WorldWideScience

Sample records for hierarchically organized layout

  1. Hierarchically organized layout for visualization of biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Bo-Liang; Jeng, Yu-Sen

    2010-01-01

    Many complex pathways are described as hierarchical structures in which a pathway is recursively partitioned into several sub-pathways, and organized hierarchically as a tree. The hierarchical structure provides a natural way to visualize the global structure of a complex pathway. However, none of the previous research on pathway visualization explores the hierarchical structures provided by many complex pathways. In this paper, we aim to develop algorithms that can take advantages of hierarchical structures, and give layouts that explore the global structures as well as local structures of pathways. We present a new hierarchically organized layout algorithm to produce layouts for hierarchically organized pathways. Our algorithm first decomposes a complex pathway into sub-pathway groups along the hierarchical organization, and then partition each sub-pathway group into basic components. It then applies conventional layout algorithms, such as hierarchical layout and force-directed layout, to compute the layout of each basic component. Finally, component layouts are joined to form a final layout of the pathway. Our main contribution is the development of algorithms for decomposing pathways and joining layouts. Experiment shows that our algorithm is able to give comprehensible visualization for pathways with hierarchies, cycles as well as complex structures. It clearly renders the global component structures as well as the local structure in each component. In addition, it runs very fast, and gives better visualization for many examples from previous related research. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang; Wang, Jun; Vouga, Etienne; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  3. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-06

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  4. Hierarchical organization versus self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...

  5. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  6. Adaptive hierarchical multi-agent organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; Jansweijer, W.N.H.; Wielinga, B.J.; Babuška, R.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the design of adaptive hierarchical organizations for multi-agent systems (MAS). Hierarchical organizations have a number of advantages such as their ability to handle complex problems and their scalability to large organizations. By introducing adaptivity in the

  7. A multilevel layout algorithm for visualizing physical and genetic interaction networks, with emphasis on their modular organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuikkala Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, such as those based on the force-directed drawing approach, may become uninformative when applied to larger networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. Methods We implemented a modified layout plug-in, named Multilevel Layout, which applies the conventional layout algorithms within a multilevel optimization framework to better capture the hierarchical modularity of many biological networks. Using a wide variety of real life biological networks, we carried out a systematic evaluation of the method in comparison with other layout algorithms in Cytoscape. Results The multilevel approach provided both biologically relevant and visually pleasant layout solutions in most network types, hence complementing the layout options available in Cytoscape. In particular, it could improve drawing of large-scale networks of yeast genetic interactions and human physical interactions. In more general terms, the biological evaluation framework developed here enables one to assess the layout solutions from any existing or future graph drawing algorithm as well as to optimize their performance for a given network type or structure. Conclusions By making use of the multilevel modular organization when visualizing biological networks, together with the biological evaluation of the layout solutions, one can generate convenient visualizations for many network biology applications.

  8. A multilevel layout algorithm for visualizing physical and genetic interaction networks, with emphasis on their modular organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikkala, Johannes; Vähämaa, Heidi; Salmela, Pekka; Nevalainen, Olli S; Aittokallio, Tero

    2012-03-26

    Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, such as those based on the force-directed drawing approach, may become uninformative when applied to larger networks with dense or clustered connectivity structure. We implemented a modified layout plug-in, named Multilevel Layout, which applies the conventional layout algorithms within a multilevel optimization framework to better capture the hierarchical modularity of many biological networks. Using a wide variety of real life biological networks, we carried out a systematic evaluation of the method in comparison with other layout algorithms in Cytoscape. The multilevel approach provided both biologically relevant and visually pleasant layout solutions in most network types, hence complementing the layout options available in Cytoscape. In particular, it could improve drawing of large-scale networks of yeast genetic interactions and human physical interactions. In more general terms, the biological evaluation framework developed here enables one to assess the layout solutions from any existing or future graph drawing algorithm as well as to optimize their performance for a given network type or structure. By making use of the multilevel modular organization when visualizing biological networks, together with the biological evaluation of the layout solutions, one can generate convenient visualizations for many network biology applications.

  9. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  10. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION, IN RELATIONAL DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Horia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will present different types of representation, of hierarchical information inside a relational database. I also will compare them to find the best organization for specific scenarios.

  11. Mapping the Hierarchical Layout of the Structural Network of the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goulas, A.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Stiers, P.

    2014-01-01

    A consensus on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) holds that it is pivotal for flexible behavior and the integration of the cognitive, affective, and motivational domains. Certain models have been put forth and a dominant model postulates a hierarchical anterior-posterior gradient. The structural

  12. Growing hierarchical probabilistic self-organizing graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Palomo, Esteban José

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the growing hierarchical self-organizing map, much work has been done on self-organizing neural models with a dynamic structure. These models allow adjusting the layers of the model to the features of the input dataset. Here we propose a new self-organizing model which is based on a probabilistic mixture of multivariate Gaussian components. The learning rule is derived from the stochastic approximation framework, and a probabilistic criterion is used to control the growth of the model. Moreover, the model is able to adapt to the topology of each layer, so that a hierarchy of dynamic graphs is built. This overcomes the limitations of the self-organizing maps with a fixed topology, and gives rise to a faithful visualization method for high-dimensional data.

  13. Organizing vertical layout environments: a forward-looking development strategy for high-rise building projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magay, A. A.; Bulgakova, E. A.; Zabelina, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article highlights issues surrounding development of high rise buildings. With the rapid increase of the global population there has been a trend for people to migrate into megacities and has caused the expansion of big city territories. This trend, coupled with the desire for a comfortable living environment, has resulted in numerous problems plaguing the megacity. This article proposes that a viable solution to the problems facing megacities is to create vertical layout environments. Potential options for creating vertical layout environments are set out below including the construction of buildings with atriums. Further, the article puts forth suggested spatial organization of the environment as well as optimal landscaping of high-rise buildings and constructions for the creation of vertical layout environments. Finally, the persuasive reasons for the adoption of vertical layout environments is that it will decrease the amount of developed urban areas, decrease traffic and increase environmental sustainability.

  14. Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W-X; Sornette, D; Hill, R A; Dunbar, R I M

    2005-02-22

    The 'social brain hypothesis' for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3-5, 9-15, 30-45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.

  15. Modular networks with hierarchical organization: The dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the complex systems seen in real life also have associated dynamics [10], and the ... another example, this time a hierarchical structure, viz., the Cayley tree with b ..... natural constraints operating on networks in real life, such as the ...

  16. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  17. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger

    structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...

  18. Page Layout Analysis of the Document Image Based on the Region Classification in a Decision Hierarchical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourghassem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of document image to its electronic version is a very important problem in the saving, searching and retrieval application in the official automation system. For this purpose, analysis of the document image is necessary. In this paper, a hierarchical classification structure based on a two-stage segmentation algorithm is proposed. In this structure, image is segmented using the proposed two-stage segmentation algorithm. Then, the type of the image regions such as document and non-document image is determined using multiple classifiers in the hierarchical classification structure. The proposed segmentation algorithm uses two algorithms based on wavelet transform and thresholding. Texture features such as correlation, homogeneity and entropy that extracted from co-occurrenc matrix and also two new features based on wavelet transform are used to classifiy and lable the regions of the image. The hierarchical classifier is consisted of two Multilayer Perceptron (MLP classifiers and a Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of document and non-document images that provides from Internet. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed approach in the region segmentation and classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 97.5% on classification of the regions.

  19. Organization of excitable dynamics in hierarchical biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Müller-Linow

    Full Text Available This study investigates the contributions of network topology features to the dynamic behavior of hierarchically organized excitable networks. Representatives of different types of hierarchical networks as well as two biological neural networks are explored with a three-state model of node activation for systematically varying levels of random background network stimulation. The results demonstrate that two principal topological aspects of hierarchical networks, node centrality and network modularity, correlate with the network activity patterns at different levels of spontaneous network activation. The approach also shows that the dynamic behavior of the cerebral cortical systems network in the cat is dominated by the network's modular organization, while the activation behavior of the cellular neuronal network of Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly influenced by hub nodes. These findings indicate the interaction of multiple topological features and dynamic states in the function of complex biological networks.

  20. Hierarchical organization of the circadian timing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, Mariska van

    2006-01-01

    In order to cope with and to predict 24-hour rhythms in the environment, most, if not all, organisms have a circadian timing system. The most important mammalian circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus in the brain. Over the years, it has become

  1. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  2. Hierarchical organization of brain functional networks during visual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2011-09-01

    The functional network of the brain is known to demonstrate modular structure over different hierarchical scales. In this paper, we systematically investigated the hierarchical modular organizations of the brain functional networks that are derived from the extent of phase synchronization among high-resolution EEG time series during a visual task. In particular, we compare the modular structure of the functional network from EEG channels with that of the anatomical parcellation of the brain cortex. Our results show that the modular architectures of brain functional networks correspond well to those from the anatomical structures over different levels of hierarchy. Most importantly, we find that the consistency between the modular structures of the functional network and the anatomical network becomes more pronounced in terms of vision, sensory, vision-temporal, motor cortices during the visual task, which implies that the strong modularity in these areas forms the functional basis for the visual task. The structure-function relationship further reveals that the phase synchronization of EEG time series in the same anatomical group is much stronger than that of EEG time series from different anatomical groups during the task and that the hierarchical organization of functional brain network may be a consequence of functional segmentation of the brain cortex.

  3. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  4. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  5. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  6. Where sociality and relatedness diverge: the genetic basis for hierarchical social organization in African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittemyer, George; Okello, John B. A.; Rasmussen, Henrik B.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical properties characterize elephant fission-fusion social organization whereby stable groups of individuals coalesce into higher order groups or split in a predictable manner. This hierarchical complexity is rare among animals and, as such, an examination of the factors driving its......-tier level bonds, indicating the importance of direct benefits in the emergence of complex, hierarchical social relations among elephants. Future directions and conservation implications are discussed....

  7. An Evolutionary Approach for Optimizing Hierarchical Multi-Agent System Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zhiqi; Yu, Ling; Yu, Han

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that the performance of a multi-agent system is highly affected by its organization. A large scale system may have billions of possible ways of organization, which makes it impractical to find an optimal choice of organization using exhaustive search methods. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm aided optimization scheme for designing hierarchical structures of multi-agent systems. We introduce a novel algorithm, called the hierarchical genetic algorithm...

  8. Course Layout

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present roll Presentation roll Interactive Media Element This is an interactive diagram of a MATLAB course layout covering 16 topics in 4 different main areas: Basics of MATLAB, Numerical Methods in MATLAB, Symbolic Manipulations in MATLAB, Mathematical Modeling in MATLAB and Simulink AE2440 Introduction to Digital Computation

  9. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Liang; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Tan, Kui; Li, Jia-Luo; Kirchon, Angelo; Liu, Ling-Mei; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yu; Chabal, Yves J.; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-01-01

    strate-gy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultra-stable hierarchically porous metal−organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores

  10. Dynamics and thermodynamics in hierarchically organized systems applications in physics, biology and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, P

    2013-01-01

    One of the most fundamental and efficient ways of conceptualizing complex systems is to organize them hierarchically. A hierarchically organized system is represented by a network of interconnected subsystems, each of which has its own network of subsystems, and so on, until some elementary subsystems are reached that are not further decomposed. This original and important book proposes a general mathematical theory of a hierarchical system and shows how it can be applied to very different topics such as physics (Hamiltonian systems), biology (coupling the molecular and the cellular levels), e

  11. Hierarchical responses to organic contaminants in aquatic ecotoxicological bioassays: from microcystins to biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Katia

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis I explore the ecotoxicological responses of aquatic organisms at different hierarchical levels to organic contaminants by means of bioassays. The bioassays use novel endpoints or approaches to elucidate the effects of exposure to contaminants and attempt to give mechanistic explanations that could be used to interpret effects at higher hierarchical scales. The sensitivity of population growth rate in the cyanobacteria species Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide glyp...

  12. Numerical analysis of a neural network with hierarchically organized patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, Silvia; Wiecko, Cristina; Parga, Nestor

    1988-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the retrieval behaviour of an associative memory model where the memorized patterns are stored hierarchically is performed. It is found that the model is able to categorize errors. For a finite number of categories, these are retrieved correctly even when the stored patterns are not. Instead, when they are allowed to increase with the number of neurons, their retrieval quality deteriorates above a critical category capacity. (Author)

  13. Electric double layer capacitance on hierarchical porous carbons in an organic electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Moriguchi, Isamu; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were prepared by using colloidal crystal as a template. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscope images revealed that the porous carbons exhibit hierarchical porous structures with meso/macropores and micropores. Electric double layer capacitor performance of the porous carbons was investigated in an organic electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane. The hierarchical porous carbons exhibited large specific dou...

  14. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  17. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  18. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  19. A multilevel layout algorithm for visualizing physical and genetic interaction networks, with emphasis on their modular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Tuikkala, Johannes; Vähämaa, Heidi; Salmela, Pekka; Nevalainen, Olli S; Aittokallio, Tero

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Graph drawing is an integral part of many systems biology studies, enabling visual exploration and mining of large-scale biological networks. While a number of layout algorithms are available in popular network analysis platforms, such as Cytoscape, it remains poorly understood how well their solutions reflect the underlying biological processes that give rise to the network connectivity structure. Moreover, visualizations obtained using conventional layout algorithms, suc...

