WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchy final

  1. Basic Studies of Learning Hierarchies in School Subjects. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    This study explores three areas of learning hierarchies: (1) the condition for learning in accordance with learning hierarchies; (2) the use of hierarchies in the diagnosis and learning of prerequisite intellectual skills; and (3) the conditions of learning and retention of principles. There were seven studies undertaken using elementary and…

  2. The Use of Programming Languages on the Final Project Report by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhartini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development in information technology provides a lot of convenience for everyone. Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC students of the fourth semester, implementing the Job Training must specify the type of programming that will be used as a Final Project Report. The study assessed five types of programming language by using the approach of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to obtain information on the programming language that has the quality or better rating than 5 programming languages is based on the parameters. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is one way in determining or making a decision that are multi-criteria or multi-objective such as choosing the programming language for the Student Information Management at the Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC. Programming language based on five criteria consisting of Clarity, Simplicity, and unity; Orthogonality; Fairness for Applications; Supports Abstraction; Environment Program; and Portability Program.

  3. Analyzing Learning Hierarchies Relative to Transfer Relationships Within Arithmetic. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert B.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate procedures for validating a learning hierarchy from test data. An initial hierarchy for the computational skills of adding rational numbers with like denominators was constructed using Gagne's task analysis. A test designed to assess mastery at each of the 11 levels in this hierarchy was…

  4. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    . Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner...... language....

  5. Predicting Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Modes with a Climate Modeling Hierarchy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ghil, UCLA; Andrew W. Robertson, IRI, Columbia Univ.; Sergey Kravtsov, U. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Padhraic Smyth, UC Irvine

    2006-08-04

    The goal of the project was to determine midlatitude climate predictability associated with tropical-extratropical interactions on interannual-to-interdecadal time scales. Our strategy was to develop and test a hierarchy of climate models, bringing together large GCM-based climate models with simple fluid-dynamical coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere models, through the use of advanced probabilistic network (PN) models. PN models were used to develop a new diagnostic methodology for analyzing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in large climate simulations made with the NCAR Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and to make these tools user-friendly and available to other researchers. We focused on interactions between the tropics and extratropics through atmospheric teleconnections (the Hadley cell, Rossby waves and nonlinear circulation regimes) over both the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and the ocean’s thermohaline circulation (THC) in the Atlantic. We tested the hypothesis that variations in the strength of the THC alter sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic, and that the latter influence the atmosphere in high latitudes through an atmospheric teleconnection, feeding back onto the THC. The PN model framework was used to mediate between the understanding gained with simplified primitive equations models and multi-century simulations made with the PCM. The project team is interdisciplinary and built on an existing synergy between atmospheric and ocean scientists at UCLA, computer scientists at UCI, and climate researchers at the IRI.

  6. A hierarchy of dynamic plume models incorporating uncertainty: Volume 4, Second-order closure integrated puff: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, R.I.; Lewellen, W.S.; Parker, S.F.; Henn, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Second Order Closure Integrated Puff Model (SCIPUFF) is the intermediate resolution member of a hierarchy of models. It simulates the expected values of plume concentration downwind of a fossil-fueled power plant stack, along with an estimate of the variation around this value. To represent the turbulent atmosphere surrounding the plume compatibly with available meteorological data, a second order closure sub-model is used. SCIPUFF represents the plume by a series of Gaussian puffs, typically 10 seconds apart; plume growth is calculated by a random walk phase combined with plume expansion calculated from the volume integrals of the equations used in the Stack Exhaust Model (SEM), the highest resolution model. Meteorological uncertainty is accounted for by means of extra dispersion terms. SCIPUFF was tested against more than 250 hours of plume data including both a level site and a moderately complex terrain site; approximately 200 samplers were used. Model predictions were evaluated by comparing the measured ground level concentration distribution to that simulated by the model. Further, the simulated and actual distributions of deviations between simulated or observed and expected values were compared. The predicted distributions were close to the measured ones. The overall results from SCIPUFF were similar to those from the lowest resolution model, SCIMP. The advantage of SCIPUFF is its flexibility for including future improvements. When combined with a suitable mesoscale model, SCIPUFF may be able to simulate plume dispersion beyond the 50 km limit of other available models. The ability to cover a wide range of time and space scales in a single calculation is another valuable feature. 3 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can......This article focuses on employee participation in organisational action research (OAR), presenting three examples of OAR in one private and two public organisations in Denmark, respectively. Each of these examples shows how participatory hierarchies between employees and between them and action...... researchers are constructed in OAR projects, leading in these cases to the exclusion of silent pedagogues, elderly foremen, and a critical employee. Based on these examples, the article has three mutually connected purposes, an empirical, theoretical, and methodological purpose. First, the empirical purpose...

  8. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain) and Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-01-23

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula.

  9. The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparski, W

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.

  10. Mathematical hierarchies and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...

  11. The stochastic integrable AKNS hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudon, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    We derive a stochastic AKNS hierarchy using geometrical methods. The integrability is shown via a stochastic zero curvature relation associated with a stochastic isospectral problem. We expose some of the stochastic integrable partial differential equations which extend the stochastic KdV equation discovered by M. Wadati in 1983 for all the AKNS flows. We also show how to find stochastic solitons from the stochastic evolution of the scattering data of the stochastic IST. We finally expose som...

  12. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  13. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  14. The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhir, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...

  15. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  16. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  17. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  18. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  19. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of microlevel data on the allocation of decision authority between formal and real authority, and further on the organization design of 761 decision tasks within a hierarchy. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...

  20. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  1. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  2. Hierarchies in student groups

    OpenAIRE

    Güntert, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...

  3. The Reinforcement Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.

    1973-01-01

    Reinforcement hierarchy implies movement along a continuum from top to bottom, from primitive levels of reinforcement to more sophisticated levels. Unless it is immediately obvious that a child cannot function without the use of lower-order reinforcers, we should approach him as though he responds to topmost reinforcers until he demonstrates…

  4. A Hierarchy of Lax Integrable Lattice Equations,Liouville Integrability and a New Integrable Symplectic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; ZHANG Yu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    A discrete matrix spectral problem and the associated hierarchy of Lax integrable lattice equations are presented, and it is shown that the resulting Lax integrable lattice equations are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems. A new integrable symplectic map is given by binary Bargmann .constraint of the resulting hierarchy.Finally, an infinite set of conservation laws is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  5. An extension of heat hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a formally completely integrable extension of heat hierarchy based on the space of symmetries isomorphic to the Weyl algebra $\\mathcal{A}_1$. The extended heat hierarchy will be the basic model for the analysis of the extension of KP hierarchy, and other integrable equations.

  6. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  7. Hierarchies in Dependence Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.

  8. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengduo Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  9. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengduo Shan; Hongwei Yang; Baoshu Yin

    2014-01-01

    With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  10. Delegated Contracting and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Park, In-Uck

    2004-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make decisions that set directions for the organization, employ subordinates and contract with external suppliers. This paper explains when such delegation of authority can be optimal, using a model of a firm with three parties: the principal, the manager and the worker. In centralization with two two-tier hierarchies, the principal designs contracts for both agents. In delegation with a three-tier hierarchy, the prin...

  11. Hierarchies of Inefficient Kernelizability

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelin, Danny; Sołtys, Karolina; Wahlström, Magnus; Wu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008) and Fortnow and Santhanam (STOC 2008) allows us to exclude the existence of polynomial kernels for a range of problems under reasonable complexity-theoretical assumptions. However, there are also some issues that are not addressed by this framework, including the existence of Turing kernels such as the "kernelization" of Leaf Out Branching(k) into a disjunction over n instances of size poly(k). Observing that Turing kernels are preserved by polynomial parametric transformations, we define a kernelization hardness hierarchy, akin to the M- and W-hierarchy of ordinary parameterized complexity, by the PPT-closure of problems that seem likely to be fundamentally hard for efficient Turing kernelization. We find that several previously considered problems are complete for our fundamental hardness class, including Min Ones d-SAT(k), Binary NDTM Halting(k), Connected Vertex Cover(k), and Clique(k log n), the clique problem parameterized by k log n.

  12. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  13. Two New Reformulation Convexification Based Hierarchies for 0-1 MIPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Ouzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First, we introduce two new reformulation convexification based hierarchies called RTC and RSC for which the rank d continuous relaxations are denoted by P^RTCd and P^RSCd, respectively. These two hierarchies are obtained using two different convexification schemes: term convexification in the case of the RTC hierarchy and standard convexification in the case of the RSC hierarchy. Secondly, we compare the strength of these two hierarchies. We will prove that (i the hierarchy RTC is equivalent to the RLT hierarchy of Sherali-Adams, (ii the hierarchy RTC dominates the hierarchy RSC, and (iii the hierarchy RSC is dominated by the Lift-and-Project hierarchy. Thirdly, for every rank d, we will prove that convTd∩Etd⊆P^RTCd⊆Td and convSd∩Esd⊆P^RSCd⊆Sd where the sets Td and Sd are convex, while Etd and Esd are two nonconvex sets with empty interior (all these sets depend on the convexification step. The first inclusions allow, in some cases, an explicit characterization (in the space of the original variables of the RLT relaxations. Finally, we will discuss weak version of both RTC and RSC hierarchies and we will emphasize some connections between them.

  14. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  15. Loewner equations and dispersionless hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Takashi [Department of Mathematics, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 (Japan); Teo, Lee-Peng [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Zabrodin, Anton [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Kosygina str. 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia and ITEP, Bol. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-15

    Using the Hirota representation of dispersionless dKP and dToda hierarchies, we show that the chordal Loewner equations and radial Loewner equations respectively serve as consistency conditions for one-variable reductions of these integrable hierarchies. We also clarify the geometric meaning of this result by relating it to the eigenvalue distribution of normal random matrices in the large N limit.

  16. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  17. ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping

  18. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  19. Hamiltonian Structure of PI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The string equation of type (2,2g+1 may be thought of as a higher order analogue of the first Painlevé equation that corresponds to the case of g = 1. For g > 1, this equation is accompanied with a finite set of commuting isomonodromic deformations, and they altogether form a hierarchy called the PI hierarchy. This hierarchy gives an isomonodromic analogue of the well known Mumford system. The Hamiltonian structure of the Lax equations can be formulated by the same Poisson structure as the Mumford system. A set of Darboux coordinates, which have been used for the Mumford system, can be introduced in this hierarchy as well. The equations of motion in these Darboux coordinates turn out to take a Hamiltonian form, but the Hamiltonians are different from the Hamiltonians of the Lax equations (except for the lowest one that corresponds to the string equation itself.

  20. Hierarchies of Predominantly Connected Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Michael; Wagner, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    We consider communities whose vertices are predominantly connected, i.e., the vertices in each community are stronger connected to other community members of the same community than to vertices outside the community. Flake et al. introduced a hierarchical clustering algorithm that finds such predominantly connected communities of different coarseness depending on an input parameter. We present a simple and efficient method for constructing a clustering hierarchy according to Flake et al. that supersedes the necessity of choosing feasible parameter values and guarantees the completeness of the resulting hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy contains all clusterings that can be constructed by the original algorithm for any parameter value. However, predominantly connected communities are not organized in a single hierarchy. Thus, we develop a framework that, after precomputing at most $2(n-1)$ maximum flows, admits a linear time construction of a clustering $\\C(S)$ of predominantly connected communities that contains ...

  1. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  2. The Return of the Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    corporatisation. This layered set-up provided the state with a double governance grip that drove marketisation until 2011. However, the SOE as a hybrid created ripple effects between the market and the hierarchy that hampered the marketisation. The hierarchical governance turned towards centralisation and market....... It presents a case on how hybridity is altered and evolves in SOEs as a hybrid mode of governance between hierarchy and market in marketisation and how this can lead to re-centralisation....

  3. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  4. Attention modulations on the perception of social hierarchy at distinct temporal stages: an electrophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Tian, Tengxiang; Feng, Xue; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the preferential processing of superior-hierarchy cues. However, it remains poorly understood whether top-down controlled mechanisms modulate temporal dynamics of neurocognitive substrates underlying the preferential processing of these biologically and socially relevant cues. This was investigated in the current study by recording event-related potentials from participants who were presented with superior or inferior social hierarchy. Participants performed a hierarchy-judgment task that required attention to hierarchy cues or a gender-judgment task that withdrew their attention from these cues. Superior-hierarchy cues evoked stronger neural responses than inferior-hierarchy cues at both early (N170/N200) and late (late positive potential, LPP) temporal stages. Notably, the modulations of top-down attention were identified on the LPP component, such that superior-hierarchy cues evoked larger LPP amplitudes than inferior-hierarchy cues only in the attended condition; whereas the modulations of the N170/N200 component by hierarchy cues were evident in both attended and unattended conditions. These findings suggest that the preferential perception of superior-hierarchy cues involves both relatively automatic attentional bias at the early temporal stage as well as flexible and voluntary cognitive evaluation at the late temporal stage. Finally, these hierarchy-related effects were absent when participants were shown the same stimuli which, however, were not associated with social-hierarchy information in a non-hierarchy task (Experiment 2), suggesting that effects of social hierarchy at early and late temporal stages could not be accounted for by differences in physical attributes between these social cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On a Schwarzian PDE associated with the KdV Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Nijhoff, F W; Joshi, N; Nijhoff, Frank; Hone, Andrew; Joshi, Nalini

    1999-01-01

    We present a novel integrable non-autonomous partial differential equation of the Schwarzian type, i.e. invariant under Möbius transformations, that is related to the Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy. In fact, this PDE can be considered as the generating equation for the entire hierarchy of Schwarzian KdV equations. We present its Lax pair, establish its connection with the SKdV hierarchy, its Miura relations to similar generating PDEs for the modified and regular KdV hierarchies and its Lagrangian structure. Finally we demonstrate that its similarity reductions lead to the {\\it full} Painlevé VI equation, i.e. with four arbitary parameters.

  6. High-Order Binary Symmetry Constraints of a Liouville Integrable Hierarchy and Its Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Jie; CHEN Lan-Xin; ZHANG Da-Jun; SUN Ye-Peng; CHEN Deng-Yuan; ZHANG Jun-Xian

    2008-01-01

    A 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem and a Liouville integrable hierarchy are constructed by designing a new subalgebra of loop algebra A2. Furthermore, high-order binary symmetry constraints of the corresponding hierarchy are obtained by using the binary nonlinearization method. Finally, according to another new subalgebra of loop algebra A2, its integrable couplings are established.

  7. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A

    2013-01-01

    We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...

  8. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  9. Assessment of Personal Goal Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Marlene; Ford, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Developed a new method for measuring goal hierarchies, called the Adult Intentional and Motivational Systems Chart, by interviewing 53 men and constructing a system summarizing their goals. Results suggested the continued use of the chart for research on self-direction and adult development as well as intervention. (LLL)

  10. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  11. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  12. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.; Lando, S.

    2015-01-01

    We give a review of modern approaches to constructing formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics, whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to constructing efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are given.

  13. Dressing Technique for Intermediate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Holod, P.; Pakuliak, S.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized AKNS systems introduced and discussed recently in \\cite{dGHM} are considered. It was shown that the dressing technique both in matrix pseudo-differential operators and formal series with respect to the spectral parameter can be developed for these hierarchies.

  14. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  15. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  16. Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)

    2005-12-15

    A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)

  17. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  18. Preferred hierarchy scales from the product landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Lv; Zheng Sun; Lina Wu

    2014-01-01

    The product landscape method has been recently proposed to solve hierarchy problems such as the cosmological constant problem. We suggest that the parameter distribution on logarithmic scales should be used as a benchmark for hierarchy, and the preferred hierarchy scales can be obtained from the distribution peak. It is shown that generating hierarchy from purely product distribution is very inefficient. To achieve a reasonably acceptable efficiency, other effects such as accumulation of weak...

  19. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  20. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  1. Seeking structure in social organization: compensatory control and the psychological advantages of hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Justin P; Kay, Aaron C; Eibach, Richard P; Galinsky, Adam D

    2014-04-01

    Hierarchies are a ubiquitous form of human social organization. We hypothesized that 1 reason for the prevalence of hierarchies is that they offer structure and therefore satisfy the core motivational needs for order and control relative to less structured forms of social organization. This hypothesis is rooted in compensatory control theory, which posits that (a) individuals have a basic need to perceive the world as orderly and structured, and (b) personal and external sources of control are capable of satisfying this need because both serve the comforting belief that the world operates in an orderly fashion. Our first 2 studies confirmed that hierarchies were perceived as more structured and orderly relative to egalitarian arrangements (Study 1) and that working in a hierarchical workplace promotes a feeling of self-efficacy (Study 2). We threatened participants' sense of personal control and measured perceptions of and preferences for hierarchy in 5 subsequent experiments. Participants who lacked control perceived more hierarchy occurring in ambiguous social situations (Study 3) and preferred hierarchy more strongly in workplace contexts (Studies 4-5). We also provide evidence that hierarchies are indeed appealing because of their structure: Preference for hierarchy was higher among individuals high in Personal Need for Structure and a control threat increased preference for hierarchy even among participants low in Personal Need for Structure (Study 5). Framing a hierarchy as unstructured reversed the effect of control threat on hierarchy (Study 6). Finally, hierarchy-enhancing jobs were more appealing after control threat, even when they were low in power and status (Study 7). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Burroughs, N J; Hollowood, Timothy J; Miramontes, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical $W$-algebras, which arise as the second Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the $W_n^{(l)}$ algebras.

  3. Reductions of Lower Triangular Toda Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Mishina, Marina G.; Polenkova, Svetlana V.

    2007-01-01

    Deforming commutative algebras in the lower triangular (ℤ×ℤ)-matrices yields lower triangular Toda hierarchies and their associated nonlinear equations. Like for their counterpart in the ring of pseudodifferential operators, the KP-hierarchy, one also has for these hierarchies a geometric picture:

  4. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  5. KP hierarchy for Hodge integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the ELSV formula, we derive a number of new equations on the generating functions for Hodge integrals over the moduli space of complex curves. This gives a new simple and uniform treatment of certain known results on Hodge integrals like Witten's conjecture, Virasoro constrains, Faber's lambda_g conjecture etc. Among other results we show that a properly arranged generating function for Hodge integrals satisfies the equations of the KP hierarchy.

  6. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  7. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  8. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  9. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2016-03-18

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  10. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G

    2016-01-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  11. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through -1/12 ςϕ2 R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  12. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  13. Hierarchy of knowledge in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.

  14. Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...

  15. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  16. Multi-Core Cache Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat

  17. Hamiltonian Forms for a Hierarchy of Discrete Integrable Coupling Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; YANG Hong-Xiang; LU Rong-Wu

    2008-01-01

    A semi-direct sum of two Lie algebras of four-by-four matrices is presented, and a discrete four-by-fore matrix spectral problem is introduced. A hierarchy of discrete integrable coupling systems is derived. The obtained integrable coupling systems are all written in their Hamiltonian forms by the discrete variational identity. Finally, we prove that the lattice equations in the obtained integrable coupling systems are all Liouville integrable discrete Hamiltonian systems.

  18. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  19. Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1994-01-01

    Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.

  20. Zero curvature representation, bi-Hamiltonian structure, and an integrable hierarchy for the Zakharov-Ito system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mathew; Choudhury, S. Roy; Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper, we present an integrable hierarchy for the Zakharov-Ito system. We first construct the Lenard recursion sequence and zero curvature representation for the Zakharov-Ito system, following Cao's method as significantly generalized by other authors. We then construct the bi-Hamiltonian structures employing variational trace identities but woven together with the Lenard recursion sequences. From this, we are in a position to construct an integrable hierarchy of equations from the Zakharov-Ito system, and we obtain the recursion operator and Poisson brackets for constructing this hierarchy. Finally, we demonstrate that the obtained hierarchy is indeed Liouville integrable.

  1. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this en...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  2. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  3. Study of Injection Molding Warpage Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process and Taguchi method to investigate into injection molding warpage. The warpage important factor will be elected by Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, the AHP hierarchy analysis factor from documents collected and aggregate out data, then through the expert questionnaire delete low weight factor. Finally, we used Taguchi quality engineering method to decide injection molding optimized combination factors. Furthermore, the paper used injection pressure, holding pressure, holding time, mold temperature to analyze four factors, three levels Taguchi design data. Moreover, the paper discussed the reaction of each factor on the S / N ratio and analysis of variance to obtain the best combination of minimal warpage.

  4. The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people

  5. A Difference Hamiltonian Operator and a Hierarchy of Generalized Toda Lattice Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; YANG Hong-Xiang; DING Hai-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A difference Ha-miltonian operator with three arbitrary constants is presented. When the arbitrary constants -in the Hamiltonian operator are suitably chosen, a pair of Hamiltonian operators are given. The resulting Hamiltonian pair yields a difference hereditary operator. Using Magri scheme of bi-Hamiltonian formulation, a hierarchy of the generalized Toda lattice equations is constructed. Finally, the discrete zero curvature representation is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  6. A Difference Hamiltonian Operator and a Hierarchy of Generalized Toda Lattice Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXi-Xiang; YANGHong-Xiang; DINGHai-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A difference Hamiltonian operator with three arbitrary constants is presented. When the arbitrary constants in the Hamiltonian operator are suitably chosen, a pair of Hamiltonian operators are given. The resulting Hamiltonian pair yields a difference hereditary operator. Using Magri scheme of bi-Hamiltonian formulations a hierarchy of the generalized Toda lattice equations is constructed. Finally, the discrete zero curvature representation is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  7. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l

  8. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  9. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  10. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  11. Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...

  12. A hierarchy of Poisson brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...

  13. Hierarchy measure for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...

  14. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  15. Normalization of Class Hierarchy in Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天柱; 肖计田; 等

    1996-01-01

    In complex object oriented databases,the purpose of introducing class hierarchy is to express ISA semantics,to realize inheriting and to reuse schema definition codes.The schema defintition and schema evolution,based on the partial order of lattice,often cause the loss o information inheriting and the redundance of schema definition.Based on the fullness of the inheritance shown by class hierarchy,three normal forms of class hierarchy are given in this paper,and a general algorithm of normalization of class hierarchy is presented,following the Boolean algebra model of class hierarchy.The loss of information inheritance can be avoided when they are applied to schema design and schema evolution.

  16. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.

  18. The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Óscar Lasso; Ortín, Tomás

    2016-10-01

    We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.

  19. The tensor hierarchy of 8-dimensional field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Andino, Oscar Lasso

    2016-01-01

    We construct the tensor hierarchy of generic, bosonic, 8-dimensional field theories. We first study the form of the most general 8-dimensional bosonic theory with Abelian gauge symmetries only and no massive deformations. This study determines the tensors that occur in the Chern-Simons terms of the (electric and magnetic) field strengths and the action for the electric fields, which we determine. Having constructed the most general Abelian theory we study the most general gaugings of its global symmetries and the possible massive deformations using the embedding tensor formalism, constructing the complete tensor hierarchy using the Bianchi identities. We find the explicit form of all the field strengths of the gauged theory up to the 6-forms. Finally, we find the equations of motion comparing the Noether identities with the identities satisfied by the Bianchi identities themselves. We find that some equations of motion are not simply the Bianchi identities of the dual fields, but combinations of them.

  20. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  1. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanzhong; Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  2. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  3. Diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Gottesman, Daniel; Krishna, Anirudh

    2017-01-01

    The Clifford hierarchy is a set of gates that appears in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, but its precise structure remains elusive. We give a complete characterization of the diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy for prime-dimensional qudits. They turn out to be pmth roots of unity raised to polynomial functions of the basis state to which they are applied, and we determine which level of the Clifford hierarchy a given gate sits in based on m and the degree of the polynomial.

