cold Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Tassev, Svetlin

    2010-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the "Helmholtz Hierarchy") of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys...

  19. Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of some hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2009-01-01

    New special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve hierarchies are introduced. The Hirota relations for these special polynomials are found. Differential-difference hierarchies to find special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to search special polynomials associated with the hierarchies. It is shown that rational solutions of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon, the Kaup-Kupershmidt and the modified hierarchy for these ones can be obtained using new special polynomials.

  20. Method and System for Making OLAP Hierarchies Summarisable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when the hierarc......Field of Invention: The present invention relates to computer databases, in particular to a method and system for transforming general OLAP hierarchies into summarizable hierarchies. This enables fast query response times for aggregation queries without excessive storage use even when...

  1. Selection of Vendor Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment is characterized by greater domestic and international competitive position in the global market. Vendors play a key role in achieving the so-called corporate competition. It is not easy however to identify good vendors because evaluation is based on multiple criteria. In practice, for VSP most of the input information about the criteria is not known precisely. Intuitionistic fuzzy set is an extension of the classical fuzzy set theory (FST, which is a suitable way to deal with impreciseness. In other words, the application of intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of fuzzy sets means the introduction of another degree of freedom called nonmembership function into the set description. In this paper, we proposed a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number based approach for the vendor selection problem using analytical hierarchy process. The crisp data of the vendors is represented in the form of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. By applying AHP which involves decomposition, pairwise comparison, and deriving priorities for the various levels of the hierarchy, an overall crisp priority is obtained for ranking the best vendor. A numerical example illustrates our method. Lastly a sensitivity analysis is performed to find the most critical criterion on the basis of which vendor is selected.

  2. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory.

  3. Operator approach to solutions of the constrained BKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hsin-Fu; Lee, Niann-Chern; Tu, Ming-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The operator formalism to the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy is presented. We solve the Hirota bilinear equations of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy via the method of neutral free fermion. In particular, by choosing suitable group element of O(∞), we construct rational and soliton solutions of the vector k-constrained BKP hierarchy.

  4. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results

  5. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  6. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  7. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  8. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  9. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  10. Grid workflow job execution service 'Pilot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamardin, Lev; Kryukov, Alexander; Demichev, Andrey; Ilyin, Vyacheslav

    2011-12-01

    'Pilot' is a grid job execution service for workflow jobs. The main goal for the service is to automate computations with multiple stages since they can be expressed as simple workflows. Each job is a directed acyclic graph of tasks and each task is an execution of something on a grid resource (or 'computing element'). Tasks may be submitted to any WS-GRAM (Globus Toolkit 4) service. The target resources for the tasks execution are selected by the Pilot service from the set of available resources which match the specific requirements from the task and/or job definition. Some simple conditional execution logic is also provided. The 'Pilot' service is built on the REST concepts and provides a simple API through authenticated HTTPS. This service is deployed and used in production in a Russian national grid project GridNNN.

  11. Grid workflow job execution service 'Pilot'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamardin, Lev; Kryukov, Alexander; Demichev, Andrey; Ilyin, Vyacheslav

    2011-01-01

    'Pilot' is a grid job execution service for workflow jobs. The main goal for the service is to automate computations with multiple stages since they can be expressed as simple workflows. Each job is a directed acyclic graph of tasks and each task is an execution of something on a grid resource (or 'computing element'). Tasks may be submitted to any WS-GRAM (Globus Toolkit 4) service. The target resources for the tasks execution are selected by the Pilot service from the set of available resources which match the specific requirements from the task and/or job definition. Some simple conditional execution logic is also provided. The 'Pilot' service is built on the REST concepts and provides a simple API through authenticated HTTPS. This service is deployed and used in production in a Russian national grid project GridNNN.

  12. A data-informed PIF hierarchy for model-based Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, Katrina M.; Mosleh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses three problems associated with the use of Performance Shaping Factors in Human Reliability Analysis. (1) There are more than a dozen Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods that use Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) or Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) to model human performance, but there is not a standard set of PIFs used among the methods, nor is there a framework available to compare the PIFs used in various methods. (2) The PIFs currently in use are not defined specifically enough to ensure consistent interpretation of similar PIFs across methods. (3) There are few rules governing the creation, definition, and usage of PIF sets. This paper introduces a hierarchical set of PIFs that can be used for both qualitative and quantitative HRA. The proposed PIF set is arranged in a hierarchy that can be collapsed or expanded to meet multiple objectives. The PIF hierarchy has been developed with respect to a set fundamental principles necessary for PIF sets, which are also introduced in this paper. This paper includes definitions of the PIFs to allow analysts to map the proposed PIFs onto current and future HRA methods. The standardized PIF hierarchy will allow analysts to combine different types of data and will therefore make the best use of the limited data in HRA. The collapsible hierarchy provides the structure necessary to combine multiple types of information without reducing the quality of the information.

  13. An Evaluation of Information Consistency in Grid Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    A Grid information system resolves queries that may need to consider all information sources (Grid services), which are widely distributed geographically, in order to enable efficient Grid functions that may utilise multiple cooperating services. Fundamentally this can be achieved by either moving the query to the data (query shipping) or moving the data to the query (data shipping). Existing Grid information system implementations have adopted one of the two approaches. This paper explores the two approaches in further detail by evaluating them to the best possible extent with respect to Grid information system benchmarking metrics. A Grid information system that follows the data shipping approach based on the replication of information that aims to improve the currency for highly-mutable information is presented. An implementation of this, based on an Enterprise Messaging System, is evaluated using the benchmarking method and the consequence of the results for the design of Grid information systems is discu...

  14. AstroGrid: AstroGrid: Powering the virtual universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2002-02-01

    Nic Walton describes a programme to break down wavelength barriers and empower astronomers, as well as making full use of astronomical archives. The full potential of the data from the major new observational facilities (e.g. VISTA) available to the community will only be realized if inclusive, rich, data access and manipulation mechanisms are provided. Astronomical endeavour will be further leveraged if these mechanisms enable ``science-driven'' research programmes benefiting from access to multiple data sources. I describe here the reasons and resources behind AstroGrid.

  15. The Helmholtz Hierarchy: phase space statistics of cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new formalism to study large-scale structure in the universe. The result is a hierarchy (which we call the ''Helmholtz Hierarchy'') of equations describing the phase space statistics of cold dark matter (CDM). The hierarchy features a physical ordering parameter which interpolates between the Zel'dovich approximation and fully-fledged gravitational interactions. The results incorporate the effects of stream crossing. We show that the Helmholtz hierarchy is self-consistent and obeys causality to all orders. We present an interpretation of the hierarchy in terms of effective particle trajectories

  16. The multicomponent 2D Toda hierarchy: dispersionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mañas, Manuel; Alonso, Luis Martínez

    2009-01-01

    The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov–Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit

  17. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Support grid for fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    A support grid is provided for holding nuclear fuel rods in a rectangular array. Intersecting sheet metal strips are interconnected using opposing slots in the strips to form a rectangular cellular grid structure for engaging the sides of a multiplicity of fuel rods. Spring and dimple supports for engaging fuel and guide rods extending through each cell in the support grid are formed in the metal strips with the springs thus formed being characterized by nonlinear spring rates

  19. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  20. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  1. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  2. Scale hierarchy in high-temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Because of asymptotic freedom, QCD becomes weakly interacting at high temperature: this is the reason for the transition to a deconfined phase in Yang-Mills theory at temperature $T_c$. At high temperature $T \\gg T_c$, the smallness of the running coupling $g$ induces a hierachy betwen the "hard", "soft" and "ultrasoft" energy scales $T$, $g T$ and $g^2 T$. This hierarchy allows for a very successful effective treatment where the "hard" and the "soft" modes are successively integrated out. However, it is not clear how high a temperature is necessary to achieve such a scale hierarchy. By numerical simulations, we show that the required temperatures are extremely high. Thus, the quantitative success of the effective theory down to temperatures of a few $T_c$ appears surprising a posteriori.

  3. Generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The importance in studying the completely integrable models have became evident in the last years due to the fact that those models present an algebraic structure extremely rich, providing the natural scenery for solitons description. Those models can be described through non-linear differential equations, pseudo-linear operators (Lax formulation), or a matrix formulation. The integrability implies in the existence of a conservation law associated to each of degree of freedom. Each conserved charge Q i can be associated to a Hamiltonian, defining a time evolution related to to a time t i through the Hamilton equation ∂A/∂t i =[A,Q i ]. Particularly, for a two-dimensions field theory, infinite degree of freedom exist, and consequently infinite conservation laws describing the time evolution in space of infinite times. The Hamilton equation defines a hierarchy of models which present a infinite set of conservation laws. This paper studies the generalized non-linear Schroedinger hierarchy

  4. Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Rattazzi, R.