  20. The Hierarchical Cortical Organization of Human Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Wendy A; Huth, Alexander G; Griffiths, Thomas L; Gallant, Jack L; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2017-07-05

    Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxelwise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulatory, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset. Because some responses might be explained equally well by more than one feature space, we used a variance partitioning analysis to determine the fraction of the variance that was uniquely explained by each feature space. Consistent with previous studies, we found that speech comprehension involves hierarchical representations starting in primary auditory areas and moving laterally on the temporal lobe: spectral features are found in the core of A1, mixtures of spectral and articulatory in STG, mixtures of articulatory and semantic in STS, and semantic in STS and beyond. Our data also show that both hemispheres are equally and actively involved in speech perception and interpretation. Further, responses as early in the auditory hierarchy as in STS are more correlated with semantic than spectral representations. These results illustrate the importance of using natural speech in neurolinguistic research. Our methodology also provides an efficient way to simultaneously test multiple specific hypotheses about the representations of speech without using block designs and segmented or synthetic speech. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate the processing steps performed by the human brain to transform natural speech sound into meaningful language, we used models based on a hierarchical set of speech features to predict BOLD responses of individual voxels recorded in an fMRI experiment while subjects listened to

  1. Navigating Comics: An Empirical and Theoretical Approach to Strategies of Reading Comic Page Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down – a “Z-path” – though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts. PMID:23616776

  2. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eCohn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down—a Z-path—though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  3. Navigating comics: an empirical and theoretical approach to strategies of reading comic page layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Like the sequence of words in written language, comic book page layouts direct images into a deliberate reading sequence. Conventional wisdom would expect that comic panels follow the order of text: left-to-right and down - a "Z-path" - though several layouts can violate this order, such as Gestalt groupings of panels that deny a Z-path of reading. To examine how layouts pressure readers to choose pathways deviating from the Z-path, we presented participants with comic pages empty of content, and asked them to number the panels in the order they would read them. Participants frequently used strategies departing from both the traditional Z-path and Gestalt groupings. These preferences reveal a system of constraints that organizes panels into hierarchic constituents, guiding readers through comic page layouts.

  4. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  5. Hierarchical Recursive Organization and the Free Energy Principle: From Biological Self-Organization to the Psychoanalytic Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Connolly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper argues that a systems theory epistemology (and particularly the notion of hierarchical recursive organization provides the critical theoretical context within which the significance of Friston's (2010a Free Energy Principle (FEP for both evolution and psychoanalysis is best understood. Within this perspective, the FEP occupies a particular level of the hierarchical organization of the organism, which is the level of biological self-organization. This form of biological self-organization is in turn understood as foundational and pervasive to the higher levels of organization of the human organism that are of interest to both neuroscience as well as psychoanalysis. Consequently, central psychoanalytic claims should be restated, in order to be located in their proper place within a hierarchical recursive organization of the (situated organism. In light of the FEP the realization of the psychoanalytic mind by the brain should be seen in terms of the evolution of different levels of systematic organization where the concepts of psychoanalysis describe a level of hierarchical recursive organization superordinate to that of biological self-organization and the FEP. The implication of this formulation is that while “psychoanalytic” mental processes are fundamentally subject to the FEP, they nonetheless also add their own principles of process over and above that of the FEP. A model found in Grobbelaar (1989 offers a recursive bottom-up description of the self-organization of the psychoanalytic ego as dependent on the organization of language (and affect, which is itself founded upon the tendency toward autopoiesis (self-making within the organism, which is in turn described as formally similar to the FEP. Meaningful consilience between Grobbelaar's model and the hierarchical recursive description available in Friston's (2010a theory is described. The paper concludes that the valuable contribution of the FEP to psychoanalysis

  6. Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper

  7. Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rosvall

    Full Text Available To comprehend the hierarchical organization of large integrated systems, we introduce the hierarchical map equation, which reveals multilevel structures in networks. In this information-theoretic approach, we exploit the duality between compression and pattern detection; by compressing a description of a random walker as a proxy for real flow on a network, we find regularities in the network that induce this system-wide flow. Finding the shortest multilevel description of the random walker therefore gives us the best hierarchical clustering of the network--the optimal number of levels and modular partition at each level--with respect to the dynamics on the network. With a novel search algorithm, we extract and illustrate the rich multilevel organization of several large social and biological networks. For example, from the global air traffic network we uncover countries and continents, and from the pattern of scientific communication we reveal more than 100 scientific fields organized in four major disciplines: life sciences, physical sciences, ecology and earth sciences, and social sciences. In general, we find shallow hierarchical structures in globally interconnected systems, such as neural networks, and rich multilevel organizations in systems with highly separated regions, such as road networks.

  8. Reconciling Hierarchical and Edge Organizations: 9-11 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Few Many Planning & control Management of output Action planning Performance control Despite all the advantages claimed for network-centric...allowed to use them. offered by the edge organization. Despite all the advantages claimed for network-centric operations over the past 15 years...C2: • 2 PhD students (cultural influences; eCommerce to support CMI) – Offensive cyber operations: • Integrating kinetic & cyber ops

  9. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  10. Attentional selection of levels within hierarchically organized figures is mediated by object-files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Joseph Valdes-Sosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objects frequently have a hierarchical organization (tree-branch-leaf. How do we select the level to be attended? This has been explored with compound letters: a global letter built from local letters. One explanation, backed by much empirical support, is that attentional competition is biased towards certain spatial frequency (SF bands across all locations and objects (a SF filter. This view assumes that the global and local letters are carried respectively by low and high SF bands, and that the bias can persist over time. Here we advocate a complementary view in which perception of hierarchical level is determined by how we represent each object-file. Although many properties bound to an object-file (i.e. position, color, even shape can mutate without affecting its persistence over time, we posit that same object-file cannot be used to store information from different hierarchical levels. Thus selection of level would be independent from locations but not from the way objects are represented at each moment. These views were contrasted via an attentional blink paradigm that presented letters within compound figures, but only one level at a time. Attending to two letters in rapid succession was easier if they were at the same- compared to different-levels, as predicted by both accounts. However, only the object-file account was able to explain why it was easier to report two targets on the same moving object compared to the same targets on distinct objects. The interference of different masks on target recognition was also easier to predict by the object-file account than by the SF filter. The methods introduced here allowed us to investigate attention to hierarchical levels and to objects within the same empirical framework. The data suggests that SF information is used to structure the internal organization of object representations, a process understood best by integrating object-file theory with previous models of hierarchical perception.

  11. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

  12. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Tan, Kui; Li, Jia-Luo; Kirchon, Angelo; Liu, Ling-Mei; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yu; Chabal, Yves J; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-02-14

    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability, and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization, and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strategy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultrastable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxylation process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultrasmall metal oxide nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work provides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on probing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  13. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Liang

    2018-01-18

    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strate-gy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultra-stable hierarchically porous metal−organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxyla-tion process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultra-small metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work pro-vides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on prob-ing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  14. Underground Layout Configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Linden

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings

  15. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2017-05-01

    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  16. Titanium-Phosphonate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hierarchical Porosity for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hui

    2018-02-01

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production is crucial for solar-to-chemical conversion process, wherein high-efficiency photocatalysts lie in the heart of this area. Herein a new photocatalyst of hierarchically mesoporous titanium-phosphonate-based metal-organic frameworks, featuring well-structured spheres, periodic mesostructure and large secondary mesoporosity, are rationally designed with the complex of polyelectrolyte and cathodic surfactant serving as the template. The well-structured hierarchical porosity and homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups can favor the mass transfer and strong optical absorption during the photocatalytic reactions. Correspondingly, the titanium phosphonates exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate along with impressive stability. This work can provide more insights into designing advanced photocatalysts for energy conversion and render a tunable platform in photoelectrochemical field.

  17. Titanium-Phosphonate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hierarchical Porosity for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hui; Sun, Ying; Yuan, Zhong-Yong; Zhu, Yun-Pei; Ma, Tianyi

    2018-01-01

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production is crucial for solar-to-chemical conversion process, wherein high-efficiency photocatalysts lie in the heart of this area. Herein a new photocatalyst of hierarchically mesoporous titanium-phosphonate-based metal-organic frameworks, featuring well-structured spheres, periodic mesostructure and large secondary mesoporosity, are rationally designed with the complex of polyelectrolyte and cathodic surfactant serving as the template. The well-structured hierarchical porosity and homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups can favor the mass transfer and strong optical absorption during the photocatalytic reactions. Correspondingly, the titanium phosphonates exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate along with impressive stability. This work can provide more insights into designing advanced photocatalysts for energy conversion and render a tunable platform in photoelectrochemical field.

  18. Hierarchically organized architecture of potassium hydrogen phthalate and poly(acrylic acid): toward a general strategy for biomimetic crystal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2005-12-28

    A hierarchically organized architecture in multiple scales was generated from potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals and poly(acrylic acid) based on our novel biomimetic approach with an exquisite association of polymers on crystallization.

  19. Hierarchical organization of functional connectivity in the mouse brain: a complex network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Giampiero; Bifone, Angelo; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gozzi, Alessandro; Squartini, Tiziano

    2016-08-18

    This paper represents a contribution to the study of the brain functional connectivity from the perspective of complex networks theory. More specifically, we apply graph theoretical analyses to provide evidence of the modular structure of the mouse brain and to shed light on its hierarchical organization. We propose a novel percolation analysis and we apply our approach to the analysis of a resting-state functional MRI data set from 41 mice. This approach reveals a robust hierarchical structure of modules persistent across different subjects. Importantly, we test this approach against a statistical benchmark (or null model) which constrains only the distributions of empirical correlations. Our results unambiguously show that the hierarchical character of the mouse brain modular structure is not trivially encoded into this lower-order constraint. Finally, we investigate the modular structure of the mouse brain by computing the Minimal Spanning Forest, a technique that identifies subnetworks characterized by the strongest internal correlations. This approach represents a faster alternative to other community detection methods and provides a means to rank modules on the basis of the strength of their internal edges.

  20. Hierarchical Self Organizing Map for Novelty Detection using Mobile Robot with Robust Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha'abani, M N A H; Miskon, M F; Sakidin, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novelty detection method based on Self Organizing Map neural network using a mobile robot. Based on hierarchical neural network, the network is divided into three networks; position, orientation and sensor measurement network. A simulation was done to demonstrate and validate the proposed method using MobileSim. Three cases of abnormal events; new, missing and shifted objects are employed for performance evaluation. The result of detection was then filtered for false positive detection. The result shows that the inspection produced less than 2% false positive detection at high sensitivity settings

  1. The architecture of visual narrative comprehension: the interaction of narrative structure and page layout in understanding comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    How do people make sense of the sequential images in visual narratives like comics? A growing literature of recent research has suggested that this comprehension involves the interaction of multiple systems: The creation of meaning across sequential images relies on a "narrative grammar" that packages conceptual information into categorical roles organized in hierarchic constituents. These images are encapsulated into panels arranged in the layout of a physical page. Finally, how panels frame information can impact both the narrative structure and page layout. Altogether, these systems operate in parallel to construct the Gestalt whole of comprehension of this visual language found in comics.

  2. Construction of a Hierarchical Architecture of Covalent Organic Frameworks via a Postsynthetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Packwood, Daniel; Duong, Nghia Tuan; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Kadota, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Horike, Satoshi

    2018-02-21

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) represent an emerging class of crystalline porous materials that are constructed by the assembly of organic building blocks linked via covalent bonds. Several strategies have been developed for the construction of new COF structures; however, a facile approach to fabricate hierarchical COF architectures with controlled domain structures remains a significant challenge, and has not yet been achieved. In this study, a dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC)-based postsynthetic approach was employed at the solid-liquid interface to construct such structures. Two-dimensional imine-bonded COFs having different aromatic groups were prepared, and a homogeneously mixed-linker structure and a heterogeneously core-shell hollow structure were fabricated by controlling the reactivity of the postsynthetic reactions. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the structures. COFs prepared by a postsynthetic approach exhibit several functional advantages compared with their parent phases. Their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas are 2-fold greater than those of their parent phases because of the higher crystallinity. In addition, the hydrophilicity of the material and the stepwise adsorption isotherms of H 2 O vapor in the hierarchical frameworks were precisely controlled, which was feasible because of the distribution of various domains of the two COFs by controlling the postsynthetic reaction. The approach opens new routes for constructing COF architectures with functionalities that are not possible in a single phase.

  3. INFLUENCE OF THE SKELETON HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ON ELECTRONIC STATE OF IONS IN BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggested the 3D-superlattice (3DSL model to describe the effect of coplanar assembly of the hydroxyapatite (HA nanocrystallites on local electronic state of ions in mineralized bone. This model is based on the main structural and functional relationships between adjacent levels of the hierarchical organization of bone tissue. In the framework of the 3DSL model the authors predicted the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift of the unoccupied electronic states located near the bottom of the conduction band in HA and dependence of this shift on the ratio of the thickness of the hydrated layer to the crystallite size. To check these predictions the experimental X-ray absorption studies of native bone are performed near the Ca2р1/2,3/2-, P2р1/2,3/2- и O1s edges. Comparison of the measured spectra with the known spectra of the reference compounds has confirmed appearance of the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift. The observed effect is the ground for development of new diagnostic methods for bone status and imaging changes in the local electronic structure of bone tissue by using ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and measuring the assembly-tocrystal shifts. The experimental data analysis proved the applicability of the 3DSL model for better understanding of the hierarchical organization of bone at nanolevel.