  4. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  5. UC hierarchy and monodromy preserving deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2010-01-01

    The UC hierarchy is an extension of the KP hierarchy, which possesses not only an infinite set of positive time evolutions but also that of negative ones. Through a similarity reduction we derive from the UC hierarchy a class of the Schlesinger systems including the Garnier system and the sixth Painleve equation, which describes the monodromy preserving deformations of Fuchsian linear differential equations with certain spectral types. We also present a unified formulation of the above Schlesinger systems as a canonical Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian functions are polynomials in the canonical variables.

  6. Hierarchy and information in feedforward networks

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Solé, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we define a hierarchical index for feedforward structures taking, as the starting point, three fundamental concepts underlying hierarchy: order, predictability and pyramidal structure. Our definition applies to the so called causal graphs, i.e., connected, directed acyclic graphs in which the arrows depict a direct causal relation between two elements defining the nodes. The estimator of hierarchy is obtained by evaluating the complexity of causal paths against the uncertainty in recovering them from a given end point. This naturally leads us to a definition of mutual information which, properly normalized and weighted through the layered structure of the graph, results in suitable index of hierarchy with strong theoretical grounds.

  7. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  8. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Mariño, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using -algebra symmetries which encode the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how an A-model topological string on P1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  9. Quark masses and their hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, M.

    1987-12-01

    Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.

  10. Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...

  11. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  12. Multiple criteria inventory classification using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahsan Akhtar Hasin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic approach to the inventory control and classification may have a significant influence on company competitiveness. In practice, all inventories cannot be controlled with equal attention. In order to efficiently control the inventory items and to determine the suitable ordering policies for them, multi-criteria inventory classification is used. In this paper, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for multiple criteria ABC inventory classification has been proposed. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the relative weights of the attributes or criteria, and to classify inventories into different categories. To accredit the proposed model, it is implemented for the 351 raw materials of switch gear section of Energypac Engineering Limited (EEL, a large power engineering company of Bangladesh. In this approach, at first, related criteria have been selected (Unit price, last year consumption or annual demand, last use date, supplier, criticality, durability and the weights of these criteria was determined using Fuzzy AHP. Then a score to each item was assigned for each criterion as triangular fuzzy number and the final normalized weighted score of each item using fuzzy set theory is calculate. Finally, Chang’s extent analysis was used for the comparison of fuzzy numbers and the final scores are compared with each other. Then all items were classified into three classes according to their final score.

  13. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gracia-Lázaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.

  14. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  15. Integrable Couplings of the Coupled Burgers Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIATie-Cheng; CHENXiao-Hong; CHENDeng-Yuan; ZHANGYu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, a new loop algebra G is constructed, from which a new isospectral problem is established. It follows that integrable couplings of the well-known coupled Burgers hierarchy are obtained.

  16. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  17. Existence of Hierarchies and Human's Pursuit of Top Hierarchy Lead to Power Law

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    The power law is ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena, and is considered as a universal relationship between the frequency and its rank for diverse social systems. However, a general model is still lacking to interpret why these seemingly unrelated systems share great similarity. Through a detailed analysis of natural language texts and simulation experiments based on the proposed 'Hierarchical Selection Model', we found that the existence of hierarchies and human's pursuit of top hierarchy lead to the power law. Further, the power law is a statistical and emergent performance of hierarchies, and it is the universality of hierarchies that contributes to the ubiquity of the power law.

  18. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  19. Two Expanding Integrable Models of the Geng-Cao Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiurong Guo

    2014-01-01

    interesting results. In the paper, we will deduce two kinds of expanding integrable models of the Geng-Cao (GC hierarchy by constructing different 6-dimensional Lie algebras. One expanding integrable model (actually, it is a nonlinear integrable coupling reduces to a generalized Burgers equation and further reduces to the heat equation whose expanding nonlinear integrable model is generated. Another one is an expanding integrable model which is different from the first one. Finally, the Hamiltonian structures of the two expanding integrable models are obtained by employing the variational identity and the trace identity, respectively.

  20. Transitivity performance, relational hierarchy knowledge and awareness: results of an instructional framing manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Ludwig, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The transitive inference (TI) paradigm has been widely used to examine the role of the hippocampus in generalization. Here we consider a surprising feature of experimental findings in this task: the relatively poor transitivity performance and levels of hierarchy knowledge achieved by adult human subjects. We focused on the influence of the task instructions on participants' subsequent performance--a single-word framing manipulation which either specified the relation between items as transitive (i.e., OLD-FRAME: choose which item is "older") or left it ambiguous (i.e., NO-FRAME: choose which item is "correct"). We show a marked but highly specific effect of manipulating prior knowledge through instruction: transitivity performance and levels of relational hierarchy knowledge were enhanced, but premise performance unchanged. Further, we show that hierarchy recall accuracy, but not conventional awareness scores, was a significant predictor of inferential performance across the entire group of participants. The current study has four main implications: first, our findings establish the importance of the task instructions, and prior knowledge, in the TI paradigm--suggesting that they influence the size of the overall hypothesis space (e.g., to favor a linear hierarchical structure over other possibilities in the OLD-FRAME). Second, the dissociable effects of the instructional frame on premise and inference performance provide evidence for the operation of distinct underlying mechanisms (i.e., an associative mechanism vs. relational hierarchy knowledge). Third, our findings suggest that a detailed measurement of hierarchy recall accuracy may be a more sensitive index of relational hierarchy knowledge, than conventional awareness score--and should be used in future studies investigating links between awareness and inferential performance. Finally, our study motivates an experimental setting that ensures robust hierarchy learning across participants

  1. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other ne

  2. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  3. The multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glachette-Johnson (GJ) equation hierarchy and its super-integrable coupling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fa-Jun; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a set of multicomponent matrix Lie algebra,which is used to construct a new loop algebra (A)M.By using the Tu scheme,a Liouville integrable multicomponent equation hierarchy is generated,which possesses the Hamiltonian structure.As its reduction cases,the multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional Glaehette-Johnson (GJ) hierarchy is given.Finally,the super-integrable coupling system of multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional GJ hierarchy is established through enlarging the spectral problem.

  4. New Matrix Lie Algebra, a Powerful Tool for Constructing Multi-component C-KdV Equation Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A set of new multi-component matrix Lie algebra is constructed, which is devoted to obtaining a new loop algebra A-2M. It follows that an isospectral problem is established. By making use of Tu scheme, a Liouville integrable multi-component hierarchy of soliton equations is generated, which possesses the multi-component Hamiltonian structures. As its reduction cases, the multi-component C-KdV hierarchy is given. Finally, the multi-component integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy is presented through enlarging matrix spectral problem.

  5. The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; McDonald, David B

    2015-04-01

    The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high frequencies of transitive triads, whereas cycles were very rare. Moreover, pass-along triads were rare, and double-dominant triads were common in most groups. These patterns did not vary in any systematic way across taxa, study settings (captive or wild) or group size. Two factors significantly affected network motif structure: the proportion of dyads that were observed to interact and the interaction rates of the top-ranked individuals. Thus, study design (i.e. how many interactions were observed) and the behaviour of key individuals in the group could explain much of the variations we see in social hierarchies across animals. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of dominance hierarchies across all animal systems, and demonstrate that network analysis provides new avenues for comparative analyses of social hierarchies.

  6. Writing Stages: A Developmental Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joseph O.

    The developmental stages of writing can be related to Jean Piaget's final three stages of development (preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) and to the narrative, descriptive, explanative, analytical, and artistic rhetorical modes. As the child enters kindergarten or the first grade, narrative blooms. By this age most young…

  7. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  8. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  9. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  10. Integrable couplings of a generalized AKNS hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 张鸿庆; 闫庆友

    2002-01-01

    A generalized AKNS isospectral problem where the trace of corresponding spectral matrix is not zero, is transformed to a new isospectral problem where the trace of the resulting matrix is zero, by using transformation of Lax pairs, and these two spectral problems lead to the same hierarchy of equations. The authors started from the transformed spectral problem and constructed a new loop algebra which has not appeared before, and obtained the integrable coupling of the generalized AKNS hierarchy. Specially, the integrable couplings of the KdV equation and MKdV equation are obtained.

  11. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  12. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept. T30; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik und Physikalisches Inst.; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  13. Integrable hierarchies of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugmanova, G.; Azimkhanova, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system. From compatibility conditions we obtain the form of matrix operators. After using a gauge transformation, obtained a new type of Lax representation for the hierarchy of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation, which is equivalent to the gauge coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system.

  14. Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-06-04

    A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.

  15. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  16. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (~10^{19}GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ~10^{16} between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at \\~10^{-3}eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass...

  17. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  18. Self-organization of divided hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.

  19. The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...

  20. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  1. Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yiya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.

  2. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  3. Sociality, hierarchy, health comparative biodemography: a collection of papers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Maxine; Lane, Meredith A

    2014-01-01

    "Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography is a collection of papers that examine cross-species comparisons of social environments with a focus on social behaviors along with social hierarchies and connections...

  4. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  5. Improving Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: New Approach to needs hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Nemati

    2013-01-01

    In this article Maslow's hierarchy of needs is reviewed with two viewpoints: critical and supportive. We try to extract and classify the relevant subject related to the research content after studying and analysis of documents. Thus, because of their common characters, the needs that have been cited from some scientists could be gathered and make some new levels.The new Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been presented in this research and we added three levels EPISTEMOLOGY, LOG and EROS (Freedo...

  6. Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.

  7. Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...

  8. Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F.

    2008-02-06

    This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)

  9. Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.

  10. A 2 + 1 non-isospectral integrable lattice hierarchy related to a generalized discrete second Painleve hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordoa, Pilar R. [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: andrew.pickering@urjc.es; Zhu Zuonong [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    In this article, by considering a 2 + 1 dimensional discrete non-isospectral linear problem, a new 2 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchy is constructed. It is shown that a generalization of the discrete second Painleve hierarchy can be obtained as a reduction. Other reductions include new 1 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies.

  11. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  13. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  14. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  15. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  16. Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.

  17. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.

  19. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  20. Homology and the hierarchy of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-07-01

    Homology is the similarity between organisms due to common ancestry. Introduced by Richard Owen in 1843 in a paper entitled "Lectures on comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals", the concept of homology predates Darwin's "Origin of Species" and has been very influential throughout the history of evolutionary biology. Although homology is the central concept of all comparative biology and provides a logical basis for it, the definition of the term and the criteria of its application remain controversial. Here, I will discuss homology in the context of the hierarchy of biological organization. I will provide insights gained from an exemplary case study in evolutionary developmental biology that indicates the uncoupling of homology at different levels of biological organization. I argue that continuity and hierarchy are separate but equally important issues of homology. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gönül, B

    2000-01-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  2. INFORMATION GATHERING, DELEGATED CONTRACTING AND CORPORATE HIERARCHIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwoo Choe; In-Uck Park

    2008-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. We study when such delegation can be optimal. In centralization, the owner retains the authority, which fails to motivate the manager to acquire valuable information, leading to suboptimal decisions and inefficient incentive provision to the worker. Beneficial delegation should necessarily motivate the manager to acquire information, which is possible onl...

  3. The Spontaneous Origin of New Levels in a Scalar Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley N. Salthe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Given a background of universal thermodynamic disequilibrium, I suggest that the interpolation of new levels in a material scale hierarchy is favored when the entropy production of a local region would be increased by such structural complexification. This would involve the separation by order of magnitude of the average dynamical rate of the new level compared to those of the resulting contiguous levels from which it became disentangled, thereby facilitating laminar flows. Here the Second Law of thermodynamics is understood as a final cause, which can be expressed in this creative way when the surrounding superstructure has a form allowing it to mediate this change (by, e.g., focusing kinetics, etc., and given, as well, sufficiently differentiated local energy gradients to materially support the increased local dissipation.

  4. Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.

  5. Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2013-08-06

    Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.

  6. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2017-08-29

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  7. Relations Between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations And Dominance Hierarchy In A Semi-Free Mandrill Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eNaud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual’s spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1 does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2 Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3 Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks

  8. Measuring the mass hierarchy with muon and hadron events in atmospheric neutrino experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    Neutrino mass hierarchy can be measured in atmospheric neutrino experiments through the observation of earth matter effects. Magnetized iron calorimeters have been shown to be good in this regard due to their charge identification capabilities. The charged current interaction of ν μ in this detector, produces a muon track and a hadron shower. The direction of the muon track can be measured very accurately. We show the improvement expected in the reach of this class of experiments to the neutrino mass hierarchy, as we improve the muon energy resolution and the muon reconstruction efficiency. We next propose to include the hadron events in the analysis, by tagging them with the zenith angle of the corresponding muon and binning the hadron data first in energy and then in zenith angle. To the best of our knowledge this way of performing the analysis of the atmospheric neutrino data has not be considered before. We show that the hadron events increase the mass hierarchy sensitivity of the experiment. Finally, we show the expected mass hierarchy sensitivity in terms of the reconstructed neutrino energy and zenith angle. We show how the detector resolutions spoil the earth matter effects in the neutrino channel and argue why the sensitivity obtained from the neutrino analysis cannot be significantly better than that obtained from the analysis using muon data alone. As a result, the best mass hierarchy sensitivity is obtained when we add the contribution of the muon and the hadron data. For sin2 2 θ 13 = 0.1, sin2 θ 23 = 0.5, a muon energy resolution of 2%, reconstruction efficiency of 80% and exposure of 50 × 10 kton-year, we could get up to 4.5 σ signal for the mass hierarchy from combining the muon and hadron data. The signal will go up when the atmospheric data is combined with data from other existing experiments, particularly NO νA.

  9. Relations between Spatial Distribution, Social Affiliations and Dominance Hierarchy in a Semi-Free Mandrill Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Alexandre; Chailleux, Eloise; Kestens, Yan; Bret, Céline; Desjardins, Dominic; Petit, Odile; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Sueur, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Although there exist advantages to group-living in comparison to a solitary lifestyle, costs and gains of group-living may be unequally distributed among group members. Predation risk, vigilance levels and food intake may be unevenly distributed across group spatial geometry and certain within-group spatial positions may be more or less advantageous depending on the spatial distribution of these factors. In species characterized with dominance hierarchy, high-ranking individuals are commonly observed in advantageous spatial position. However, in complex social systems, individuals can develop affiliative relationships that may balance the effect of dominance relationships in individual's spatial distribution. The objective of the present study is to investigate how the group spatial distribution of a semi-free ranging colony of Mandrills relates to its social organization. Using spatial observations in an area surrounding the feeding zone, we tested the three following hypothesis: (1) does dominance hierarchy explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (2) Do affiliative associations also explain being observed in proximity or far from a food patch? (3) Do the differences in rank in the group hierarchy explain being co-observed in proximity of a food patch? Our results showed that high-ranking individuals were more observed in proximity of the feeding zone while low-ranking individuals were more observed at the boundaries of the observation area. Furthermore, we observed that affiliative relationships were also associated with individual spatial distributions and explain more of the total variance of the spatial distribution in comparison with dominance hierarchy. Finally, we found that individuals observed at a same moment in proximity of the feeding zone were more likely to be distant in the hierarchy while controlling for maternal kinship, age and sex similarity. This study brings some elements about how affiliative networks and dominance

  10. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D

    2011-04-01

    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  12. Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-08-01

    Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.

  13. Penentuan Peringkat Bahaya Tsunami dengan Metode Analytical Hierarchy Process (Studi kasus: Wilayah Pesisir Kabupaten Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Oktariadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no2.20093Hierarchy structure of a tsunami risk encompasses the study of hazard, vulnerability, and capac- ity factors. The focus of this research is hazard factors, with indicators comprise beach slope, beach coarseness (surface material, run up, and earthquake intensity. Computation method used in the deci- sion system is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The AHP method is to determine the weight of indicators and matrices of hazard factor hierarchy. The final total score of the hazard factors will be useful for tsunami hazard mapping through a geographic information system (GIS. It consists of four hierarchies of  tsunami hazard that are high, middle, low, and safe levels. The coastal regions in Sukabumi having high tsunami disaster risk are the Gulf of Pelabuhanratu, Ciemas plain (Gulf of Ciletuh, Ujung Genteng Cape, and some parts of coastal plain areas in Sim- penan. Those having middle tsunami disaster risk are coastal area of Surade, Cibitung, Tegalbuleud, whereas those having low tsunami disaster risk are Cisolok cliff, Simpenan, and Ciemas cliff area. The other coastal zones are included into a safe area.  

  14. White Paper: Measuring the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, R N; Freedman, S J; Haxton, W C; Kadel, R W; Kolomensky, Yu G; Luk, K B; McDonald, P; Gann, G D Orebi; Poon, A W P

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is a condensation of a report by a committee appointed jointly by the Nuclear Science and Physics Divisions at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goal of this study was to identify the most promising technique(s) for resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy. For the most part, we have relied on calculations and simulations presented by the proponents of the various experiments. We have included evaluations of the opportunities and challenges for these experiments based on what is available already in the literature.

  15. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Janusz; de Lucas, Javier

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  16. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  17. Cascade Hierarchy in SUSY SU(5) GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    We study cascade hierarchy in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. The neutrino Dirac mass matrix of the cascade form can lead to the tri-bimaximal generation mixing at the leading order in the seesaw mechanism while the down quark mass matrix of a hybrid cascade form naturally gives the CKM structure. We embed such experimentally favored mass textures into supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, which gives a relation between the down quark and charged lepton mass matrices. Related phenomenologies, such as lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to lepton mixing angles.

  18. Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ~Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).

  19. Pressure analysis for green supply chain management implementation in Indian industries using analytic hierarchy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiyazhagan, K.; Govindan, Kannan; Noorul Haq, A.

    2014-01-01

    and diverse, and demands new levels of accountability, financial commitment and supply chain capabilities. Indian manufacturing industries have started adopting green concepts in their supply chain management giving special attention to environmental issues based on pressures from different directions, e...... into six groups. Then common acceptable pressures were identified through a questionnaire survey from different industrial sectors in Phase 1. Finally, essential pressures are prioritised with the help of analytic hierarchy process in Phase 2....

  20. The Hierarchy Solution to the LHC Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, James S; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of ...

  1. The hierarchy solution to the LHC inverse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, James S.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-06-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of sparticles.

  2. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  3. Hamiltonian and Godunov Structures of the Grad Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grmela, Miroslav; Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy; Pavelka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution governed by the Boltzmann kinetic equation is compatible with mechanics and thermodynamics. The former compatibility is mathematically expressed in the Hamiltonian and Godunov structures, the latter in the structure of gradient dynamics guaranteeing the growth of entropy and consequently the approach to equilibrium. We carry all three structures to the Grad reformulation of the Boltzmann equation (to the Grad hierarchy). First, we recognize the structures in the infinite Grad hierarchy and then in several examples of finite hierarchies representing extended hydrodynamic equations. In the context of Grad's hierarchies we also investigate relations between Hamiltonian and Godunov structures.

  4. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;

    2015-01-01

    and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  5. OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stan LIPOVETSKY

    2009-01-01

    A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.

  6. Correlating Dimensions of Inheritance Hierarchy with Complexity & Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance is the vital feature of any object oriented software which provides reuse of exiting classes for designing new classes. Higher reuse provides higher productivity and greater quality.Inheritance hierarchy is one of the very important artifacts targeted for measurement of reuse and reusability. Reuse through inheritance hierarchy can be measured from two dimensions- Depth and Breadth. Higher depth and breadth may increase complexity of software which makes the software difficult to understand and maintain. This paper aimed to correlate the depth and breadth of inheritance hierarchy with reuse and complexity of inheritance hierarchy using design oriented metrics.

  7. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  8. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  9. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  10. Gravitational inflaton decay and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yuki

    2007-01-01

    We study implications of the large-N species solution to the hierarchy problem, proposed by G. Dvali, for reheating of the universe after inflation. Dvali's proposal contains additional N~10^{32} Z_2-conserved quantum fields beyond the Standard Model particles with mass ~1 TeV, which weaken gravity by a factor of 1/N, and thus explain the hierarchy between the Plank scale and the electroweak scale. We show that, in this scenario, the decay rates of inflaton fields through gravitational decay channels are enhanced by a factor of N, and thus they decay into N species of the quantum fields very efficiently, in the limit that quantum gravity effects are unimportant for the gravitational decay rate. In order not to over-reheat the universe, inflaton mass, vacuum expectation value of inflaton, or non-minimal gravitational coupling should be tightly fine-tuned. Our conclusion holds even when the gravitational decay is prohibited by some symmetry of the theory; the universe may still be over-reheated via annihilation...

  11. Instability-induced hierarchy in bipedal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgane, Kunishige; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2008-05-01

    One of the important features of human locomotion is its instant adaptability to various unpredictable changes of physical and environmental conditions. This property is known as flexibility. Modeling the bipedal locomotion system, we show that initial-state coordination by a global variable which encodes the attractor basins of the system can yield flexibility. This model is based on the following hypotheses: (i) the walking velocity is a global variable, and (ii) the leg posture at the beginning of the stance phase is the initial state of the gait. Moreover, we confirm these hypotheses. We investigate the regions near the neutral states between walking and falling phases using numerical experiments and demonstrate that global variables can be defined as the dominant unstable directions of the system dynamics near the neutral states. We propose the concept of an “instability-induced hierarchy.” In this hierarchy, global variables govern other variables near neutral states; i.e., they become elements of a higher level.

  12. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  13. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N

    2017-04-15

    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-09-17

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. ON GAUGE EQUIVALENT INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS AND r-MATRICES FOR AKNS HIERARCHY AND A COUPLED MKdV HIERARCHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘响林; 陈庆辉; 张保才

    2003-01-01

    The new coupled MKdV hierarchy is obtained. By using gauge transformation,the corns trained flow, the integrable system and Lax representation for the coupled MKdVhierarchy were first corstructed from the AKNS hierarchy and then using the Laxrepresentation, the r-matrix for the constrained flow of the coupled MKdV hierarchy wasconstructed. The second set of conserved integrals of this constrained flow and theirinvolutivity were also given.