    1992-01-01

    Inverted radiative hierarchy of quark masses is investigated. The authors suggest that the mass hierarchy is first generated in a sector of heavy isosinglet fermions due to radiative effects and then projected in the inverted way to the usual quarks by means of a universal seesaw. The simple left-right symmetric gauge model is presented with the P- and CP-parities and the exact isotopical symmetry which are softly (or spontaneously) broken in the Higgs potential. This approach naturally explains the observed pattern of quark masses and mixing, providing the quantitatively correct formula for the Cabibbo angle. Top quark is predicted to be in the 90-150 GeV range

  5. Effects of metric hierarchy and rhyme predictability on word duration in The Cat in the Hat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Mara

    2018-05-01

    Word durations convey many types of linguistic information, including intrinsic lexical features like length and frequency and contextual features like syntactic and semantic structure. The current study was designed to investigate whether hierarchical metric structure and rhyme predictability account for durational variation over and above other features in productions of a rhyming, metrically-regular children's book: The Cat in the Hat (Dr. Seuss, 1957). One-syllable word durations and inter-onset intervals were modeled as functions of segment number, lexical frequency, word class, syntactic structure, repetition, and font emphasis. Consistent with prior work, factors predicting longer word durations and inter-onset intervals included more phonemes, lower frequency, first mention, alignment with a syntactic boundary, and capitalization. A model parameter corresponding to metric grid height improved model fit of word durations and inter-onset intervals. Specifically, speakers realized five levels of metric hierarchy with inter-onset intervals such that interval duration increased linearly with increased height in the metric hierarchy. Conversely, speakers realized only three levels of metric hierarchy with word duration, demonstrating that they shortened the highly predictable rhyme resolutions. These results further understanding of the factors that affect spoken word duration, and demonstrate the myriad cues that children receive about linguistic structure from nursery rhymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  7. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  8. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  9. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  10. Explorations of the extended ncKP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2004-01-01

    A recently obtained extension (xncKP) of the Moyal-deformed KP hierarchy (ncKP hierarchy) by a set of evolution equations in the Moyal-deformation parameters is further explored. Formulae are derived to compute these equations efficiently. Reductions of the xncKP hierarchy are treated, in particular to the extended ncKdV and ncBoussinesq hierarchies. Furthermore, a good part of the Sato formalism for the KP hierarchy is carried over to the generalized framework. In particular, the well-known bilinear identity theorem for the KP hierarchy, expressed in terms of the (formal) Baker-Akhiezer function, extends to the xncKP hierarchy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that N-soliton solutions of the ncKP equation are also solutions of the first few deformation equations. This is shown to be related to the existence of certain families of algebraic identities

  11. Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs

  12. Gauge equivalence between two-boson KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper it is explained the status of the two-boson KP hierarchy, which appears in this setting as an invariant subspace of the coadjoint orbit within the KP l=1 hierarchy. We will work with two main cases of two-boson KP hierarchies, one defined within KP l=1 hierarchy will be called Faa di Bruno KP hierarchy, while the second defined within KP hierarchy for a quadratic two-boson KP hierarchy. It will be established for them the gauge invariance playing the role of generalized Miura transformations. It is emphasized the symplectic character of equivalence of KP l=1 and KP. It is also made a point that the gauge equivalence established for two-boson systems is valid for an arbitrary n-th Poisson bracket structure and not only the first Poisson bracket structure. (author). 7 refs

  13. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  14. Gauge hierarchy and long range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.B.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Chang, D.

    1990-01-01

    With the aid of simple examples, we show how a long range attractive force can arise in a gauge theory with a hierarchy. The force is due to the exchange of a Higgs boson whose mass and matter couplings are both naturally suppressed by the hierarchical mass ratio. Such bosons appear if there is an accidental global symmetry in the low-energy renormalizable Lagrangian after the high energy symmetry breaking. 6 refs

  15. Clutter-free Visualization of Large Point Symbols at Multiple Scales by Offset Quadtrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To address the cartographic problems in map mash-up applications in the Web 2.0 context, this paper studies a clutter-free technique for visualizing large symbols on Web maps. Basically, a quadtree is used to select one symbol in each grid cell at each zoom level. To resolve the symbol overlaps between neighboring quad-grids, multiple offsets are applied to the quadtree and a voting strategy is used to compute the significant level of symbols for their selection at multiple scales. The method is able to resolve spatial conflicts without explicit conflict detection, thus enabling a highly efficient processing. Also the resulting map forms a visual hierarchy of semantic importance. We discuss issues such as the relative importance, symbol-to-grid size ratio, and effective offset schemes, and propose two extensions to make better use of the free space available on the map. Experiments were carried out to validate the technique,which demonstrates its robustness and efficiency (a non-optimal implementation leads to a sub-second processing for datasets of a 105 magnitude.

  16. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    to state and environment and in general can terminate the execution of a decomposition and attempt a new decomposition at any level in the hierarchy. This goal decomposition system is suitable for workstation, microprocessor and fpga implementation and thus is able to support the full range of prototyping activities, from mission design in the laboratory to development of the fpga firmware for the flight system. This approach is based on previous artificial intelligence work including (1) Brooks' subsumption architecture for robot control, (2) Firby's Reactive Action Package System (RAPS) for mediating between high level automated planning and low level execution and (3) hierarchical task networks for automated planning. Reactive goal decomposition hierarchies can be used for a wide variety of on-board autonomy applications including automating low level operation sequences (such as scheduling prerequisite operations, e.g., heaters, warm-up periods, monitoring power constraints), coordinating multiple spacecraft as in formation flying and constellations, robot manipulator operations, rendez-vous, docking, servicing, assembly, on-orbit maintenance, planetary rover operations, solar system and interstellar probes, intelligent science data gathering and disaster early warning. Goal decomposition hierarchies can support high level fault tolerance. Given models of on-board resources and goals to accomplish, the decomposition hierarchy could allocate resources to goals taking into account existing faults and in real-time reallocating resources as new faults arise. Resources to be modeled include memory (e.g., ROM, FPGA configuration memory, processor memory, payload instrument memory), processors, on-board and interspacecraft network nodes and links, sensors, actuators (e.g., attitude determination and control, guidance and navigation) and payload instruments. A goal decomposition hierarchy could be defined to map mission goals and tasks to available on-board resources. As

  17. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  18. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  19. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Alsallakh; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  20. Integral equation hierarchy for continuum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis a projection operator technique is presented that yields hierarchies of integral equations satisfied exactly by the n-point connectedness functions in a continuum version of the site-bond percolation problem. The n-point connectedness functions carry the same structural information for a percolation problem as then-point correlation functions do for a thermal problem. This method extends the Potts model mapping of Fortuin and Kastelyn to the continuum by exploiting an s-state generalization of the Widom-Rowlinson model, a continuum model for phase separation. The projection operator technique is used to produce an integral equation hierarchy for percolation similar to the Born-Green heirarchy. The Kirkwood superposition approximation (SA) is extended to percolation in order to close this hierarchy and yield a nonlinear integral equation for the two-point connectedness function. The fact that this function, in the SA, is the analytic continuation to negative density of the two-point correlation function in a corresponding thermal problem is discussed. The BGY equation for percolation is solved numerically, both by an expansion in powers of the density, and by an iterative technique due to Kirkwood. It is argued both analytically and numerically, that the BYG equation for percolation, unlike its thermal counterpart, shows non-classical critical behavior, with η = 1 and γ = 0.05 ± .1. Finally a sequence of refinements to the superposition approximations based in the theory of fluids by Rice and Lekner is discussed

  1. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Kitching, Thomas D.; Heavens, Alan; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    The combination of current large-scale structure and cosmic microwave background anisotropies data can place strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses. Here we show that future cosmic shear experiments, in combination with cosmic microwave background constraints, can provide the statistical accuracy required to answer questions about differences in the mass of individual neutrino species. Allowing for the possibility that masses are nondegenerate we combine Fisher matrix forecasts for a weak lensing survey like Euclid with those for the forthcoming Planck experiment. Under the assumption that neutrino mass splitting is described by a normal hierarchy we find that the combination Planck and Euclid will possibly reach enough sensitivity to put a constraint on the mass of a single species. Using a Bayesian evidence calculation we find that such future experiments could provide strong evidence for either a normal or an inverted neutrino hierarchy. Finally we show that if a particular neutrino hierarchy is assumed then this could bias cosmological parameter constraints, for example, the dark energy equation of state parameter, by > or approx. 1σ, and the sum of masses by 2.3σ. We finally discuss the impact of uncertainties on the theoretical modeling of nonlinearities. The results presented in this analysis are obtained under an approximation to the nonlinear power spectrum. This significant source of uncertainty needs to be addressed in future work.

  2. Collaborative hierarchy maintains cooperation in asymmetric games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Pereda, María; Cronin, Katherine A; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2018-03-29

    The interplay of social structure and cooperative behavior is under much scrutiny lately as behavior in social contexts becomes increasingly relevant for everyday life. Earlier experimental work showed that the existence of a social hierarchy, earned through competition, was detrimental for the evolution of cooperative behaviors. Here, we study the case in which individuals are ranked in a hierarchical structure based on their performance in a collective effort by having them play a Public Goods Game. In the first treatment, participants are ranked according to group earnings while, in the second treatment, their rankings are based on individual earnings. Subsequently, participants play asymmetric Prisoner's Dilemma games where higher-ranked players gain more than lower ones. Our experiments show that there are no detrimental effects of the hierarchy formed based on group performance, yet when ranking is assigned individually we observe a decrease in cooperation. Our results show that different levels of cooperation arise from the fact that subjects are interpreting rankings as a reputation which carries information about which subjects were cooperators in the previous phase. Our results demonstrate that noting the manner in which a hierarchy is established is essential for understanding its effects on cooperation.

  3. Minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ramakrishnan

    Well-defined, non-perturbative formulations of the physics of string theories in specific minimal or superminimal model backgrounds can be obtained by solving matrix models in the double scaling limit. They provide us with the first examples of completely solvable string theories. Despite being relatively simple compared to higher dimensional critical string theories, they furnish non-perturbative descriptions of interesting physical phenomena such as geometrical transitions between D-branes and fluxes, tachyon condensation and holography. The physics of these theories in the minimal model backgrounds is succinctly encoded in a non-linear differential equation known as the string equation, along with an associated hierarchy of integrable partial differential equations (PDEs). The bosonic string in (2,2m-1) conformal minimal model backgrounds and the type 0A string in (2,4 m) superconformal minimal model backgrounds have the Korteweg-de Vries system, while type 0B in (2,4m) backgrounds has the Zakharov-Shabat system. The integrable PDE hierarchy governs flows between backgrounds with different m. In this thesis, we explore this interesting connection between minimal string theories and integrable hierarchies further. We uncover the remarkable role that an infinite hierarchy of non-linear differential equations plays in organizing and connecting certain minimal string theories non-perturbatively. We are able to embed the type 0A and 0B (A,A) minimal string theories into this single framework. The string theories arise as special limits of a rich system of equations underpinned by an integrable system known as the dispersive water wave hierarchy. We find that there are several other string-like limits of the system, and conjecture that some of them are type IIA and IIB (A,D) minimal string backgrounds. We explain how these and several other string-like special points arise and are connected. In some cases, the framework endows the theories with a non

  4. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  5. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  6. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  7. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  9. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  10. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  11. A health hierarchy of effects model: a synthesis of advertising and health hierarchy conceptualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, R A

    1991-01-01

    Work by both advertising and health researchers has independently yielded hierarchy of effects models which can be used to predict campaign success. Unfortunately, however, previous work has been criticized as "common sense" approaches which are more "assumed" than "proven." This analysis argues that much of the problem is due to the lack of precision often associated with over-simplified "uni-dimensional" models. Instead, this perspective synthesized a "two-dimensional" health hierarchy of effects model and outlines a pragmatic strategy for campaign measurement.