  4. Microscopy of hierarchically organized TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode for dye solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandar, A., E-mail: aeska07@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Electronics, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Research on improving the performance of dye solar cells has various aspects of the device being investigated. This paper analyzes the deliberately hierarchized photoelectrode configuration for DSC applications to improve the performance of DSCs. Multiple layers of differently composed TiO{sub 2} particle types namely aggregates and nanoparticles were deposited to form a photoelectrode with thickness of about 12 µm. The photoelectrodes were assembled into working DSCs with an active area of 1 cm{sup 2}. Measurement for solar power conversion performance was measured under 1 sun at AM1.5 spectrum simulated sunlight. Electron microscopy for photoelectrode analysis was conducted using Field Emission Scattering Electron Microscopy with enhanced resolution. External Quantum Efficiency was measured using a purpose built instrument. Kinetics were investigated using the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement with a potentiostat. The best performing DSC is of the hierarchically organized photoelectrode with a photoconversion efficiency of 4.58%, an increase of 14% in comparison to the reference samples with fully aggregates configuration. Short circuit current density, Jsc increases by about 2.223 mA cm{sup −2} relative to the blanks. The electron microscopy confirmed expected thickness at around 10 µm and layers forming the photoelectrode being hierarchically deposited with ∼20 nm TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and 450 nm TiO{sub 2} aggregates mixture composition. EQE improved especially for visible region of 500-550 nm light wavelengths with 12 % increase in the response of in that region. Improvement to the diffusion coefficient as measured by the EIS contributed to the performance increase of the photoelectrode configuration under investigation.

  5. Hierarchical Organization of Auditory and Motor Representations in Speech Perception: Evidence from Searchlight Similarity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel; Davis, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    How humans extract the identity of speech sounds from highly variable acoustic signals remains unclear. Here, we use searchlight representational similarity analysis (RSA) to localize and characterize neural representations of syllables at different levels of the hierarchically organized temporo-frontal pathways for speech perception. We asked participants to listen to spoken syllables that differed considerably in their surface acoustic form by changing speaker and degrading surface acoustics using noise-vocoding and sine wave synthesis while we recorded neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found evidence for a graded hierarchy of abstraction across the brain. At the peak of the hierarchy, neural representations in somatomotor cortex encoded syllable identity but not surface acoustic form, at the base of the hierarchy, primary auditory cortex showed the reverse. In contrast, bilateral temporal cortex exhibited an intermediate response, encoding both syllable identity and the surface acoustic form of speech. Regions of somatomotor cortex associated with encoding syllable identity in perception were also engaged when producing the same syllables in a separate session. These findings are consistent with a hierarchical account of how variable acoustic signals are transformed into abstract representations of the identity of speech sounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Hierarchical thermoplastic rippled nanostructures regulate Schwann cell adhesion, morphology and spatial organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciullo, Cecilia; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Böettger, Roman; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Cecchini, Marco

    2017-10-12

    Periodic ripples are a variety of anisotropic nanostructures that can be realized by ion beam irradiation on a wide range of solid surfaces. Only a few authors have investigated these surfaces for tuning the response of biological systems, probably because it is challenging to directly produce them in materials that well sustain long-term cellular cultures. Here, hierarchical rippled nanotopographies with a lateral periodicity of ∼300 nm are produced from a gold-irradiated germanium mold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a biocompatible polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications, by a novel three-step embossing process. The effects of nano-ripples on Schwann Cells (SCs) are studied in view of their possible use for nerve-repair applications. The data demonstrate that nano-ripples can enhance short-term SC adhesion and proliferation (3-24 h after seeding), drive their actin cytoskeleton spatial organization and sustain long-term cell growth. Notably, SCs are oriented perpendicularly with respect to the nanopattern lines. These results provide information about the possible use of hierarchical nano-rippled elements for nerve-regeneration protocols.

  7. Hierarchical compression of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion reveals phenotypic differences in the organization of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Stephens, Greg J; Brown, André E X

    2016-08-01

    Regularities in animal behaviour offer insights into the underlying organizational and functional principles of nervous systems and automated tracking provides the opportunity to extract features of behaviour directly from large-scale video data. Yet how to effectively analyse such behavioural data remains an open question. Here, we explore whether a minimum description length principle can be exploited to identify meaningful behaviours and phenotypes. We apply a dictionary compression algorithm to behavioural sequences from the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans freely crawling on an agar plate both with and without food and during chemotaxis. We find that the motifs identified by the compression algorithm are rare but relevant for comparisons between worms in different environments, suggesting that hierarchical compression can be a useful step in behaviour analysis. We also use compressibility as a new quantitative phenotype and find that the behaviour of wild-isolated strains of C. elegans is more compressible than that of the laboratory strain N2 as well as the majority of mutant strains examined. Importantly, in distinction to more conventional phenotypes such as overall motor activity or aggregation behaviour, the increased compressibility of wild isolates is not explained by the loss of function of the gene npr-1, which suggests that erratic locomotion is a laboratory-derived trait with a novel genetic basis. Because hierarchical compression can be applied to any sequence, we anticipate that compressibility can offer insights into the organization of behaviour in other animals including humans. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Immunophenotype Discovery, Hierarchical Organization, and Template-based Classification of Flow Cytometry Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Azad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe algorithms for discovering immunophenotypes from large collections of flow cytometry (FC samples, and using them to organize the samples into a hierarchy based on phenotypic similarity. The hierarchical organization is helpful for effective and robust cytometry data mining, including the creation of collections of cell populations characteristic of different classes of samples, robust classification, and anomaly detection. We summarize a set of samples belonging to a biological class or category with a statistically derived template for the class. Whereas individual samples are represented in terms of their cell populations (clusters, a template consists of generic meta-populations (a group of homogeneous cell populations obtained from the samples in a class that describe key phenotypes shared among all those samples. We organize an FC data collection in a hierarchical data structure that supports the identification of immunophenotypes relevant to clinical diagnosis. A robust template-based classification scheme is also developed, but our primary focus is in the discovery of phenotypic signatures and inter-sample relationships in an FC data collection. This collective analysis approach is more efficient and robust since templates describe phenotypic signatures common to cell populations in several samples, while ignoring noise and small sample-specific variations.We have applied the template-base scheme to analyze several data setsincluding one representing a healthy immune system, and one of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AMLsamples. The last task is challenging due to the phenotypic heterogeneity of the severalsubtypes of AML. However, we identified thirteen immunophenotypes corresponding to subtypes of AML, and were able to distinguish Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia from other subtypes of AML.

  9. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  10. Graded effects in hierarchical figure-ground organization: reply to Peterson (1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    2000-06-01

    An important issue in vision research concerns the order of visual processing. S. P. Vecera and R. C. O'Reilly (1998) presented an interactive, hierarchical model that placed figure-ground segregation prior to object recognition. M. A. Peterson (1999) critiqued this model, arguing that because it used ambiguous stimulus displays, figure-ground processing did not precede object processing. In the current article, the authors respond to Peterson's (1999) interpretation of ambiguity in the model and her interpretation of what it means for figure-ground processing to come before object recognition. The authors argue that complete stimulus ambiguity is not critical to the model and that figure-ground precedes object recognition architecturally in the model. The arguments are supported with additional simulation results and an experiment, demonstrating that top-down inputs can influence figure-ground organization in displays that contain stimulus cues.

  11. Self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres into hierarchically organized nanostructured supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kon; Jung, Euiyeon; Goodman, Matthew D; Schweizer, Kenneth S; Tatsuda, Narihito; Yano, Kazuhisa; Braun, Paul V

    2015-05-06

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) porous carbon electrode containing both nanoscale and microscale porosity, which has been hierarchically organized to provide efficient ion and electron transport. The electrode organization is provided via the colloidal self-assembly of monodisperse starburst carbon spheres (MSCSs). The periodic close-packing of the MSCSs provides continuous pores inside the 3D structure that facilitate ion and electron transport (electrode electrical conductivity ∼0.35 S m(-1)), and the internal meso- and micropores of the MSCS provide a good specific capacitance. The capacitance of the 3D-ordered porous MSCS electrode is ∼58 F g(-1) at 0.58 A g(-1), 48% larger than that of disordered MSCS electrode at the same rate. At 1 A g(-1) the capacitance of the ordered electrode is 57 F g(-1) (95% of the 0.24 A g(-1) value), which is 64% greater than the capacitance of the disordered electrode at the same rate. The ordered electrode preserves 95% of its initial capacitance after 4000 charging/discharging cycles.

  12. Hierarchically Organized Behavior and Its Neural Foundations: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvinick, Matthew M.; Niv, Yael; Barto, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on human and animal behavior has long emphasized its hierarchical structure--the divisibility of ongoing behavior into discrete tasks, which are comprised of subtask sequences, which in turn are built of simple actions. The hierarchical structure of behavior has also been of enduring interest within neuroscience, where it has been widely…

  13. Multifaceted Modularity: A Key for Stepwise Building of Hierarchical Complexity in Actinide Metal–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgopolova, Ekaterina A. [Department; Ejegbavwo, Otega A. [Department; Martin, Corey R. [Department; Smith, Mark D. [Department; Setyawan, Wahyu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Karakalos, Stavros G. [College; Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad [Department; Shustova, Natalia B. [Department

    2017-11-07

    Growing necessity for efficient nuclear waste management is a driving force for development of alternative architectures towards fundamental understanding of mechanisms involved in actinide integration inside extended structures. In this manuscript, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were investigated as a model system for engineering radionuclide containing materials through utilization of unprecedented MOF modularity, which cannot be replicated in any other type of materials. Through the implementation of recent synthetic advances in the MOF field, hierarchical complexity of An-materials were built stepwise, which was only feasible due to preparation of the first examples of actinide-based frameworks with “unsaturated” metal nodes. The first successful attempts of solid-state metathesis and metal node extension in An-MOFs are reported, and the results of the former approach revealed drastic differences in chemical behavior of extended structures versus molecular species. Successful utilization of MOF modularity also allowed us to structurally characterize the first example of bimetallic An-An nodes. To the best of our knowledge, through combination of solid-state metathesis, guest incorporation, and capping linker installation, we were able to achieve the highest Th wt% in mono- and bi-actinide frameworks with minimal structural density. Overall, combination of a multistep synthetic approach with homogeneous actinide distribution and moderate solvothermal conditions could make MOFs an exceptionally powerful tool to address fundamental questions responsible for chemical behavior of An-based extended structures, and therefore, shed light on possible optimization of nuclear waste administration.

  14. Feature-Based Visual Short-Term Memory Is Widely Distributed and Hierarchically Organized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Nicholas M; Hoffman, Steven J; Goodell, Baldwin; Gray, Charles M

    2018-06-15

    Feature-based visual short-term memory is known to engage both sensory and association cortices. However, the extent of the participating circuit and the neural mechanisms underlying memory maintenance is still a matter of vigorous debate. To address these questions, we recorded neuronal activity from 42 cortical areas in monkeys performing a feature-based visual short-term memory task and an interleaved fixation task. We find that task-dependent differences in firing rates are widely distributed throughout the cortex, while stimulus-specific changes in firing rates are more restricted and hierarchically organized. We also show that microsaccades during the memory delay encode the stimuli held in memory and that units modulated by microsaccades are more likely to exhibit stimulus specificity, suggesting that eye movements contribute to visual short-term memory processes. These results support a framework in which most cortical areas, within a modality, contribute to mnemonic representations at timescales that increase along the cortical hierarchy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M andO 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU

  17. Leading processes of patient care and treatment in hierarchical healthcare organizations in Sweden--process managers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Sandoff, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the roles and functions of process managers by describing Swedish process managers' experiences of leading processes involving patient care and treatment when working in a hierarchical health-care organization. This study is based on an explorative design. The data were gathered from interviews with 12 process managers at three Swedish hospitals. These data underwent qualitative and interpretative analysis with a modified editing style. The process managers' experiences of leading processes in a hierarchical health-care organization are described under three themes: having or not having a mandate, exposure to conflict situations and leading process development. The results indicate a need for clarity regarding process manager's responsibility and work content, which need to be communicated to all managers and staff involved in the patient care and treatment process, irrespective of department. There also needs to be an emphasis on realistic expectations and orientation of the goals that are an intrinsic part of the task of being a process manager. Generalizations from the results of the qualitative interview studies are limited, but a deeper understanding of the phenomenon was reached, which, in turn, can be transferred to similar settings. This study contributes qualitative descriptions of leading care and treatment processes in a functional, hierarchical health-care organization from process managers' experiences, a subject that has not been investigated earlier.

  18. Hierarchical modular structure enhances the robustness of self-organized criticality in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shengjun; Zhou Changsong

    2012-01-01

    One of the most prominent architecture properties of neural networks in the brain is the hierarchical modular structure. How does the structure property constrain or improve brain function? It is thought that operating near criticality can be beneficial for brain function. Here, we find that networks with modular structure can extend the parameter region of coupling strength over which critical states are reached compared to non-modular networks. Moreover, we find that one aspect of network function—dynamical range—is highest for the same parameter region. Thus, hierarchical modularity enhances robustness of criticality as well as function. However, too much modularity constrains function by preventing the neural networks from reaching critical states, because the modular structure limits the spreading of avalanches. Our results suggest that the brain may take advantage of the hierarchical modular structure to attain criticality and enhanced function. (paper)

  19. Learning Layouts for Single-Page Graphic Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Peter; Agarwala, Aseem; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for automatically creating graphic design layouts using a new energy-based model derived from design principles. The model includes several new algorithms for analyzing graphic designs, including the prediction of perceived importance, alignment detection, and hierarchical segmentation. Given the model, we use optimization to synthesize new layouts for a variety of single-page graphic designs. Model parameters are learned with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization (NIO) from a small number of example layouts. To demonstrate our approach, we show results for applications including generating design layouts in various styles, retargeting designs to new sizes, and improving existing designs. We also compare our automatic results with designs created using crowdsourcing and show that our approach performs slightly better than novice designers.