  16. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Block Diagrams. Hierarchy of Behavioral Concepts for Content Outline for Leadership Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    Block diagrams describe the hierarchy of behavioral concepts in the United States Naval Academy leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484). EM 010 420 through EM 010 447 and EM 010 451 through EM 010 512 are related documents. (SH)

  17. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Block Diagrams. Hierarchy of Behavioral Concepts for Content Outline for Leadership Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    Block diagrams describe the hierarchy of behavioral concepts in the United States Naval Academy leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484). EM 010 420 through EM 010 447 and EM 010 451 through EM 010 512 are related documents. (SH)

  18. Analysis of waste hierarchy in the European waste directive 2008/98/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharfalkar, Mangesh; Court, Richard; Campbell, Callum; Ali, Zulfiqur; Hillier, Graham

    2015-05-01

    Loss of recoverable resources in linear resource flow systems is likely to contribute to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation. The 'waste hierarchy' in the European Commission's latest Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC (WFD2008) makes recommendations on how to address this issue. The WFD2008 is analysed in this work for its adequacy in ensuring return of 'recoverable waste' as a 'resource' into the productive system. Despite the release of guidance documents by the DG Environment, DEFRA and WRAP UK on the interpretation of key provisions of the WFD2008, lack of clarity still exists around the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy'. There is also an overlap between measures such as 'prevention' and 'reduction', 'preparing for reuse' and 'reuse' and lack of clarity on why the measure of 'reuse' is included in the WFD2008 definition of 'prevention'. Finally, absence of the measures of 'recovery' and 'reuse' from the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy' reduces its effectiveness as a resource efficiency tool. Without clarity on the WFD2008 'waste hierarchy', it is challenging for decision makers to take direct action to address inefficiencies existing within their operations or supply chains. This paper proposes the development of an alternative 'hierarchy of resource use' and alternative 'definitions' that attempt to fill identified gaps in the WFD2008 and bring clarity to the key measures of waste prevention, reduction and recovery. This would help the key stakeholders in driving resource effectiveness, which in turn would assist in conservation of natural resources and prevention of environmental degradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d

  20. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  1. THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS OF THE LCZ HIERARCHY BY NONLINEARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we first search for the Hamiltonian structure of LCZ hierarchy by use of a trace identity. Then we determine a higher-order constraint condition between the potentials and the eigenfunctions of the LCZ spectral problem, and under this constraint condition, the Lax pairs of LCZ hierarchy are all nonlinearized into the finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense.

  2. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  3. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  4. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  5. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  6. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  7. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  8. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  9. Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-10-26

    A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.

  10. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  11. Integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    An integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources (dKdVHWS) is derived. Lax pair equations and bi-Hamiltonian formulation for dKdVHWS are formulated. Hodograph solution for the dispersionless KdV equation with sources (dKdVWS) is obtained via hodograph transformation. Furthermore, the dispersionless Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy with sources (dGDHWS) is presented.

  12. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  13. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  14. Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.

  15. Structural hierarchy governs fibrin gel mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechocka, Izabela K; Bacabac, Rommel G; Potters, Max; Mackintosh, Fred C; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2010-05-19

    Fibrin gels are responsible for the mechanical strength of blood clots, which are among the most resilient protein materials in nature. Here we investigate the physical origin of this mechanical behavior by performing rheology measurements on reconstituted fibrin gels. We find that increasing levels of shear strain induce a succession of distinct elastic responses that reflect stretching processes on different length scales. We present a theoretical model that explains these observations in terms of the unique hierarchical architecture of the fibers. The fibers are bundles of semiflexible protofibrils that are loosely connected by flexible linker chains. This architecture makes the fibers 100-fold more flexible to bending than anticipated based on their large diameter. Moreover, in contrast with other biopolymers, fibrin fibers intrinsically stiffen when stretched. The resulting hierarchy of elastic regimes explains the incredible resilience of fibrin clots against large deformations.

  16. Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.

  17. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, Oleg K

    2009-01-01

    We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.

  18. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinman, Oleg K [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    This paper considers the theory of Lax equations with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface, proposed by Krichever in 2001. The approach here is based on new objects, the Lax operator algebras, taking into consideration an arbitrary complex simple or reductive classical Lie algebra. For every Lax operator, regarded as a map sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyurin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra, a hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by the Lax equations is constructed, and it is proved that they are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example, elliptic A{sub n}, C{sub n}, and D{sub n} Calogero-Moser systems are derived in the framework of our approach. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  19. A new wavefunction hierarchy for interacting geminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Peter A.

    2016-11-01

    A new truncation scheme for non-orthogonal antisymmetrized products of interacting geminals (APIG) is introduced based on antisymmetrized products of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG). This wavefunction hierarchy of interacting geminals (IG) allows us to gradually increase the accuracy at which the ground state of a seniority-zero Hamiltonian can be estimated, ranging from APSG up to approximation-free APIG. Mathematical expressions for the lowest four orders (IG0, IG1, IG2, and IG3) are given explicitly and the computational cost to evaluate their transition density matrix is verified to scale only cubically with system size. Exemplary numerical calculations indicate that already a very early truncation level leads to results virtually identical to APIG.

  20. Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2010-12-01

    For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M̂4±C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

  1. Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief

    CERN Document Server

    Murthy, G Rama

    2011-01-01

    ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.

  2. Lepton mass hierarchy from the quark mass hierarchy in the light of the quark Technicolor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that all electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) comes from the strong dynamics of Technicolor while these are the only quarks which receive masses through Technicolor dynamics. We assume the leptons are not embedded in a representation of Extended Technigroup. In this paper we suggest a model where the leptons receive their masses through the loop corrections which includes at least one closed quark loop. For this purpose we introduce model based on private family SU(2) scalar two doublets which interact very weakly with the Standard Model(SM) fermions and which do not condense at tree level. Assuming quark/lepton universality of suggested Yukawa interactions the model becomes strongly predictive and we calculate mass contributions to the all known SM lepton gauge eigenstates. Up to not yet explored mixing, the model suggests that the lepton mass hierarchy comes from the quark mass hierarchy. Within a single universal Yukawa coupling the absolute values of masses for neutrino family e...

  3. Detecting the Neutrinos Mass Hierarchy from Cosmological Data

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new parameterization to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy, namely $\\Delta=(m_3-m_1)/(m_1+m_3)$ which is dimensionless and varies in the range $[-1,1]$. Taking into account the results of neutrino oscillation experiments, $\\Delta$ is the unique parameter for determining all the masses of neutrinos, and a positive (negative) sign of $\\Delta$ denotes the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. Adopting the currently available cosmic observations, we find that the normal mass hierarchy is slightly favored, and the mass of lightest neutrino is less than $0.030$ eV for the normal mass hierarchy and $0.024$ eV for the inverted mass hierarchy at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  4. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  5. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  6. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  7. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  8. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC; Ross, Timothy J. [UNM

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  9. Evaluating supplier quality performance using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2013-09-01

    This paper elaborates the importance of evaluating supplier quality performance to an organization. Supplier quality performance evaluation reflects the actual performance of the supplier exhibited at customer's end. It is critical in enabling the organization to determine the area of improvement and thereafter works with supplier to close the gaps. Success of the customer partly depends on supplier's quality performance. Key criteria as quality, cost, delivery, technology support and customer service are categorized as main factors in contributing to supplier's quality performance. 18 suppliers' who were manufacturing automotive application parts evaluated in year 2010 using weight point system. There were few suppliers with common rating which led to common ranking observed by few suppliers'. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a user friendly decision making tool for complex and multi criteria problems was used to evaluate the supplier's quality performance challenging the weight point system that was used for 18 suppliers'. The consistency ratio was checked for criteria and sub-criteria. Final results of AHP obtained with no overlap ratings, therefore yielded a better decision making methodology as compared to weight point rating system.

  10. Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Hasebe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.

  11. Higher (odd) dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Kazuki

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S 2 k - 1 in the SO (2 k - 1) monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S 2 k - 1 to the one-dimension higher SO (2 k) gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.

  12. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  13. Statistical symmetries of the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacławczyk, Marta; Staffolani, Nicola; Oberlack, Martin; Rosteck, Andreas; Wilczek, Michael; Friedrich, Rudolf

    2014-07-01

    It was shown by Oberlack and Rosteck [Discr. Cont. Dyn. Sys. S, 3, 451 2010] that the infinite set of multipoint correlation (MPC) equations of turbulence admits a considerable extended set of Lie point symmetries compared to the Galilean group, which is implied by the original set of equations of fluid mechanics. Specifically, a new scaling group and an infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors have been discovered. These new statistical groups have important consequences for our understanding of turbulent scaling laws as they are essential ingredients of, e.g., the logarithmic law of the wall and other scaling laws, which in turn are exact solutions of the MPC equations. In this paper we first show that the infinite set of translational groups of all multipoint correlation tensors corresponds to an infinite dimensional set of translations under which the Lundgren-Monin-Novikov (LMN) hierarchy of equations for the probability density functions (PDF) are left invariant. Second, we derive a symmetry for the LMN hierarchy which is analogous to the scaling group of the MPC equations. Most importantly, we show that this symmetry is a measure of the intermittency of the velocity signal and the transformed functions represent PDFs of an intermittent (i.e., turbulent or nonturbulent) flow. Interesting enough, the positivity of the PDF puts a constraint on the group parameters of both shape and intermittency symmetry, leading to two conclusions. First, the latter symmetries may no longer be Lie group as under certain conditions group properties are violated, but still they are symmetries of the LMN equations. Second, as the latter two symmetries in its MPC versions are ingredients of many scaling laws such as the log law, the above constraints implicitly put weak conditions on the scaling parameter such as von Karman constant κ as they are functions of the group parameters. Finally, let us note that these kind of statistical symmetries are

  14. Constraint, Intelligence, and Control Hierarchy in Virtual Environments. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    observer or the intelligence of the environment (whatever the latter may mean) that is salient? And finally, what might be relevant about "upwelling" of constraints as determined by a hierarchy of levels of interaction?

  15. Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo

    2016-07-01

    With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.

  16. The $n$-component KP hierarchy and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kac, V G

    1993-01-01

    Starting from free charged fermions we give equivalent definitions of the $n\\/$-component KP hierarchy, in terms of $\\tau\\/$-functions $\\tau_\\alpha\\/$ (where $\\alpha \\in M =\\/$ root lattice of $sl_n\\/$), in terms of $n \\times n\\/$ matrix valued wave functions $W_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$, and in terms of pseudodifferential wave operators $P_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$. These imply the deformation and the zero curvature equations. We show that the 2-component KP hierarchy contains the Davey-Stewartson system and the $n\\geq3\\/$ component KP hierarchy continues the $n\\/$-wave interaction equations. This allows us to construct theis solutions.

  17. Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Ozogány, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...

  18. How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...

  19. 6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...

  20. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  1. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...

  2. 6D RG flows and nilpotent hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina,Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University,New York, NY 10027 (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of “conformal matter,” a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent UV theory.

  3. A structure-based software reliability allocation using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhashis; Singh, Jeetendra B.; Roy, Arunava

    2015-02-01

    During the design phase of a software, it is often required to evaluate the reliability of the software system. At this stage of development, one crucial question arises 'how to achieve a target reliability of the software?' Reliability allocation methods can be used to set reliability goals for individual components. In this paper, a software reliability allocation model has been proposed incorporating the user view point about various functions of a software. Proposed reliability allocation method attempts to answer the question 'how reliable should the system components be?' The proposed model will be useful for determining the reliability goal at the planning and design phase of a software project, hence making reliability a singular measure for performance evaluation. Proposed model requires a systematic formulation of user requirements and preference into the technical design and reliability of the software. To accomplish this task, a system hierarchy has been established, which combines the user's view of the system with that of the software manager and the programmer. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) has been used to derive the required model parameters from the hierarchy. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out in this paper. Finally, an example has been given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. A Complex Integrable Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure for Integrable Couplings of WKI Soliton Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajun Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We generate complex integrable couplings from zero curvature equations associated with matrix spectral problems in this paper. A direct application to the WKI spectral problem leads to a novel soliton equation hierarchy of integrable coupling system; then we consider the Hamiltonian structure of the integrable coupling system. We select the U¯, V¯ and generate the nonlinear composite parts, which generate new extended WKI integrable couplings. It is also indicated that the method of block matrix is an efficient and straightforward way to construct the integrable coupling system.

  5. Spatial hierarchy and emerging typologies inside world city network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilya Chubarov

    2015-01-01

    ...). Based upon the results of media- popular ‘global city rankings’ produced by several international think tanks, our calculation allowed to reveal global urban hierarchy and identify several subnetworks inside of world cities...

  6. Neutrino mass hierarchy determination at reactor antineutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    After the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ has been precisely measured by the reactor antineutrino experiments, one of the most important open questions left in neutrino physics is the neutrino mass hierarchy. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) without exploring the matter effect. The JUNO site location is optimized to have the best sensitivity for the mass hierarchy determination. JUNO will employ a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector located in a laboratory 700 meters underground. The excellent energy resolution and PMT coverage will give us an unprecedented opportunity to reach a 3-4 $\\sigma$ precision. In this paper, the JUNO detector design and simulation work will be presented. Also, RENO-50, another medium distance reactor antineutrino experiment, will do a similar measurement. With the efforts of these experiments, it is very likely that the neutrino mass hierarchy will be determined in the next 10 years.

  7. INTEGRABLE COUPLINGS OF THE TB HIERARCHY AND ITS HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we obtain integrable couplings of the TB hierarchy using the new subalgebra of the loop algebra A_3.Then the Hamiltonian structure of the above system is given by the quadratic-form identity.

  8. Bidifferential Calculus Approach to AKNS Hierarchies and Their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristophanes Dimakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We express AKNS hierarchies, admitting reductions to matrix NLS and matrix mKdV hierarchies, in terms of a bidifferential graded algebra. Application of a universal result in this framework quickly generates an infinite family of exact solutions, including e.g. the matrix solitons in the focusing NLS case. Exploiting a general Miura transformation, we recover the generalized Heisenberg magnet hierarchy and establish a corresponding solution formula for it. Simply by exchanging the roles of the two derivations of the bidifferential graded algebra, we recover ''negative flows'', leading to an extension of the respective hierarchy. In this way we also meet a matrix and vector version of the short pulse equation and also the sine-Gordon equation. For these equations corresponding solution formulas are also derived. In all these cases the solutions are parametrized in terms of matrix data that have to satisfy a certain Sylvester equation.

  9. Know Your Place: Neural Processing of Social Hierarchy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Caroline F.; Tong, Yunxia; Chen, Qiang; Bassett, Danielle S.; Stein, Jason L.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Summary Social hierarchies guide behavior in many species, including humans, where status also has an enormous impact on motivation and health. However, little is known about the underlying neural representation of social hierarchies in humans. In the present study, we identify dissociable neural responses to perceived social rank using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in an interactive simulated social context. In both stable and unstable social hierarchies, viewing a superior individual differentially engaged perceptual-attentional, saliency, and cognitive systems, notably dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In the unstable hierarchy setting, additional regions were recruited related to emotional processing (amygdala), social cognition (medial prefrontal cortex), and behavioral readiness. Furthermore, social hierarchical consequences of performance were neurally dissociable and of comparable salience to monetary reward, providing a neural basis for the high motivational value of status. Our results identify neural mechanisms that may mediate the enormous influence of social status on human behavior and health. PMID:18439411

  10. Self-organizing social hierarchies in a timid society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Tsujiguchi, Masaru

    2006-07-01

    Emergence of hierarchies is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in a timid society where all individuals are pacifist. The self-organization of hierarchies is shown to occur in two steps as the population is increased, i.e. there are three states, one egalitarian and two hierarchical states; the transition from the egalitarian to the first hierarchical state is continuous and the transition from the first hierarchical state to the second one is discontinuous. In the first hierarchical society, all individuals belong to either middle class or losers and no winners appear. In the second hierarchical society, many winners emerge and the population of the middle class is reduced. The hierarchy in the second hierarchical society is stronger than the hierarchy in a no-preference society studied by Bonabeau et al. [Physica A 217 (1995) 373].

  11. Optimality Conditions and Finite Convergence of Lasserre's Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Jiawang

    2012-01-01

    Lasserre's hierarchy is a sequence of semidefinite relaxations for solving polynomial optimization problems globally. This paper studies the relationship between optimality conditions in nonlinear programming theory and finite convergence of Lasserre's hierarchy. Our main results are: i) Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence when the constraint qualification, strict complementarity and second order sufficiency conditions hold at every global minimizer, under the standard archimedean assumption; ii) these optimality conditions are all satisfied at every local minimizer if a finite set of polynomials, which are in the coefficients of input polynomials, do not vanish at the input data (i.e., they hold in a Zariski open set). This implies that Lasserre's hierarchy has finite convergence generically.

  12. The multicomponent KP hierarchy: differential Fay identities and Lax equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Lee Peng

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we show that four sets of differential Fay identities of an N-component KP hierarchy derived from the bilinear relation satisfied by the tau function of the hierarchy are sufficient to derive the auxiliary linear equations for the wavefunctions. From this, we derive the Lax representation for the N-component KP hierarchy, which are equations satisfied by some pseudo-differential operators with matrix coefficients. Besides the Lax equations with respect to the time variables proposed in Date et al (1981 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 3806-12), we also obtain a set of equations relating different charge sectors, which can be considered as a generalization of the modified KP hierarchy proposed in Takebe (2002 Lett. Math. Phys. 59 157-72).

  13. Improving the hierarchy sensitivity of ICAL using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmi, Ali; Dev, Abhish; Nizam, Mohammad; Nayak, Nitish; Sankar, S. Uma

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric neutrino experiments can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy for any value of δCP . The Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory can distinguish between the charged current interactions of νμ and {\\overline ν _π } by determining the charge of the produced muon. Hence it is particularly well suited to determine the hierarchy. The hierarchy signature is more prominent in neutrinos with energy of a few GeV and with pathlength of a few thousand kilometers, i.e. neutrinos whose direction is not close to horizontal. We use adaptive neural networks to identify such events with good efficiency and good purity. The hierarchy sensitivity, calculated from these selected events, is above 3σ level.

  14. Super-Affine Hierarchies and their Poisson Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1998-01-01

    The link between (super)-affine Lie algebras as Poisson brackets structures and integrable hierarchies provides both a classification and a tool for obtaining superintegrable hierarchies. The lack of a fully systematic procedure for constructing matrix-type Lax operators, which makes the supersymmetric case essentially different from the bosonic counterpart, is overcome via the notion of Poisson embeddings (P.E.), i.e. Poisson mappings relating affine structures to conformal structures (in their simplest version P.E. coincide with the Sugawara construction). A full class of hierarchies can be recovered by using uniquely Lie-algebraic notions. The group-algebraic properties implicit in the super-affine picture allow a systematic derivation of reduced hierarchies by imposing either coset conditions or hamiltonian constraints (or possibly both).

  15. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  16. Maslow's Implied Matrix: A Clarification of the Need Hierarchy Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Edward

    1978-01-01

    Maslow's need hierarchy theory is restated by means of a matrix arrangement of the constructs within the theory. After consideration of the consequences of this restatement, some significant research is discussed and directions for future research suggested. (Author)

  17. Integrable Coupling of KN Hierarchy and Its Hamiltonian Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fu-Kui; ZHANG Yu-Feng

    2006-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of the integrable couplings obtained by our method has not been solved. In this paper, the Hamiltonian structure of the KN hierarchy is obtained by making use of the quadratic-form identity.

  18. Quantifier hierarchies over the first-Order definable tree languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云付

    1996-01-01

    Using Boolean operations and concatenation product w.r.t special trees,quantifier hierarchies are given by way of alternate existential and universal quantifiers for the first-order definable tree languages.

  19. A Lecture on the Hierarchy Problem and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, G

    2013-01-01

    In this lecture we shall briefly review some motivations for physics beyond the Standard Model. We focus our attention on the hierarchy problem and discuss the role of gravity in defining and solving this problem.

  20. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and GIS for predictive cu -au porphyry in ... process (Fuzzy AHP) that is the most popular multi-criteria decision-making techniques. ... for predictive Mineral prospectively mapping (MPM) for Cu -Au porphyry.

  1. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  2. Optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo methods

    KAUST Repository

    Von Schwerin, Erik

    2016-01-08

    I will discuss how to choose optimal mesh hierarchies in Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) simulations when computing the expected value of a quantity of interest depending on the solution of, for example, an Ito stochastic differential equation or a partial differential equation with stochastic data. I will consider numerical schemes based on uniform discretization methods with general approximation orders and computational costs. I will compare optimized geometric and non-geometric hierarchies and discuss how enforcing some domain constraints on parameters of MLMC hierarchies affects the optimality of these hierarchies. I will also discuss the optimal tolerance splitting between the bias and the statistical error contributions and its asymptotic behavior. This talk presents joint work with N.Collier, A.-L.Haji-Ali, F. Nobile, and R. Tempone.

  3. On the origins of hierarchy in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Goñi, Joaquín; Solé, Ricard V.; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological, and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that nonadaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace, using in silico evolved networks. PMID:23898177

  4. Hierarchy in complex systems: the possible and the actual

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy seems to pervade complexity in both living and artificial systems. Despite its relevance, no general theory that captures all features of hierarchy and its origins has been proposed yet. Here we present a formal approach resulting from the convergence of theoretical morphology and network theory that allows constructing a 3D morphospace of hierarchies and hence comparing the hierarchical organization of ecological, cellular, technological and social networks. Embedded within large voids in the morphospace of all possible hierarchies, four major groups are identified. Two of them match the expected from random networks with similar connectivity, thus suggesting that non-adaptive factors are at work. Ecological and gene networks define the other two, indicating that their topological order is the result of functional constraints. These results are consistent with an exploration of the morphospace using {\\em in silico} evolved networks.

  5. Trust hierarchy trees applied in team management and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Danilescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling access to data and information within organizations is an important concerntoday and also our aim. This paper is based on the concept of trust, which allows access control andcontrol of actions that can be applied to data and information indocuments held in computer systems.Methods we have used are: defining trust hierarchies applied to team members, data and actions.Results we have obtained are trust policies based on trust hierarchies.

  6. An Improved Semidefinite Programming Hierarchy for Testing Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W.; Natarajan, Anand; Wu, Xiaodi

    2017-06-01

    We present a stronger version of the Doherty-Parrilo-Spedalieri (DPS) hierarchy of approximations for the set of separable states. Unlike DPS, our hierarchy converges exactly at a finite number of rounds for any fixed input dimension. This yields an algorithm for separability testing that is singly exponential in dimension and polylogarithmic in accuracy. Our analysis makes use of tools from algebraic geometry, but our algorithm is elementary and differs from DPS only by one simple additional collection of constraints.

  7. Low-energy supersymmetry breaking and fermion mass hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gherghetta, Tony; Poppitz, E R; Gherghetta, Tony; Jungman, Gerard; Poppitz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    In models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, an anomalous Abelian horizontal gauge symmetry can simultaneously explain the fermion mass hierarchy and the values of the \\mu and B terms. We construct an explicit model where the anomaly is cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism at the string scale. We show that with our charge assignments, the breaking of the horizontal symmetry generates the correct order of magnitude and correct hierarchy for all Yukawa couplings.

  8. Centrally extended W$_{1+\\infty}$ and the KP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Moras, F; Martinez-Moras, Fernando; Mas, Javier

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the centerless \\W_{1+\\infty} algebra provides a hamiltonian structure for the KP hierarchy. In this letter we address the question whether the centerfull version plays a similar r\\^ole in any related integrable system. We find that, surprisingly enough the centrally extended W_{1+\\infty} algebra yields another Poisson structure for the same standard KP hierarchy. This is proven by explicit construction of the infinitely many new hamiltonians in closed form.

  9. Hamiltonian Structures for the Generalized Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelli, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    We study from a Hamiltonian point of view the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy of equations. From the so called dispersionless Lax representation of these equations we obtain three compatible Hamiltonian structures. The second and third Hamiltonian structures are calculated directly from the r-matrix approach. Since the third structure is not related recursively with the first two ones the generalized dispersionless KdV hierarchy can be characterized as a truly tri-Hamiltonian system.

  10. Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...

  11. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-10-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P^4 . We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ɛ and η are smaller than one. The value of ɛ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  12. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana Cabo [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics,and NITheP, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque 103, CP 37150, León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Zavala, Ivonne [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-17

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in ℙ{sup 4}. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton τ and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.66.106006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)119. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential by looking at regions where the multi-field slow-roll parameters ϵ and η are smaller than one. The value of ϵ depends strongly on the approximation of the periods and to achieve a stable value, several orders in the expansion are needed. We do not find realizations of single field axion monodromy inflation. Instead, we find that inflationary regions appear along linear combinations of the four real field directions and for certain configurations of fluxes.