  12. Random walk hierarchy measure: What is more hierarchical, a chain, a tree or a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czégel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Signs of hierarchy are prevalent in a wide range of systems in nature and society. One of the key problems is quantifying the importance of hierarchical organisation in the structure of the network representing the interactions or connections between the fundamental units of the studied system. Although a number of notable methods are already available, their vast majority is treating all directed acyclic graphs as already maximally hierarchical. Here we propose a hierarchy measure based on random walks on the network. The novelty of our approach is that directed trees corresponding to multi level pyramidal structures obtain higher hierarchy scores compared to directed chains and directed stars. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit the hierarchy measure of regular trees is converging to a well defined limit depending only on the branching number. When applied to real networks, our method is computationally very effective, as the result can be evaluated with arbitrary precision by subsequent multiplications of the transition matrix describing the random walk process. In addition, the tests on real world networks provided very intuitive results, e.g., the trophic levels obtained from our approach on a food web were highly consistent with former results from ecology. PMID:26657012

  13. Random walk hierarchy measure: What is more hierarchical, a chain, a tree or a star?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czégel, Dániel; Palla, Gergely

    2015-12-10

    Signs of hierarchy are prevalent in a wide range of systems in nature and society. One of the key problems is quantifying the importance of hierarchical organisation in the structure of the network representing the interactions or connections between the fundamental units of the studied system. Although a number of notable methods are already available, their vast majority is treating all directed acyclic graphs as already maximally hierarchical. Here we propose a hierarchy measure based on random walks on the network. The novelty of our approach is that directed trees corresponding to multi level pyramidal structures obtain higher hierarchy scores compared to directed chains and directed stars. Furthermore, in the thermodynamic limit the hierarchy measure of regular trees is converging to a well defined limit depending only on the branching number. When applied to real networks, our method is computationally very effective, as the result can be evaluated with arbitrary precision by subsequent multiplications of the transition matrix describing the random walk process. In addition, the tests on real world networks provided very intuitive results, e.g., the trophic levels obtained from our approach on a food web were highly consistent with former results from ecology.

  14. A GridFTP transport driver for Globus XIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettimuthu, R.; Wantao, L.; Link, J.; Bresnahan, J.

    2008-01-01

    GridFTP is a high-performance, reliable data transfer protocol optimized for high-bandwidth wide-area networks. Based on the Internet FTP protocol, it defines extensions for high-performance operation and security. The Globus implementation of GridFTP provides a modular and extensible data transfer system architecture suitable for wide area and high-performance environments. GridFTP is the de facto standard in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. For example, the high energy physics community is basing its entire tiered data movement infrastructure for the Large Hadron Collider computing Grid on GridFTP; the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory routinely uses GridFTP to move 1 TB a day during production runs; and GridFTP is the recommended data transfer mechanism to maximize data transfer rates on the TeraGrid. Commonly used GridFTP clients include globus-url-copy, uberftp, and the Globus Reliable File Transfer service. In this paper, we present a Globus XIO based client to GridFTP that provides a simple Open/Close/Read/Write (OCRW) interface to the users. Such a client greatly eases the addition of GridFTP support to third-party programs, such as SRB and MPICH-G2. Further, this client provides an easier and familiar interface for applications to efficiently access remote files. We compare the performance of this client with that of globus-url-copy on multiple endpoints in the TeraGrid infrastructure. We perform both memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk transfers and show that the performance of this OCRW client is comparable to that of globus-url-copy. We also show that our GridFTP client significantly outperforms the GPFS WAN on the TeraGrid.

  15. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  16. CMS computing on grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)

  17. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  18. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  19. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  20. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  1. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  2. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  3. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  4. Grid Computing Education Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  5. Physical interpretation of the combinatorial hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, T.; Noyes, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The combinatorial hierarchy model for base particle processes is compared and contrasted with the Ur-theory as developed at the Tutzing Conferences. It agrees with Ur-theory about a finite basis, the ''fixed past--uncertain future'' aspects of physics, and the necessity of dropping Bohr's requirement of reduction to the haptic language of commonsense and classical physics. However, it retains a constructive, hierarchial approach with can yield only an approximate and discrete ''space time'', and introduces the observation metaphysic at the start. Concrete interpretation of the four levels of the hierarchy (with cardinals 3, 7, 127, 2 127 -1 approx. =10 38 ) associates the three levels which map up and down with three absolute conservation laws (charge, baryon number, lepton number) and the spin dichotomy. The first level represents +, -, and +- unit charge. The second has the quantum nubmers of a baryon--antibaryon pair and associated charged meson (e.g., n anti n, p anti n, p anti p, n anti p, π + , π 0 , π - ). The third level associates this pair, now including four spin states as well as four charge states, with a neutral lepton--antilepton pair (e anti e or ν anti ν) in four spin states (total, 64 states): three charged spinless, three charged spin-1, and neutral spin-1 mesons (15 states), and a neutral vector boson associated with the leptons; this gives 3 + 15 + 3 x 15 = 63 possible boson states, so a total correct count of 63 + 64 = 127 states. Something like SU 2 X SU 3 and other indications of quark quantum numbers can occur as substructures at the fourth (unstable) level. A slight extension gives the usual static approximation to the building energy of the hydrogen atom, α 2 m/sub e/c 2 . Cosmological implications of the theory are in accord with current experience. A beginning in the physical interpretation of a theory which could eventually encompass all branches of physics was made. 3 figures, 6 tables

  6. A Testbed Environment for Buildings-to-Grid Cyber Resilience Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Ashok, Aditya; Mylrea, Michael E.; Pal, Seemita; Rice, Mark J.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2017-09-19

    The Smart Grid is characterized by the proliferation of advanced digital controllers at all levels of its operational hierarchy from generation to end consumption. Such controllers within modern residential and commercial buildings enable grid operators to exercise fine-grained control over energy consumption through several emerging Buildings-to-Grid (B2G) applications. Though this capability promises significant benefits in terms of operational economics and improved reliability, cybersecurity weaknesses in the supporting infrastructure could be exploited to cause a detrimental effect and this necessitates focused research efforts on two fronts. First, the understanding of how cyber attacks in the B2G space could impact grid reliability and to what extent. Second, the development and validation of cyber-physical application-specific countermeasures that are complementary to traditional infrastructure cybersecurity mechanisms for enhanced cyber attack detection and mitigation. The PNNL B2G testbed is currently being developed to address these core research needs. Specifically, the B2G testbed combines high-fidelity buildings+grid simulators, industry-grade building automation and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems in an integrated, realistic, and reconfigurable environment capable of supporting attack-impact-detection-mitigation experimentation. In this paper, we articulate the need for research testbeds to model various B2G applications broadly by looking at the end-to-end operational hierarchy of the Smart Grid. Finally, the paper not only describes the architecture of the B2G testbed in detail, but also addresses the broad spectrum of B2G resilience research it is capable of supporting based on the smart grid operational hierarchy identified earlier.

  7. Asymptotic density and the Ershov hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Rod; Jockusch, Carl; McNicholl, Timothy H.; Schupp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We classify the asymptotic densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets according to their level in the Ershov hierarchy. In particular, it is shown that for $n \\geq 2$, a real $r \\in [0,1]$ is the density of an $n$-c.e.\\ set if and only if it is a difference of left-$\\Pi_2^0$ reals. Further, we show that the densities of the $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets coincide with the densities of the $\\Delta^0_2$ sets, and there are $\\omega$-c.e.\\ sets whose density is not the density of an $n$-c.e. set for any $n \\in \\ome...

  8. From fusion hierarchy to excited state TBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juettner, G.; Kluemper, A.

    1998-01-01

    Functional relations among the fusion hierarchy of quantum transfer matrices give a novel derivation of the TBA equations, namely without string hypothesis. This is demonstrated for two important models of 1D highly correlated electron systems, the supersymmetric t-J model and the supersymmetric extended Hubbard model. As a consequence, ''the excited state TBA'' equations, which characterize correlation lengths, are explicitly derived for the t-J model. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first explicit derivation of excited state TBA equations for 1D lattice electron systems. (orig.)

  9. Revaluing the hierarchy of paper recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samakovlis, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This article revalues the hierarchy of paper waste management policies in a dynamic general equilibrium model. Incineration, material recycling and the distinction between non-renewable fossil fuels and renewable forest assets are incorporated. By comparing the first order conditions from the command optimum with the conditions from the market model, it is discovered that the unregulated market fails to create an optimal resource allocation. To see how the market behaves, in absence of environmental policy, compared to the first best solution a numerical model is used. Pigouvian taxes and subsidies are derived to correct for the externalities

  10. A Machian solution of the hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogberashvili, M.

    2008-01-01

    The new interpretation of Mach's principle of mass of a particle being a measure of the interactions of this particle with all other gravitating particles inside its causal spheres is introduced. It is shown that within some alternative model of gravitation that incorporates this principle, the Machian influence of the universe can reduce Planck's scale to the electro-weak scale and the large number that is needed to explain the hierarchy between the scales is the amount of gravitating particles inside the universe horizon. Our model can lead to new observable effects at cosmological distances and close to the sources of a strong gravitational field. (orig.)

  11. Beyond grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T

    2008-01-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls

  12. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  13. Stability of mass hierarchy in models with a sliding singlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.; Tainov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the broad class of models with a heavy sliding singlet and softly broken supersymmetry (e.g. by the effects of N=1 supergravity) it is shown that the doublet-triplet hierarchy obtained at the tree level is not destroyed by quantum correction at any loop order. As an example the simplest SU(5) model with a stable doublet-triplet hierarchy is proposed. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the hierarchy stability are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Mathias; McLean, Emily; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social d...