  20. Resolving the Framework Position of Organic Structure-Directing Agents in Hierarchical Zeolites via Polarized Stimulated Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Guillaume; Steele, Julian A; Gerber, Iann C; Jolibois, F; Puech, P; Muraoka, Koki; Keoh, Sye Hoe; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya; Roeffaers, Maarten B J

    2018-04-05

    The direct synthesis of hierarchically intergrown silicalite-1 can be achieved using a specific diquaternary ammonium agent. However, the location of these molecules in the zeolite framework, which is critical to understand the formation of the material, remains unclear. Where traditional characterization tools have previously failed, herein we use polarized stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to resolve molecular organization inside few-micron-sized crystals. Through a combination of experiment and first-principles calculations, our investigation reveals the preferential location of the templating agent inside the linear pores of the MFI framework. Besides illustrating the attractiveness of SRS microscopy in the field of material science to study and spatially resolve local molecular distribution as well as orientation, these results can be exploited in the design of new templating agents for the preparation of hierarchical zeolites.

  1. The role of supramolecular chemistry in stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured functional organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Debije, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this review, we show the important role of supramolecular chemistry in the fabrication of stimuli responsive and hierarchically structured liquid crystalline polymer networks. Supramolecular interactions can be used to create three dimensional order or as molecular triggers in materials

  2. Electrostatic Levitator Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) general layout with captions. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  3. Layout of LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AC

    1998-01-01

    This diagram shows the layout for the LHCb detector, which will be part of the LHC project at CERN. The main purpose of this detector is to look for rare decays of a heavy quark known as 'bottom', a version of the down quark that is found in protons and neutrons. In particular, decays by a process known as 'CP violation' will be studied to investigate Nature's preference for matter over antimatter.

  4. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  5. Student Perceptions of Textbook Layout and Learnability in Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshangabadwala, Alefiyah

    2015-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that investigates students' perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students' interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students…

  6. Helical self-organization and hierarchical self-assembly of an oligoheterocyclic pyridine-pyridazine strand into extended supramolecular fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis A; Ruiz, Eliseo; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Homo, Jean-Claude; Schmutz, Marc

    2002-08-02

    The synthesis and characterization of an alternating pyridine-pyridazine strand comprising thirteen heterocycles are described. Spontaneous folding into a helical secondary structure is based on a general molecular self-organization process enforced by the conformational information encoded within the primary structure of the molecular strand itself. Conformational control based on heterocyclic "helicity codons" illustrates a strategy for designing folding properties into synthetic oligomers (foldamers). Strong intermolecular interactions of the highly ordered lock-washer subunits of compound 3 results in hierarchical supramolecular self-assembly into protofibrils and fibrils. Compound 3 also forms mechanically stable two-dimensional Langmuir-Blodgett and cast thin films.

  7. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Broca’s area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi eWakita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Broca’s area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca’s area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca’s area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca’s area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca’s area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca’s area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca’s area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca’s area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca’s area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca’s area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca’s area in action perception.

  9. Automation of control and analysis of execution of official duties and instructions in the hierarchical organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of monitoring over execution of official duties of employees. This problem is characteristic of the enterprises having a hierarchical management structure. The functions and the modes of monitoring are defined, the types of analysis of the staff activities are provided. The description of the program complex allowing distributing functions and instructions for between the employees is given. The developed computer program allows tracking the performance, creating reports. The computer program has a demarcation of access rights and provides the can be operated in both local, and a large-scale network.

  10. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  11. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  12. Hierarchical organization in the temporal structure of infant-direct speech and song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Simone; Kello, Christopher T

    2017-06-01

    Caregivers alter the temporal structure of their utterances when talking and singing to infants compared with adult communication. The present study tested whether temporal variability in infant-directed registers serves to emphasize the hierarchical temporal structure of speech. Fifteen German-speaking mothers sang a play song and told a story to their 6-months-old infants, or to an adult. Recordings were analyzed using a recently developed method that determines the degree of nested clustering of temporal events in speech. Events were defined as peaks in the amplitude envelope, and clusters of various sizes related to periods of acoustic speech energy at varying timescales. Infant-directed speech and song clearly showed greater event clustering compared with adult-directed registers, at multiple timescales of hundreds of milliseconds to tens of seconds. We discuss the relation of this newly discovered acoustic property to temporal variability in linguistic units and its potential implications for parent-infant communication and infants learning the hierarchical structures of speech and language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chitin/clay microspheres with hierarchical architecture for highly efficient removal of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Mao, Jie; Peng, Na; Luo, Xiaogang; Chang, Chunyu

    2018-05-15

    Numerous adsorbents have been reported for efficient removal of dye from water, but the high cost raw materials and complicated fabrication process limit their practical applications. Herein, novel nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated from chitin and clay by a simple thermally induced sol-gel transition. Clay nanosheets were uniformly embedded in a nanofiber weaved chitin microsphere matrix, leading to their hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from this unique structure, microspheres could efficiently remove methylene blue (MB) through a spontaneous physic-sorption process which fit well with pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm models. The maximal values of adsorption capability obtained by calculation and experiment were 152.2 and 156.7 mg g -1 , respectively. Chitin/clay microspheres (CCM2) could remove 99.99% MB from its aqueous solution (10 mg g -1 ) within 20 min. These findings provide insight into a new strategy for fabrication of dye adsorbents with hierarchical structure from low cost raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J

    2014-01-01

    Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed - a phenomenon referred to as "change blindness." This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical) layouts or as global-incongruent (random) arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts). Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of "global precedence" in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  15. Global scene layout modulates contextual learning in change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eConci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Change in the visual scene often goes unnoticed – a phenomenon referred to as ‘change blindness’. This study examined whether the hierarchical structure, i.e., the global-local layout of a scene can influence performance in a one-shot change detection paradigm. To this end, natural scenes of a laid breakfast table were presented, and observers were asked to locate the onset of a new local object. Importantly, the global structure of the scene was manipulated by varying the relations among objects in the scene layouts. The very same items were either presented as global-congruent (typical layouts or as global-incongruent (random arrangements. Change blindness was less severe for congruent than for incongruent displays, and this congruency benefit increased with the duration of the experiment. These findings show that global layouts are learned, supporting detection of local changes with enhanced efficiency. However, performance was not affected by scene congruency in a subsequent control experiment that required observers to localize a static discontinuity (i.e., an object that was missing from the repeated layouts. Our results thus show that learning of the global layout is particularly linked to the local objects. Taken together, our results reveal an effect of global precedence in natural scenes. We suggest that relational properties within the hierarchy of a natural scene are governed, in particular, by global image analysis, reducing change blindness for local objects through scene learning.

  16. Layout and composition for animation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghertner, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This essential, hands-on guide is filled with examples of what a composition should look like and example of poorly designed layouts. Spot potential problems before they cost time and money, and adapt creative solutions for your own projects with this invaluable resource for beginner and intermediate artists.  With Beauty and the Beast examples and Simpson character layouts, readers will learn how to develop character layout and background layout as well as strengthen composition  styles with a creative toolset of trick shot examples and inspirational case studies. A companion website will

  17. The EPR layout design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, U.; Le Carrer, P.Y.

    2001-01-01

    General: The European Pressurised Water Reactor (EPR) is a French - German development for the next generation of Pressurised Water Reactor. The new reactor design is based on the experiences of operation and design of nuclear power plants in both countries. The EPR fulfils enhanced safety standards, higher availability and a longer service life. Utilities aspects: For the Utilities one important requirement is the reduction of personnel exposure during maintenance and in-service inspection. The other significant requirement is of economic nature. The main points influencing costs, which have also impact on the layout, are: outage times, accessibility of the reactor building and the available maintenance and set down areas. The Utilities have also required to load the spent fuel assemblies into the shipping cask from the bottom of the fuel pool, because of the exclusion of the drop of the cask and in order to avoid contamination at the outer cask shell. Layout and safety aspects: All safety relevant Nuclear Island (NI) buildings are designed against design earthquake as well as explosion pressure wave. The protection against Airplane Crash (APC) is realised by civil and layout dispositions. The Reactor Building, the Safeguard Buildings division 2 and 3 and the Fuel Building are protected by concrete structures. The other safety relevant nuclear buildings are protected by geographical separation. Important safety requirements are the further reduction of the probability of severe accidents and the mitigation of such an accident on the plant area. For that, a spreading area for molten corium, a channel from the reactor pit to the spreading area and the In Containment Refuelling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) for flooding and initial cooling of the corium, were implemented in the design of the Reactor Building. Layout results: The following buildings are arranged on a common raft to protect them against design earthquake: Reactor Building (RB), Safeguard Buildings (SAB

  18. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Clustering, Hierarchical Organization, and the Topography of Abstract and Concrete Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eTroche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are disembodied in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N=365 rated target words (n=400 English nouns across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence. Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  20. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness.

  1. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-02-19

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  2. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan; Schwarz, Michael; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input's structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  3. Principal Covariates Clusterwise Regression (PCCR): Accounting for Multicollinearity and Population Heterogeneity in Hierarchically Organized Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderjans, Tom Frans; Vande Gaer, Eva; Kiers, Henk A L; Van Mechelen, Iven; Ceulemans, Eva

    2017-03-01

    In the behavioral sciences, many research questions pertain to a regression problem in that one wants to predict a criterion on the basis of a number of predictors. Although in many cases, ordinary least squares regression will suffice, sometimes the prediction problem is more challenging, for three reasons: first, multiple highly collinear predictors can be available, making it difficult to grasp their mutual relations as well as their relations to the criterion. In that case, it may be very useful to reduce the predictors to a few summary variables, on which one regresses the criterion and which at the same time yields insight into the predictor structure. Second, the population under study may consist of a few unknown subgroups that are characterized by different regression models. Third, the obtained data are often hierarchically structured, with for instance, observations being nested into persons or participants within groups or countries. Although some methods have been developed that partially meet these challenges (i.e., principal covariates regression (PCovR), clusterwise regression (CR), and structural equation models), none of these methods adequately deals with all of them simultaneously. To fill this gap, we propose the principal covariates clusterwise regression (PCCR) method, which combines the key idea's behind PCovR (de Jong & Kiers in Chemom Intell Lab Syst 14(1-3):155-164, 1992) and CR (Späth in Computing 22(4):367-373, 1979). The PCCR method is validated by means of a simulation study and by applying it to cross-cultural data regarding satisfaction with life.

  4. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, interorganizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  5. Enforcing access control in virtual organizations using hierarchical attribute-based encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asim, M.; Ignatenko, T.; Petkovic, M.; Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.

    2012-01-01

    Virtual organizations are dynamic, inter-organizational collaborations that involve systems and services belonging to different security domains. Several solutions have been proposed to guarantee the enforcement of the access control policies protecting the information exchanged in a distributed

  6. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  7. Computing layouts with deformable templates

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of tiling a domain with a set of deformable templates. A valid solution to this problem completely covers the domain with templates such that the templates do not overlap. We generalize existing specialized solutions and formulate a general layout problem by modeling important constraints and admissible template deformations. Our main idea is to break the layout algorithm into two steps: a discrete step to lay out the approximate template positions and a continuous step to refine the template shapes. Our approach is suitable for a large class of applications, including floorplans, urban layouts, and arts and design. Copyright © ACM.

  8. Practical Aspects of CMOS Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassen, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    The topics covered in these notes are the practical aspects and limitations of layout, when random process variations result in electrical parameters, which are not constant but rather statistically distributed.The focus is on design methods for reducing or eliminating the effects. The notes cover...... three aspects:1) to introduce layout structures robust to process variations2) to present simplistic models for analog building blocks with the aim of analysing consequences of parameter variations3) to present the basic noise considerations which guide the layout of supply structures etc....

  9. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Musialski, Przemyslaw; Liu, Ligang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions

  10. Metal organic framework synthesis in the presence of surfactants : Towards hierarchical MOFs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seoane, B.; Dikhtiarenko, A.; Mayoral, A.; Tellez, C.; Coronas, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of synthesis pH and H2O/EtOH molar ratio on the textural properties of different aluminium trimesate metal organic frameworks (MOFs) prepared in the presence of the well-known cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at 120 °C was studied with the purpose of obtaining a

  11. Student Perceptions of Textbook Layout and Learnability in Private Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Alefiyah Hoshangabadwala

    2015-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that investigates students’ perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students’ interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students from various private schools of Pakistan’s cosmopolitan city Karachi responded to a quantitative survey that gauged their percep...

  12. Immobilization of Bacillus subtilis lipase on a Cu-BTC based hierarchically porous metal-organic framework material: a biocatalyst for esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Wu, Zhuofu; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Yu; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2016-04-28

    Bacillus subtilis lipase (BSL2) has been successfully immobilized into a Cu-BTC based hierarchically porous metal-organic framework material for the first time. The Cu-BTC hierarchically porous MOF material with large mesopore apertures is prepared conveniently by using a template-free strategy under mild conditions. The immobilized BSL2 presents high enzymatic activity and perfect reusability during the esterification reaction. After 10 cycles, the immobilized BSL2 still exhibits 90.7% of its initial enzymatic activity and 99.6% of its initial conversion.

  13. Modularity and hierarchical organization of action programs in children's acquisition of graphic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoel, Edison de J; Dantas, Luiz; Gimenez, Roberto; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa

    2011-10-01

    The organization of actions is based on modules in memory as a result of practice, easing the demand of performing more complex actions. If this modularization occurs, the elements of the module must remain invariant in new tasks. To test this hypothesis, 35 children, age 10 yr., practiced a graphic criterion task on a digital tablet and completed a complex graphic task enclosing the previous one. Total movement and pause times to draw the figure indicated skill acquisition. A module was identified by the variability of relative timing, pause time, and sequencing. Total movement to perform the criterion task did not increase significantly when it was embedded in the more complex task. Modularity was evidenced by the stability of relative timing and pause time and sequencing. The spatial position of new elements did not perturb the module, so the grammar of action may still have been forming.