  13. Inequality matters: classroom status hierarchy and adolescents' bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Lee, Ihno A; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-07-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (defined as within-group variation in individual status) and how they are related to bullying, a widespread form of aggression in schools. Data from 11,296 eighth- and ninth-graders (mean age = 14.57, 50.6 % female) from 583 classes in 71 schools were used to determine the direction of the association between classroom degree of status hierarchy and bullying behaviors, and to investigate prospective relationships between these two variables over a 6-month period. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses showed that higher levels of classroom status hierarchy were concurrently associated with higher levels of bullying at the end of the school year. Higher hierarchy in the middle of the school year predicted higher bullying later in the year. No evidence was found to indicate that initial bullying predicted future hierarchy. These findings highlight the importance of a shared balance of power in the classroom for the prevention of bullying among adolescents.

  14. A Bayesian Sampler for Optimization of Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The process of identifying and modeling functionally divergent subgroups for a specific protein domain class and arranging these subgroups hierarchically has, thus far, largely been done via manual curation. How to accomplish this automatically and optimally is an unsolved statistical and algorithmic problem that is addressed here via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Taking as input a (typically very large) multiple-sequence alignment, the sampler creates and optimizes a hierarchy by adding and deleting leaf nodes, by moving nodes and subtrees up and down the hierarchy, by inserting or deleting internal nodes, and by redefining the sequences and conserved patterns associated with each node. All such operations are based on a probability distribution that models the conserved and divergent patterns defining each subgroup. When we view these patterns as sequence determinants of protein function, each node or subtree in such a hierarchy corresponds to a subgroup of sequences with similar biological properties. The sampler can be applied either de novo or to an existing hierarchy. When applied to 60 protein domains from multiple starting points in this way, it converged on similar solutions with nearly identical log-likelihood ratio scores, suggesting that it typically finds the optimal peak in the posterior probability distribution. Similarities and differences between independently generated, nearly optimal hierarchies for a given domain help distinguish robust from statistically uncertain features. Thus, a future application of the sampler is to provide confidence measures for various features of a domain hierarchy. PMID:24494927

  15. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the Guo hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Huan-He; Zhang Ning

    2006-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the multi-component Guo hierarchy, integrable coupling of Guo hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional Guo hierarchy are obtained by the quadraticform identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies.

  16. Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues that to understand international hierarchies, we need to examine not only the type of hierarchy, but also processes of internalization of – and resistance to – hierarchies. We will then discover that many hierarchies are not simply imposed from above, but that subordinate acto...

  17. The Study on the Fault decision and Alarm Hierarchy Construction of NMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.K.; Oh, M.K.; Jang, M.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This report is published as final report of the project {sup T}he Study on the Fault decision and Alarm Hierarchy Construction of NMS(95Y-J21){sup ,} which is collaborated by KEPRI and KERI from 95.5. to 97.5. In this project, we developed RNMS(Regional Network Management System) supervising 90Mbps Optical Terminal Equipment which occupies the great parts of Regional Network. It has the function of fault-detection, information search, statistical analysis and real-time graphical display of the network operation. That will contribute to the better quality of the TN. (author). 45 refs., 56 figs., 38 tabs.

  18. Time Hierarchies and Model Reduction in Canonical Non-linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Kremling, Andreas; Marin-Sanguino, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The time-scale hierarchies of a very general class of models in differential equations is analyzed. Classical methods for model reduction and time-scale analysis have been adapted to this formalism and a complementary method is proposed. A unified theoretical treatment shows how the structure of the system can be much better understood by inspection of two sets of singular values: one related to the stoichiometric structure of the system and another to its kinetics. The methods are exemplified first through a toy model, then a large synthetic network and finally with numeric simulations of three classical benchmark models of real biological systems. PMID:27708665

  19. Social structure in a family group of Guanaco (Lama guanicoe, Ungulate): is female hierarchy based on 'prior attributes' or 'social dynamics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Loreto A; Zapata, Beatriz; Samaniego, Horacio; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    Social life involves costs and benefits mostly associated with how individuals interact with each other. The formation of hierarchies inside social groups has evolved as a common strategy to avoid high costs stemming from social interactions. Hierarchical relationships seem to be associated with different features such as body size, body condition and/or age, which determine dominance ability ('prior attributes' hypothesis). In contrast, the 'social dynamic' hypothesis suggests that an initial social context is a determinant in the formation of the hierarchy, more so than specific individual attributes. Hierarchical rank places individuals in higher positions, which presumably increases resource accessibility to their benefit, including opportunities for reproduction. We evaluate the maintenance of hierarchy in a family group of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the stability of these interactions and their consequences. We estimate the linearity of social hierarchy and their dynamics. We find evidence of the formation of a highly linear hierarchy among females with males positioned at the bottom of the hierarchy. This hierarchy is not affected by physical characteristics or age, suggesting that it is established only through intra-group interactions. Rank is not related with calves' weight gain either; however, subordinated females, with lower rank, exhibit higher rates of allosuckling. We found no evidence of hierarchical structure in calves suggesting that hierarchical relationship in guanacos could be established during the formation of the family group. Hence, our results suggest that hierarchical dynamics could be related more to social dynamics than to prior attributes. We finally discuss the importance of hierarchies established by dominance and their role in minimizing social costs of interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of Hierarchy of Effects Model in Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the hierarchy of effects models in adverti-sing, especially the well-known model, AIDA (Attention, Interest, De-sire, and Action. Since its introduction by Lewis (1900 and generally attributed in the marketing and advertising literature by Strong (1925, the concept of AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model has been used by many researchers, both academicians and practitioners. The model is used to measure the effect of an advertisement. However, the deve-lopment of information technology has radically changed the way of how people communicate and socialize; as well as a paradigm shift from product-oriented marketing to consumer-oriented marketing or people-oriented marketing. Therefore, the variables in the hierarchy of effects model needs to be updated in respond to the latest develop-ments in the notice of public power as consumer audience. Based on deep literature review and reflective method, this paper introduces a new developed concept of hierarchy of effects model that was adop-ted from AIDA’s hierarchy of effects model, namely: AISDALSLove (At-tention, Interest, Search, Desire, Action, Like/dislike, Share, and Love/hate.

  1. Visual Hierarchy and Mind Motion in Advertising Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.

  2. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Organ hierarchy during low blood flow on-pump: a randomized experimental positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Frøkiær, Jørgen;

    ; normothermic CPB with a blood flow of 2.5 L/min/m2 for one hour followed by a randomisation to a blood flow of either 2.0 L/min/m2 (Group I) or 1.5 L/min/m2 (Group II) for another hour and finally one hour with blood flow of 2.5 L/min/m2. Regional tissue perfusion of brain, liver, kidney, and muscle...... indicates existence of an organ hierarchy with persevered perfusion of the brain but affected muscle tissue perfusion in in both Groups of suboptimal blood flow. The finally results will be ready for presentation at DASAIM 2014 in November. Non-parametric statistical method will be used. Discussion To our...... knowledge this is the first study investigating organ hierarchy with dynamic PET-CT during profound systemic ischemia due to suboptimal blood flows during normothermic CPB. References 1. Murphy JM, Hessel II EA, Groom RC. Optimal perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass: an Evidence-based approach. Anesth...

  4. Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Maurer, Vinzenz, E-mail: vinzenz.maurer@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Sluka, Constantin, E-mail: constantin.sluka@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(5)×A{sub 4} flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in (arXiv:1305.6612) – in particular the relation θ{sub 13}{sup PMNS}≃θ{sub C}/√(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.

  5. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K [ORNL

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  6. Inverse neutrino mass hierarchy in a flavour GUT model

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Maurer, Vinzenz; Sluka, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric SU(5) x A_4 flavour GUT model in which an inverse neutrino mass hierarchy is realised without fine-tuning of parameters. The model shares some properties with the normal hierarchy model which we presented in arXiv:1305.6612 - in particular the relation theta_13^PMNS = theta_C / sqrt(2). Besides these shared features, there are also important differences, mainly due to the different neutrino sector. These differences not only change the predictions in the lepton sector, but also in the quark sector, and will allow to discriminate between the two models using the results of present and future experiments. From a Markov Chain Monte Carlo fit we find that the inverse hierarchy model is in excellent agreement with the present experimental data.

  7. Biochemical energetics of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, J; Wittenberger, C

    1988-01-01

    Two different stages of hierarchy formation in Betta splendens were considered. Winners and losers in a short social contact, and dominant and submissive individuals after the establishment of a hierarchy, respectively, were identified. Metabolical determinations (free glucose, glycogen and protein content, glycogen and protein synthesis, glucose and amino acid oxidation, carbohydrate degradation) were performed. Winners and dominant individuals were shown to be able to produce more energy per unit time than losers and submissives, respectively. Differences in energy metabolism between individuals found in different stages of hierarchy formation also occurred: the carbohydrate degradation reached very high values after a short social contact. This is related to the noticed substitution of aggressive encounters with threat displays in the course of cohabitation.

  8. Hierarchy, Violence and Bullying Among Students of Public Middle Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leon Crochík

    Full Text Available Abstract Hierarchies established in schools can lead to violence among students, particularly bullying, and this relationship is investigated in this study. A School Hierarchies Scale and a Peer Perception of Aggression Scale were applied to 274 9th grade students, both sexes, aged 14.08 years (SD = 0.81 old on average, attending four public schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The students more frequently perceived to be popular, were among the best in physical education and/or among the worst in academic subjects were also more frequently perceived to be bullies, while those more frequently perceived to be unpopular and having the worst performance in physical education were also more frequently perceived to be victims. Therefore, teachers should reflect upon the issue and fight school violence that may arise from these hierarchies.

  9. Hierarchy in directed random networks: analytical and numerical results

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the theory and application of complex networks has been quickly developing in a markable way due to the increasing amount of data from real systems and to the fruitful application of powerful methods used in statistical physics. Many important characteristics of social or biological systems can be described by the study of their underlying structure of interactions. Hierarchy is one of these features that can be formulated in the language of networks. In this paper we present the analytic results on the hierarchical properties of random network models with zero correlations and also investigate the effects of different type of correlations. The behavior of hierarchy is different in the absence and the presence of the giant components. We show that the hierarchical structure can be drastically different if there are one-point correlations in the network. We also show numerical results suggesting that hierarchy does not change monotonously with the correlations and there is an optimal level of ...

  10. Learning Concept Hierarchies from Text Corpora using Formal Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cimiano, P; Staab, S; 10.1613/jair.1648

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automatic acquisition of taxonomies or concept hierarchies from a text corpus. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. We follow Harris distributional hypothesis and model the context of a certain term as a vector representing syntactic dependencies which are automatically acquired from the text corpus with a linguistic parser. On the basis of this context information, FCA produces a lattice that we convert into a special kind of partial order constituting a concept hierarchy. The approach is evaluated by comparing the resulting concept hierarchies with hand-crafted taxonomies for two domains: tourism and finance. We also directly compare our approach with hierarchical agglomerative clustering as well as with Bi-Section-KMeans as an instance of a divisive clustering algorithm. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of using different measures wei...

  11. Equal-Time Hierarchies for Quantum Transport Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, P; Zhuang, Pengfei; Heinz, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    We investigate in the equal-time formalism the derivation and truncation of infinite hierarchies of equations of motion for the energy moments of the covariant Wigner function. From these hierarchies we then extract kinetic equations for the physical distribution functions which are related to low-order energy moments, and show how to determine the higher order moments in terms of these lowest order ones. We apply the general formalism to scalar and spinor QED with classical background fields and compare with the results derived from the three-dimensional Wigner transformation method.

  12. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free......The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant...

  13. Critical Analysis of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need

    OpenAIRE

    King-Hill, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to provide a critique of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need, a psychological model that often goes unquestioned within the education sector. Examples will be given of the authors own professional practice and experience in relation to the Hierarchy of Need (HON) and discussed in terms of the critique. The paper concludes that whilst some elements of the HON may be useful in education it does have some serious flaws that also need to be considered when applying this to practice. Thi...

  14. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.......e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  15. Probing the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy with Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We show that a superbeam with an average neutrino energy of ~ 5 GeV, such as those being proposed at CERN, if pointing to Super-Kamiokande (L \\simeq 8770 km), could reveal the neutrino mass hierarchy at 5 sigma in less than two years irrespective of the true hierarchy and CP phase. The measurement relies on the near resonant matter effect in the numu \\rightarrow nue oscillation channel, and can be done counting the total number of appearance events with just a neutrino beam.

  16. Extended (Super-) KP-hierarchies and generalised String equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroufi, B; Sedra, M B

    2000-01-01

    We propose a consistently algebraic formulation of the extended KP (supersymmetric) integrable -hierarchy systems. We exploit the results already established in [14] and which consist in a framework suspected to unify in a fascinating way all the possible supersymmetric KP-hierarchies and then their underlying supergravity theories . This construction leads among other to built explicit non standard integrable Lax evolution equations suspected to reduce to the well known KP integrable equation. We present also a contribution of our construction to the subject of string equation and solitons. Other algebraic properties are also presented

  17. PHC: A Fast Partition and Hierarchy-Based Clustering Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU HaoFeng(周皓峰); YUAN QingQing(袁晴晴); CHENG ZunPing(程尊平); SHI BaiLe(施伯乐)

    2003-01-01

    Cluster analysis is a process to classify data in a specified data set. In this field,much attention is paid to high-efficiency clustering algorithms. In this paper, the features in thecurrent partition-based and hierarchy-based algorithms are reviewed, and a new hierarchy-basedalgorithm PHC is proposed by combining advantages of both algorithms, which uses the cohesionand the closeness to amalgamate the clusters. Compared with similar algorithms, the performanceof PHC is improved, and the quality of clustering is guaranteed. And both the features were provedby the theoretic and experimental analyses in the paper.

  18. Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we claim that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.

  19. Open intersection numbers, matrix models and MKP hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, A. [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies (FRIAS), University of Freiburg,Albertstrasse 19, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Mathematics Institute, University of Freiburg,Eckerstrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); ITEP,Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-09

    In this paper we conjecture that the generating function of the intersection numbers on the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces with boundary, constructed recently by R. Pandharipande, J. Solomon and R. Tessler and extended by A. Buryak, is a tau-function of the KP integrable hierarchy. Moreover, it is given by a simple modification of the Kontsevich matrix integral so that the generating functions of open and closed intersection numbers are described by the MKP integrable hierarchy. Virasoro constraints for the open intersection numbers naturally follow from the matrix integral representation.

  20. Headwater biodiversity among different levels of stream habitat hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göthe, Emma; Friberg, Nikolai; Kahlert, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of a- and b-diversity to y-diversity between two levels of stream habitat hierarchy (catchment and region level). The relationship between species community structure and local environmental factors was also assessed. Our results show that both a- and b-diversity made a significant contribution to y......-diversity. b-diversity remained relatively constant between the two levels of habitat hierarchy even though local environmental control of the biota decreased from the catchment to the region level. To capture most of headwater y-diversity, management should therefore target sites that are locally diverse...

  1. Research on the Government Hierarchy Mismatch and Government Efficiency%政府层级错配与政府效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才国伟; 张学志

    2012-01-01

    results. The gov- ernment hierarchy mismatch is defined as the inconsistence between the reasonable hierarchy according to the country's actual conditions and the actual hierarchy. The concrete method is as follows. Firstly, the fitting probability equation of government hierarchy is created by the empirical regression. Then, the actual value of the determi- nants is substituted into the fitting equation to calculate the theoretical probabilities of various government hierarchies. The number to get the maximum probability is regarded as the reasonable hierarchy. Finally, we compare the actual hierarchy and the reasonable hierarchy. If they are equal, we say that there is not government hierarchy mismatch. If they are not equal, there is. Afterwards, the influence of hierarchy mismatch to government efficiency is inspected controlling the influence of economic development level, language and legal system, etc. Finally, we expound the necessary condition to reduce , urbanization level, education level the government hierarchy in China. We find that the government hierarchy is positively correlated with territory area, population density, and neg- atively correlated with the amount of primary administrative division. The government hierarchy of island country is less than that in other countries. However, the influence of other variables is not significant. The government hierarchy mismatch can really decrease the government efficiency, especially the administrative efficiency and regulatory quality. Also, the government efficiency is positively correlated with economic development level, and the government efficiency of English-speaking countries is higher than that of other countries. If China wants to carry out the reform of "county directly administrated by province" to decrease the government hierarchy, four provincial divisions should be increased at least. The relationships of government hierarchy, primary administrative division and government efficiency are

  2. Singular sector of the Burgers-Hopf hierarchy and deformations of hyperelliptic curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yuji [Department of Mathematics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)]. E-mail: kodama@math.ohio-state.edu; Konopelchenko, Boris G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Lecce and Sezione INFN, Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: konopel@le.infn.it

    2002-08-09

    We discuss the structure of shock singularities of the Burgers-Hopf hierarchy. It is shown that the set of singular solutions defines a stratification of the affine space of the flow parameters in the hierarchy. The stratification is associated with the Birkhoff decomposition of the Grassmannian given by the set of linear spaces spanned by the hierarchy. We then construct integrable hierarchy on each stratum and demonstrate that it describes a deformation of a hyperelliptic curve parametrizing the stratum. The hierarchy is called the hidden Burgers-Hopf hierarchy, and we found the Riemann invariant form and the hodograph solution. (author)

  3. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong

    2013-11-01

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  4. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Yue; ZHAO Qiu-Lan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rationed type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  5. Integrable lattice hierarchies associated with two new (2+1)-dimensional discrete spectral problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Dpto. de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong, E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-10-19

    In this Letter, by considering two new (2+1)-dimensional discrete linear spectral problems, new (2+1)-dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies are constructed. It is shown that the two new (2+1)-dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies are extensions (to nonisospectral and (2+1)-dimensional cases) of a (1+1)-dimensional 3-field lattice hierarchy of Zhang et al. and a (1+1)-dimensional 2-field lattice hierarchy due to Merola, Ragnisco and Tu. We also obtain new (1+1)-dimensional nonisospectral lattice hierarchies which include a nonisospectral relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy.

  6. Block algebra in two-component BKP and D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanzhong, E-mail: lichuanzhong@nbu.edu.cn; He, Jingsong, E-mail: hejingsong@nbu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2013-11-15

    We construct generalized additional symmetries of a two-component BKP hierarchy defined by two pseudo-differential Lax operators. These additional symmetry flows form a Block type algebra with some modified (or additional) terms because of a B type reduction condition of this integrable hierarchy. Further we show that the D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, which is a reduction of the two-component BKP hierarchy, possess a complete Block type additional symmetry algebra. That D type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy has a similar algebraic structure as the bigraded Toda hierarchy which is a differential-discrete integrable system.

  7. Using the analytical hierarchy process to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Law of Comparative Judgement (LCJ) are pairwise comparison methods. A large number of observers need to perform an LCJ evaluation in order to get accurate results. LCJ also does not provide an absolute...

  8. Effects of Hierarchy Vocabulary Exercises on English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Ying; Hsu, Wei Shu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of hierarchy vocabulary exercises and copying vocabulary exercises on EFL students' vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension. Two specific factors were probed: (a) vocabulary gains and retention from different exercises; (b) reading comprehension performance through different…

  9. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  10. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter ? Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the hierarchy problem. SUSY enlarges the space-time symmetry of physical laws, by connecting the realms of particles and fields. It predicts a variety of new species of particles at the energy scale around 1 TeV - waiting to be discovered at the LHC.

  11. Periodic Hamiltonian hierarchies and non-uniqueness of superpotentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARTHA MANDAL; ABHIJIT BANERJEE

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a family of periodic quantum Hamiltonians, that is subject to a closure condition is considered. In the context of the factorization method, we address the question of non-uniqueness of the governing superpotentials and study an alternative factorization to generate new hierarchies of potentials.

  12. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    .e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  13. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata; Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    .e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes...

  14. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study). Similar to Study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688

  15. Working with ESL Writers: Turning Up and Down the Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a hierarchy of concerns tutors can use in working with ESL writers. Suggests that the student's understanding of the assignment, development of a thesis, logical organization, and fully developed ideas all supplant minor issues, such as improper use of the definite article or subject/verb agreement. (NB)

  16. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate target signatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za two……..“ • Scientific method Field Evaluation of Camouflage Uniforms Current techniques: • Cumulative Probability of Detection (Sweden, WTD52) • Sliding Scales (USA) • Law of Comparative Judgment (Thurstone) • Analytic Hierarchy...

  17. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in

  18. Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). ITFA; Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group

    2016-01-15

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET{sub +}, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET{sub +} additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N-jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the most general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.

  19. Optimization of cortical hierarchies with continuous scales and ranges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Krumnack, A.; Wanke, E.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although information flow in the neocortex has an apparent hierarchical organization, there is much ambiguity with respect to the definition of such a hierarchy, particularly in higher cortical regions. This ambiguity has been addressed by utilizing observable anatomical criteria, based upon tract

  20. Dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Min, Luo; Ma, Jingxi

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the model of dynamic fuzzy hierarchy analysis for evaluation of professionalization degree, as a combination of the dynamic fuzzy theory and the AHP, which can show the changes and trends of the value of each index of professionalization.

  1. Extending the applicability of the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has often been used to support decisions that only have to be made once. in this study, we explore whether the AHP can be applied to repetitive decision-making. We suggest a variant of the process to elicit implicit decision models that evaluate alternatives not

  2. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, J.W.; Orlov, A. Yu.; Shiota, T.

    2012-01-01

    We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981), 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]). We present approp

  3. Evaluating Modeling Sessions Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssebuggwawo, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, S.J.B.A.; Proper, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, which is methodological in nature, we propose to use an established method from the field of Operations Research, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), in the integrated, stakeholder- oriented evaluation of enterprise modeling sessions: their language, pro- cess, tool (medium), and pr

  4. Supersymmetry : the ultimate hierarchy of matter? Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "Supersymmetry", SUSY for short, promises a solution to the 'hierarchy' problem: the mystery of the enormous ratio between the electroweak scale (at 100-300 GeV), defined by the masses of the W and Z particles, and possibly the Higgs particle, and the Planck scale (10 19 GeV), when gravitational effects become comparable to the other forces.

  5. Factorization and resummation for generic hierarchies between Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-08-01

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET+, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET+ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlations. We discuss how to systematically combine the different kinematic regimes to obtain a complete description of the jet phase space. To present its application in a simple context, we use the case of e + e - → 3 jets. We then discuss in detail the application to N -jet processes at hadron colliders, considering representative classes of hierarchies from which the general case can be built. This includes in particular multiple hierarchies that are either strongly ordered in angle or energy or not.