  15. A hierarchy of Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-05-12

    Based on a discrete four-by-four matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations with two potentials is derived. Two Hamiltonian forms are constructed for each lattice equation in the resulting hierarchy by means of the discrete variational identity. A strong symmetry operator of the resulting hierarchy is given. Finally, it is shown that the resulting lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  16. The Theory of Ratio Scale Estimation: Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T. Harker; Luis G. Vargas

    1987-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process developed by Saaty (Saaty, T. L. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.) has proven to be an extremely useful method for decision making and planning. However, some researchers in these areas have raised concerns over the theoretical basis underlying this process. This paper addresses currently debated issues concerning the theoretical foundations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. We also illustrate through proof and through examples the v...

  17. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  18. The Toda lattice hierarchy and deformation of conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors point out that the Toda lattice hierarchy known in soliton theory is relevant for the description of the deformations of conformal field theories while the KP hierarchy describes unperturbed conformal theories. It is shown that the holomorphic parts of the conserved currents in the perturbed system (the Toda lattice hierarchy) coincide with the conserved currents in the KP hierarchy and can be written in terms of the W-algebraic currents. Furthermore, their anti-holomorphic counterparts are obtained

  19. On Recursion Operator of the q -KP Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ke-Lei; Zhu Xiao-Ming; He Jing-Song

    2016-01-01

    It is the aim of the present article to give a general expression of flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy. The distinct difference between the q-KP hierarchy and the KP hierarchy is due to q-binomial and the action of q-shift operator θ, which originates from the Leibnitz rule of the quantum calculus. We further show that the n-reduction leads to a recursive scheme for these flow equations. The recursion operator for the flow equations of the q-KP hierarchy under the n-reduction is also derived. (paper)

  20. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  1. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  2. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  3. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  4. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  5. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2018-01-01

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  6. On hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1988-01-01

    It is thought that the gravitational clustering of galaxies in the universe may approach a scale-invariant, hierarchical form in the small separation, large-clustering regime. Past attempts to solve the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy in this regime have assumed a certain separable hierarchical form for the higher order correlation functions of galaxies in phase space. It is shown here that such separable solutions to the BBGKY equations must satisfy the condition that the clustered component of the solution has cluster-cluster correlations equal to galaxy-galaxy correlations to all orders. The solutions also admit the presence of an arbitrary unclustered component, which plays no dyamical role in the large-clustering regime. These results are a particular property of the specific separable model assumed for the correlation functions in phase space, not an intrinsic property of spatially hierarchical solutions to the BBGKY hierarchy. The observed distribution of galaxies does not satisfy the required conditions. The disagreement between theory and observation may be traced, at least in part, to initial conditions which, if Gaussian, already have cluster correlations greater than galaxy correlations.

  7. Hierarchies without symmetries from extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schmaltz, Martin

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the standard model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the standard model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the CERN LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Hierarchies Without Symmetries from Extra Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly thought that small couplings in a low-energy theory, such as those needed for the fermion mass hierarchy or proton stability, must originate from symmetries in a high-energy theory. We show that this expectation is violated in theories where the Standard Model fields are confined to a thick wall in extra dimensions, with the fermions ''stuck'' at different points in the wall. Couplings between them are then suppressed due to the exponentially small overlaps of their wave functions. This provides a framework for understanding both the fermion mass hierarchy and proton stability without imposing symmetries, but rather in terms of higher dimensional geography. A model independent prediction of this scenario is non-universal couplings of the Standard Model fermions to the ''Kaluza-Klein'' excitations of the gauge fields. This allows a measurement of the fermion locations in the extra dimensions at the LHC or NLC if the wall thickness is close to the TeV scale

  9. A color hierarchy for automatic target selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illia Tchernikov

    Full Text Available Visual processing of color starts at the cones in the retina and continues through ventral stream visual areas, called the parvocellular pathway. Motion processing also starts in the retina but continues through dorsal stream visual areas, called the magnocellular system. Color and motion processing are functionally and anatomically discrete. Previously, motion processing areas MT and MST have been shown to have no color selectivity to a moving stimulus; the neurons were colorblind whenever color was presented along with motion. This occurs when the stimuli are luminance-defined versus the background and is considered achromatic motion processing. Is motion processing independent of color processing? We find that motion processing is intrinsically modulated by color. Color modulated smooth pursuit eye movements produced upon saccading to an aperture containing a surface of coherently moving dots upon a black background. Furthermore, when two surfaces that differed in color were present, one surface was automatically selected based upon a color hierarchy. The strength of that selection depended upon the distance between the two colors in color space. A quantifiable color hierarchy for automatic target selection has wide-ranging implications from sports to advertising to human-computer interfaces.

  10. Gauge hierarchy problem in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhendi, H.A.A.

    1982-01-01

    In grand unification schemes, several mass scales are to be introduced, with some of them much larger than all the others, to cope with experimental observations, in which elementary particles of higher masses require higher energy to observe them than elementary particles of lower masses. There have been controversial arguments in the literature on such hierarchical scale structure, when radiative corrections are taken into account. It has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy depends on the choice of the subtraction point (in the classical field space), of the four-point function at zero external momentum. It also has been asserted that the gauge hierarchy problem whenever it is possible to be maintained in one sector of particles, it also is possible to be maintained in the other sectors. These two problems have been studied in a prototype model, namely an 0(3)-model with two triplets of real scalar Higgs fields. Our analysis shows that, within ordinary perturbation theory, none of these two problems is quite correct

  11. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  12. Natural gauge hierarchy in SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Barr, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a natural gauge hierarchy and doublet-triplet splitting can be achieved in SO(10) using the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism. Artificial cancellations (fine-tuning) and arbitrary forms of the superpotential are avoided, the superpotential being the most general compatible with a symmetry. It is shown by example that the Dimopoulos-Wilczek mechanism can be protected against the effects of higher-dimension operators possibly induced by Planck-scale physics. Natural implementation of the mechanisms leads to an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry. The same local symmetries that would protect the gauge hierarchy against Planck-scale effects tend to protect the axion also. How realistic quark and lepton masses might arise in this framework is discussed. It is shown how the theory may remain perturbative up to the Planck scale. It is also argued that ''weak suppression'' of proton decay can be implemented more economically than can ''strong suppression,'' offering some grounds to hope [in the context of SO(10)] that proton decay could be seen at SuperKamiokande

  13. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  14. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  15. Building Automation Networks for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid, as an intelligent power generation, distribution, and control system, needs various communication systems to meet its requirements. The ability to communicate seamlessly across multiple networks and domains is an open issue which is yet to be adequately addressed in smart grid architectures. In this paper, we present a framework for end-to-end interoperability in home and building area networks within smart grids. 6LoWPAN and the compact application protocol are utilized to facilitate the use of IPv6 and Zigbee application profiles such as Zigbee smart energy for network and application layer interoperability, respectively. A differential service medium access control scheme enables end-to-end connectivity between 802.15.4 and IP networks while providing quality of service guarantees for Zigbee traffic over Wi-Fi. We also address several issues including interference mitigation, load scheduling, and security and propose solutions to them.

  16. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  17. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  18. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  19. Resource management and scheduling policy based on grid for AIoT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yiqin; Quan, Li

    2017-07-01

    This paper has a research on resource management and scheduling policy based on grid technology for Agricultural Internet of Things (AIoT). Facing the situation of a variety of complex and heterogeneous agricultural resources in AIoT, it is difficult to represent them in a unified way. But from an abstract perspective, there are some common models which can express their characteristics and features. Based on this, we proposed a high-level model called Agricultural Resource Hierarchy Model (ARHM), which can be used for modeling various resources. It introduces the agricultural resource modeling method based on this model. Compared with traditional application-oriented three-layer model, ARHM can hide the differences of different applications and make all applications have a unified interface layer and be implemented without distinction. Furthermore, it proposes a Web Service Resource Framework (WSRF)-based resource management method and the encapsulation structure for it. Finally, it focuses on the discussion of multi-agent-based AG resource scheduler, which is a collaborative service provider pattern in multiple agricultural production domains.

  20. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  1. Grids, virtualization, and clouds at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, S; Chadwick, K; Garzoglio, G; Noh, S

    2014-01-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. To better serve this community, in 2004, the (then) Computing Division undertook the strategy of placing all of the High Throughput Computing (HTC) resources in a Campus Grid known as FermiGrid, supported by common shared services. In 2007, the FermiGrid Services group deployed a service infrastructure that utilized Xen virtualization, LVS network routing and MySQL circular replication to deliver highly available services that offered significant performance, reliability and serviceability improvements. This deployment was further enhanced through the deployment of a distributed redundant network core architecture and the physical distribution of the systems that host the virtual machines across multiple buildings on the Fermilab Campus. In 2010, building on the experience pioneered by FermiGrid in delivering production services in a virtual infrastructure, the Computing Sector commissioned the FermiCloud, General Physics Computing Facility and Virtual Services projects to serve as platforms for support of scientific computing (FermiCloud 6 GPCF) and core computing (Virtual Services). This work will present the evolution of the Fermilab Campus Grid, Virtualization and Cloud Computing infrastructure together with plans for the future.

  2. Grids, virtualization, and clouds at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, S.; Chadwick, K.; Garzoglio, G.; Noh, S.

    2014-06-01

    Fermilab supports a scientific program that includes experiments and scientists located across the globe. To better serve this community, in 2004, the (then) Computing Division undertook the strategy of placing all of the High Throughput Computing (HTC) resources in a Campus Grid known as FermiGrid, supported by common shared services. In 2007, the FermiGrid Services group deployed a service infrastructure that utilized Xen virtualization, LVS network routing and MySQL circular replication to deliver highly available services that offered significant performance, reliability and serviceability improvements. This deployment was further enhanced through the deployment of a distributed redundant network core architecture and the physical distribution of the systems that host the virtual machines across multiple buildings on the Fermilab Campus. In 2010, building on the experience pioneered by FermiGrid in delivering production services in a virtual infrastructure, the Computing Sector commissioned the FermiCloud, General Physics Computing Facility and Virtual Services projects to serve as platforms for support of scientific computing (FermiCloud 6 GPCF) and core computing (Virtual Services). This work will present the evolution of the Fermilab Campus Grid, Virtualization and Cloud Computing infrastructure together with plans for the future.