  14. Shape-tailored polymer colloids on the road to become structural motifs for hierarchically organized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüisch, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Anisometric polymer colloids are likely to behave differently when compared with centrosymmetric particles. Their study may not only shine new light on the organization of matter; they may also serve as building units with specific symmetries and complexity to build new materials from them. Polymer colloids of well-defined complex geometries can be obtained by packing a limited number of spherical polymer particles into clusters with defined configurations. Such supracolloidal architectures can be fabricated at larger scales using narrowly dispersed emulsion droplets as templates. Assemblies built from at least two different types of particles as elementary building units open perspectives in selective targeting of colloids with specific properties, aiming for mesoscale building blocks with tailor-made morphologies and multifunctionality. Polymer colloids with defined geometries are also ideal to study shape-dependent properties such as the diffusion of complex particles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. K -shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, Nir; Ksherim, Baruch; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Cohen, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a

  16. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerating ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, D.; Fodor, B.

    2012-01-01

    The ADORE (Alternating Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) system for CANDU® reactors have been recently developed. The simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique is utilized to come up with a quasi optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. Within each simulated annealing history, the objective function is calculated as a function of the trip set point (TSP) corresponding to the detector layout for that particular history. The evaluation of the TSP is done probabilistically using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples used during the calculation of TSP will reduce the overall optimization execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed. Results presented in this paper indicate that a speedup of up to around 40 times is attainable when this approach is utilized. (author)

  18. Inter-subject Functional Correlation Reveal a Hierarchical Organization of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Systems in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yudan; Nguyen, Vinh Thai; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine Cong

    2017-09-07

    The brain is constantly monitoring and integrating both cues from the external world and signals generated intrinsically. These extrinsically and intrinsically-driven neural processes are thought to engage anatomically distinct regions, which are thought to constitute the extrinsic and intrinsic systems of the brain. While the specialization of extrinsic and intrinsic system is evident in primary and secondary sensory cortices, a systematic mapping of the whole brain remains elusive. Here, we characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic functional activities in the brain during naturalistic movie-viewing. Using a novel inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) analysis, we found that the strength of ISFC shifts along the hierarchical organization of the brain. Primary sensory cortices appear to have strong inter-subject functional correlation, consistent with their role in processing exogenous information, while heteromodal regions that attend to endogenous processes have low inter-subject functional correlation. Those brain systems with higher intrinsic tendency show greater inter-individual variability, likely reflecting the aspects of brain connectivity architecture unique to individuals. Our study presents a novel framework for dissecting extrinsically- and intrinsically-driven processes, as well as examining individual differences in brain function during naturalistic stimulation.

  19. Hierarchical Micro/Nano Structures by Combined Self-Organized Dewetting and Photopatterning of Photoresist Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Priyanka; Kulkarni, Manish; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-11-17

    Photoresists are the materials of choice for micro/nanopatterning and device fabrication but are rarely used as a self-assembly material. We report for the first time a novel interplay of self-assembly and photolithography for fabrication of hierarchical and ordered micro/nano structures. We create self-organized structures by the intensified dewetting of unstable thin (∼10 nm to 1 μm) photoresist films by annealing them in an optimal solvent and nonsolvent liquid mixture that allows spontaneous dewetting to form micro/nano smooth dome-like structures. The density, size (∼100 nm to millimeters), and curvature/contact angle of the dome/droplet structures are controlled by the film thickness, composition of the dewetting liquid, and time of annealing. Ordered dewetted structures are obtained simply by creating spatial variation of viscosity by ultraviolet exposure or by photopatterning before dewetting. Further, the structures thus fabricated are readily photopatterned again on the finer length scales after dewetting. We illustrate the approach by fabricating several three-dimensional structures of varying complexity with secondary and tertiary features.

  20. Coherent image layout using an adaptive visual vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-01

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  1. Cache-Oblivious Mesh Layouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S; Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V; Manocha, D

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel method for computing cache-oblivious layouts of large meshes that improve the performance of interactive visualization and geometric processing algorithms. Given that the mesh is accessed in a reasonably coherent manner, we assume no particular data access patterns or cache parameters of the memory hierarchy involved in the computation. Furthermore, our formulation extends directly to computing layouts of multi-resolution and bounding volume hierarchies of large meshes. We develop a simple and practical cache-oblivious metric for estimating cache misses. Computing a coherent mesh layout is reduced to a combinatorial optimization problem. We designed and implemented an out-of-core multilevel minimization algorithm and tested its performance on unstructured meshes composed of tens to hundreds of millions of triangles. Our layouts can significantly reduce the number of cache misses. We have observed 2-20 times speedups in view-dependent rendering, collision detection, and isocontour extraction without any modification of the algorithms or runtime applications

  2. Simulated annealing and circuit layout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the problem of approximately sotvlng circuit layout problems by simulated annealing. For this we first summarize the theoretical concepts of the simulated annealing algorithm using Ihe theory of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Markov chains. Next we briefly review general aspects of the

  3. Small Business Location and Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…

  4. Hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures/glassy carbon electrode derived from Co(BTC) metal–organic frameworks for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Juan; Lu, Xingping; Yu, Jie; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai

    2016-01-01

    A novel Co(OH)_2/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been fabricated via metal–organic framework (MOF)-directed method. In the strategy, the Co(BTC, 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid) MOFs/GCE was firstly prepared by alternately immersing GCE in Co"2"+ and BTC solution based on a layer-by-layer method. And then, the Co(OH)_2 with hierarchical flake nanostructure/GCE was constructed by immersing Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE into 0.1 M NaOH solution at room temperature. Such strategy improves the distribution of hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures on electrode surface greatly, enhances the stability of nanomaterials on the electrode surface, and increases the use efficiency of the Co(OH)_2 nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectra were used to characterize the Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE and Co(OH)_2/GCE. Based on the hierarchical Co(OH)_2 nanostructures/GCE, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The good performance of the resulted sensor toward the detection of glucose was ascribed to hierarchical flake nanostructures, good mechanical stability, excellent distribution, and large specific surface area of Co(OH)_2 nanostructures. The proposed preparation method is simple, efficient, and cheap .Graphical Abstract.

  5. Hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures/glassy carbon electrode derived from Co(BTC) metal–organic frameworks for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Juan; Lu, Xingping; Yu, Jie; Wang, Li; Song, Yonghai, E-mail: yhsonggroup@hotmail.com [Jiangxi Normal University, Key Laboratory of Functional Small Organic Molecule, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    A novel Co(OH){sub 2}/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been fabricated via metal–organic framework (MOF)-directed method. In the strategy, the Co(BTC, 1,3,5-benzentricarboxylic acid) MOFs/GCE was firstly prepared by alternately immersing GCE in Co{sup 2+} and BTC solution based on a layer-by-layer method. And then, the Co(OH){sub 2} with hierarchical flake nanostructure/GCE was constructed by immersing Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE into 0.1 M NaOH solution at room temperature. Such strategy improves the distribution of hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures on electrode surface greatly, enhances the stability of nanomaterials on the electrode surface, and increases the use efficiency of the Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectra were used to characterize the Co(BTC) MOFs/GCE and Co(OH){sub 2}/GCE. Based on the hierarchical Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures/GCE, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic glucose sensor was developed. The good performance of the resulted sensor toward the detection of glucose was ascribed to hierarchical flake nanostructures, good mechanical stability, excellent distribution, and large specific surface area of Co(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. The proposed preparation method is simple, efficient, and cheap .Graphical Abstract.

  6. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generating and exploring good building layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan; Yan, Dongming; Mitra, Niloy J.; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Good building layouts are required to conform to regulatory guidelines, while meeting certain quality measures. While different methods can sample the space of such good layouts, there exists little support for a user to understand

  8. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao; Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines

  9. HOLA: Human-like Orthogonal Network Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Steve; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 50 years a wide variety of automatic network layout algorithms have been developed. Some are fast heuristic techniques suitable for networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes while others are multi-stage frameworks for higher-quality layout of smaller networks. However, despite decades of research currently no algorithm produces layout of comparable quality to that of a human. We give a new "human-centred" methodology for automatic network layout algorithm design that is intended to overcome this deficiency. User studies are first used to identify the aesthetic criteria algorithms should encode, then an algorithm is developed that is informed by these criteria and finally, a follow-up study evaluates the algorithm output. We have used this new methodology to develop an automatic orthogonal network layout method, HOLA, that achieves measurably better (by user study) layout than the best available orthogonal layout algorithm and which produces layouts of comparable quality to those produced by hand.

  10. COMPUTER AIDED SELECTION OF PLANT LAYOUT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special focus is directed at improving the preparation of the input data to enhance computer assistance to plant layout. ... INTRODUCTION. Plant layout problems have ... 1960's with the development by industrial engineers and operational ...

  11. Computational Design of Urban Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wonka, Peter

    2015-10-07

    A fundamental challenge in computational design is to compute layouts by arranging a set of shapes. In this talk I will present recent urban modeling projects with applications in computer graphics, urban planning, and architecture. The talk will look at different scales of urban modeling (streets, floorplans, parcels). A common challenge in all these modeling problems are functional and aesthetic constraints that should be respected. The talk also highlights interesting links to geometry processing problems, such as field design and quad meshing.

  12. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  13. Mechanical structures with enhanced layout characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose solutions for constructing mechanical structures for electronic equipment in terms of plug-in units and subracks, allowing to increase the layout characteristics of electronic modules, sections and desktop devices and increase their functional capacity without changing the architecture of standard mechanical structures. The paper shows effectiveness of the developed solutions. There is a problem of restraining of mass redundancy of mechanical structures for electronic equipment in relation to the weight of the electronic components. On the other hand, the weight is an indicator of structural strength, providing of which is not less important problem. These problems can be solved in different ways, the main of which are the following: a development of new mechanical structures for electronic equipment taking into account the development of the electronic components; b improving layout characteristics of mechanical structures for electronic equipment without significant changes in their architecture. The aim of the study was to research mechanical structures of the first level (plug-in units and modules of the second level of subracks to improve layout characteristics, and to develop methods for the use of connections for surface mounting and for the use of printed circuit boards of smaller dimensions without changing the architecture of the mechanical structures in order to improve layout characteristics. The research allowed the authors to develop the following solutions: 1. The design of plug-in units in which instead of one printed circuit board (PCB may be two, three or more PCBs of smaller dimensions to compensate a decrease in PCB fill factor in time and to increase the functional capacity of electronic modules. 2. Construction of block designs with a bilateral arrangement of plug-in units and the organization of the electrical connections by way of backplanes with electrical connectors for surface mounting, which allows

  14. Student Perceptions of Textbook Layout and Learnability in Private Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alefiyah Hoshangabadwala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is an exploratory study that investigates students’ perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students’ interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students from various private schools of Pakistan’s cosmopolitan city Karachi responded to a quantitative survey that gauged their perceptions regarding textbook components such as paper, print, color, and textbook pedagogical features. Findings indicate that students rank print and color above paper quality, and that there is no particular relationship between a book layout and the actual use of textbooks.

  15. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  16. A metal-organic framework derived hierarchical nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on Ni foam with enhanced electrochemical performance for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Han, Xue; Ma, Qingxiang; Han, Lei

    2018-03-06

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a new platform for the construction of various functional materials for energy related applications. Here, a facile MOF templating method is developed to fabricate a hierarchical nickel-cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on conductive Ni foam (Ni-Co-S/NF) as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. A uniform 2D Co-MOF nanowall array is first grown in situ on Ni foam in aqueous solution at room temperature, and then the Co-MOF nanowalls are converted into hierarchical Ni-Co-S nanoarchitectures via an etching and ion-exchange reaction with Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , and a subsequent solvothermal sulfurization. Taking advantage of the compositional and structural merits of the hierarchical Ni-Co-S nanosheet array and conductive Ni foam, such as fast electron transportation, short ion diffusion path, abundant active sites and rich redox reactions, the obtained Ni-Co-S/NF electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical capacitive performance (1406.9 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 , 53.9% retention at 10 A g -1 and 88.6% retention over 1000 cycles), which is superior to control CoS/NF. An asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) assembled by using the as-fabricated Ni-Co-S/NF as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode delivers a high energy density of 24.8 W h kg -1 at a high power density of 849.5 W kg -1 . Even when the power density is as high as 8.5 kW kg -1 , the ASC still exhibits a high energy density of 12.5 W h kg -1 . This facile synthetic strategy can also be extended to fabricate other hierarchical integrated electrodes for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices.

  17. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  18. Generating and exploring good building layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-07-16

    Good building layouts are required to conform to regulatory guidelines, while meeting certain quality measures. While different methods can sample the space of such good layouts, there exists little support for a user to understand and systematically explore the samples. Starting from a discrete set of good layouts, we analytically characterize the local shape space of good layouts around each initial layout, compactly encode these spaces, and link them to support transitions across the different local spaces. We represent such transitions in the form of a portal graph. The user can then use the portal graph, along with the family of local shape spaces, to globally and locally explore the space of good building layouts. We use our framework on a variety of different test scenarios to showcase an intuitive design, navigation, and exploration interface. Copyright © ACM. Copyright © ACM 2013.

  19. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mi; Maoyuan Sun; Moeti Masiane; Yong Cao; Chris North

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph to...