  6. Theories of Gender Hierarchy for an Introductory Women's Studies Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbra, Nancy W.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of gender hierarchy are central in an introductory women's studies class. The author wishes to give students an overview of some of the classical feminist theories and also some of the newest thinking. Also, through showing them multiple feminist perspectives, she would like them to learn that there is no single hegemonic feminist view. Her…

  7. Restructuring Large Data Hierarchies for Scientific Query Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M

    2005-02-08

    Today's large-scale scientific simulations produce data sets tens to hundreds of terabytes in size. The DataFoundry project is developing querying and analysis tools for these data sets. The Approximate Ad-Hoc Query Engine for Simulation Data (AQSIM) uses a multi-resolution, tree-shaped data structure that allows users to place runtime limits on queries over scientific simulation data. In this AQSIM data hierarchy, each node in the tree contains an abstract model describing all of the information contained in the subtree below that node. AQSIM is able to create the data hierarchy in a single pass. However, the nodes in the hierarchy frequently have low node fanout, which leads to inefficient I/O behavior during query processing. Low node fanout is a common problem in tree-shaped indices. This paper presents a set of one-pass tree ''pruning'' algorithms that efficiently restructure the data hierarchy by removing inner nodes, thereby increasing node fanout. As our experimental results show, the best approach is a combination of two algorithms, one that focuses on increasing node fanout and one that attempts to reduce the maximum tree height.

  8. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  9. Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…

  10. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur

  11. Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-10-05

    In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.

  12. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  13. Maslow's Need Hierarchy and the Adjustment of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the need hierarchy theory of Abraham Maslow is used to describe stages in the adjustment process of new immigrants. This notion is developed and applied to interpreting some longitudinal data on the changing needs of immigrants to Israel during the first two years after their arrival. (Author/GC)

  14. A Program Based on Maslow's Hierarchy Helps Students in Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Mary Ruth; Saunders, Ron; Watkins, J. Foster

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the development of an "alternative school" in an urban school system for students having trouble in the regular secondary setting. The program was based upon "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs" and is described in detail. The initial assessment of the program produced very positive results.

  15. Student Affairs as Perceived Through Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Steven

    The needs of human behavior are explored and correlated to the various departments within Student Affairs in an effort to show how Student Affairs can satisfy those needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs is briefly explained and related to the following Student Affairs departments: Financial Aid, Student Management, Career Development and Placement,…

  16. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidire

  17. A Bayesian Generative Model for Learning Semantic Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni eMittelman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy [18], which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet [11] dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.

  18. A Bayesian generative model for learning semantic hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Roni; Sun, Min; Kuipers, Benjamin; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Building fine-grained visual recognition systems that are capable of recognizing tens of thousands of categories, has received much attention in recent years. The well known semantic hierarchical structure of categories and concepts, has been shown to provide a key prior which allows for optimal predictions. The hierarchical organization of various domains and concepts has been subject to extensive research, and led to the development of the WordNet domains hierarchy (Fellbaum, 1998), which was also used to organize the images in the ImageNet (Deng et al., 2009) dataset, in which the category count approaches the human capacity. Still, for the human visual system, the form of the hierarchy must be discovered with minimal use of supervision or innate knowledge. In this work, we propose a new Bayesian generative model for learning such domain hierarchies, based on semantic input. Our model is motivated by the super-subordinate organization of domain labels and concepts that characterizes WordNet, and accounts for several important challenges: maintaining context information when progressing deeper into the hierarchy, learning a coherent semantic concept for each node, and modeling uncertainty in the perception process.

  19. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc

  20. Shifting and Narrowing Masculinity Hierarchies in Physical Education: Status Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine boys' perceptions of masculinity hierarchies in adventure physical education in relation to past experiences in sport-based physical education and their evolving views about physical activity in their lives. Theoretical principles of masculinity guided this study. Data were collected with 55 male high…

  1. The $N=2$ supersymmetric unconstrained matrix GNLS hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorin, A.S.; Kersten, P.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The generalization of the $N=2$ supersymmetric chiral matrix $(k|n,m)$--GNLS hierarchy to the case when matrix entries are bosonic and fermionic unconstrained $N=2$ superfields is proposed. This is done by exhibiting the corresponding matrix Lax--pair representation in terms of $N=2$ unconstrained s

  2. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  3. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  4. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  5. A type of multi-component integrable hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu-Feng; Zhang Yu-Sen

    2004-01-01

    A new isospectral problem is established by constructing a simple interesting loop algebra. A commutation operation of the loop algebra is as straightforward as the loop algebra (A)1. It follows that a type of multi-component integrable hierarchy is obtained. This can be used as a general method.

  6. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  7. Modeling rises and falls in money addicted social hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    ambition by modeling the interplay of social networking and an uneven distribution of external resources. The model naturally generates social hierarchies. Remarkably, this social structure exhibits a rise-and-fall behavior. A well pronounced quasi-periodic dynamics, which is closely associated...

  8. Optimization of cortical hierarchies with continuous scales and ranges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, A.T.; Krumnack, A.; Wanke, E.; Kotter, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although information flow in the neocortex has an apparent hierarchical organization, there is much ambiguity with respect to the definition of such a hierarchy, particularly in higher cortical regions. This ambiguity has been addressed by utilizing observable anatomical criteria, based upon tract t

  9. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  10. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penilaian Proposal Kegiatan PNPM MPd Menggunakan Metode Profile Matching dan Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mufid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of PNPM-MPd’s proposal not run quickly and objectively. The purpose of this research is to create software to help the verification team in conducting an objective assessment of the proposals using the profile matching method and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Profile matching method is used to provide an assessment, determination of the gap, and the weighting criteria. While the AHP method is used to calculate the pairwise comparison matrices, eigenvalues​​, priorities, maximum eigenvalues​​, consistency index (CI and consistency ratio (CR. CR values ​​are used to determine the order in which proposals will be funded by BLM. The final result of this research is decision support system software for assessment of PNPM-MPd’s proposal that can determine the rank of the highest value to lowest. Keywords : Assessment; Profile matching; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP

  11. Emerging hierarchies in dynamically adapting webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Graewer, Johannes; Magnasco, Marcelo; Modes, Carl

    Transport networks play a key role across four realms of eukaryotic life: slime molds, fungi, plants, and animals. In addition to the developmental algorithms that build them, many also employ adaptive strategies to respond to stimuli, damage, and other environmental changes. We model these adapting network architectures using a generic dynamical system on weighted graphs and find in simulation that these networks ultimately develop a hierarchical organization of the final weighted architecture accompanied by the formation of a system-spanning backbone. We quantify the hierarchical organization of the networks by developing an algorithm that decomposes the architecture to multiple scales and analyzes how the organization in each scale relates to that of the scale above and below it. The methodologies developed in this work are applicable to a wide range of systems including the slime mold physarum polycephalum, human microvasculature, and force chains in granular media.

  12. Hierarchy through composition with multitask LMDPs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saxe, AM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available (akin to value iteration),98 zi QiPizi +QiPbzb. (5) F nally, the optimal policy may be computed in closed form as99 a⇤(s0|s) = P (s 0|s)Z(s0) G[Z]( ) , (6) where the normalizing constant G[Z](s) =Ps0 P (s0|s)Z(s0). Detailed derivations of these results... flow fr m the linearity of the Bellman equation, whic we exploit in the following.96 So ving for zi may be done explicitly a zi = (I � QiPi)�1QiPbzb or via the z-iteration method7 (ak n to value iteration),98 zi QiPizi +QiPbzb. (5) Finally, the optimal...

  13. A Hierarchy of New Nonlinear Evolution Equations Associated with a 3 × 3 Matrix Spectral Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Xian-Guo; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    A 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem with three potentials and the corresponding hierarchy of new nonlinear evolution equations are proposed. Generalized Hamiltonian structures for the hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are derived with the aid of trace identity.

  14. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  15. Classical Affine W-Algebras for gl_N and Associated Integrable Hamiltonian Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sole, Alberto; Kac, Victor G.; Valeri, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    We apply the new method for constructing integrable Hamiltonian hierarchies of Lax type equations developed in our previous paper to show that all W-algebras W({gl}N, f)} carry such a hierarchy. As an application, we show that all vector constrained KP hierarchies and their matrix generalizations are obtained from these hierarchies by Dirac reduction, which provides the former with a bi-Poisson structure.

  16. An integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Fajun [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)], E-mail: yfajun@163.com; Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-04-13

    In [E.G. Fan, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 6368], Fan present a lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits. In this Letter, we extend this method, by introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, a coupling lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new sequence of combinations of complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable coupling couplings of soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of AKNS hierarchy as a continuous limit.

  17. Continuous limits for an integrable coupling system of Toda equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2009-09-21

    In this Letter, we present an integrable coupling system of lattice hierarchy and its continuous limits by using of Lie algebra sl(4). By introducing a complex discrete spectral problem, the integrable coupling system of Toda lattice hierarchy is derived. It is shown that a new complex lattice spectral problem converges to the integrable couplings of discrete soliton equation hierarchy, which has the integrable coupling system of C-KdV hierarchy as a new kind of continuous limit.

  18. Spontaneous R-parity breaking, stop LSP decays and the neutrino mass hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Zachary, E-mail: zlmarshall@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94704 (United States); Ovrut, Burt A., E-mail: ovrut@elcapitan.hep.upenn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Purves, Austin, E-mail: apurves@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Spinner, Sogee, E-mail: sogee@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The MSSM with right-handed neutrino supermultiplets, gauged B−L symmetry and a non-vanishing sneutrino expectation value is the minimal theory that spontaneously breaks R-parity and is consistent with the bounds on proton stability and lepton number violation. This minimal B−L MSSM can have a colored/charged LSP, of which a stop LSP is the most amenable to observation at the LHC. We study the R-parity violating decays of a stop LSP into a bottom quark and charged leptons – the dominant modes for a generic “admixture” stop. A numerical analysis of the relative branching ratios of these decay channels is given using a wide scan over the parameter space. The fact that R-parity is violated in this theory by a vacuum expectation value of a sneutrino links these branching ratios directly to the neutrino mass hierarchy. It is shown how a discovery of bottom-charged lepton events at the LHC can potentially determine whether the neutrino masses are in a normal or inverted hierarchy, as well as determining the θ{sub 23} neutrino mixing angle. Finally, present LHC bounds on these leptoquark signatures are used to put lower bounds on the stop mass.

  19. Visualization and cellular hierarchy inference of single-cell data using SPADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchang, Benedict; Hart, Tom D P; Bendall, Sean C; Qiu, Peng; Bjornson, Zach; Linderman, Michael; Nolan, Garry P; Plevritis, Sylvia K

    2016-07-01

    High-throughput single-cell technologies provide an unprecedented view into cellular heterogeneity, yet they pose new challenges in data analysis and interpretation. In this protocol, we describe the use of Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events (SPADE), a density-based algorithm for visualizing single-cell data and enabling cellular hierarchy inference among subpopulations of similar cells. It was initially developed for flow and mass cytometry single-cell data. We describe SPADE's implementation and application using an open-source R package that runs on Mac OS X, Linux and Windows systems. A typical SPADE analysis on a 2.27-GHz processor laptop takes ∼5 min. We demonstrate the applicability of SPADE to single-cell RNA-seq data. We compare SPADE with recently developed single-cell visualization approaches based on the t-distribution stochastic neighborhood embedding (t-SNE) algorithm. We contrast the implementation and outputs of these methods for normal and malignant hematopoietic cells analyzed by mass cytometry and provide recommendations for appropriate use. Finally, we provide an integrative strategy that combines the strengths of t-SNE and SPADE to infer cellular hierarchy from high-dimensional single-cell data.

  20. Consumer’s trust in Internet shopping: a modelling proposal based on the standard learning hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO PÉREZ RONCHEL

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is placed on the framework of studies focused on analyzing the consumers’ buying behaviour on the Internet. We have based on adapting the hierarchy-of-effects model (standard learning hierarchy, in order to theoretically propose a conceptual model explaining how consumers’ beliefs —i.e. design, interaction speed, social benefits, and privacy— and attitudes toward the Internet as a communication medium can be plausible determinants of trusting in Internet shopping. Furthermore, our model poses that consumers’ overall opinions regarding with in-home shopping might also exert an influence on their evaluations about the Internet as a communication medium and, specially, as a shopping medium. The proposed conceptual model is supported by a deep and specific literature review. The relationships contained in the model have been estimated by means of structural equation modelling. Results confirm that this approach based on the cognitive information processing is valid to model consumers’ shopping behaviour on the Internet.Finally, several academic reflections, as well as a set of managerial implications based on the questions analyzed, are put forward..

  1. Hierarchy concepts: classification and preparation strategies for zeolite containing materials with hierarchical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Wilhelm; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Weissenberger, Tobias; Inayat, Amer; Selvam, Thangaraj; Klumpp, Michael; Inayat, Alexandra

    2016-06-13

    'Hierarchy' is a property which can be attributed to a manifold of different immaterial systems, such as ideas, items and organisations or material ones like biological systems within living organisms or artificial, man-made constructions. The property 'hierarchy' is mainly characterised by a certain ordering of individual elements relative to each other, often in combination with a certain degree of branching. Especially mass-flow related systems in the natural environment feature special hierarchically branched patterns. This review is a survey into the world of hierarchical systems with special focus on hierarchically porous zeolite materials. A classification of hierarchical porosity is proposed based on the flow distribution pattern within the respective pore systems. In addition, this review might serve as a toolbox providing several synthetic and post-synthetic strategies to prepare zeolitic or zeolite containing material with tailored hierarchical porosity. Very often, such strategies with their underlying principles were developed for improving the performance of the final materials in different technical applications like adsorptive or catalytic processes. In the present review, besides on the hierarchically porous all-zeolite material, special focus is laid on the preparation of zeolitic composite materials with hierarchical porosity capable to face the demands of industrial application.

  2. A hierarchical algorithm for cyberspace situational awareness based on analytic hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The existing network security management systems are unable either to provide users with useful security situation and risk assessment, or to aid administrators to make right and timely decisions based on the current state of network. These disadvantages always put the whole network security management at high risk. This paper establishes a simulation environment, captures the alerts as the experimental data and adopts statistical analysis to seek the vulnerabilities of the services provided by the hosts in the network. According to the factors of the network, the paper introduces the two concepts: Situational Meta and Situational Weight to depict the total security situation. A novel hierarchical algorithm based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed to analyze the hierarchy of network and confirm the weighting coefficients. The algorithm can be utilized for modeling security situation, and determining its mathematical expression. Coupled with the statistical results, this paper simulates the security situational trends.Finally, the analysis of the simulation results proves the algorithm efficient and applicable, and provides us with an academic foundation for the implementation in the security situation.

  3. The KdV hierarchy in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Horsley, S A R

    2016-01-01

    There is a well explored relationship between quantum mechanical scattering from a potential and the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation of fluid dynamics: if the potential is 'evolved' according to the KdV equation then it will have the same reflectivity and transmissivity as a function of energy, for each snapshot in time. In this work we explore this connection in optics, where the permittivity plays the role of the potential. We begin by deriving the relationship between the Helmholtz equation and the KdV equation in terms of the current induced in a material when a permittivity profile is changed slightly. It is then shown that the KdV equation can be used to design a plethora of bounded complex potentials that are relfectionless from both sides for all angles of incidence, and planar periodic media that exhibit a real Bloch vector for all angles of propagation. Finally we apply the KdV equation to reduce the reflection of a wave from an interface between two media of differing refractive indices.

  4. The KdV hierarchy in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, S. A. R.

    2016-08-01

    There is a well explored relationship between quantum mechanical scattering from a potential and the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation of fluid dynamics: if the potential is ‘evolved’ according to the KdV equation then it will have the same reflectivity and transmissivity as a function of energy, for each snapshot in time. In this work we explore this connection in optics, where the permittivity plays the role of the potential. We begin by deriving the relationship between the Helmholtz equation and the KdV equation in terms of the current induced in a material when a permittivity profile is changed slightly. It is then shown that the KdV equation can be used to design a plethora of bounded complex potentials that are relfectionless from both sides for all angles of incidence, and planar periodic media that exhibit a real Bloch vector for all angles of propagation. Finally we apply the KdV equation to reduce the reflection of a wave from an interface between two media of differing refractive indices.

  5. A Hidden Connection between Lax Descriptions and Superextensions of KdV Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-Jui

    1996-01-01

    A previously unnoticed connection between the Lax descriptions and the superextensions of the KdV hierarchy is presented. It is shown that the two different Lax descriptions of the KdV hierarchy come out naturally from two different bihamiltonian superextensions of the KdV hierarchy. Some implications of this observation are briefly mentioned.

  6. Block (or Hamiltonian) Lie Symmetry of Dispersionless D-Type Drinfeld-Sokolov Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Zhong; He, Jing-Song; Su, Yu-Cai

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the dispersionless D-type Drinfeld-Sokolov hierarchy, i.e. a reduction of the dispersionless two-component BKP hierarchy, is studied. The additional symmetry flows of this hierarchy are presented. These flows form an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of Block type as well as a Lie algebra of Hamiltonian type.

  7. Conservation laws and self-consistent sources for a super-CKdV equation hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-03-14

    From the super-matrix Lie algebras, we consider a super-extension of the CKdV equation hierarchy in the present Letter, and propose the super-CKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super-CKdV hierarchy.

  8. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  9. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  10. Hierarchies of Models: Toward Understanding Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Hajian, Arsen R.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Stars like our sun (initial masses between 0.8 to 8 solar masses) end their lives as swollen red giants surrounded by cool extended atmospheres. The nuclear reactions in their cores create carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which are transported by convection to the outer envelope of the stellar atmosphere. As the star finally collapses to become a white dwarf, this envelope is expelled from the star to form a planetary nebula (PN) rich in organic molecules. The physics, dynamics, and chemistry of these nebulae are poorly understood and have implications not only for our understanding of the stellar life cycle but also for organic astrochemistry and the creation of prebiotic molecules in interstellar space. We are working toward generating three-dimensional models of planetary nebulae (PNe), which include the size, orientation, shape, expansion rate and mass distribution of the nebula. Such a reconstruction of a PN is a challenging problem for several reasons. First, the data consist of images obtained over time from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and spectra obtained from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). These images are of course taken from a single viewpoint in space, which amounts to a very challenging tomographic reconstruction. Second, the fact that we have two disparate and orthogonal data types requires that we utilize a method that allows these data to be used together to obtain a solution. To address these first two challenges we employ Bayesian model estimation using a parameterized physical model that incorporates much prior information about the known physics of the PN. In our previous works we have found that the forward problem of the comprehensive model is extremely time consuming. To address this challenge, we explore the use of a set of hierarchical models, which allow us to estimate increasingly more detailed sets of model parameters. These hierarchical models of increasing complexity are akin

  11. Growth of fat slits and dispersionless KP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Zabrodin, A

    2008-01-01

    A "fat slit" is a compact domain in the upper half plane bounded by a curve with endpoints on the real axis and a segment of the real axis between them. We consider conformal maps of the upper half plane to the exterior of a fat slit parameterized by harmonic moments of the latter and show that they obey an infinite set of Lax equations for the dispersionless KP hierarchy. Deformation of a fat slit under changing a particular harmonic moment can be treated as a growth process similar to the Laplacian growth of domains in the whole plane. This construction extends the well known link between solutions to the dispersionless KP hierarchy and conformal maps of slit domains in the upper half plane and provides a new, large family of solutions.

  12. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  13. Optimizing an immersion ESL curriculum using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian

    2011-11-01

    The main purpose of this study is to fill a substantial knowledge gap regarding reaching a uniform group decision in English curriculum design and planning. A comprehensive content-based course criterion model extracted from existing literature and expert opinions was developed. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to identify the relative importance of course criteria for the purpose of tailoring an optimal one-week immersion English as a second language (ESL) curriculum for elementary school students in a suburban county of Taiwan. The hierarchy model and AHP analysis utilized in the present study will be useful for resolving several important multi-criteria decision-making issues in planning and evaluating ESL programs. This study also offers valuable insights and provides a basis for further research in customizing ESL curriculum models for different student populations with distinct learning needs, goals, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grabinski, André M

    2012-01-01

    We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions, the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang-Baxter algebra an infinite hierarchy of comuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a TQ-equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed.

  15. Investigating a Hierarchy of Students’ Interpretations of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Aoyama

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to analyse qualitative information from quantitative information, and/or to create new information from qualitative and quantitative information is the key task of statistical literacy in the 21st century. Although several studies have focussed on critical evaluation of statistical information, this aspect of research has not been clearly conceptualised as yet. This paper presents a hierarchy of the graphical interpretation component of statistical literacy. 175 participants from different educational levels (junior high school to graduate students responded to a questionnaire and some of them were also interviewed. The SOLO Taxonomy was used for coding the students’ responses and the Rasch model was used to clarify the construction of the hierarchy. Five different levels of interpretations of graphs were identified: Idiosyncratic, Basic graph reading, Rational/Literal, Critical, and Hypothesising and Modelling. These results will provide guidelines for teaching statistical literacy.

  16. Weight hierarchies of linear codes satisfying the almost chain condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The weight hierarchy of a linear [n, k; q] code C over GF(q) is the sequence (d1, d2,…,dk) where dr is the size of the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. An [n, k; q] codehas dimension r and support of size dr for all r. Further, C satisfies the almost chain condition ifit does not satisfy the chain condition, but there exist subcodes Dr of dimension r and support offor a sequence to be the weight hierarchy of a code satisfying the almost chain condition is given.Further, explicit constructions of such codes are given, showing that in almost all cases, the necessaryconditions are also sufficient.

  17. Factorization and Resummation for Generic Hierarchies between Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2016-01-01

    Jets are an important probe to identify the hard interaction of interest at the LHC. They are routinely used in Standard Model precision measurements as well as in searches for new heavy particles, including jet substructure methods. In processes with several jets, one typically encounters hierarchies in the jet transverse momenta and/or dijet invariant masses. Large logarithms of the ratios of these kinematic jet scales in the cross section are at present primarily described by parton showers. We present a general factorization framework called SCET$_+$, which is an extension of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) and allows for a systematic higher-order resummation of such kinematic logarithms for generic jet hierarchies. In SCET$_+$ additional intermediate soft/collinear modes are used to resolve jets arising from additional soft and/or collinear QCD emissions. The resulting factorized cross sections utilize collinear splitting amplitudes and soft gluon currents and fully capture spin and color correlat...

  18. Signatures of the neutrino mass hierarchy in supernova neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, S H; Lai, Kwang-Chang

    2013-01-01

    The undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy may leave observable imprint on the neutrino fluxes from the core-collpse supernova (SN). The interpretation of the observables, however, is subject to the uncertain SN models and the flavor conversion mechanism of neutrinos in a SN. We attempt to propose a qualitative and model-independent interpretation of the expected neutrino events at terrestrial detectors, focusing on the accretion phase of the neutrino burst. The flavor conversions due to the neutrino self-interaction, the MSW effect, and the Earth regeneration effect are incorporated in the calculation. It leads to several distinct scenarios that are identified by the neutrino mass hierarchies and the collective flavor transitions. Consequences resulting from the variation of incident angles and SN models are also discussed.

  19. Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Boeckx

    Full Text Available This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i the (biological problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric' variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

  20. Entangled parametric hierarchies: problems for an overspecified universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, Cedric; Leivada, Evelina

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the feasibility of the classical notion of parameter in linguistic theory from the perspective of parametric hierarchies. A novel program-based analysis is implemented in order to show certain empirical problems related to these hierarchies. The program was developed on the basis of an enriched data base spanning 23 contemporary and 5 ancient languages. The empirical issues uncovered cast doubt on classical parametric models of language acquisition as well as on the conceptualization of an overspecified Universal Grammar that has parameters among its primitives. Pinpointing these issues leads to the proposal that (i) the (bio)logical problem of language acquisition does not amount to a process of triggering innately pre-wired values of parameters and (ii) it paves the way for viewing language, epigenetic ('parametric') variation as an externalization-related epiphenomenon, whose learning component may be more important than what sometimes is assumed.