  3. Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawil, Abdel-Rahman H.; Taweel, Adel; Naeem, Usman; Montebello, Matthew; Bashroush, Rabih; Al-Nemrat, Ameer

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities relating to the grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, many scientific and commercial applications are highly dependent on Information Servers (ISs) for storage and organization of their data. A data-information system that supports operations on multiple information servers in a grid environment is referred to as an interoperable grid system. Different perceptions by end-users of interoperable systems in a grid ...

  4. Biological hierarchies and the nature of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congreve, Curtis R; Falk, Amanda R; Lamsdell, James C

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchy theory recognises that ecological and evolutionary units occur in a nested and interconnected hierarchical system, with cascading effects occurring between hierarchical levels. Different biological disciplines have routinely come into conflict over the primacy of different forcing mechanisms behind evolutionary and ecological change. These disconnects arise partly from differences in perspective (with some researchers favouring ecological forcing mechanisms while others favour developmental/historical mechanisms), as well as differences in the temporal framework in which workers operate. In particular, long-term palaeontological data often show that large-scale (macro) patterns of evolution are predominantly dictated by shifts in the abiotic environment, while short-term (micro) modern biological studies stress the importance of biotic interactions. We propose that thinking about ecological and evolutionary interactions in a hierarchical framework is a fruitful way to resolve these conflicts. Hierarchy theory suggests that changes occurring at lower hierarchical levels can have unexpected, complex effects at higher scales due to emergent interactions between simple systems. In this way, patterns occurring on short- and long-term time scales are equally valid, as changes that are driven from lower levels will manifest in different forms at higher levels. We propose that the dual hierarchy framework fits well with our current understanding of evolutionary and ecological theory. Furthermore, we describe how this framework can be used to understand major extinction events better. Multi-generational attritional loss of reproductive fitness (MALF) has recently been proposed as the primary mechanism behind extinction events, whereby extinction is explainable solely through processes that result in extirpation of populations through a shutdown of reproduction. While not necessarily explicit, the push to explain extinction through solely population-level dynamics

  5. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  6. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are ...

  7. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  8. An alternative approach to KP hierarchy in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Xiong, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    We show that there exists an alternative procedure in order to extract differential hierarchies, such as the KdV hierarchy, from one-matrix models, without taking a continuum limit. To prove this we introduce the Toda lattice and reformulate it in operator form. We then consider the reduction to the systems appropriate for a one-matrix model. (orig.)

  9. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  10. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy

  11. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlet, G.; van de Leur, J.; Posthuma, H.; Shadrin, S.

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider the Hirota and Lax formulations of the

  12. Towards Lax Formulation of Integrable Hierarchies of Topological Type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, Johannes; Carlet, Guido; Shadrin, Sergey; Posthuma, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    To each partition function of cohomological field theory one can associate an Hamiltonian integrable hierarchy of topological type. The Givental group acts on such partition functions and consequently on the associated integrable hierarchies. We consider theHirota and Lax formulations of the

  13. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  14. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle; Hohm, Olaf; Huebscher, Mechthild; Ortin, Tomas; Hübscher, Mechthild

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of

  15. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  16. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  17. Inverted hierarchy and asymptotic freedom in grand unified supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.

    1983-01-01

    The interrelation between an inverted hierarchy mechanism and asymptotic freedom in supersymmetric theories is analyzed in two models for which we performed a detailed analysis of the effective potentials and effective couplings. We find it difficult to accommodate an inverted hierarchy together with asymptotic freedom for the matter-Yukawa couplings. (orig.)

  18. A Computational Glimpse at the Leibniz and Frege Hierarchies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moraschini, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-20 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * Leibniz hierarchy * Frege hierarchy Leibniz congruence * decidability * Diophantine equations * relation algebras Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016

  19. SELECTION OF BUSINESS STRATEGIES FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT USING FUZZY ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Das

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy linguistic concepts are often used to enhance the traditional analytic hierarchy process (AHP in capturing the fuzziness and subjectiveness of decision makers' judgments. In this paper, fuzzy AHP methodology is adopted for selection of the strategies for business improvement in an Indian industry as a decision making problem. Due to simplicity and effectiveness, triangular fuzzy numbers are adopted as a reference to indicate the influence strength of each element in the hierarchy structure. The confidence level and the optimistic levels of multiple decision makers are captured by using ? -cut based fuzzy number methods. This fuzzy set theory based multi-attribute decision making method is found to be quite useful and effective in industrial environment.

  20. Bidirectional control of social hierarchy by synaptic efficacy in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Zhanmin; Hu, Hailan

    2011-11-04

    Dominance hierarchy has a profound impact on animals' survival, health, and reproductive success, but its neural circuit mechanism is virtually unknown. We found that dominance ranking in mice is transitive, relatively stable, and highly correlates among multiple behavior measures. Recording from layer V pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) showed higher strength of excitatory synaptic inputs in mice with higher ranking, as compared with their subordinate cage mates. Furthermore, molecular manipulations that resulted in an increase and decrease in the synaptic efficacy in dorsal mPFC neurons caused an upward and downward movement in the social rank, respectively. These results provide direct evidence for mPFC's involvement in social hierarchy and suggest that social rank is plastic and can be tuned by altering synaptic strength in mPFC pyramidal cells.

  1. Hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness of high-speed optical access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hui-feng

    2018-03-01

    As the speed of optical access networks soars with ever increasing multiple services, the service-supporting ability of optical access networks suffers greatly from the shortage of service awareness. Aiming to solve this problem, a hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness mechanism is proposed for high-speed optical access networks. This approach builds a so-called hierarchy Bayesian model, according to the structure of typical optical access networks. Moreover, the proposed scheme is able to conduct simple services awareness operation in each optical network unit (ONU) and to perform complex services awareness from the whole view of system in optical line terminal (OLT). Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to achieve better quality of services (QoS), in terms of packet loss rate and time delay.

  2. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  3. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  4. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  5. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  6. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  7. 'Universality' of the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekslerchik, V.E.

    1998-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize some recently obtained relations between the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy (ALH) and other integrable equations. It has been shown that solutions of finite subsystems of the ALH can be used to derive a wide range of solutions for, e.g., the 2D Toda lattice, nonlinear Schroedinger, Davey-Stewartson, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (DP) and some other equations. Similar approach has been used to construct new integrable models: O(3,1) and multi field sigma models. Such 'universality' of the ALH becomes more transparent in the framework of the Hirota's bilinear method. The ALH, which is usually considered as an infinite set of differential-difference equations, has been presented as a finite system of functional-difference equations, which can be viewed as a generalization of the famous bilinear identities for the KP tau-functions. (author)

  8. What's Up with the Storage Hierarchy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago, Jim Gray observed that flash was about to replace magnetic disks. He also predicted that the need for low latency would make main memory databases commonplace. Most of his predictions have proven accurate. Today, who can make predictions about the future of the storage hierarchy......? Both main memory and storage systems are undergoing profound transformations. First, their design goals are increasingly complex (reconfigurable infrastructure at low latency, high resource utilization and stable energy footprint). Second, the status quo is not an option due to the shortcomings...... of existing solutions (memory bandwidth gap, inefficiency of generic memory/storage controllers). Third, new technologies are emerging (hybrid memories, non-volatile memories still under non-disclosure agreements, near-data processing in memory and storage). The impact of these transformations on the storage...

  9. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  10. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  11. Dancing Twins: Stellar Hierarchies That Formed Sequentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    This paper draws attention to the class of resolved triple stars with moderate ratios of inner and outer periods (possibly in a mean motion resonance) and nearly circular, mutually aligned orbits. Moreover, stars in the inner pair are twins with almost identical masses, while the mass sum of the inner pair is comparable to the mass of the outer component. Such systems could be formed either sequentially (inside-out) by disk fragmentation with subsequent accretion and migration, or by a cascade hierarchical fragmentation of a rotating cloud. Orbits of the outer and inner subsystems are computed or updated in four such hierarchies: LHS 1070 (GJ 2005, periods 77.6 and 17.25 years), HIP 9497 (80 and 14.4 years), HIP 25240 (1200 and 47.0 years), and HIP 78842 (131 and 10.5 years).

  12. Gauge hierarchy, decoupling, and heavy particle effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, York-Peng

    1981-01-01

    This chapter examines the problems of a large gauge hierarchy and decoupling in theories with spontaneously broken symmetry. Attempts to show, with regard to all orders in the loop expansion, that: once a proper identification is made of the light particles and of the heavy particles at the tree level, then such a division will be maintained order by order in the loop expansion without the necessity of fine tuning; there is a local renormalizable effective Lagrangian, composed of light fields only, which can be used to reproduce all the one light particle irreducible Green's functions; and a set of renormalization group equations can be written down, wherein one stays in the lower energy region to correlate the two sets of parameters in the full and the effective light theories. The appendix gives an algebraic rearrangement method which can be efficiently used to calculate the muon effects on the electron anomalous magnetic moment

  13. Gauge theories, duality relations and the tensor hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Hartong, Jelle; Huebscher, Mechthild; OrtIn, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We compute the complete 3- and 4-dimensional tensor hierarchies, i.e. sets of p-form fields, with 1 ≤ p ≤ D, which realize an off-shell algebra of bosonic gauge transformations. We show how these tensor hierarchies can be put on-shell by introducing a set of duality relations, thereby introducing additional scalars and a metric tensor. These so-called duality hierarchies encode the equations of motion of the bosonic part of the most general gauged supergravity theories in those dimensions, including the (projected) scalar equations of motion. We construct gauge-invariant actions that include all the fields in the tensor hierarchies. We elucidate the relation between the gauge transformations of the p-form fields in the action and those of the same fields in the tensor hierarchy.

  14. Modelling Dominance Hierarchies Under Winner and Loser Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kura, Klodeta; Broom, Mark; Kandler, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Animals that live in groups commonly form themselves into dominance hierarchies which are used to allocate important resources such as access to mating opportunities and food. In this paper, we develop a model of dominance hierarchy formation based upon the concept of winner and loser effects using a simulation-based model and consider the linearity of our hierarchy using existing and new statistical measures. Two models are analysed: when each individual in a group does not know the real ability of their opponents to win a fight and when they can estimate their opponents' ability every time they fight. This estimation may be accurate or fall within an error bound. For both models, we investigate if we can achieve hierarchy linearity, and if so, when it is established. We are particularly interested in the question of how many fights are necessary to establish a dominance hierarchy.