  20. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Corticosterone manipulation reveals differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional reproductive trade-offs in r-strategist and K-strategist females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, L T; Hazard, L C; Clobert, J; Sinervo, B R

    2008-03-01

    Life history trade-offs are often hierarchical with decisions at one level affecting lower level trade-offs. We investigated trade-off structure in female side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana), which exhibit two evolved strategies: yellow-throated females are K-strategists and orange-throated are r-strategists. Corticosterone treatment was predicted to differentially organize these females' reproductive decisions. Corticosterone-treated yellow females suppressed reproduction but survived well, and augmented egg mass without decreasing clutch size. Conversely, corticosterone enhanced mortality and reproductive rates in orange females, and increased egg mass only after lengthy exposure. Corticosterone did not affect post-laying condition, suggesting that corticosterone increased egg mass through enhanced energy acquisition (income breeding). Corticosterone enhanced survival of lightweight females, but decreased survival of heavy females, introducing a foraging vs. predation trade-off. We conclude that rather than being a direct, functional relationship, observed trade-offs between offspring size and number represent evolved differences in hierarchical organization of multidimensional trade-offs, particularly in response to stress.

  2. The UA9 experimental layout

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Carnera, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Lombardi, A.; Lytovchenko, O.; Tonezzer, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Bulgakov, M.K.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M.; Zorba, O.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.; Wienands, U.

    2011-01-01

    The UA9 experimental equipment was installed in the CERN-SPS in March '09 with the aim of investigating crystal assisted collimation in coasting mode. Its basic layout comprises silicon bent crystals acting as primary collimators mounted inside two vacuum vessels. A movable 60 cm long block of tungsten located downstream at about 90 degrees phase advance intercepts the deflected beam. Scintillators, Gas Electron Multiplier chambers and other beam loss monitors measure nuclear loss rates induced by the interaction of the beam halo in the crystal. Roman pots are installed in the path of the deflected particles and are equipped with a Medipix detector to reconstruct the transverse distribution of the impinging beam. Finally UA9 takes advantage of an LHC-collimator prototype installed close to the Roman pot to help in setting the beam conditions and to analyze the efficiency to deflect the beam. This paper describes in details the hardware installed to study the crystal collimation during 2010.

  3. Economics of wind farm layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, A.C. [Wind Energy Resource Specialist, Oakland, CA (United States); Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The life cycle cost of energy (COE) is the primary determinant of the economic viability of a wind energy generation facility. The cost of wind turbines and associated hardware is counterbalanced by the energy which can be generated. This paper focuses on the turbine layout design process, considering the cost and energy capture implications of potential spacing options from the viewpoint of a practicing project designer. It is argued that lateral spacings in the range of 1.5 to 5 diameters are all potentially optimal, but only when matched to wind resource characteristics and machine design limits. The effect of wakes on energy capture is quantified while the effect on turbine life and maintenance cost is discussed qualitatively. Careful optimization can lower COE and project designers are encouraged to integrate the concepts in project designs.

  4. Control room lay-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Violeta

    2004-01-01

    TRIUMF (Tri-University Meson Facility) is Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics. There are 6 accelerators and 3 Control Rooms at TRIUMF. The main control room serves the big cyclotron, the 500 MeV, and the adjacent experiment. The 42 MeV and two 32 MeV ones are production dedicated. These cyclotrons belong to a private company but are operated by TRIUMF staff from ATG (Applied Technology Group) Control Room. The last is ISAC (Isotope Acceleration and Separation) Control Room, from which the LINAC is controlled. Research areas cover theoretical (2 subjects), pure (5 subjects) and applied (8 subjects) physics. In the early '70s, as the 500 MeV was being completed, the first Control Room was built in the main accelerator building. The recent topics covered by this paper are proton and pion therapy, what are the operator's duties?, the CP42, TR30 and TR13 cyclotron control rooms, the ISAC control systems including control room modification. Due to the nature of an operator's job, the Control Room layout is pretty important. This is true for any work environment, but when working shifts it becomes essential. Lots of time and effort, not to mention money, were spent to figure out the optimum configuration. It seems to me that the key factor in the control room layout is versatility, and this is because it has to keep happy a group of people with different inclinations, which have a tendency to become quite moody after the second night shift. No matter what, there will still be unhappy people, but we are trying our best. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. A new application of hierarchical cluster analysis to investigate organic peaks in bulk mass spectra obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M. L.; Bertman, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  6. Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp layouts.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  7. Staking Terraces Online: A Terrace Layout Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrace construction in Missouri exceeded 3 million feet at a cost of over $8 million in 2008. Up to 50 % of the total construction and design time is spent on the terrace layout itself. A web-based computer program, MOTERR, has been developed to design terrace layouts. The program utilizes digital ...

  8. Extracting 3D layout from a single image using global image structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhongyu; Gevers, Theo; Hu, Ninghang

    2015-10-01

    Extracting the pixel-level 3D layout from a single image is important for different applications, such as object localization, image, and video categorization. Traditionally, the 3D layout is derived by solving a pixel-level classification problem. However, the image-level 3D structure can be very beneficial for extracting pixel-level 3D layout since it implies the way how pixels in the image are organized. In this paper, we propose an approach that first predicts the global image structure, and then we use the global structure for fine-grained pixel-level 3D layout extraction. In particular, image features are extracted based on multiple layout templates. We then learn a discriminative model for classifying the global layout at the image-level. Using latent variables, we implicitly model the sublevel semantics of the image, which enrich the expressiveness of our model. After the image-level structure is obtained, it is used as the prior knowledge to infer pixel-wise 3D layout. Experiments show that the results of our model outperform the state-of-the-art methods by 11.7% for 3D structure classification. Moreover, we show that employing the 3D structure prior information yields accurate 3D scene layout segmentation.

  9. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  10. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang; Liang, Hanfeng; Shi, Huanhuan; Mei, Gui; Xu, Xun; Wang, Zhoucheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  11. Hierarchical (Ni,Co)Se 2 /Carbon Hollow Rhombic Dodecahedra Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Water-Splitting Electrocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Fangwang

    2017-08-12

    In this work, we demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity of transition metal chalcogenides can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously engineering the active sites, surface area, and conductivity. Using metal-organic frameworks-derived (Ni,Co)Se2/C hollow rhombic dodecahedra (HRD) as a demonstration, we show that the incorporation of Ni into CoSe2 could generates additional active sites, the hierarchical hollow structure promotes the electrolyte diffusion, the in-situ hybridization with C improves the conductivity. As a result, the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD exhibit superior performance toward the overall water-splitting electrocatalysis in 1M KOH with a cell voltage as low as 1.58V at the current density of 10mAcm−2, making the (Ni,Co)Se2/C HRD as a promising alternative to noble metal catalysts for water splitting.

  12. Luminaire layout: Design and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report was presented during the discussion regarding guidelines for PAR uniformity in greenhouses. The data shows a lighting uniformity analysis in a research greenhouse for rose production at the Cornell University campus. The luminaire layout was designed using the computer program Lumen-Micro. After implementation of the design, accurate measurements were taken in the greenhouse and the uniformity analysis for both the design and implementation were compared. A study of several supplemental lighting installations resulted in the following recommendations: include only the actual growing area in the lighting uniformity analysis; for growing areas up to 20 square meters, take four measurements per square meter; for growing areas above 20 square meters, take one measurement per square meter; use one of the uniformity criteria and frequency graphs to compare lighting uniformity amongst designs; and design for uniformity criterion of a least 0.75 and the fraction within +/- 15% of the average PAR value should be close to one.

  13. Automatic Generation of User Interface Layouts for Alternative Screen Orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler , Clemens; Weber , Gerald; Stuerzlinger , Wolfgang; Lutteroth , Christof

    2017-01-01

    Part 1: Adaptive Design and Mobile Applications; International audience; Creating multiple layout alternatives for graphical user interfaces to accommodate different screen orientations for mobile devices is labor intensive. Here, we investigate how such layout alternatives can be generated automatically from an initial layout. Providing good layout alternatives can inspire developers in their design work and support them to create adaptive layouts. We performed an analysis of layout alternat...

  14. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Nava, Vincenzo; Topper, Mathew B. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation......, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA), a genetic algorithm (GA) and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) algorithm...

  15. Distributed hierarchical radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, D.

    1985-01-01

    A solution to the problem of monitoring the radiation levels in and around a nuclear facility is presented in this paper. This is a private case of a large scale general purpose data acqisition system with high reliability, availability and short maintenance time. The physical layout of the detectors in the plant, and the strict control demands dictated a distributed and hierarchical system. The system is comprised of three levels, each level contains modules. Level one contains the Control modules which collects data from groups of detectors and executes emergency local control tasks. In level two are the Group controllers which concentrate data from the Control modules, and enable local display and communication. The system computer is in level three, enabling the plant operator to receive information from the detectors and execute control tasks. The described system was built and is operating successfully for about two years. (author)

  16. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  17. Tinjauan Anatomi Layout Halaman Republika Epaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprayitno Suprayitno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities are increasingly familiar with Internet technology became one of the reasons for the rapid growth of digital newspaper in Indonesia. The ability of the media presents news in brief, fast, accessible and inexpensive form the basis of high growth of consumer interest in digital newspaper / electronic. Technological developments, triggering changes to the newspaper that had shaped the physical print later developed in digital form. In principle, newspaper print and digital newspapers contain messages or the same news, namely providing information to readers about the actual and weighted, as well as other light information that is entertainment. Review the anatomy of the digital newspaper layout is a study to trace and explore what and how the anatomy of a newspaper page layout, at least to provide information and understanding of the anatomy of the layouts in outline. Process layout in the digital version is no different from print media, which distinguishes its output only. In the process to any design layout of a medium, a designer is still expected to possess and master the basic principles such as layout hierarchy, emphasis, balance, and unity. 

  18. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  19. Nitrogen-doped graphitic hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers obtained via bimetallic-coordination organic framework modification and their application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuechao; Liu, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Shaozhong; Lan, Tongbin; Huang, Haitao; Zeng, Xierong; Zou, Jizhao

    2018-05-17

    Herein, N-doped graphitic hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers (NGHPCF) were prepared by electrospinning the composite of bimetallic-coordination metal-organic frameworks and polyacrylonitrile, followed by a pyrolysis and acid wash process. Control over the N content, specific surface area, and degree of graphitization of NGHPCF materials has been realized by adjusting the Co/Zn metal coordination content as well as the pyrolysis temperature. The obtained NGHPCF with a high specific surface area (623 m2 g-1) and nitrogen content (13.83 wt%) exhibit a high capacitance of 326 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. In addition, the capacitance of 170 F g-1 is still maintained at a high current density (40 A g-1); this indicates a high capacitance retention capability. Furthermore, a superb energy density (9.61 W h kg-1) is obtained with a high power density (62.4 W kg-1) using an organic electrolyte. These results fully illustrate that the prepared NGHPCF binder-free electrodes are promising candidates for high-performance supercapacitors.

  20. The Influence of Classroom Layout on Children's English Learning Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琬媚

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more Children English Training organization developed, all the parents and teachers also want to improve the children's English. So the parents will find the organization where the teachers are better in teaching. They will motive a lot of imagine and acquire many information which you can not know. If we can care more about this point from the children, may be it also can help children to learn English well. This essay aims at how does classroom Layout influence the children to learn English well and let the children love this environment.

  1. DESIGNING OF TOWN SKYLINE ON THE STAGE OF GENERAL LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kishik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to consider an aggregation of such active elements of town structure as multistoreyed dominants to be used as a basis for designing skyline of a large town on the stage of its general layout. Some interrelated principles, namely: spatial integration, subordination, nature consistence, succession are formulated for improvement of their spatial organization. Every principle takes down any general property of the network of vertical accents which is formed as a system. The obtained principles of the system organization of the multistoreyed dominants are checked while designing Grodno skyline. 

  2. Computer aided selection of plant layout | Kitaw | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with the fundamental concepts of plant layout, in which the need for plant layout, the systematic and logical approaches to the problems, layout solutions and the objectives of plant layout are discussed. Further the approaches and the scoring techniques of the two available computer rout ines are ...

  3. 48 CFR 52.236-17 - Layout of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of Work. 52.236-17... Layout of Work. As prescribed in 36.517, insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when... need for accurate work layout and for siting verification during work performance: Layout of Work (APR...

  4. A Hierarchically Porous Hypercrosslinked and Novel Quinone based Stable Organic Polymer Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aziz; Meng, Qinghai; Melhi, Saad; Mao, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Han, Bao-Hang; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer has been prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. •The novel synthetic route of Poly-P5Q was introduced by the oxidation of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene. •A Friedel-Crafts reaction was employed to prepare a novel Poly-P5Q as organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. -- Abstract: In the recent years, organic electrode materials have attracted tremendous attention and becoming promising electrode candidates for the green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer was prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Poly-P5Q is the oxidized form of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene (Poly-DMP5A) which was obtained from the condensation of dimethoxypillar[5]arene and formaldehyde dimethyl acetal using Friedel-Crafts reaction. The prepared materials were characterized by 13 C solid state NMR, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The Poly-P5Q cathode showed an initial discharge capacity up to 105 mAh g −1 whereas it retained 82.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current speed of 100 mA g −1 in the potential window between 1.75 to 3.25 V. In future, research in this direction will provide great insight for the development of novel polymers from various small organic molecules as a stable and high performance electrode materials for green lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanli, E-mail: flmeng@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hou, Nannan [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ge, Sheng [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Sun, Bai [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jin, Zhen, E-mail: zjin@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Yufeng, E-mail: sunyufeng118@126.com [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Minqiang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion.