  1. Yukawa Hierarchies From Extra Dimensions With Small FCNC

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a class of extra dimensional models where all of the Standard Model fermions are localized to a single fixed point in an $S_1/Z_2$ orbifold, and each species is localized with an exponential wavefunction with a different width. We show that this naturally generates Yukawa hierarchies of the size present in the Standard Model, and we find a set of model parameters that reproduces the observed masses and mixings to experimental accuracy. In addition, the dominant constraints, arising from flavor changing neutral currents, are shown to restrict the compactification scale to be $1/R \\ge 2-5 \\tev$, which is a much less stringent constraint than in similar extra dimensional models of the Yukawa hierarchy.

  2. A hierarchy of cosmic compact objects - without black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, J

    2006-01-01

    We make the case for the existence of a, hitherto unknown and unobserved, hierarchy of ever more compact cosmic objects in the universe. This hypothesis is based on i) the assumption of "elementary" particle sub-constituents on several levels below the presently known, inspired by Glashow's "blooming desert", ii) the existence of nearly scale-invariant density fluctuations in the early universe, e.g. as predicted by inflationary models, iii) our own previous theoretical work showing that a class of objects considerably more compact than previously thought possible in astrophysics can exist. We also give several independent arguments strongly pointing towards the non-existence of black holes. Some brief suggestions on observational signals due to the hierarchy, both in collected astronomical data and in possible future observations, concludes the paper.

  3. Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process for Ecological Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radionovs Andrejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Being able to evaluate risks is an important task in many areas of human activity: economics, ecology, etc. Usually, environmental risk assessment is carried out on the basis of multiple and sometimes conflicting factors. Using multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM methodology is one of the possible ways to solve the problem. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP is one of the most commonly used MCDM methods, which combines subjective and personal preferences in the risk assessment process. However, the AHP involves human subjectivity, which introduces vagueness type of uncertainty and requires the use of decision making under those uncertainties. In this paper, work with uncertainty is considered using fuzzy-based techniques. The paper also analyses the ecological risk assessment towards human health in case of gaseous substance escape at a chemical factory using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process.

  4. Scales and hierarchies in warped compactifications and brane worlds

    CERN Document Server

    De Wolfe, O; Wolfe, Oliver De; Giddings, Steven B.

    2003-01-01

    Warped compactifications with branes provide a new approach to the hierarchy problem and generate a diversity of four-dimensional thresholds. We investigate the relationships between these scales, which fall into two classes. Geometrical scales, such as thresholds for Kaluza-Klein, excited string, and black hole production, are generically determined soley by the spacetime geometry. Dynamical scales, notably the scale of supersymmetry breaking and moduli masses, depend on other details of the model. We illustrate these relationships in a class of solutions of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual fluxes. After identifying the geometrical scales and the resulting hierarchy, we determine the gravitino and moduli masses through explicit dimensional reduction, and estimate their value to be near the four-dimensional Planck scale. In the process we obtain expressions for the superpotential and Kahler potential, including the effects of warping. We identify matter living on certain branes to be effectivel...

  5. The analytic hierarchy process in decisionmaking for caprine health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maino, M; Pérez, P; Oviedo, P; Sotomayor, G; Abalos, P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision-making when planning animal health programmes, by assigning priorities to issues of concern to producers in Chile's main goat production region. This process allows a multi-criteria approach to problems, by analysing and ranking them in a hierarchical structure. Industry experts have highlighted the following animal health and disease control criteria: acceptance by breeders of disease control measures; impact of specific diseases on regional animal trade; the cost and efficacy of control measures; a decrease in flock production; and the impact of caprine diseases on human public health. Using these criteria in the AHP, the study found that the most important impacts were on human public health and on the animal trade. The disease priorities were tuberculosis, brucellosis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis, due mainlyto their zoonotic impact. The analytic hierarchy process proved useful when several criteria were involved in public health issues.

  6. OW DIFFERENT ARE THE PERCEPTIONS OVER THE MAIN MOTIVATIONAL TOOLS IN MILITARY? AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP APPROACH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul - Mugurel POLEANSCHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian military system, motivational rewards based on merits are precisely regulated and ranked as confined by the military order in which they are mentioned. The existing hierarchy of these main motivational rewards is partly inherited, partly harmonized with other international military partner organizations and it is implicitly assumed that decision makers are able to equidistantly evaluate the merits of their subordinates. Still, decision makers’ personal, implicit perceptions over the importance and the effectiveness of the available rewards designed to enhance motivation among their subordinates can alter for good or for worse the efficiency of these motivational tools. This paper aims at quantifying the implicit perceptions of the decision makers in a military organization over four main motivational tools through the construction of a hierarchy based on an analytic hierarchy process approach whose final alternatives are constituted by the four motivational tools. A survey asking for pair wise comparison among criteria, sub criteria and alternatives, completed by the use of two numerical scale alternatives, led to priority vectors assessing the relative importance of the rewards considered. The findings on the perceived importance of the rewards might lead to further research, with a potential discussion on the design of the motivational tools or on a different approach to distributing the existent ones.

  7. Research on Top-layer Planning and Overall Design Project Decision of Weapon System Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui-wen

    2012-01-01

    Based on analytic hierarchy process(AHP) theory,a vital important problem for top-layer planning and overall design of modern self-propelled gun-howitzer system,namely overall project decision-making,was analyzed.A hierarchy model was built to solve the complex and uncertain problem,and a decision-making index system was established.Then,the weights in all layers of the model were determined by simulating experts.Finally,according to the calculated results of the elements in each layer,the weights of the alternatives to the overall goal were calculated to conduct the hierarchy total decision.A decision example shows that the overall project of a self-propelled gun-howitzer A is much better than that of another self-propelled gun-howitzer B,digitalized in comprehensive efficiency,operability,system accuracy and economy,but inferior to it in the information capability,and there exists relatively larger gap between them in the information sharing index.

  8. Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    1992-01-01

    In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhi...

  9. The Hierarchy of Transcriptional Activation: From Enhancer to Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernimmen, Douglas; Bickmore, Wendy A

    2015-12-01

    Regulatory elements (enhancers) that are remote from promoters play a critical role in the spatial, temporal, and physiological control of gene expression. Studies on specific loci, together with genome-wide approaches, suggest that there may be many common mechanisms involved in enhancer-promoter communication. Here, we discuss the multiprotein complexes that are recruited to enhancers and the hierarchy of events taking place between regulatory elements and promoters.

  10. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthén potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, B.; Özer, O.; Cançelik, Y.; Koçak, M.

    2000-10-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulthén potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated supersymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of the Hulthén potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  11. Modeling the shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rezai, O

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available of object features Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience www.frontiersin.org October 2014 | Volume 8 | Article 132 | 1 COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE Rezai et al. Shape hierarchy for visually guided grasping (Borra et al., 2008). AIP also contains other... of depth and its first and second spatial derivatives. CIP has been proposed to encode these variables (Orban et al., 2006), and they have been the basis for several experimental studies of CIP responses (Sakata et al., Frontiers in Computational...

  12. Encoding Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammars with a Nonmonotonic Inheritance Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, R; Weir, D; Evans, Roger; Gazdar, Gerald; Weir, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper shows how DATR, a widely used formal language for lexical knowledge representation, can be used to define an LTAG lexicon as an inheritance hierarchy with internal lexical rules. A bottom-up featural encoding is used for LTAG trees and this allows lexical rules to be implemented as covariation constraints within feature structures. Such an approach eliminates the considerable redundancy otherwise associated with an LTAG lexicon.

  13. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges. PMID:25383900

  14. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo,; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; WANG Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computat...

  15. An Integrable Symplectic Map of a Differential-Difference Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Huan-He; YI Fang-Jiao; SU Jie; LU Guo-Zhi

    2012-01-01

    By choosing a discrete matrix spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from the discrete zero curvature equation, and the Hamiltonian structures are built. Through a higher-order Bargmann symmetry constraint, the spatial part and the temporal part of the Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs, which we obtained are respectively nonlinearized into a new integrable symplectic map and a finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian system in Liouville sense.

  16. The double scaling limit method in the Toda hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Alonso, L [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Medina, E [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2008-08-22

    Critical points of semiclassical expansions of solutions to the dispersionful Toda hierarchy are considered and a double scaling limit method of regularization is formulated. The analogues of the critical points characterized by the strong conditions in the Hermitian matrix model are analysed and the property of doubling of equations is proved. A wide family of sets of critical points is introduced and the corresponding double scaling limit expansions are discussed.

  17. Application of Fuzzy QFD to Aircraft Top Hierarchy Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jian-xi; SONG Bi-feng; LIU Dong-xia

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method, the Fuzzy Quality Function Deployment (FQFD) theory and the step-by-step hierarchy structure in aircraft top decision design are studied. The fuzzy model for computing competitive factor in evaluation is presented.The decision of key technologies for improving the performance and affordability of a fixed-wing aircraft is studied using the model, and the result proves the feasibility of this model.

  18. Structural hierarchy of autism spectrum disorder symptoms: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsik; Keifer, Cara M; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Lerner, Matthew D; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2017-02-14

    In an attempt to resolve questions regarding the symptom classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous research generally aimed to demonstrate superiority of one model over another. Rather than adjudicating which model may be optimal, we propose an alternative approach that integrates competing models using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying symptom structure of ASD. The study sample comprised 3,825 individuals, consecutive referrals to a university hospital developmental disabilities specialty clinic or a child psychiatry outpatient clinic. This study analyzed DSM-IV-referenced ASD symptom statements from parent and teacher versions of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4R. A series of exploratory structural equation models was conducted in order to produce interpretable latent factors that account for multivariate covariance. Results indicated that ASD symptoms were structured into an interpretable hierarchy across multiple informants. This hierarchy includes five levels; key features of ASD bifurcate into different constructs with increasing specificity. This is the first study to examine an underlying structural hierarchy of ASD symptomatology using the bass-ackwards method. This hierarchy demonstrates how core features of ASD relate at differing levels of resolution, providing a model for conceptualizing ASD heterogeneity and a structure for integrating divergent theories of cognitive processes and behavioral features that define the disorder. These findings suggest that a more coherent and complete understanding of the structure of ASD symptoms may be reflected in a metastructure rather than at one level of resolution. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Decision support for information systems management: applying analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision making. AHP can be applied if the decision problem includes multiple objectives, conflicting criteria, incommensurable units, and aims at selecting an alternative from a known set of alternatives. ...

  20. A hierarchy of simple hyperbolic two-fluid models for bubbly flows

    CERN Document Server

    Drui, Florence; Kokh, Samuel; Massot, Marc

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of modeling both separate and disperse two-phase flows, we use in this paper a methodology for deriving two-fluid models that do not assume any flow topology. This methodology is based on a variational principle and on entropy dissipation requirement. Some of the models that are such derived and studied are already known in the contexts of the description of separate-or disperse-phase flows. However, we here propose an arrangement of these models into a hierarchy based on their links through relaxation parameters. Moreover, the models are shown to be compatible with the description of a monodisperse bubbly flow and, within this frame, the relaxation parameters can be identified. This identification is finally verified and discussed through comparisons with experimental measures of sound dispersion and with dispersion relations of a reference model for bubbly media.

  1. A framework for Islamic advertising: Using Lavidge and Steiner’s hierarchy of effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Binti Mokhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lavidge and Steiner’s (1961 hierarchy of effects model has strengths in its pragmatism and clarity. It outlines the series of steps consumers take with the purchase of products being the final step. The steps are related to the cognitive, affective and conative components of psychology. Advertisers could use advertising and other marketing communication tools to spur consumers up the steps of the model. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Lavidge and Steiner model from the Islamic perspective and produce a framework of Islamic advertising. This aim arose from the targeting of the growing Muslim market by several advertising campaigns. It also arose from previous research studies that have recommend advertisers be sensitive to the Islamic beliefs of the Muslim target audience in producing effective advertising messages. The model therefore requires an Islamic dimension to guide the production of effective advertisements for Muslims.

  2. An integrable Hamiltonian hierarchy, a high-dimensional loop algebra and associated integrable coupling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰

    2003-01-01

    A subalgebra of loop algebra A2 is established. Therefore, a new isospectral problem is designed. By making use of Tu's scheme, a new integrable system is obtained, which possesses bi-Hamiltonian structure. As its reductions,a formalism similar to the well-known Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) hierarchy and a generalized standard form of the Schrodinger equation are presented. In addition, in order for a kind of expanding integrable system to be obtained, a proper algebraic transformation is supplied to change loop algebra A2 into loop algebra A1. Furthermore,a high-dimensional loop algebra is constructed, which is different from any previous one. An integrable coupling of the system obtained is given. Finally, the Hamiltonian form of a binary symmetric constrained flow of the system obtained is presented.

  3. Varying and inverting the mass hierarchy in collisional energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC give access to the medium-induced suppression patterns of heavy-flavored single inclusive hadron spectra at high transverse momentum. This opens novel opportunities for a detailed characterization of the medium produced in the collision. In this note, we point out that the capacity of a QCD medium to absorb the recoil of a partonic projectile is an independent signature, which may differ for different media at the same density. In particular, while the mass hierarchy (i.e., the projectile mass dependence) of radiative energy loss depends solely on a property of the projectile, the mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss depends significantly on properties of the medium. By varying these properties in a class of models, we find that the mass hierarchy of collisional parton energy loss can be modified considerably and can even be inverted, compared to that of radiative parton energy loss. This may help to disentangle the relative strengths of radiative and collision...

  4. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship.

  5. Developing a hierarchy of needs for Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the concept of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and apply this to Type 1 diabetes. Qualitative methods were employed using semi-structured interviews with 101 people from 13 countries. Grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis, with thematic analysis employed to identify the interviewees' needs. Sixteen needs were identified and links between these were mapped. Aligning these with Maslow's hierarchy allowed for a hierarchy to be developed for Type 1 diabetes with 'Policies', 'Organization of health system', 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin', 'Control', 'Healthcare workers' and 'Information and education' at the base, as they were needed for survival. Next came 'Community, family and peers' and changing roles for 'Healthcare workers' in their approach to care and delivering 'Information and education'. This enabled people to learn how to use 'Insulin', 'Delivery of insulin' and 'Control' flexibly. People's 'Experience' and 'Personality' then helped them 'Adapt' and 'Be open' about their diabetes, allowing for 'Acceptance' and viewing 'Diabetes as something positive'. Despite limitations, this work highlights that some needs are required for survival and others for well-being. Some are tangible as they can be directly provided, whereas others are intangible and cannot be provided directly by the health system. These results might be used for policy and practice in identifying needs that are met within a health system or what needs are lacking for the individual to then implement targeted interventions. © 2013 The Author. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  6. Introducing a Concept Hierarchy for the Journal of Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With this issue of the Journal of Research Practice, we initiate a conceptual framework for thinking and writing about research, defining areas of editorial focus, and indexing work published in the journal. The framework takes the form of a concept hierarchy that offers index terms at three interrelated levels: (1 focus areas for reflection on research practice within which the journal aims to achieve excellence and strengthen its profile and visibility, (2 subject areas relevant to research practice that the journal aims to cover and in terms of which it defines its focus areas, and (3 keywords for capturing the content of research work done in these subject areas or for reflecting and writing about it. Focus areas are characterized by assigned subject areas; subject areas are characterized by assigned keywords. The concept hierarchy is part of a more comprehensive initiative to strengthen the journal's profile and visibility, an initiative that will also include a restructuring of the editorial team and new roles for the journal's dedicated reviewers and active readers. The article introduces an initial version of the concept hierarchy, explains its intended use and further development, and situates it in the larger effort of which it is a part.

  7. Non-degenerate solutions of universal Whitham hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Teo, Lee Peng

    2010-01-01

    The notion of non-degenerate solutions for the dispersionless Toda hierarchy is generalized to the universal Whitham hierarchy of genus zero with $M+1$ marked points. These solutions are characterized by a Riemann-Hilbert problem (generalized string equations) with respect to two-dimensional canonical transformations, and may be thought of as a kind of general solutions of the hierarchy. The Riemann-Hilbert problem contains $M$ arbitrary functions $H_a(z_0,z_a)$, $a = 1,...,M$, which play the role of generating functions of two-dimensional canonical transformations. The solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem is described by period maps on the space of $(M+1)$-tuples $(z_\\alpha(p) : \\alpha = 0,1,...,M)$ of conformal maps from $M$ disks of the Riemann sphere and their complements to the Riemann sphere. The period maps are defined by an infinite number of contour integrals that generalize the notion of harmonic moments. The $F$-function (free energy) of these solutions is also shown to have a contour integral r...

  8. Internal and International Migration Across the Urban Hierarchy in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood. Based on the retrospective data from the Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey 2008, we first assess the geography of migration in terms of the rural-urban continuum, the urban hierarchy and the outside world since 1990. We then investigate the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international movements using survival models. Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis. Internal migrants mainly moved to the capital, bypassing secondary cities, and were predominantly female. Initially, international migrants were primarily men who tended to originate from the main urban agglomerations. The diffusion of opportunities to emigrate down the urban hierarchy and across the sexes then redirected the rural exodus abroad, despite domestic economic development. This evolution in population mobility is related to the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows, as well as to rising inequalities within the urban hierarchy.

  9. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.

  10. Inheritance Hierarchy Based Reuse & Reusability Metrics in OOSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reuse and reusability are two major aspects in object oriented software which can be measured from inheritance hierarchy. Reusability is the prerequisite of reuse but both may or may not bemeasured using same metric. This paper characterizes metrics of reuse and reusability in Object Oriented Software Development (OOSD. Reuse metrics compute the extent to which classes have been reused and reusability metrics computes the extent to which classes can be reused. In this paper five new metrics namely- Breadth of Inheritance Tree (BIT, Method Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (MRPIR,Attribute Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (ARPIR, Generality of Class (GC and Reuse Probability (RP have been proposed. These metrics help to evaluate reuse and reusability of object oriented software.Four extensively validated existing object oriented metrics, namely- Depth of Inheritance Tree (DIT, Number of Children (NOC, Method Inheritance Factor (MIF and Attribute Inheritance Factor (AIFhave been selected and investigated for comparison with proposed metrics. All metrics can be computed from inheritance hierarchies and classified according to their characteristics. Further, metrics areevaluated against a case study. These metrics are helpful in comparing alternative inheritance hierarchies at design time to select best alternative, so that the development time and cost can be reduced.

  11. Structural Measures to Track the Evolution of SNOMED CT Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Duo; Gu, Huanying (Helen); Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; Ochs, Christopher; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is an extensive reference terminology with an attendant amount of complexity. It has been updated continuously and revisions have been released semi-annually to meet users’ needs and to reflect the results of quality assurance (QA) activities. Two measures based on structural features are proposed to track the effects of both natural terminology growth and QA activities based on aspects of the complexity of SNOMED CT. These two measures, called the structural density measure and accumulated structural measure, are derived based on two abstraction networks, the area taxonomy and the partial-area taxonomy. The measures derive from attribute relationship distributions and various concept groupings that are associated with the abstraction networks. They are used to track the trends in the complexity of structures as SNOMED CT changes over time. The measures were calculated for consecutive releases of five SNOMED CT hierarchies, including the Specimen hierarchy. The structural density measure shows that natural growth tends to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a more complex state, whereas the accumulated structural measure shows that QA processes tend to move a hierarchy’s structure toward a less complex state. It is also observed that both the structural density and accumulated structural measures are useful tools to track the evolution of an entire SNOMED CT hierarchy and reveal internal concept migration within it. PMID:26260003

  12. The Alternation Hierarchy for the Theory of µ-lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santocanale, Luigi

    2002-01-01

    The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant independ......The alternation hierarchy problem asks whether every µ-term φ, that is, a term built up also using a least fixed point constructor as well as a greatest fixed point constructor, is equivalent to a µ-term where the number of nested fixed points of a different type is bounded by a constant...... independent of φ. In this paper we give a proof that the alternation hierarchy for the theory of µ-lattices is strict, meaning that such a constant does not exist if µ-term are built up from the basic lattice operations and are interpreted as expected. The proof relies on the explicit characterization of free...

  13. Social hierarchy modulates neural responses of empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Li, Zhihao; Feng, Xue; Wang, Lili; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that empathic responses to others' pain are modulated by various situational and individual factors. However, few studies have examined how empathy and underlying brain functions are modulated by social hierarchies, which permeate human society with an enormous impact on social behavior and cognition. In this study, social hierarchies were established based on incidental skill in a perceptual task in which all participants were mediumly ranked. Afterwards, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while watching inferior-status or superior-status targets receiving painful or non-painful stimulation. The results revealed that painful stimulation applied to inferior-status targets induced higher activations in the anterior insula (AI) and anterior medial cingulate cortex (aMCC), whereas these empathic brain activations were significantly attenuated in response to superior-status targets' pain. Further, this neural empathic bias to inferior-status targets was accompanied by stronger functional couplings of AI with brain regions important in emotional processing (i.e. thalamus) and cognitive control (i.e. middle frontal gyrus). Our findings indicate that emotional sharing with others' pain is shaped by relative positions in a social hierarchy such that underlying empathic neural responses are biased toward inferior-status compared with superior-status individuals. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Amplification of local changes along the timescale processing hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Yaara; Nguyen, Mai; Hasson, Uri

    2017-08-29

    Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural differences between the stories was highly correlated with an area's ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g., sobbing to "crying"). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.

  15. METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS: SISTEM REKOMENDER DATABASE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Purnama Alam Syah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Rekomender electoral system is a database software application that can be used to look for alternative software database selection strategy, the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Rekomender systems needed by companies that have a large enough data processing such as the Bureau of Bina Sarana IT Information, expensive investments in the provision of Information Technology (IT makes IT Bina Sarana Information Bureau to be more careful in determining the selection of database software. This study focuses on research of database software selection system with the method of analytical hierarchy process (AHP, a case study of IT Bureau Bina Sarana Infromatika with the observation unit administrator. The results of the study found that there are two (2 main criteria, namely the selection of technology and a user with an alternative strategy My SQL, Oracle and SQL Server. Having tested the system rekomender My SQL result that the top priority in the selection of database software with a 41% weighting, followed by SQL Server and Oracle 39% 21%. The end result of a system that has been created rekomender concluded that the Bureau of Bina Sarana Informatics IT can define strategy alternatives before determining database software to be used more effectively and efficiently. Abstrak¬¬ - Sistem rekomender pemilihan database software merupakan aplikasi yang dapat digunakan untuk mencari alternatif strategi pemilihan database software, dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Sistem rekomender dibutuhkan oleh perusahaan yang memiliki pengolahan data yang cukup besar seperti Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika, mahalnya investasi pada penyediaan Teknologi Informasi (TI membuat Biro TI Bina Sarana Informatika lebih berhati-hati dalam menentukan pemilihan database software. Penelitian ini berfokus kepada penetilian tentang sistem pemilihan database sofware dengan metode analytical hierarchy process (AHP, studi kasus Biro TI Bina Sarana

  16. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  17. A consistent hierarchy of generalized kinetic equation approximations to the master equation applied to surface catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory J; Mitran, Sorin; Lin, Guang

    2015-06-21

    We develop a hierarchy of approximations to the master equation for systems that exhibit translational invariance and finite-range spatial correlation. Each approximation within the hierarchy is a set of ordinary differential equations that considers spatial correlations of varying lattice distance; the assumption is that the full system will have finite spatial correlations and thus the behavior of the models within the hierarchy will approach that of the full system. We provide evidence of this convergence in the context of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples. Lower levels within the hierarchy that consider shorter spatial correlations are shown to be up to three orders of magnitude faster than traditional kinetic Monte Carlo methods (KMC) for one-dimensional systems, while predicting similar system dynamics and steady states as KMC methods. We then test the hierarchy on a two-dimensional model for the oxidation of CO on RuO2(110), showing that low-order truncations of the hierarchy efficiently capture the essential system dynamics. By considering sequences of models in the hierarchy that account for longer spatial correlations, successive model predictions may be used to establish empirical approximation of error estimates. The hierarchy may be thought of as a class of generalized phenomenological kinetic models since each element of the hierarchy approximates the master equation and the lowest level in the hierarchy is identical to a simple existing phenomenological kinetic models.