  15. A study on the hierarchy model of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Sekiya, Tamotsu

    1975-01-01

    The application of the hierarchy model of nuclear reaction is discussed, and the hierarchy model means that the compound nucleus state is formed after several steps, at least, one step of reaction. This model was applied to the analysis of the observed cross sections of 235 U and some other elements. Neglecting exchange scattering effect, the equations for the total neutron cross section of 235 U were obtained. One of these equations describes explicitly the hierarchy of the transition from intermediate reaction state Xm into the compound nucleus state Xs, and another one describes the cross section averaged over an energy interval larger than the average level spacing of compound nucleus eigenvalues. The hierarchy of reaction mechanism was investigated in more detail, and the hierarchy model was applied to the case of unresolved energy region. It was not tried to evaluate the strength function in the mass region (A>140), since the effect of nuclear deformation was neglected in the task. (Iwase, T.)

  16. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  17. A Hierarchy of Homodesmotic Reactions for Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Paul v. R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical equations that balance bond types and atom hybridization to different degrees are often used in computational thermochemistry, for example, to increase accuracy when lower levels of theory are employed. We expose the widespread confusion over such classes of equations and demonstrate that the two most widely used definitions of “homodesmotic” reactions are not equivalent. New definitions are introduced and a consistent hierarchy of reaction classes (RC1 – RC5) for hydrocarbons is constructed: isogyric (RC1) ⊇ isodesmic (RC2) ⊇ hypohomodesmotic (RC3) ⊇ homodesmotic (RC4) ⊇ hyperhomodesmotic (RC5). Each of these successively conserves larger molecular fragments. The concept of isodesmic bond separation reactions is generalized to all classes in this hierarchy, providing a unique sectioning of a given molecule for each reaction type. Several ab initio and density functional methods are applied to the bond separation reactions of 38 hydrocarbons containing five or six carbon atoms. RC4 and RC5 reactions provide bond separation enthalpies with errors consistently less than 0.4 kcal mol−1 across a wide range of theoretical levels, performing significantly better than the other reaction types and far superior to atomization routes. Our recommended bond separation reactions were demonstrated by determining the enthalpies of formation (at 298 K) of 1,3,5-hexatriyne (163.7 ± 0.4 kcal mol−1), 1,3,5,7-octatetrayne (217.6 ± 0.6 kcal mol−1), the larger polyynes C10H2 through C26H2, and an infinite acetylenic carbon chain. PMID:19182999

  18. The dynamic nature of social hierarchies : The role of norm violations and hierarchical concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamkou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Social hierarchy is a fundamental feature of social relations. Hierarchies are appealing psychologically because they facilitate group functioning, which explains why they tend to be reinforced and perpetuated. Hierarchies, however, can also become unstable and eventually undergo change because

  19. Flows, scaling, and the control of moment hierarchies for stochastic chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric; Krishnamurthy, Supriya

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic chemical reaction networks (CRNs) are complex systems that combine the features of concurrent transformation of multiple variables in each elementary reaction event and nonlinear relations between states and their rates of change. Most general results concerning CRNs are limited to restricted cases where a topological characteristic known as deficiency takes a value 0 or 1, implying uniqueness and positivity of steady states and surprising, low-information forms for their associated probability distributions. Here we derive equations of motion for fluctuation moments at all orders for stochastic CRNs at general deficiency. We show, for the standard base case of proportional sampling without replacement (which underlies the mass-action rate law), that the generator of the stochastic process acts on the hierarchy of factorial moments with a finite representation. Whereas simulation of high-order moments for many-particle systems is costly, this representation reduces the solution of moment hierarchies to a complexity comparable to solving a heat equation. At steady states, moment hierarchies for finite CRNs interpolate between low-order and high-order scaling regimes, which may be approximated separately by distributions similar to those for deficiency-zero networks and connected through matched asymptotic expansions. In CRNs with multiple stable or metastable steady states, boundedness of high-order moments provides the starting condition for recursive solution downward to low-order moments, reversing the order usually used to solve moment hierarchies. A basis for a subset of network flows defined by having the same mean-regressing property as the flows in deficiency-zero networks gives the leading contribution to low-order moments in CRNs at general deficiency, in a 1 /n expansion in large particle numbers. Our results give a physical picture of the different informational roles of mean-regressing and non-mean-regressing flows and clarify the dynamical

  20. Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Grids: Algorithms for Prioritization, Grid Partitioning, and Cycle Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Burns, Shawn P.; McLendon, William III; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The method of discrete ordinates is commonly used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The solution in each ordinate direction is most efficiently computed by sweeping the radiation flux across the computational grid. For unstructured grids this poses many challenges, particularly when implemented on distributed-memory parallel machines where the grid geometry is spread across processors. We present several algorithms relevant to this approach: (a) an asynchronous message-passing algorithm that performs sweeps simultaneously in multiple ordinate directions, (b) a simple geometric heuristic to prioritize the computational tasks that a processor works on, (c) a partitioning algorithm that creates columnar-style decompositions for unstructured grids, and (d) an algorithm for detecting and eliminating cycles that sometimes exist in unstructured grids and can prevent sweeps from successfully completing. Algorithms (a) and (d) are fully parallel; algorithms (b) and (c) can be used in conjunction with (a) to achieve higher parallel efficiencies. We describe our message-passing implementations of these algorithms within a radiation transport package. Performance and scalability results are given for unstructured grids with up to 3 million elements (500 million unknowns) running on thousands of processors of Sandia National Laboratories' Intel Tflops machine and DEC-Alpha CPlant cluster

  1. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  2. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  3. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  4. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  5. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  6. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  7. Utah Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  8. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  9. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  10. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  11. Steering the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale

  12. Cutback for grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl

  13. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  14. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  15. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  16. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  17. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  18. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  19. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  20. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  1. The Grid challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Lundquest, E

    2003-01-01

    At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).

  2. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  3. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  4. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  5. A comparative analysis of dynamic grids vs. virtual grids using the A3pviGrid framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaranarayanan, Avinas; Amaldas, Christine

    2010-11-01

    With the proliferation of Quad/Multi-core micro-processors in mainstream platforms such as desktops and workstations; a large number of unused CPU cycles can be utilized for running virtual machines (VMs) as dynamic nodes in distributed environments. Grid services and its service oriented business broker now termed cloud computing could deploy image based virtualization platforms enabling agent based resource management and dynamic fault management. In this paper we present an efficient way of utilizing heterogeneous virtual machines on idle desktops as an environment for consumption of high performance grid services. Spurious and exponential increases in the size of the datasets are constant concerns in medical and pharmaceutical industries due to the constant discovery and publication of large sequence databases. Traditional algorithms are not modeled at handing large data sizes under sudden and dynamic changes in the execution environment as previously discussed. This research was undertaken to compare our previous results with running the same test dataset with that of a virtual Grid platform using virtual machines (Virtualization). The implemented architecture, A3pviGrid utilizes game theoretic optimization and agent based team formation (Coalition) algorithms to improve upon scalability with respect to team formation. Due to the dynamic nature of distributed systems (as discussed in our previous work) all interactions were made local within a team transparently. This paper is a proof of concept of an experimental mini-Grid test-bed compared to running the platform on local virtual machines on a local test cluster. This was done to give every agent its own execution platform enabling anonymity and better control of the dynamic environmental parameters. We also analyze performance and scalability of Blast in a multiple virtual node setup and present our findings. This paper is an extension of our previous research on improving the BLAST application framework

  6. Multiobjective Optimization in Combinatorial Wind Farms System Integration and Resistive SFCL Using Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadasi, Amirhasan; Sarwat, Arif; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a positive approach for low voltage ride-through (LVRT) improvement of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based on a large wind power plant (WPP) of 50MW. The proposed method utilizes the conventional current control strategy to provide a reactive power...... requirement and retain the active power production during and after the fault for the grid codes compliance. Besides that, a resistive superconducting fault current limiter (RSFCL) as an additional self-healing support is applied outside the WPP to further increase the rated active power of the installation...... on the extreme load reduction is effectively demonstrated. A large WPP has a complicated structure using several components, and the inclusion of RSFCL composes this layout more problematic for optimal performance of the system. Hence, the most-widely decision-making technique based on the analytic hierarchy...

  7. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    acceptable since it makes possible an overall and local error reduction through grid redistribution. SAGE includes the ability to modify the adaption techniques in boundary regions, which substantially improves the flexibility of the adaptive scheme. The vectorial approach used in the analysis also provides flexibility. The user has complete choice of adaption direction and order of sequential adaptions without concern for the computational data structure. Multiple passes are available with no restraint on stepping directions; for each adaptive pass the user can choose a completely new set of adaptive parameters. This facility, combined with the capability of edge boundary control, enables the code to individually adapt multi-dimensional multiple grids. Zonal grids can be adapted while maintaining continuity along the common boundaries. For patched grids, the multiple-pass capability enables complete adaption. SAGE is written in FORTRAN 77 and is intended to be machine independent; however, it requires a FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST input. It has been successfully implemented on Sun series computers, SGI IRIS's, DEC MicroVAX computers, HP series computers, the Cray YMP, and IBM PC compatibles. Source code is provided, but no sample input and output files are provided. The code reads three datafiles: one that contains the initial grid coordinates (x,y,z), one that contains corresponding flow-field variables, and one that contains the user control parameters. It is assumed that the first two datasets are formatted as defined in the plotting software package PLOT3D. Several machine versions of PLOT3D are available from COSMIC. The amount of main memory is dependent on the size of the matrix. The standard distribution medium for SAGE is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. It is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format or on a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. SAGE was developed in 1989, first

  8. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.