  6. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanli; Hou, Nannan; Ge, Sheng; Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yufeng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen; Li, Minqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion

  7. Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company: simple projects, big solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Eckhardt, Moacir; da Motta, Giordano Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The posture, a good organization and the proper layout of the environment and workplaces have a positive influence on the income of an employee. To develop the work it is used a methodology that addressed the study phases of the theory involving the subject, description of the current situation, preparation of conceptions, choice of design, implementation and reporting of results. Through the project of "Change of the layout of an office of a metallurgical company" there was an intervention in these reported aspects providing improvements in the office, regarding ergonomic, layout, workplace and lighting issues, bringing welfare to the official, with the intent to improve its performance within the company and facilitating its actions, as the company's customer service. The results provided improvements in layout, in the workplace and especially in comfort for the human resources that perform their activities.

  8. Validation of the Data Consolidation in Layout Database for the LHC Tunnel Cryogenics Controls Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Blanco, E; Fortescue-Beck, E; Fluder, C; Inglese, V; Pezzetti, M; Gomes, P; Wolak, T; Dudek, M; Frassinelli, F; Drozd, A; Zapolski, M

    2014-01-01

    The control system of the Large Hadron Collider cryogenics manages over 34’000 instrumentation and actuator channels. The complete information on their characteristics and parameters can be extracted from a set of views on the Layout database, to generate the specifications of the control system; from these, the code to populate PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition) is automatically produced, within the UNICOS framework (Unified Industrial Control System). The Layout database is, since 2003, progressively integrating and centralizing information on the whole CERN Accelerator complex. It models topographical organization (layouts) as functional positions and relationships. After three years of machine operation, many parameters have been manually adjusted in SCADA and PLCs; they now differ from their original values in the Layout database. Furthermore, to accommodate the upgrade of the UNICOS Continuous Process Control package to version 6, some data stru...

  9. ZnO nanowires coated stainless steel meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts for catalytic photodegradation of four kinds of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Lo, Wei-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ychang0127@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China); Guo, Jin-You; Chen, Chien-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-05

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on the stainless steel mesh substrates using an aqueous chemical growth method. The different additives (such as 1,3-diaminopropane and polyethyleneimine) can be used to control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanowires exhibit very prominent green emission and week UV emission from defect and band gap in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, respectively. The different morphology of ZnO nanostructures on the stainless steel mesh substrates can be used to irradiate UV light for the photocatalytic degradation of four kinds of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue, rhodamine 6G, methyl orange, and 4-nitrophenol. The ZnO nanowires can provide a higher surface-to-volume ratio and stronger defect emission, resulting in their highest photocatalytic performance in 10 W UV light irradiation. The ZnO nanowire arrays on the stainless steel mesh substrates provide a large-scale, facile, low-cost, high surface area, and high photocatalytic efficiency, which shall be of significant value for practical applications of the decomposition of environment pollutants and reusing of wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • ZnO NWs were grown on the stainless steel mesh by aqueous chemical growth method. • Longer ZnO NW arrays have been grown at short reaction time (2 h). • ZnO NWs revealed green emission from surface defect in the CL spectrum. • The different morphologies of ZnO were evaluated organic pollutant degradation. • ZnO NWs were also exhibited great photocatalytic activity and reusability.

  10. Evaluating Direct Manipulation Operations for Constraint-Based Layout

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidler , Clemens; Lutteroth , Christof; Stuerzlinger , Wolfgang; Weber , Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Part 11: Interface Layout and Data Entry; International audience; Layout managers are used to control the placement of widgets in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Constraint-based layout managers are more powerful than other ones. However, they are also more complex and their layouts are prone to problems that usually require direct editing of constraints. Today, designers commonly use GUI builders to specify GUIs. The complexities of traditional approaches to constraint-based layouts pose c...

  11. An optimization tool for satellite equipment layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zheng; Liang, Yan-gang; Zhou, Jian-ping

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the satellite equipment layout with performance constraints is a complex task which can be viewed as a constrained multi-objective optimization and a multiple criteria decision making problem. The layout design of a satellite cabin involves the process of locating the required equipment in a limited space, thereby satisfying various behavioral constraints of the interior and exterior environments. The layout optimization of satellite cabin in this paper includes the C.G. offset, the moments of inertia and the space debris impact risk of the system, of which the impact risk index is developed to quantify the risk to a satellite cabin of coming into contact with space debris. In this paper an optimization tool for the integration of CAD software as well as the optimization algorithms is presented, which is developed to automatically find solutions for a three-dimensional layout of equipment in satellite. The effectiveness of the tool is also demonstrated by applying to the layout optimization of a satellite platform.

  12. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-01-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm. (paper)

  13. A decaying factor accounts for contained activity in neuronal networks with no need of hierarchical or modular organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira Jr, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for containing activity in systems represented by networks are crucial in various phenomena, for example, in diseases such as epilepsy that affect the neuronal networks and for information dissemination in social networks. The first models to account for contained activity included triggering and inhibition processes, but they cannot be applied to social networks where inhibition is clearly absent. A recent model showed that contained activity can be achieved with no need of inhibition processes provided that the network is subdivided into modules (communities). In this paper, we introduce a new concept inspired in the Hebbian theory, through which containment of activity is achieved by incorporating a dynamics based on a decaying activity in a random walk mechanism preferential to the node activity. Upon selecting the decay coefficient within a proper range, we observed sustained activity in all the networks tested, namely, random, Barabási–Albert and geographical networks. The generality of this finding was confirmed by showing that modularity is no longer needed if the dynamics based on the integrate-and-fire dynamics incorporated the decay factor. Taken together, these results provide a proof of principle that persistent, restrained network activation might occur in the absence of any particular topological structure. This may be the reason why neuronal activity does not spread out to the entire neuronal network, even when no special topological organization exists. (paper)

  14. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Mercadé Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA, a genetic algorithm (GA and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO algorithm. The results show slightly higher performances for the latter two algorithms; however, the first turns out to be significantly less computationally demanding.

  15. Discrete optimization in architecture architectural & urban layout

    CERN Document Server

    Zawidzki, Machi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents three projects that demonstrate the fundamental problems of architectural design and urban composition – the layout design, evaluation and optimization. Part I describes the functional layout design of a residential building, and an evaluation of the quality of a town square (plaza). The algorithm for the functional layout design is based on backtracking using a constraint satisfaction approach combined with coarse grid discretization. The algorithm for the town square evaluation is based on geometrical properties derived directly from its plan. Part II introduces a crowd-simulation application for the analysis of escape routes on floor plans, and optimization of a floor plan for smooth crowd flow. The algorithms presented employ agent-based modeling and cellular automata.

  16. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  17. A novel method for designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly in home-based rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duojin; Wu, Jing; Lin, Qinglian

    2018-05-01

    The home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients improves their autonomy, independence and reintegration into society. Hence, a suitable environment plays an important role in rehabilitation, as do different assistance technologies. The majority of accidents at home involving elderly people occur in the bathroom. Therefore, the planning of the layout of facilities is important in this potentially dangerous area. This paper proposes an approach towards designing and optimizing the layout of facilities in the bathroom, based on logistical and nonlogistical relationships. A fuzzy-based analytical hierarchical process (fuzzy-AHP) is then proposed for a comprehensive evaluation of the alternatives for this layout plan. This approach was applied to the home of a 71 years old female patient, who was experiencing home-based rehabilitation. After the initial designing and optimizing of the layout of the facilities in her bathroom, a plan could then be created for her particular needs. The results of this research could then enable the home-based rehabilitation of elderly patients to be more effective. Value: This paper develops a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom for the elderly. Implications for Rehabilitation Develop a new approach to design and optimize the layout of facilities in bathroom. Provide a mathematical and more scientific approach to home layout design for home-based rehabilitation. Provide new opportunities for research, for both the therapist and the patient to analyse the home facility layout.

  18. Three-dimensional structure of human lamellar bone: the presence of two different materials and new insights into the hierarchical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, Natalie; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-02-01

    Lamellar bone is the most common bone type in humans. The predominant components of individual lamellae are plywood-like arrays of mineralized collagen fibrils aligned in different directions. Using a dual-beam electron microscope and the Serial Surface View (SSV) method we previously identified a small, but significantly different layer in rat lamellar bone, namely a disordered layer with collagen fibrils showing little or no preferred orientation. Here we present a 3D structural analysis of 12 SSV volumes (25 complete lamellae) from femora of 3 differently aged human individuals. We identify the ordered and disordered motifs in human bone as in the rat, with several significant differences. The ordered motif shows two major preferred orientations, perpendicular to the long axis of the bone, and aligned within 10-20° of the long axis, as well as fanning arrays. At a higher organizational level, arrays of ordered collagen fibrils are organized into 'rods' around 2 to 3μm in diameter, and the long axes of these 'rods' are parallel to the lamellar boundaries. Human bone also contains a disordered component that envelopes the rods and fills in the spaces between them. The disordered motif is especially well-defined between adjacent layers of rods. The disordered motif and its interfibrillar substance stain heavily with osmium tetroxide and Alcian blue indicating the presence of another organic component in addition to collagen. The canalicular network is confined to the disordered material, along with voids and individual collagen fibrils, some of which are also aligned more or less perpendicular to the lamellar boundaries. The organization of the ordered fibril arrays into rods enveloped in the continuous disordered structure was not observed in rat lamellar bone. We thus conclude that human lamellar bone is comprised of two distinct materials, an ordered material and a disordered material, and contains an additional hierarchical level of organization composed of

  19. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  20. Final Report: ATLAS Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade Layout Task Force

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Hessey, N; Mättig, P; Styles, N; Wells, P; Burdin, S; Cornelissen, T; Todorov, T; Vankov, P; Watson, I; Wenig, S

    2012-01-01

    he mandate of the Upgrade Layout Task Force was to develop a benchmark layout proposal for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade Letter of Intent (LOI), due in late 2012. The work described in this note has evolved from simulation and design studies made using an earlier "UTOPIA" upgrade tracker layout, and experience gained from the current ATLAS Inner Detector during the first years of data taking. The layout described in this document, called the LoI-layout, will be used as a benchmark layout for the LoI and will be used for simulation and engineering studies described in the LoI.

  1. Intersection layout, traffic volumes and accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the accident research carried out as a part of a large project started in 1983. For this accident research an inventory was made of a large number of intersections.Recorded were layout features, accident data and estimates of traffic volumes. Attention will be given to the

  2. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  3. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  4. Customisation of Indico pages - Layout and Menus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to customize the layout of your Indico pages (for example you can change the color of the background images or change the logo) and the menus on your Indico pages  (for example you can add or hide certain blocks, or change their name and order).  

  5. You Be the Judge: Newspaper Advertising Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The learning package is designed to provide the marketing educator with a culminating activity for an instructional unit focusing on advertising layout principles and procedures. It is to be used in conjunction with 35mm slides of newspaper advertisements, which the student views and rates in comparison with the ratings of a panel of experts. A…

  6. Hardware and layout aspects affecting maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, V.N.; Surendar, Ch.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found from maintenance experience at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station that proper hardware and instrumentation layout can reduce maintenance and down-time on the related equipment. The problems faced in this connection and how they were solved is narrated. (M.G.B.)

  7. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    . The shuttle layout problem is frequently solved in two phases: first, a floorplan of the shuttle is generated. Then, a cutting plan is found which minimizes the overall number of wafers needed to satisfy the demand of each die type. Since some die types require special production technologies, only compatible...

  8. Beam Dynamics and Layout arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Alessandra

    In this paper, we give some guidelines for the design of linear accelerators, with special emphasis on their use in a hadron therapy facility. We concentrate on two accelerator layouts, based on linacs. The conventional one based on a linac injecting into a synchrotron and a all-linac solution based on high gradient high frequency RF cavities.

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION FOR LAYOUT ANALYSIS IN A WOODEN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Navarro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to balance the production line and analyze the layout of the sewing sector in a furniture industry. Using the Arena software, a simulation model was constructed that represented the real system consisting of a cellular layout with 3 groups of 5 seamstresses, who produced 57 different types of products divided into three families, in a daily working day of 625 minutes in the months of February to August and 725 minutes in the months of September to January. The model was quantitatively validated among the managers of the studied industry. The obtained results allowed conclusions with an error of less than 1% in the daily quantity of pieces produced with 99% statistical confidence. Therefore, three scenarios related to the organization of the work environment and the balancing of the production line were constructed, and those include: i linear layout, and the balancing allowed the division of five seamstresses for families 1 and 2, and three seamstresses for family 3; ii study of the layout by processes, so that the best balance was constituted of two groups with seven seamstresses; iii similar to scenario 2 but with six seamstresses in group 1 and seven seamstresses in group 2. It was verified that the modified, alternative scenario 2 is more advantageous for the organization, since it presents greater productivity compared to all other scenarios and to the real system, so the company can increase its production capacity by simply modifying the layout and organizing the work environment.