  18. A STUDY ON THE HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi

    Compared to the late 20th century, the Japanese construction industry has drastically changed its business methodology, outlook and approach in response to global issues and the incredible advances in technology. Such influences, non-exhaustively include the; WTO Government procurement agreement, updating conditions of tendering and contracting, client demands for cost reduction and the rapid penetration of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) into modern society. These days, the significance of controlling Quality, Cost and Time (the so-called QCT) has been recognized as an eternal-triangle by almost all countries, Government organizations and the private sector. However, as the construction industry is exposed to , and influenced by, more and more internal and external dynamic factors, continued reliance on managing and controlling QCT elements on their own is no longer adequate in meeting the growing demands and expectations, and as such control of additional management elements is now essential to avoid problems, or minimize their potential impacts should they occur. This paper utilizes the results of a survey carried out amongst construction managers and consultants in Japan and overseas to develop a spatial network that defines the interaction of management factors as a weighted graphical model. The calculated closeness centrality index of the developed management network model is adopted to identify the initialelement hierarchy, which is then further analyzed using the minimum distance of independent relationships of management elements (Warshall-Floyd algorism methodology), to identify the optimum potential hierarchy for effective construction management. A key result of the analysis is the significance of "Human Resource" in the construction industry management element hierarchy alongside the traditional QCT elements.

  19. Knowledge, expectations, and inductive reasoning within conceptual hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Hayes, Brett; Lawson, Christopher; Moloney, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Previous research (e.g. Cognition 64 (1997) 73) suggests that the privileged level for inductive inference in a folk biological conceptual hierarchy does not correspond to the "basic" level (i.e. the level at which concepts are both informative and distinct). To further explore inductive inference within conceptual hierarchies, we examine relations between knowledge of concepts at different hierarchical levels, expectations about conceptual coherence, and inductive inference. In Experiments 1 and 2, 5- and 8-year-olds and adults listed features of living kind (Experiments 1 and 2) and artifact (Experiment 2) concepts at different hierarchical levels (e.g. plant, tree, oak, desert oak), and also rated the strength of generalizations to the same concepts. For living kinds, the level that showed a relative advantage on these two tasks differed; the greatest increase in features listed tended to occur at the life-form level (e.g. tree), whereas the greatest increase in inductive strength tended to occur at the folk-generic level (e.g. oak). Knowledge and induction also showed different developmental trajectories. For artifact concepts, the levels at which the greatest gains in knowledge and induction occurred were more varied, and corresponded more closely across tasks. In Experiment 3, adults reported beliefs about within-category similarity for concepts at different levels of animal, plant and artifact hierarchies, and rated inductive strength as before. For living kind concepts, expectations about category coherence predicted patterns of inductions; knowledge did not. For artifact concepts, both knowledge and expectations predicted patterns of induction. Results suggest that beliefs about conceptual coherence play an important role in guiding inductive inference, that this role may be largely independent of specific knowledge of concepts, and that such beliefs are especially important in reasoning about living kinds.

  20. FIXING THE ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY IN ANCIENT GREEK EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe

  1. CAUSAL INFERENCE WITH A GRAPHICAL HIERARCHY OF INTERVENTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpitser, Ilya; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen

    2016-12-01

    Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification. This fragmentation makes it unnecessarily difficult to determine if a given parameter is identified (and in what model), and what assumptions must hold for this to be the case. This, in turn, complicates the development of estimation theory and sensitivity analysis procedures. In this paper, we give a unifying view of a large class of causal effects of interest, including novel effects not previously considered, in terms of a hierarchy of interventions, and show that identification theory for this large class reduces to an identification theory of random variables under interventions from this hierarchy. Moreover, we show that one type of intervention in the hierarchy is naturally associated with queries identified under the Finest Fully Randomized Causally Interpretable Structure Tree Graph (FFRCISTG) model of Robins (via the extended g-formula), and another is naturally associated with queries identified under the Non-Parametric Structural Equation Model with Independent Errors (NPSEM-IE) of Pearl, via a more general functional we call the edge g-formula. Our results motivate the study of estimation theory for the edge g-formula, since we show it arises both in mediation analysis, and in settings where treatment assignment has unobserved causes, such as models associated with Pearl's front-door criterion.

  2. Multi-agent Based Hierarchy Simulation Models of Carrier-based Aircraft Catapult Launch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju; Guo Linliang

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of multi-agent based modeling approach to complex systems,the hierarchy simulation models of carrier-based aircraft catapult launch are developed.Ocean,carrier,aircraft,and atmosphere are treated as aggregation agents,the detailed components like catapult,landing gears,and disturbances are considered as meta-agents,which belong to their aggregation agent.Thus,the model with two layers is formed i.e.the aggregation agent layer and the meta-agent layer.The information communication among all agents is described.The meta-agents within one aggregation agent communicate with each other directly by information sharing,but the meta-agents,which belong to different aggregation agents exchange their information through the aggregation layer fast,and then perceive it from the sharing environment,that is the aggregation agent.Thus,not only the hierarchy model is built,but also the environment perceived by each agent is specified.Meanwhile,the problem of balancing the independency of agent and the resource consumption brought by real-time communication within multi-agent system (MAS) is resolved.Each agent involved in carrier-based aircraft catapult launch is depicted,with considering the interaction within disturbed atmospheric environment and multiple motion bodies including carrier,aircraft,and landing gears.The models of reactive agents among them are derived based on tensors,and the perceived messages and inner frameworks of each agent are characterized.Finally,some results of a simulation instance are given.The simulation and modeling of dynamic system based on multi-agent system is of benefit to express physical concepts and logical hierarchy clearly and precisely.The system model can easily draw in kinds of other agents to achieve a precise simulation of more complex system.This modeling technique makes the complex integral dynamic equations of multibodies decompose into parallel operations of single agent,and it is convenient to expand,maintain,and reuse

  3. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intersection Theory, Integrable Hierarchies and Topological Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R

    1992-01-01

    In these lecture notes we review the various relations between intersection theory on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, integrable hierarchies of KdV type, matrix models, and topological quantum field theories. We explain in particular why matrix integrals of the type considered by Kontsevich naturally appear as tau-functions associated to minimal models. Our starting point is the extremely simple form of the string equation for the topological (p,1) models, where the so-called Baker-Akhiezer function is given by a (generalized) Airy function.

  5. The Arity Hierarchy in the Polyadic μ-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lange

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The polyadic mu-calculus is a modal fixpoint logic whose formulas define relations of nodes rather than just sets in labelled transition systems. It can express exactly the polynomial-time computable and bisimulation-invariant queries on finite graphs. In this paper we show a hierarchy result with respect to expressive power inside the polyadic mu-calculus: for every level of fixpoint alternation, greater arity of relations gives rise to higher expressive power. The proof uses a diagonalisation argument.

  6. Cache and memory hierarchy design a performance directed approach

    CERN Document Server

    Przybylski, Steven A

    1991-01-01

    An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of ca

  7. APPLICATION OF FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS TO BUILDING RESEARCH TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol DĄBROWSKI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building teams has a fundamental impact for execution of research and development projects. The teams appointed for the needs of given projects are based on individuals from both inside and outside of the organization. Knowledge is not only a product available on the market but also an intangible resource affecting their internal and external processes. Thus it is vitally important for businesses and scientific research facilities to effectively manage knowledge within project teams. The article presents a proposal to use Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System methods in working groups building for R&D projects on the basis of employees skills.

  8. Hierarchy of Needs; Building a Path to Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    battlefield. As Maslow states, “There is obviously much to think about here, not only for the Marxian or Freudian , but also for the politician or...a bitter truth.”24 The hierarchy of needs is a construct, derived from the theory of human motivation, advanced by Abraham H. Maslow (1908 – 1970...Needs In a certain respect Maslow’s research takes a leap forward from that of a portion of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, which essentially

  9. On the hierarchy of partially invariant submodels of differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Sergey V [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: sergey@hydro.nsc.ru

    2008-07-04

    It is noted that the partially invariant solution (PIS) of differential equations in many cases can be represented as an invariant reduction of some PISs of the higher rank. This introduces a hierarchic structure in the set of all PISs of a given system of differential equations. An equivalence of the two-step and the direct ways of construction of PISs is proved. The hierarchy simplifies the process of enumeration and analysis of partially invariant submodels to the given system of differential equations. In this framework, the complete classification of regular partially invariant solutions of ideal MHD equations is given.

  10. Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties

    CERN Document Server

    Celko, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The demand for SQL information and training continues to grow with the need for a database behind every website capable of offering web-based information queries. SQL is the de facto standard for database retrieval, and if you need to access, update, or utilize data in a modern database management system, you will need SQL to do it. The Second Edition of Joe Celko's Trees and Hierarchies in SQL for Smarties covers two new sets of extensions over three entirely new chapters and expounds upon the changes that have occurred in SQL standards since the previous edition's public

  11. Keeping abreast of the mammary epithelial hierarchy and breast tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvader, Jane E

    2009-11-15

    The epithelium of the mammary gland exists in a highly dynamic state, undergoing dramatic morphogenetic changes during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and regression. The recent identification of stem and progenitor populations in mouse and human mammary tissue has provided evidence that the mammary epithelium is organized in a hierarchical manner. Characterization of these normal epithelial subtypes is an important step toward understanding which cells are predisposed to oncogenesis. This review summarizes progress in the field toward defining constituent cells and key molecular regulators of the mammary epithelial hierarchy. Potential relationships between normal epithelial populations and breast tumor subtypes are discussed, with implications for understanding the cellular etiology underpinning breast tumor heterogeneity.

  12. Lagrangian Approach to Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitava Choudhuri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive a Lagrangian based approach to study the compatible Hamiltonian structure of the dispersionless KdV and supersymmetric KdV hierarchies and claim that our treatment of the problem serves as a very useful supplement of the so-called r-matrix method. We suggest specific ways to construct results for conserved densities and Hamiltonian operators. The Lagrangian formulation, via Noether's theorem, provides a method to make the relation between symmetries and conserved quantities more precise. We have exploited this fact to study the variational symmetries of the dispersionless KdV equation.

  13. Higher Spin Lifshitz Theories and the KdV-Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, Matteo; Li, Yi; Macorini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In this paper three dimensional higher spin theories in the Chern-Simons formulation with gauge algebra $sl(N,R)$ are investigated which have Lifshitz symmetry with scaling exponent $z$. We show that an explicit map exists for all $z$ and $N$ relating the Lifshitz Chern-Simons theory to the $(n,m)$ element of the KdV hierarchy. Furthermore we show that the map and hence the conserved charges are independent of $z$. We derive these result from the Drinfeld-Sokolov formalism of integrable systems.

  14. A generalized SHGI integrable hierarchy and its expanding integrable model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    An anti-symmetric loop algebra A2 is constructed. It follows that an integrable system is obtained by use of Tu's scheme. The eminent feature of this integrable system is that it is reduced to a generalized Schrodinger equation, the well-known heat-conduction equation and a Gerdjkov-Ivanov (GI) equation. Therefore, we call it a generalized SHGI hierarchy. Next, a new high-dimensional subalgebra G of the loop algebra A2 is constructed. As its application, a new expanding integrable system with six potential functions is engendered.

  15. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W. van de Leur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981, 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]. We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense variables.

  16. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Leur, Johan W.; Orlov, Alexander Yu.; Shiota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981), 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]). We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense) variables.

  17. CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae

    OpenAIRE

    van de Leur, Johan W.; Alexander Yu. Orlov; Takahiro Shiota

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981), 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]). We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense) varia...

  18. Spatial hierarchy and emerging typologies inside world city network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chubarov Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper provides a new approach to measuring a spatial structure of world city network (WCN. Based upon the results of media- popular ‘global city rankings’ produced by several international think tanks, our calculation allowed to reveal global urban hierarchy and identify several subnetworks inside of world cities. The second part of the paper devotes to recent discussions on nature of globalization and urban macrosystems, bearing in mind ranking results. It is shown that a typological approach can provide more insights to a role of city as part of WCN from functional and relationships prospective.

  19. The Cost of Collaborating with Climbers of Status Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    , but at times individuals or organizations successfully climb the status hierarchy or fall from grace. A growing body of research focuses on these status dynamics rather than static status measures. Based on data from 826 scientists affiliated with a Large Scale Research Facility (LSRF) collaborating on 1282 on......-site and 151,302 off-site publications we analyze relationships between status dynamics, tie formation and performance among scientists. We find that there is a cost of collaborating with rising stars – in the form of increasing status - as collaboration partners’ positive status shifts is negatively...

  20. Abelian tensor hierarchy in 4D, N = 1 superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Linch, William D.; Robbins, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the goal of constructing the supersymmetric action for all fields, massless and massive, obtained by Kaluza-Klein compactification from type II theory or M-theory in a closed form, we embed the (Abelian) tensor hierarchy of p-forms in four-dimensional, N =1superspaceandconstructitsChern-Simons-likeinvariants. Whenspecializedtothe case in which the tensors arise from a higher-dimensional theory, the invariants may be interpreted as higher-dimensional Chern-Simons forms reduced to four dimensions. As an application of the formalism, we construct the eleven-dimensional Chern-Simons form in terms of four-dimensional, N = 1 superfields.

  1. Applying fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy (FEAHP for selecting logistics software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Zapata Cortés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy (FEAHP applied to a warehouse management system (WMS in a Colombian shipyard regarding selecting pertinent logistics software. The FEAHP method has been widely used for resolving decision-making problems where many quantitative and qualitative factors and variables are required. However the most important criticism of this method concerns the impossibility of including value judgments not on a continuous scale but rather on a discrete one which can be solved by fuzzy logic. This problem was resolved by using the fuzzy logic extension of the AHP method proposed by Chang in 1996 which was adapted for a specific context regarding a Colombian shipyard.

  2. On the Monadic Second-Order Transduction Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Blumensath, Achim

    2010-01-01

    We compare classes of finite relational structures via monadic second-order transductions. More precisely, we study the preorder C <= K :iff C is a subset of tau(K) for some transduction tau. If we only consider classes of incidence structures we can completely describe the resulting hierarchy. It is linear of order type omega + 3. Each level can be characterised in terms of a suitable variant of tree-width. Canonical representatives of the various levels are: the class of all trees of height n, for each n in N, of all paths, of all trees, and of all grids.

  3. Does the hierarchy problem set the seesaw scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchimanchi, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    We find that minimizing the number of fine tuning relations in non-supersymmetric models can determine the scales at which gauge symmetries beyond the standard model must break. We show that B-L gauge symmetry of the minimal left-right symmetric model breaks at a scale 10^{15} GeV or higher, determined by the hierarchy problem and small quark mass ratios, provided parameters that break chiral or $\\mu-$symmetries are not fine-tuned. This provides the raison d'etre for the seesaw scale ~ 10^{15}GeV indicated by neutrino experiments.

  4. Power at work: navigating hierarchies, teamwork and webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPalma, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    I explore tensions between the dynamics observed during a shadowing experience in a clinic and a hospital and theories of power and organizations. Commenting on what the tensions reveal about "power at work" (in the dual sense of how power works and power in the workplace), I suggest that some of the most gratifying experiences of workplace collaboration for healthcare professionals may occur as a result of their having successfully navigated complex coalitions of hierarchies, teams and webs rather than dutifully adhering to any single organizational structure.

  5. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Kenton Bertram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  6. Individual recognition, dominance hierarchies and winner and loser effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugatkin, Lee Alan; Earley, Ryan L.

    2004-01-01

    Winner and loser effects are defined as an increased probability of winning an aggressive interaction at time T, based on victories at time T-1, T-2, etc., and an increased probability of losing at time T, based on losses at time T-1, T-2, etc., respectively. Prior theoretical work on dominance hierarchy formation has demonstrated that when players are not capable of individual recognition, loser effects always produce a clear top-ranked (alpha) individual, but all other ranks in a group rema...

  7. Calculable mass hierarchies and a light dilaton from gravity duals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, Daniel; Piai, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, we calculate the scalar and tensor mass spectrum of the boundary theory defined by a special 8-scalar sigma-model in five dimensions, the background solutions of which include the 1-parameter family dual to the baryonic branch of the Klebanov-Strassler field theory. This provides an example of a strongly-coupled, multi-scale system that yields a parametrically light mass for one of the composite scalar particles: the dilaton. We briefly discuss the implications of these findings towards identifying a satisfactory solution to both the big and little hierarchy problems of the electro-weak theory.

  8. The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Wagstaff, R. W.

    2016-03-01

    Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.

  9. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  10. A Model of Quark and Lepton Mixing and Mass Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, S M

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that an idea proposed in 1996 that relates in a qualitatively correct way the inter-family mass hierarchies of the up quarks, down quarks, charged leptons, and neutrinos, can be combined with a predictive scheme recently proposed for relating quark mixing and neutrino mixing. In the resulting model, the entire flavor structure of the quarks and leptons is expressible in terms of two "master matrices": a diagonal matrix that gives the inter-family mass ratios, and an off-diagonal matrix that controls all flavor mixing.

  11. A New Approach of Learning Hierarchy Construction Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AAJLI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, adaptive learning systems rely increasingly on learning hierarchy to customize the educational logic developed in their courses. Most approaches do not consider that the relationships of prerequisites between the skills are fuzzy relationships. In this article, we describe a new approach of a practical application of fuzzy logic techniques to the construction of learning hierarchies. For this, we use a learning hierarchy predefined by one or more experts of a specific field. However, the relationships of prerequisites between the skills in the learning hierarchy are not definitive and they are fuzzy relationships. Indeed, we measure relevance degree of all relationships existing in this learning hierarchy and we try to answer to the following question: Is the relationships of prerequisites predefined in initial learning hierarchy are correctly established or not?

  12. The influence of discourse hierarchy on the acoustic manifestation of focus in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianjun; YANG Xiaohong; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan

    2011-01-01

    A phonetic experiment was conducted to investigate whether the acoustic features of discourse focus were subjected to the influence of discourse hierarchy. Six speakers were instructed to read aloud 32 groups of experimental material. The duration, pitch range, f0 maxima, and f0 minima of foci in different discourse hierarchies were extracted for statistical analysis. The results revealed that foci embedded higher in the discourse hierarchy had relatively longer duration and more expanded pitch range; moreover, with the variation of tone combination, foci in different discourse hierarchies differed remarkably in their manifestation of f0 maxima and f0 minima features. Specifically speaking, for non-low tone combinations, foci in higher discourse hierarchy were pronounced with higher f0 maxima, while for low-tone combinations, foci in higher discourse hierarchy were articulated with lower f0 minima.

  13. Matrix integral solutions to the discrete KP hierarchy and its Pfaffianized version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Stéphane; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-11-01

    Matrix integrals used in random matrix theory for the study of eigenvalues of Hermitian ensembles have been shown to provide τ-functions for several hierarchies of integrable equations. In this article, we extend this relation by showing that such integrals can also provide τ-functions for the discrete KP hierarchy and a coupled version of the same hierarchy obtained through the process of Pfaffianization. To do so, we consider the first equation of the discrete KP hierarchy, the Hirota-Miwa equation. We write the Wronskian determinant solutions to the Hirota-Miwa equation and consider a particular form of matrix integrals, which we show is an example of those Wronskian solutions. The argument is then generalized to the whole hierarchy. A similar strategy is used for the Pfaffianized version of the hierarchy except that in that case, the solutions are written in terms of Pfaffians rather than determinants.

  14. Information escaping the correlation hierarchy of the convergence field in the study of cosmological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Julien

    2012-02-17

    Using fits to numerical simulations, we show that the entire hierarchy of moments quickly ceases to provide a complete description of the convergence one-point probability density function leaving the linear regime. This suggests that the full N-point correlation function hierarchy of the convergence field becomes quickly generically incomplete and a very poor cosmological probe on nonlinear scales. At the scale of unit variance, only 5% of the Fisher information content of the one-point probability density function is still contained in its hierarchy of moments, making clear that information escaping the hierarchy is a far stronger effect than information propagating to higher order moments. It follows that the constraints on cosmological parameters achievable through extraction of the entire hierarchy become suboptimal by large amounts. A simple logarithmic mapping makes the moment hierarchy well suited again for parameter extraction.

  15. Two principles of organization in the prefrontal cortex are cognitive hierarchy and degree of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    The lateral prefrontal cortex is known to be organized by cognitive hierarchies following a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Here we test whether this model applies across different cognitive domains by varying levels of cognitive hierarchy in first language, second language and non-language domains. These domains vary in their degree of automaticity with first language being the most automatic. For second language/non-language a clear gradient pattern of activation depending on the level of hierarchy is observed in the prefrontal cortex with the highest level of hierarchy recruiting its most anterior region, whereas for first language the highest level of hierarchy recruits its most posterior region. Moreover, second language/non-language and first language differ in the structural connectivity of their underlying networks. The current data strongly suggest that functional segregation of the prefrontal cortex is determined by cognitive hierarchy and the degree of automaticity.

  16. An integrable generalization of the super AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Han, Jingwei; Chen, Shouting

    2017-02-01

    Based on a Lie super-algebra B(0, 1), an integrable generalization of the super AKNS iso-spectral problem is introduced and its corresponding generalized super AKNS hierarchy is generated. By making use of the super-trace identity (or the super variational identity), the resulting super soliton hierarchy can be put into a super bi-Hamiltonian form. A generalized super AKNS soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is also presented.

  17. Evaluation of Diesel Engine Noise Reduction Measures Based on Hierarchy Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effect of different noise reduction measures for diesel engines was evaluated based on hierarchy diagnosis. The hierarchy diagnosis chart and hierarchy judgment matrix were given.Through evaluation of noise reduction measures, the main strategies of noise reduction were found.The result shows that the noise reduction level of different frequency belts varies from measure to measure. The reduction capacity of different measures could not add simply, which relates to the problem of parameter matching.

  18. Non-Supersymmetric Theories with Light Scalar Fields and Large Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Strassler, M J

    2003-01-01

    Various nonsupersymmetric theories at large but finite $N$ are argued to permit light scalars and large hierarchies without fine-tuning. In a dual string description, the hierarchy results from competition between classical and quantum effects. In some cases the flow may end when a string mode becomes tachyonic and condenses, thereby realizing a quantum-mechanically stable Randall-Sundrum hierarchy scenario. Among possible applications, it is suggested that lattice simulation of \

  19. A Hierarchy of Integrable Lattice Soliton Equations and New Integrable Symplectic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Starting from a discrete spectral problem, a hierarchy of integrable lattice soliton equations is derived. It is shown that the hierarchy is completely integrable in the Liouville sense and possesses discrete bi-Hamiltonian structure.A new integrable symplectic map and finite-dimensional integrable systems are given by nonlinearization method. The binary Bargmann constraint gives rise to a B(a)cklund transformation for the resulting integrable lattice equations. At last, conservation laws of the hierarchy are presented.