  9. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L; Schulz, M

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards

  10. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  11. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management; GridCom, Grid Commander: graficheskij interfejs dlya raboty s zadachami i dannymi v gride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V V

    2011-07-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  12. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  13. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  14. Symmetries of supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissimov, E.; Pacheva, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article is devoted to the systematic study of additional (non-isospectral) symmetries of constrained (reduced) supersymmetric integrable hierarchies of KP type--the so-called SKP (R;M B ,M F ) models. The latter are supersymmetric extensions of ordinary constrained KP hierarchies which contain as special cases basic integrable systems such as (m)KdV, AKNS, Fordy-Kulish, Yajima-Oikawa, etc. As a first main result it is shown that any SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchy possesses two different mutually (anti-)commuting types of superloop superalgebra additional symmetries corresponding to the positive- and negative-grade parts of certain superloop superalgebras. The second main result is the systematic construction of the full algebra of additional Virasoro symmetries of SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies, which requires nontrivial modifications of the Virasoro flows known from the general case of unconstrained Manin-Radul super-KP hierarchies (the latter flows do not define symmetries for constrained SKP (R;M B ,M F ) hierarchies). As a third main result we provide systematic construction of the supersymmetric analogs of multi-component (matrix) KP hierarchies and show that the latter contain, among others, the supersymmetric version of the Davey-Stewartson system. Finally, we present an explicit derivation of the general Darboux-Baecklund solutions for the SKP (R;M B ,M F ) super-tau functions (supersymmetric 'soliton'-like solutions) which preserve the additional (non-isospectral) symmetries

  15. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  16. How Does the Modular Organization of Entorhinal Grid Cells Develop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal-hippocampal system plays a crucial role in spatial cognition and navigation. Since the discovery of grid cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC, several types of models have been proposed to explain their development and operation; namely, continuous attractor network models, oscillatory interference models, and self-organizing map (SOM models. Recent experiments revealing the in vivo intracellular signatures of grid cells (Domnisoru et al., 2013; Schmidt-Heiber & Hausser, 2013, the primarily inhibitory recurrent connectivity of grid cells (Couey et al., 2013; Pastoll et al., 2013, and the topographic organization of grid cells within anatomically overlapping modules of multiple spatial scales along the dorsoventral axis of MEC (Stensola et al., 2012 provide strong constraints and challenges to existing grid cell models. This article provides a computational explanation for how MEC cells can emerge through learning with grid cell properties in modular structures. Within this SOM model, grid cells with different rates of temporal integration learn modular properties with different spatial scales. Model grid cells learn in response to inputs from multiple scales of directionally-selective stripe cells (Krupic et al., 2012; Mhatre et al., 2012 that perform path integration of the linear velocities that are experienced during navigation. Slower rates of grid cell temporal integration support learned associations with stripe cells of larger scales. The explanatory and predictive capabilities of the three types of grid cell models are comparatively analyzed in light of recent data to illustrate how the SOM model overcomes problems that other types of models have not yet handled.

  17. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  18. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  19. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  20. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  1. Decomposition of a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    The generalized Hamiltonian structures for a hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are established with the aid of the trace identity. Using the nonlinearization approach, the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is decomposed into a class of new finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. The generating function of integrals and their generator are presented, based on which the finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems are proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are reduced to solving the compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations

  2. Boolean Operations, Joins, and the Extended Low Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Jiang, Zhigen; Rothe, Joerg; Watanabe, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    We prove that the join of two sets may actually fall into a lower level of the extended low hierarchy than either of the sets. In particular, there exist sets that are not in the second level of the extended low hierarchy, EL_2, yet their join is in EL_2. That is, in terms of extended lowness, the join operator can lower complexity. Since in a strong intuitive sense the join does not lower complexity, our result suggests that the extended low hierarchy is unnatural as a complexity measure. We...

  3. Irvine Smart Grid Demonstration, a Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinger, Robert [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States); Irwin, Mark [Southern California Edison Company, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    ISGD was a comprehensive demonstration that spanned the electricity delivery system and extended into customer homes. The project used phasor measurement technology to enable substation-level situational awareness, and demonstrated SCE’s next-generation substation automation system. It extended beyond the substation to evaluate the latest generation of distribution automation technologies, including looped 12-kV distribution circuit topology using URCIs. The project team used DVVC capabilities to demonstrate CVR. In customer homes, the project evaluated HAN devices such as smart appliances, programmable communicating thermostats, and home energy management components. The homes were also equipped with energy storage, solar PV systems, and a number of energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The team used one block of homes to evaluate strategies and technologies for achieving ZNE. A home achieves ZNE when it produces at least as much renewable energy as the amount of energy it consumes annually. The project also assessed the impact of device-specific demand response (DR), as well as load management capabilities involving energy storage devices and plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. In addition, the ISGD project sought to better understand the impact of ZNE homes on the electric grid. ISGD’s SENet enabled end-to-end interoperability between multiple vendors’ systems and devices, while also providing a level of cybersecurity that is essential to smart grid development and adoption across the nation. The ISGD project includes a series of sub-projects grouped into four logical technology domains: Smart Energy Customer Solutions, Next-Generation Distribution System, Interoperability and Cybersecurity, and Workforce of the Future. Section 2.3 provides a more detailed overview of these domains.

  4. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  5. Lack of experience-based stratification in homing pigeon leadership hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Isobel; Pettit, Benjamin; Nagy, Máté; de Perera, Theresa Burt; Biro, Dora

    2016-01-01

    In societies that make collective decisions through leadership, a fundamental question concerns the individual attributes that allow certain group members to assume leadership roles over others. Homing pigeons form transitive leadership hierarchies during flock flights, where flock members are ranked according to the average time differences with which they lead or follow others' movement. Here, we test systematically whether leadership ranks in navigational hierarchies are correlated with prior experience of a homing task. We constructed experimental flocks of pigeons with mixed navigational experience: half of the birds within each flock had been familiarized with a specific release site through multiple previous releases, while the other half had never been released from the same site. We measured the birds' hierarchical leadership ranks, then switched the same birds' roles at a second site to test whether the relative hierarchical positions of the birds in the two subsets would reverse in response to the reversal in levels of experience. We found that while across all releases the top hierarchical positions were occupied by experienced birds significantly more often than by inexperienced ones, the remaining experienced birds were not consistently clustered in the top half-in other words, the network did not become stratified. We discuss our results in light of the adaptive value of structuring leadership hierarchies according to 'merit' (here, navigational experience).

  6. Gender-specific hierarchy in nuage localization of PIWI-interacting RNA factors in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko C Siomi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs are germline-specific small non-coding RNAs that form piRNA-induced silencing complexes (piRISCs by associating with PIWI proteins, a subclade of the Argonaute proteins predominantly expressed in the germline. piRISCs protect the integrity of the germline genome from invasive transposable DNA elements by silencing them. Multiple piRNA biogenesis factors have been identified in Drosophila. The majority of piRNA factors are localized in the nuage, electron-dense non-membranous cytoplasmic structures located in the perinuclear regions of germ cells. Thus, piRNA biogenesis is thought to occur in the nuage in germ cells. Immunofluorescence analyses of ovaries from piRNA factor mutants have revealed a localization hierarchy of piRNA factors in female nuage. However, whether this hierarchy is female-specific or can also be applied in male gonads remains undetermined. Here, we show by immunostaining of both ovaries and testes from piRNA factor mutants that the molecular hierarchy of piRNA factors shows gender-specificity, especially for Krimper (Krimp, a Tudor-domain containing protein of unknown function(s: Krimp is dispensable for PIWI protein Aubergine (Aub nuage localization in ovaries but Krimp and Aub require each other for their proper nuage localization in testes. This suggests that the functional requirement of Krimp in piRNA biogenesis may be different in male and female gonads.

  7. Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting using GIS Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeair Abessi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of large amount of generated hazardous waste in power plants, has always received communities' and authori¬ties attentions. In this paper using site screening method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP a sophisticated approach for siting hazardous waste landfill in large areas is presented. This approach demonstrates how the evaluation criteria such as physical, socio-economical, technical, environmental and their regulatory sub criteria can be introduced into an over layer technique to screen some limited appropriate zones in the area. Then, in order to find the optimal site amongst the primary screened site utilizing a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method for hierarchy computations of the process is recommended. Using the introduced method an accurate siting procedure for environmental planning of the landfills in an area would be enabled. In the study this approach was utilized for disposal of hazardous wastes of Shahid Rajaee thermal power plant located in Qazvin province west central part of Iran. As a result of this study 10 suitable zones were screened in the area at first, then using analytical hierarchy process a site near the power plant were chosen as the optimal site for landfilling of the hazardous wastes in Qazvin province.

  8. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  9. Support schemes and market design in international offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    International offshore grids can combine the grid connection of offshore wind parks with the possibility for international power trading in the future. This paper investigates the choice of support scheme and power market design in international offshore grids and derives resulting incentives...... support. For a stable investment framework in the near future, a tendering/feed-in tariff may be the best choice. It avoids exposing wind farms to balancing with multiple countries. In the long run, also other support scheme options may be of interest....

  10. High Performance Parallel Multigrid Algorithms for Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a high performance parallel multigrid algorithm for a rather general class of unstructured grid problems in two and three dimensions. The algorithm PUMG, for parallel unstructured multigrid, is related in structure to the parallel multigrid algorithm PSMG introduced by McBryan and Frederickson, for they both obtain a higher convergence rate through the use of multiple coarse grids. Another reason for the high convergence rate of PUMG is its smoother, an approximate inverse developed by Baumgardner and Frederickson.

  11. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  12. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  13. Smart Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...

  14. Kinetic mixing and the supersymmetric gauge hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, K.R.; Kolda, C.; March-Russell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The most general Lagrangian for a model with two U(1) gauge symmetries contains a renormalizable operator which mixes their gauge kinetic terms. Such kinetic mixing can be generated at arbitrarily high scales but will not be suppressed by large masses. In models whose supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking hidden sectors contain U(1) gauge factors, we show that such terms will generically arise and communicate SUSY breaking to the visible sector through mixing with hypercharge. In the context of the usual supergravity- or gauge-mediated communication scenarios with D-terms of order the fundamental scale of SUSY breaking, this effect can destabilize the gauge hierarchy. Even in models for which kinetic mixing is suppressed or the D-terms are arranged to be small, this effect is a potentially large correction to the soft scalar masses and therefore introduces a new measurable low-energy parameter. We calculate the size of kinetic mixing both in field theory and in string theory, and argue that appreciable kinetic mixing is a generic feature of string models. We conclude that the possibility of kinetic mixing effects cannot be ignored in model building and in phenomenological studies of the low-energy SUSY spectra. (orig.)