  20. Variable-coefficient nonisospectral Toda lattice hierarchy and its exact solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sheng Zhang; Di Wang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a hierarchy of nonisospectral equations with variable coefficients is derived from the compatibility condition of Toda spectral problem and its time evolution. In order to solve the derived Toda lattice hierarchy, the inverse scattering transformation is utilized. As a result, new and more general exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the inverse scattering transformation can be generalized to solve some other nonisospectral lattice hierarchies with variable coefficients.

  1. The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0707 TITLE: The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on Tumor Incidence and...3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Ethnicity-Dependent Differences in Breast Epithelial Hierarchy on...Accomplishments: Specific Aim 1: To demonstrate that differences in normal breast epithelial hierarchy between African American and Caucasian

  2. Hierarchy of gene expression data is predictive of future breast cancer outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man; Deem, Michael W.

    2013-10-01

    We calculate measures of hierarchy in gene and tissue networks of breast cancer patients. We find that the likelihood of metastasis in the future is correlated with increased values of network hierarchy for expression networks of cancer-associated genes, due to the correlated expression of cancer-specific pathways. Conversely, future metastasis and quick relapse times are negatively correlated with the values of network hierarchy in the expression network of all genes, due to the dedifferentiation of gene pathways and circuits. These results suggest that the hierarchy of gene expression may be useful as an additional biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.

  3. Finite Projective Geometries and Classification of the Weight Hierarchies of Codes (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen De CHEN; Torleiv KLфVE

    2004-01-01

    The weight hierarchy of a binary linear [n, k] code C is the sequence (d1, d2,……, dk), where dr is the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. The codes of dimension 4 are collected in classes and the possible weight hierarchies in each class is determined by finite projective geometries.The possible weight hierarchies in class A, B, C, D are determined in Part (Ⅰ). The possible weight hierarchies in class E, F, G, H, I are determined in Part (Ⅱ).

  4. ANALYSIS OF SELECTION INDICATORS OF BADMINTON PLAYERS BY THE DELPHI METHOD AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han-Chen Huang; Chun-Ta Lin; Chia-Sen Hu

    2015-01-01

    .... The researcher then interviewed badminton coaches and applied Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) to determine the importance of the indicators of potential badminton players for badminton coaches...

  5. Eye Movement Evidence for Hierarchy Effects on Memory Representation of Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingying; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we applied the text-change paradigm to investigate whether and how discourse hierarchy affected the memory representation of a discourse. Three kinds of three-sentence discourses were constructed. In the hierarchy-high condition and the hierarchy-low condition, the three sentences of the discourses were hierarchically organized and the last sentence of each discourse was located at the high level and the low level of the discourse hierarchy, respectively. In the linear condition, the three sentences of the discourses were linearly organized. Critical words were always located at the last sentence of the discourses. These discourses were successively presented twice and the critical words were changed to semantically related words in the second presentation. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy. Global discourse hierarchy is established as an important factor in constructing the mental representation of a discourse.

  6. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A.Ruban

    2015-01-01

    Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant) differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provi-sionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differ-ences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard”hi-erarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  7. Hierarchy in pentose sugar metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristilde, Ludmilla; Lewis, Ian A; Park, Junyoung O; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial metabolism of polysaccharides from plant detritus into acids and solvents is an essential component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the underlying metabolic pathways can also contribute to improved production of biofuels. Using a metabolomics approach involving liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of mixtures of the cellulosic hexose sugar (glucose) and hemicellulosic pentose sugars (xylose and arabinose) in the anaerobic soil bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Simultaneous feeding of stable isotope-labeled glucose and unlabeled xylose or arabinose revealed that,as expected, glucose was preferentially used as the carbon source. Assimilated pentose sugars accumulated in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates with minimal flux into glycolysis. Simultaneous feeding of xylose and arabinose revealed an unexpected hierarchy among the pentose sugars, with arabinose utilized preferentially over xylose. The phosphoketolase pathway (PKP) provides an alternative route of pentose catabolism in C. acetobutylicum that directly converts xylulose-5-phosphate into acetyl-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, bypassing most of the PPP. When feeding the mixture of pentose sugars, the labeling patterns of lower glycolytic intermediates indicated more flux through the PKP than through the PPP and upper glycolysis, and this was confirmed by quantitative flux modeling. Consistent with direct acetyl-phosphate production from the PKP, growth on the pentose mixture resulted in enhanced acetate excretion. Taken collectively, these findings reveal two hierarchies in clostridial pentose metabolism: xylose is subordinate to arabinose, and the PPP is used less than the PKP.

  8. Rudin-Kisler ordering on the P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    M. E. Rudin in "Partial orders on the types of $\\beta {N}$", (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 155, 1971, 353-362) proved (under CH) that for each P-point $u$ there is a P-point $v$ such that $v>_{RK}u$. A. Blass in "Rudin - Kisler ordering on P-points" (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 179, 1973, 145-166) improved that theorem assuming MA in the place of CH, in that paper he also proved that under MA each RK-increasing sequence of P-points is upper bounded by a P-point. We improve Blass results simultaneously in 3 directions - we prove it for each class of index $\\geq 2$ of P-hierarchy (P-points coincidence with a class $P_2$ of P-hierarchy), assuming $\\mathfrak{b}=\\mathfrak{c}$ in the place of MA and we show that there are at least $\\mathfrak{b}$ many Rudin-Kisler incomparable such upper bounds.

  9. Selection of Vendor Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Business environment is characterized by greater domestic and international competitive position in the global market. Vendors play a key role in achieving the so-called corporate competition. It is not easy however to identify good vendors because evaluation is based on multiple criteria. In practice, for VSP most of the input information about the criteria is not known precisely. Intuitionistic fuzzy set is an extension of the classical fuzzy set theory (FST, which is a suitable way to deal with impreciseness. In other words, the application of intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of fuzzy sets means the introduction of another degree of freedom called nonmembership function into the set description. In this paper, we proposed a triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number based approach for the vendor selection problem using analytical hierarchy process. The crisp data of the vendors is represented in the form of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. By applying AHP which involves decomposition, pairwise comparison, and deriving priorities for the various levels of the hierarchy, an overall crisp priority is obtained for ranking the best vendor. A numerical example illustrates our method. Lastly a sensitivity analysis is performed to find the most critical criterion on the basis of which vendor is selected.

  10. Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C -J David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio $R$ between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in ...

  11. Comparative Analysis between Fuzzy and Traditional Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulubrhan Freselam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is one of the techniques commonly used for prioritizing different alternatives, by using complex criteria. In real applications, conventional AHP assumes the expert judgment as it is exact and use crisp number leading to inconsideration of the uncertainty that came from linguistic variable. Fuzzy logic deals with situations which are vague or unwell defined and gives a quantify value. In this study a comparison is made between traditional AHP and fuzzy AHP by taking a case of selecting an effective oil refinery. The selection is conducted using system effectiveness as a criterion. The two approaches have been compared on the same hierarchy structure and criteria set and the result show that in both case dual drum scheme (DDS has the highest priority but different value that is 0.51 and 0.36 for AHP and FAHP respectively which shows that if the expert opinion is certain AHP should be used if not FAHP should be preferred

  12. Truncation identities for the small polaron fusion hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, André M.; Frahm, Holger

    2013-04-01

    We study a one-dimensional lattice model of interacting spinless fermions. This model is integrable for both periodic and open boundary conditions; the latter case includes the presence of Grassmann valued non-diagonal boundary fields breaking the bulk U(1) symmetry of the model. Starting from the embedding of this model into a graded Yang-Baxter algebra, an infinite hierarchy of commuting transfer matrices is constructed by means of a fusion procedure. For certain values of the coupling constant related to anisotropies of the underlying vertex model taken at roots of unity, this hierarchy is shown to truncate giving a finite set of functional equations for the spectrum of the transfer matrices. For generic coupling constants, the spectral problem is formulated in terms of a functional (or TQ-)equation which can be solved by Bethe ansatz methods for periodic and diagonal open boundary conditions. Possible approaches for the solution of the model with generic non-diagonal boundary fields are discussed.

  13. Ordered hierarchy versus scale invariance in sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    Sequence stratigraphy has been applied in a wide range of scales of time and space, from decimeter-thick layers formed within hours to kilometer-thick basin fills formed during hundreds of millions of years. The traditional approach to practice sequence stratigraphy in this wide range of scales is to subdivide the sediment piles into an ordered hierarchy of sequence cycles of different duration and different architecture. An alternative are scale-invariant models with fractal characteristics. Published data confirm two predictions of the ordered-hierarchy model: sequences of very short duration (200 × 106 years) are symmetrical transgressive-regressive cycles. However, the sequence record in the range of 1 × 104-200 × 106 years, the principal domain of sequence stratigraphy, shows a rather irregular succession of sequences with variable symmetry and bounded by flooding surfaces or exposure surfaces. For these time scales, scale-invariant models are a good first approximation, particularly because the evidence for scale-invariance and randomness in the stratigraphic record is strong: Frequency spectra of sea-level change as well as rates of sedimentation and rates of accommodation change plotted against length of observation span show basic trends indistinguishable from random walk. These trends, combined with scale-invariant sequence models may be the most efficient tools for across-the-board predictions on sequences and for locating islands of order in the sequence record.

  14. Statefinder hierarchy exploration of the extended Ricci dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Fei; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    We apply the statefinder hierarchy plus the fractional growth parameter to explore the extended Ricci dark energy (ERDE) model, in which there are two independent coefficients $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. By adjusting them, we plot evolution trajectories of some typical parameters, including Hubble expansion rate $E$, deceleration parameter $q$, the third and fourth order hierarchy $S_3^{(1)}$ and $S_4^{(1)}$ and fractional growth parameter $\\epsilon$, respectively, as well as several combinations of them. For the case of variable $\\alpha$ and constant $\\beta$, in the low-redshift region the evolution trajectories of $E$ are in high degeneracy and that of $q$ separate somewhat. However, the $\\Lambda$CDM model is confounded with ERDE in both of these two cases. $S_3^{(1)}$ and $S_4^{(1)}$, especially the former, perform much better. They can differentiate well only varieties of cases within ERDE except $\\Lambda$CDM in the low-redshift region. For high-redshift region, combinations $\\{S_n^{(1)},\\epsilon\\}$ can break t...

  15. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory.

  16. Hierarchy, causation and explanation: ubiquity, locality and pluralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2012-02-06

    The ubiquity of top-down causal explanations within and across the sciences is prima facie evidence for the existence of top-down causation. Much debate has been focused on whether top-down causation is coherent or in conflict with reductionism. Less attention has been given to the question of whether these representations of hierarchical relations pick out a single, common hierarchy. A negative answer to this question undermines a commonplace view that the world is divided into stratified 'levels' of organization and suggests that attributions of causal responsibility in different hierarchical representations may not have a meaningful basis for comparison. Representations used in top-down and bottom-up explanations are primarily 'local' and tied to distinct domains of science, illustrated here by protein structure and folding. This locality suggests that no single metaphysical account of hierarchy for causal relations to obtain within emerges from the epistemology of scientific explanation. Instead, a pluralist perspective is recommended-many different kinds of top-down causation (explanation) can exist alongside many different kinds of bottom-up causation (explanation). Pluralism makes plausible why different senses of top-down causation can be coherent and not in conflict with reductionism, thereby illustrating a productive interface between philosophical analysis and scientific inquiry.

  17. Organizing product innovation: hierarchy, market or triple-helix networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitjar, Rune Dahl; Gjelsvik, Martin; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    This paper assesses the extent to which the organization of the innovation effort in firms, as well as the geographical scale at which this effort is pursued, affects the capacity to benefit from product innovations. Three alternative modes of organization are studied: hierarchy, market and triple-helix-type networks. Furthermore, we consider triple-helix networks at three geographical scales: local, national and international. These relationships are tested on a random sample of 763 firms located in five urban regions of Norway which reported having introduced new products or services during the preceding 3 years. The analysis shows that firms exploiting internal hierarchy or triple-helix networks with a wide range of partners managed to derive a significantly higher share of their income from new products, compared to those that mainly relied on outsourcing within the market. In addition, the analysis shows that the geographical scale of cooperation in networks, as well as the type of partner used, matters for the capacity of firms to benefit from product innovation. In particular, firms that collaborate in international triple-helix-type networks involving suppliers, customers and R&D institutions extract a higher share of their income from product innovations, regardless of whether they organize the processes internally or through the network.

  18. Global aspects of the renormalization group and the hierarchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrascu, Andrei T.

    2017-10-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations allowed us to precisely determine its mass being 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV. This value is intriguing as it lies at the frontier between the regions of stability and meta-stability of the standard model vacuum. It is known that the hierarchy problem can be interpreted in terms of the near criticality between the two phases. The coefficient of the Higgs bilinear in the scalar potential, m2, is pushed by quantum corrections away from zero, towards the extremes of the interval [ - MPl2, MPl2] where MPl is the Planck mass. In this article, I show that demanding topological invariance for the renormalisation group allows us to extend the beta functions such that the particular value of the Higgs mass parameter observed in our universe regains naturalness. In holographic terms, invariance to changes of topology in the bulk is dual to a natural large hierarchy in the boundary quantum field theory. The demand of invariance to topology changes in the bulk appears to be strongly tied to the invariance of string theory to T-duality in the presence of H-fluxes.

  19. A self-similar hierarchy of the Korean stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Min, Seungsik; Yoo, Kun-Woo

    2013-01-01

    A scaling analysis is performed on market values of stocks listed on Korean stock exchanges such as the KOSPI and the KOSDAQ. Different from previous studies on price fluctuations, market capitalizations are dealt with in this work. First, we show that the sum of the two stock exchanges shows a clear rank-size distribution, i.e., the Zipf's law, just as each separate one does. Second, by abstracting Zipf's law as a γ-sequence, we define a self-similar hierarchy consisting of many levels, with the numbers of firms at each level forming a geometric sequence. We also use two exponential functions to describe the hierarchy and derive a scaling law from them. Lastly, we propose a self-similar hierarchical process and perform an empirical analysis on our data set. Based on our findings, we argue that all money invested in the stock market is distributed in a hierarchical way and that a slight difference exists between the two exchanges.

  20. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  1. Mass Hierarchy Determination Using Neutrinos from Multiple Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhang, Xinmin

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of a medium baseline reactor neutrino experiment. The difference in baselines resulting from the 1 km separations of Daya Bay and Ling Ao reactors reduces the amplitudes of 1-3 oscillations at low energies, decreasing the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. A perpendicular detector location eliminates this effect. We simulate experiments under several mountains perpendicular to the Daya Bay/Ling Ao reactors, considering in particular the background from the TaiShan and YangJiang reactor complexes. In general the hierarchy can be determined most reliably underneath the 1000 meter mountain BaiYunZhang, which is 44.5 km from Daya Bay. If some planned reactors are not built then nearby 700 meter mountains at 47-51 km baselines gain a small advantage. Neglecting their low overhead burdens, hills near DongKeng would be the optimal locations. We use a weighted Fourier transform to avoid a spurious dependence on the high energy neutrino spectrum and find that a...

  2. Calculating of river water quality sampling frequency by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Huu Tuan; Lo, Shang-Lien; Phan Thi, Lan Anh

    2013-01-01

    River water quality sampling frequency is an important aspect of the river water quality monitoring network. A suitable sampling frequency for each station as well as for the whole network will provide a measure of the real water quality status for the water quality managers as well as the decision makers. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is an effective method for decision analysis and calculation of weighting factors based on multiple criteria to solve complicated problems. This study introduces a new procedure to design river water quality sampling frequency by applying the AHP. We introduce and combine weighting factors of variables with the relative weights of stations to select the sampling frequency for each station, monthly and yearly. The new procedure was applied for Jingmei and Xindian rivers, Taipei, Taiwan. The results showed that sampling frequency should be increased at high weighted stations while decreased at low weighted stations. In addition, a detailed monitoring plan for each station and each month could be scheduled from the output results. Finally, the study showed that the AHP is a suitable method to design a system for sampling frequency as it could combine multiple weights and multiple levels for stations and variables to calculate a final weight for stations, variables, and months.

  3. AHP Version 5. 1 user's manual. [Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, J.C.; Ghan, L.S.

    1992-10-01

    As decisions become more and more complex, decision makers are faced with the challenge of sorting through many variables to arrive at a sound decision. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a tool, that allows a systematic, logical approach to reducing complex issues into manageable pieces. The decision maker can then sort through the variables and determine to what degree a particular variable should influence the final decision. The power of the AHP as a management tool comes from the fact that it reduces complex problems to many simple pairwise decisions. Only two items need be compared against one another - a much simpler task than comparing an item to all the others simultaneously. By arranging the items that influence a decision in the form of a matrix and comparing appropriate pairs in this matrix to each other, each item can be compared with every other item. Matrix algebra can then operate on this matrix and rank each item according to its importance to the final decision.

  4. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Mustafa, Arshi; Almén, Markus Sällman; Fredriksson, Robert; Williams, Michael J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins perform a crucial role as molecular switches controlling various cellular responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Recent data have shown that the vertebrate-like G protein families are found across metazoans and their closest unicellular relatives. However, an overall evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like G proteins, including gene family annotations and in particular mapping individual gene gain/loss events across diverse holozoan lineages is still incomplete. Here, with more expanded invertebrate taxon sampling, we have reconstructed phylogenetic trees for each of the G protein classes/families and provide a robust classification and hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G proteins. Our results further extend the evidence that the common ancestor (CA) of holozoans had at least five ancestral Gα genes corresponding to all major vertebrate Gα classes and contain a total of eight genes including two Gβ and one Gγ. Our results also indicate that the GNAI/O-like gene likely duplicated in the last CA of metazoans to give rise to GNAI- and GNAO-like genes, which are conserved across invertebrates. Moreover, homologs of GNB1-4 paralogon- and GNB5 family-like genes are found in most metazoans and that the unicellular holozoans encode two ancestral Gβ genes. Similarly, most bilaterian invertebrates encode two Gγ genes which include a representative of the GNG gene cluster and a putative homolog of GNG13. Interestingly, our results also revealed key evolutionary events such as the Drosophila melanogaster eye specific Gβ subunit that is found conserved in most arthropods and several previously unidentified species specific expansions within Gαi/o, Gαs, Gαq, Gα12/13 classes and the GNB1-4 paralogon. Also, we provide an overall proposed evolutionary scenario on the expansions of all G protein families in vertebrate tetraploidizations. Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further

  5. Kinship,Equality, and Hierarchy:Sex Distinction and Values in Comparative Perspective①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ccile Barraud; AuthorZhao Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    significance of these differences which are not accounted for? Do they constitute inequalities? As modes of classification, kinship terminologies inev-itably inform the ways people are classified as rela-tives, without distinguishing their roles or func-tions. The examination of Dumont’s works, both on equality and on kinship terminologies, is located at the interface of these questions. The first part of this article considers Dumont’s notion of equality, as presented in his comments on Tocqueville’s thoughts on egalitarian ideology and in his own writings on gender. Having clarified the terms of the discussion, the central part of the article exam-ines the intersection of caste hierarchy and kinship terminology. I analyze the status of affinity and consanguinity, as well as the equality of the sexes in South Indian kinship terminology. I then present my own ethnographic material from eastern Indone-sia to further explore Dumont’s analysis of kinship terminology. Finally, I briefly address Dumont’s comparison of kinship terminologies in North India and Western societies, relative to ideology. In con-clusion, I suggest some research directions con-cerning the status of consanguinity and affinity in contemporary societies.

  6. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  7. A (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Hierarchy and its Integrable Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanhe Dong

    2007-01-01

    Under the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional zero curvature equation and Tu model,the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave hierarchy is obtained. Furthermore, the loop algebra is expanded into a larger one. Moreover, a class of integrable coupling system for dispersive long wave hierarchy and (2+1)-dimensional multi-component integrable system will be investigated.

  8. Policies to promote the waste management hierarchy : with special attention to the paper cycle in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukering, van P.J.H.; Brander, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review policy instruments available to promote aspects of the waste management hierarchy. The motivation of this review is embedded in two questions: (1) What policy instruments are most effective in promoting the waste hierarchy? and, (2) Should EU policies

  9. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤福财

    2012-01-01

    We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy.

  10. A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)

  11. An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…

  12. Multi-Scale Singularity Trees: Soft-Linked Scale-Space Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Kreiborg, Sven

    2005-01-01

    -space is used to construct image hierarchies called Multi-Scale Singularity Trees (MSSTs). We propose two kinds of mathematical landmarks: extrema and saddles. Unlike all other similar methods proposed hitherto, our method produces soft-linked image hierarchies in the sense that all possible connections...

  13. A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)

  14. An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…

  15. Increasing Pizza Box Assembly Using Task Analysis and a Least-to-Most Prompting Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnow, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to use a task analysis and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy to teach students with cognitive disabilities pizza box assembly skills. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a least-to-most prompting hierarchy was effective in teaching students with cognitive disabilities to increase the number of task-analyzed…

  16. A hierarchy of high-order theories for modes in an elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.; Chapman, C. John

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchy of high-order theories for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes in an infinitely long elastic layer of the constant thickness is derived. For each member of the hierarchy, boundary conditions for layers of the finite length are formulated. The forcing problems at several approximation...

  17. An Analytical Hierarchy Process Model for the Evaluation of College Experimental Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qingli

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the characteristics of college experimental teaching, through investigaton and analysis, evaluation indices and an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model of experimental teaching quality have been established following the analytical hierarchy process method, and the evaluation indices have been given reasonable weights. An…

  18. Bounds on the Weight Hierarchies of a Kind of Linear Codes Satisfying Non-Chain Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZihui; CHENWende

    2005-01-01

    The upper bound of weight hierarchies of codes with a divided-chain of arbitrary continuous break points are studied and the codes satisfying the upperbound are constructed by finite projective geometry, in particular, the geometrical construction is tight for the upper-bound weight hierarchies.

  19. Symmetries of the Super Heat Kernel N = 1 and SKdV hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, S.; Restuccia, A. [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Sotomayor, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Unexpo Luis Caballero Mejias (Venezuela)]. E-mail: sandrea@usb.ve

    2006-07-01

    A new heat operator with N = 1 supersymmetry is proposed. We study the symmetries of the corresponding heat kernel, which generalizes the bosonic one in a natural way. We used these symmetries to obtain, in the asymptotic limit, the super KdV hierarchy supersymmetric tree version associated with this hierarchy is presented. (Author)

  20. Average Exceptional Lie Group Hierarchy and High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    El Naschie, M S

    2008-01-01

    Starting from an invariant total dimension for an exceptional Lie symmetry groups hierarchy, we drive all the essential characteristic and coupling constants of the fundamental interactions of physics. It is shown in a most simplistic fashion that all physical fields are various transfinite scaling transformation and topological deformation of each other. An extended standard model on the other hand turned out to be a compact sub group H of a version of E7 exceptional Lie group E7(−5) with dimH =69. Thus particle physics, electromagnetism as well as gravity and the bulk are all representable via modular spaces akin to the famous compactified version of F. Klein’s modular curve.