  15. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  16. Metadata Life Cycles, Use Cases and Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Habermann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The historic view of metadata as “data about data” is expanding to include data about other items that must be created, used, and understood throughout the data and project life cycles. In this context, metadata might better be defined as the structured and standard part of documentation, and the metadata life cycle can be described as the metadata content that is required for documentation in each phase of the project and data life cycles. This incremental approach to metadata creation is similar to the spiral model used in software development. Each phase also has distinct users and specific questions to which they need answers. In many cases, the metadata life cycle involves hierarchies where latter phases have increased numbers of items. The relationships between metadata in different phases can be captured through structure in the metadata standard, or through conventions for identifiers. Metadata creation and management can be streamlined and simplified by re-using metadata across many records. Many of these ideas have been developed to various degrees in several Geoscience disciplines and are being used in metadata for documenting the integrated life cycle of environmental research in the Arctic, including projects, collection sites, and datasets.

  17. Service Oriented Gridded Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Goldberg, M. D.; Tilmes, C.; Zhou, L.; Shen, S.; Yesha, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a scalable web service tool that can provide complex griding services on-demand for atmospheric radiance data sets from multiple temperature and moisture sounding sensors on the NASA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites collected over the past three decades. This server-to-server middle ware tool will provide the framework for transforming user requests for an arbitrary spatial/temporal/spectral gridded radiance data set from one or more instruments into an action to invoke a griding process from a set of scientifically validated application programs that have been developed to perform such functions. The invoked web service agents will access, subset, concatenate, convolve, perform statistical and physically based griding operations and present the data as specified level 3 gridded fields for analysis and visualization in multiple formats. Examples of the griding operations consist of spatial-temporal radiance averaging accounting for the field of view instrument response function, first footprint in grid bin, selecting min/max brightness temperatures within a grid element, ratios of channels, filtering, convolving high resolution spectral radiances to match broader band spectral radiances, limb adjustments, calculating variances of radiances falling in grid box and creating visual displays of these fields. The gridded web services tool will support both human input through a WWW GUI as well as a direct computer request through a W3C SOAP/XML web service interface. It will generate regional and global gridded data sets on demand. A second effort will demonstrate the ability to locate, access, subset and grid radiance data for any time period and resolution from remote archives of NOAA and NASA data. The system will queue the work flow requests, stage processing and delivery of arbitrary gridded data sets in a data base and notify the users when the request is completed. This tool will greatly expand satellite sounding data utilization by

  18. Campus Grids: Bringing Additional Computational Resources to HEP Researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2012-01-01

    It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.

  19. The often neglected yet crucial element in smart grid strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarco, T. [Utility Industry Global Marketing Security, New York, NY (United States); Smith, W. [Intergraph Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Smart grids consist of automation technology that includes selfhealing networks, intelligent applications, and smart meters to improve load management. Electric utilities can benefit from making the transition from existing infrastructure to leading edge smart grid technology which offers better reliability and reduced maintenance costs. The smart grid improves the efficiency of electrical transmission and distribution, whether it involves carbon policies, grid modernization, renewable energy sources or smart end-use devices for the customer. Smart grids are expected to improve scheduling efficiency, dispatch management, transmission line surveillance and cyber security by enabling faster and better decisions from the control room. However, a smart grid control center is prone to human error. Operators must monitor data, locate work crews, analyze power system reports, and survey real-time transmission line data. They must choose optimal network configurations, whether it is to control voltage or to manage system restart following an outage. To do so, they need a system that will allow them to speed their analysis and take action. The true value of a smart grid is being able to see and control several critical applications in one unified system. A common operating picture improves overall situational awareness, reduces costs and increases efficiency in grid operations. The control center of the future will have 2D and 3D graphical visualization of complex real-time data to improve situational awareness, with multiple layers of information, including outages, distribution automation, geographic information systems, network analysis, and workforce management in a unified system. 1 fig.

  20. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  1. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  2. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  3. Integration of Smart Grid Technologies in Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practice...... to a more complex and multiple consideration of the interplay between households’ social practices and new smart grid technologies - and thereby helps to fill out the lack of research on the integration of peak-shaving technologies in the end-user design.......This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practices......, is analysed from the analytical concept offered by the Social Practice Theory. Overall, the case-study demonstrates that the smart grid technologies influence the ‘way of driving’ and changed the temporal patterns of consumption in the families during the test-period. The inquiry attempts to contribute...

  4. Modeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter based on Impedance Based Harmonic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, JunBum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the harmonic compensation error problem existing with parallel connected inverter in the same grid interface conditions by means of impedance-based analysis and modeling. Unlike the single grid connected inverter, it is found that multiple parallel connected inverters and grid...... impedance can make influence to each other if they each have a harmonic compensation function. The analysis method proposed in this paper is based on the relationship between the overall output impedance and input impedance of parallel connected inverter, where controller gain design method, which can...

  5. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  6. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  7. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P-P; Bentley, C D B; Eisfeld, A

    2018-04-07

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  8. Assessing the hierarchy of needs in levels of service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The primary focus of this research project was in providing empirical evidence of a Hierarchy of Transportation : Needs. The experimental procedure, methodology, and materials for this project were designed using both : transportation stated preferen...

  9. A generalized AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tiecheng; You Fucai; Chen Dengyuan

    2005-01-01

    First we construct a new isospectral problem with 8 potentials in the present paper. And then a new Lax pair is presented. By making use of Tu scheme, a class of new soliton hierarchy of equations is derived, which is integrable in the sense of Liouville and possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures. After making some reductions, the well-known AKNS hierarchy and other hierarchies of evolution equations are obtained. Finally, in order to illustrate that soliton hierarchy obtained in the paper possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures exactly, we prove that the linear combination of two-Hamiltonian operators admitted are also a Hamiltonian operator constantly. We point out that two Hamiltonian operators obtained of the system are directly derived from a recurrence relations, not from a recurrence operator

  10. Two-reduction of the super-KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    Recursion relations are established for the residues of fractional powers of a two-reduced super-KP operator making use of the Baker-Akhiezer function. These show the integrability of the two-reduced even (or bosonic) flows of the super-KP hierarchy. Similar recursion relations are also proven for the residues of operators associated with the odd (or fermionic) flows of the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. Due to the presence of a spectral parameter and itts fermionic partner in the Baker-Akhiezer function, these recursion relations should be relevant to any attempt to prove or disprove a recent proposal that the integrable hierarchy underlying two-dimensional quantum supergravity is the Mulase-Rabin super-KP hierarchy. (orig.)

  11. On natural hierarchy in dynamically broken gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frere, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model based on dynamical symmetry breaking provides a naturally large 'mass hierarchy'. Few fermions are needed at intermediate energies, and asymptotic freedom of usual interactions is therefore not imperiled. (orig.)

  12. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination for θ13 = 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Raj; Ghoshal, Pomita; Goswami, Srubabati; Sankar, S. Uma

    2010-01-01

    We examine the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy in the limit θ 13 = 0 using atmospheric neutrinos as the source. In this limit, θ 13 driven matter effects are absent so independent measurements of Δ 31 and Δ 32 can, in principle, lead to hierarchy determination. Since their difference is Δ 21 , one needs an experimental arrangement where Δ 21 L/E > or approx. 1 can be achieved. This can be satisfied by atmospheric neutrinos which have a large range of L and E. Still, we find that hierarchy determination in the θ 13 = 0 limit with atmospheric neutrinos is not a realistic possibility, even in conjunction with a beam experiment like T2K or NOνA. We discuss why, and also reiterate the general conditions for hierarchy determination if θ 13 = 0.

  13. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the ..... from the definitions of Lax integrability and Lax pairs [26] that the variable-coefficient ..... studying which will be the topic for our future study.

  14. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  15. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177

  16. Flexible scheme to truncate the hierarchy of pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-P.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Eisfeld, A.

    2018-04-01

    The hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) is a wavefunction-based method that can be used for numerically modeling open quantum systems. Formally, HOPS recovers the exact system dynamics for an infinite depth of the hierarchy. However, truncation of the hierarchy is required to numerically implement HOPS. We want to choose a "good" truncation method, where by "good" we mean that it is numerically feasible to check convergence of the results. For the truncation approximation used in previous applications of HOPS, convergence checks are numerically challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the application of the "n-particle approximation" to HOPS. We also introduce a new approximation, which we call the "n-mode approximation." We then explore the convergence of these truncation approximations with respect to the number of equations required in the hierarchy in two exemplary problems: absorption and energy transfer of molecular aggregates.

  17. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidirectionally, with the arrows 'pointing away' from the stem cell. Recent studies, all based on genetic lineage tracing, describe various strategies employed by epithelial stem cell hierarchies to replace damaged or lost cells. While transdifferentiation from one tissue type into another ('metaplasia') appears to be generally forbidden in nonpathological contexts, plasticity within an individual tissue stem cell hierarchy may be much more common than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss recent examples of such plasticity in selected mammalian epithelia, highlighting the different modes of regeneration and their implications for our understanding of cellular hierarchy and tissue self-renewal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  19. Effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrino. Inverted mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We study the effects of neutrino oscillation on supernova neutrinos in the case of the inverted mass hierarchy (m 3 1 2 ) as well as the normal mass hierarchy (m 1 2 3 ). Numerical analysis using realistic supernova and presupernova models allows us to investigate quantitatively the possibility to probe neutrino oscillation parameters. We show that information about the mass hierarchy can be obtained if θ 13 is rather large (sin 2 2θ 13 > 10 -3 ) and that θ 13 can be probed effectively by SuperKamiokande if the neutrino mass hierarchy is inverted. Errors due to the uncertainty in the original neutrino spectra and the Earth effect are also discussed. (author)

  20. The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of migration on gender hierarchies within the African household. ... activities and headship-related roles both within the private and public domains. ... conducted among African women from both formal and informal sectors, this ...