  10. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  11. Synthesis of Hierarchically Structured Hybrid Materials by Controlled Self-Assembly of Metal-Organic Framework with Mesoporous Silica for CO2 Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Li, Bingxue; Zhou, Lijin; Xia, Zefeng; Feng, Nengjie; Ding, Jing; Wang, Lei; Wan, Hui; Guan, Guofeng

    2017-07-12

    The HKUST-1@SBA-15 composites with hierarchical pore structure were constructed by in situ self-assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF) with mesoporous silica. The structure directing role of SBA-15 had an obvious impact on the growth of MOF crystals, which in turn affected the morphologies and structural properties of the composites. The pristine HKUST-1 and the composites with different content of SBA-15 were characterized by XRD, N 2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, TG, XPS, and CO 2 -TPD techniques. It was found that the composites were assembled by oriented growth of MOF nanocrystals on the surfaces of SBA-15 matrix. The interactions between surface silanol groups and metal centers induced structural changes and resulted in the increases in surface areas as well as micropore volumes of hybrid materials. Besides, the additional constraints from SBA-15 also restrained the expansion of HKUST-1, contributing to their smaller crystal sizes in the composites. The adsorption isotherms of CO 2 on the materials were measured and applied to calculate the isosteric heats of adsorption. The HS-1 composite exhibited an increase of 15.9% in CO 2 uptake capacity compared with that of HKUST-1. Moreover, its higher isosteric heats of CO 2 adsorption indicated the stronger interactions between the surfaces and CO 2 molecules. The adsorption rate of the composite was also improved due to the introduction of mesopores. Ten cycles of CO 2 adsorption-desorption experiments implied that the HS-1 had excellent reversibility of CO 2 adsorption. This study was intended to provide the possibility of assembling new composites with tailored properties based on MOF and mesoporous silica to satisfy the requirements of various applications.

  12. Hierarchical Self-Organization of AB n Dendron-like Molecules into a Supramolecular Lattice Sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xueyan [Department; Zhang, Ruimeng [Department; Li, Yiwen [College; Hong, You-lee [RIKEN CLST-JEOL; JEOL RESONANCE; Guo, Dong [Department; Lang, Kening [Department; Wu, Kuan-Yi [Department; Huang, Mingjun [Department; Mao, Jialin [Department; Wesdemiotis, Chrys [Department; Nishiyama, Yusuke [RIKEN CLST-JEOL; JEOL RESONANCE; Zhang, Wei [Department; Zhang, Wei [South; Miyoshi, Toshikazu [Department; Li, Tao [X-ray; Cheng, Stephen Z. D. [Department

    2017-08-07

    To understand the hierarchical self-organization behaviors of soft materials as well as their dependence on molecular geometry, a series of ABn dendron-type giant molecules based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles were designed and synthesized. The apex of these molecules is a hydrophilic POSS cage with fourteen hydroxyl groups (denoted DPOSS). At its periphery, there are different numbers (n = 1–8) of hydrophobic POSS cages with seven isobutyl groups (denoted BPOSS), connected to the apical DPOSS via flexible dendron type linker(s). With varying the BPOSS number from one to seven, a supramolecular lattice formation sequence ranging from lamella (DPOSS-BPOSS), double gyroid (space group of Ia3d, DPOSS-BPOSS2), hexagonal cylinder (space group of P6mm, DPOSS-BPOSS3), Frank-Kasper A15 (space group of Pm3n, DPOSS-BPOSS4, DPOSS-BPOSS5, and DPOSS-BPOSS6), to Frank-Kasper sigma (space group of P42/mnm, DPOSS-BPOSS7) phases can be observed. The nanostructure formations in this series of ABn dendron-type giant molecules are mainly directed by the macromolecular geometric shapes. Furthermore, within each spherical motif, the soft spherical core is consisted of hydrophilic DPOSS cages with flexible linkages, while the hydrophobic BPOSS cages form the relative rigid shell and contact with neighbors to provide decreased interfaces among the spherical motifs for constructing final polyhedral motifs in these Frank-Kasper lattices. This study provides the design principle of macromolecules with specific geometric shapes and functional groups to achieve anticipated structures and macroscopic properties.

  13. Metal-organic framework derived Fe/Fe3C@N-doped-carbon porous hierarchical polyhedrons as bifunctional electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and oxygen-reduction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunsen; Wu, Shikui; Shen, Xiaoping; Miao, Xuli; Ji, Zhenyuan; Yuan, Aihua; Xu, Keqiang; Liu, Miaomiao; Xie, Xulan; Kong, Lirong; Zhu, Guoxing; Ali Shah, Sayyar

    2018-08-15

    The development of simple and cost-effective synthesis methods for electrocatalysts of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is critical to renewable energy technologies. Herein, we report an interesting bifunctional HER and ORR electrocatalyst of Fe/Fe 3 C@N-doped-carbon porous hierarchical polyhedrons (Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C) by a simple metal-organic framework precursor route. The Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C polyhedrons consisting of Fe and Fe 3 C nanocrystals enveloped by N-doped carbon shells and accompanying with some carbon nanotubes on the surface were prepared by thermal annealing of Zn 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 2 ·xH 2 O polyhedral particles in nitrogen atmosphere. This material exhibits a large specific surface area of 182.5 m 2  g -1 and excellent ferromagnetic property. Electrochemical tests indicate that the Fe/Fe 3 C@N-C hybrid has apparent HER activity with a relatively low overpotential of 236 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm -2 and a small Tafel slope of 59.6 mV decade -1 . Meanwhile, this material exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward ORR with an onset potential (0.936 V vs. RHE) and half-wave potential (0.804 V vs. RHE) in 0.1 M KOH, which is comparable to commercial 20 wt% Pt/C (0.975 V and 0.820 V), and shows even better stability than the Pt/C. This work provides a new insight to developing multi-functional materials for renewable energy application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hierarchical analysis of urban space

    OpenAIRE

    Kataeva, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-level structure of urban space, multitude of subjects of its transformation, which follow asymmetric interests, multilevel system of institutions which regulate interaction in the "population business government -public organizations" system, determine the use of hierarchic approach to the analysis of urban space. The article observes theoretical justification of using this approach to study correlations and peculiarities of interaction in urban space as in an intricately organized syst...

  15. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. The layout we consider is a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important in digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and in the improvement of user-created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm that automatically detects constraints. We evaluate the proposed framework using a variety of input layouts from different applications. Our results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  16. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2015-09-18

    In this paper, we address the problem of constraint detection for layout regularization. As layout we consider a set of two-dimensional elements where each element is represented by its bounding box. Layout regularization is important for digitizing plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing alignment, size, and distance constraints between layout elements. Similar to previous work, we formulate the layout regularization as a quadratic programming problem. In addition, we propose a novel optimization algorithm to automatically detect constraints. In our results, we evaluate the proposed framework on a variety of input layouts from different applications, which demonstrates our method has superior performance to the state of the art.

  17. Automatic Constraint Detection for 2D Layout Regularization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong; Nan, Liangliang; Yan, Dongming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    plans or images, such as floor plans and facade images, and for the improvement of user created contents, such as architectural drawings and slide layouts. To regularize a layout, we aim to improve the input by detecting and subsequently enforcing

  18. Hierarchical analysis of acceptable use policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Laughton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptable use policies (AUPs are vital tools for organizations to protect themselves and their employees from misuse of computer facilities provided. A well structured, thorough AUP is essential for any organization. It is impossible for an effective AUP to deal with every clause and remain readable. For this reason, some sections of an AUP carry more weight than others, denoting importance. The methodology used to develop the hierarchical analysis is a literature review, where various sources were consulted. This hierarchical approach to AUP analysis attempts to highlight important sections and clauses dealt with in an AUP. The emphasis of the hierarchal analysis is to prioritize the objectives of an AUP.

  19. 48 CFR 36.517 - Layout of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Layout of work. 36.517... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.517 Layout of work. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-17, Layout of Work, in solicitations and contracts when...

  20. Pure JavaScript Storyline Layout Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-10-02

    This is a JavaScript library for a storyline layout algorithm. Storylines are adept at communicating complex change by encoding time on the x-axis and using the proximity of lines in the y direction to represent interaction between entities. The library in this disclosure takes as input a list of objects containing an id, time, and state. The output is a data structure that can be used to conveniently render a storyline visualization. Most importantly, the library computes the y-coordinate of the entities over time that decreases layout artifacts including crossings, wiggles, and whitespace. This is accomplished through multi-objective, multi-stage optimization problem, where the output of one stage produces input and constraints for the next stage.

  1. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Li-ya; Sun, Li-shan; Wang, Wu-hong; Xiong, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish ...

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE LAYOUT SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site layout system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  3. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng; Yan, Dongming; Dong, Weiming; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  4. Familiarisation: Restructuring Layouts with Visual Learning Models

    OpenAIRE

    Todi, Kashyap; Jokinen, Jussi; Luyten, Kris; Oulasvirta, Antti

    2018-01-01

    In domains where users are exposed to large variations in visuo-spatial features among designs, they often spend excess time searching for common elements (features) in familiar locations. This paper contributes computational approaches to restructuring layouts such that features on a new, unvisited interface can be found quicker. We explore four concepts of familiarisation, inspired by the human visual system (HVS), to automatically generate a familiar design for each user. Given a histor...

  5. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  6. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  7. Improved Layout of Inverter for EMC Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yade , Ousseynou; Martin , Christian; Vollaire , Christian; Bréard , Arnaud; Ali , Marwan; Meuret , Régis; Hervé , Morel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper details EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) analysis on an inverter application. The work deals with the whole power chain (±270Vdc input voltage to 3-phase 115 Vac output voltage). This inverter is composed by modular parts (power module and EMC filters) that supply motors in more electrical aircraft. Through our analysis an approach is defined to design a detailed lumped circuit model of the power module layout by using Q3D extractor and SABER software. Fr...

  8. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

  9. Optimization of a furniture factory layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Kanduč

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of optimizing a factory floor layout in a Slovenian furniture factory. First, the current state of the manufacturing system is analyzed by constructing a discrete event simulation (DES model that reflects the manufacturing processes. The company produces over 10,000 different products, and their manufacturing processes include approximately 30,000 subprocesses. Therefore, manually constructing a model to include every subprocess is not feasible. To overcome this problem, a method for automated model construction was developed to construct a DES model based on a selection of manufacturing orders and relevant subprocesses. The obtained simulation model provided insight into the manufacturing processes and enable easy modification of model parameters for optimizing the manufacturing processes. Finally, the optimization problem was solved: the total distance the products had to traverse between machines was minimized by devising an optimal machine layout. With the introduction of certain simplifications, the problem was best described as a quadratic assignment problem. A novel heuristic method based on force-directed graph drawing algorithms was developed. Optimizing the floor layout resulted in a significant reduction of total travel distance for the products.

  10. Hierarchical ordering with partial pairwise hierarchical relationships on the macaque brain data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosang Lim

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organizations of information processing in the brain networks have been known to exist and widely studied. To find proper hierarchical structures in the macaque brain, the traditional methods need the entire pairwise hierarchical relationships between cortical areas. In this paper, we present a new method that discovers hierarchical structures of macaque brain networks by using partial information of pairwise hierarchical relationships. Our method uses a graph-based manifold learning to exploit inherent relationship, and computes pseudo distances of hierarchical levels for every pair of cortical areas. Then, we compute hierarchy levels of all cortical areas by minimizing the sum of squared hierarchical distance errors with the hierarchical information of few cortical areas. We evaluate our method on the macaque brain data sets whose true hierarchical levels are known as the FV91 model. The experimental results show that hierarchy levels computed by our method are similar to the FV91 model, and its errors are much smaller than the errors of hierarchical clustering approaches.

  11. Processing of hierarchical syntactic structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Rohrmeier, Martin; Torrecuso, Renzo; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-09-17

    Hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is a key feature of human language and can be identified theoretically in most pieces of tonal music. However, previous studies have argued against the perception of such structures in music. Here, we show processing of nonlocal dependencies in music. We presented chorales by J. S. Bach and modified versions in which the hierarchical structure was rendered irregular whereas the local structure was kept intact. Brain electric responses differed between regular and irregular hierarchical structures, in both musicians and nonmusicians. This finding indicates that, when listening to music, humans apply cognitive processes that are capable of dealing with long-distance dependencies resulting from hierarchically organized syntactic structures. Our results reveal that a brain mechanism fundamental for syntactic processing is engaged during the perception of music, indicating that processing of hierarchical structure with nested nonlocal dependencies is not just a key component of human language, but a multidomain capacity of human cognition.

  12. Production layout improvement by using line balancing and Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) at PT. XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari; Tarigan, U.; Ambarita, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    PT. XYZ is a wood processing company which produce semi-finished wood with production system is make to order. In the production process, it can be seen that the production line is not balanced. The imbalance of the production line is caused by the difference in cycle time between work stations. In addition, there are other issues, namely the existence of material flow pattern is irregular so it resulted in the backtracking and displacement distance away. This study aimed to obtain the allocation of work elements to specific work stations and propose an improvement of the production layout based on the result of improvements in the line balancing. The method used in the balancing is Ranked Positional Weight (RPW) or also known as Helgeson Birnie method. While the methods used in the improvement of the layout is the method of Systematic Layout Planning (SLP). By using Ranked Positional Weight (RPW) obtained increase in line efficiency becomes 84,86% and decreased balance delay becomes 15,14%. Repairing the layout using the method of Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) also give good results with a reduction in path length becomes 133,82 meters from 213,09 meters previously or a decrease of 37.2%.

  13. A REDESIGN LAYOUT TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF A COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentia Kitriastika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This project is conducted in Company X, a passenger cars wheel producing company located in Sunter, North Jakarta. With a view of increasing the productivity of the company, the focus of this project will be redesigned the layout of the factory. The main problem encountered is that the goods are not produced in single location, causing a considerable hindrance in terms of time and distance, and hence efficiency. The redesigning layout process will use SLP method and flow analysis while supported by analysis of assembly line balancing to optimize the layout. Regarding the evaluation process, ARENA software will be used to simulate and identify the bottleneck in the production process, and comparing the layout alternatives to decide the best layout. The best chosen layout according to the simulation and SLP method that supported with flow analysis and assembly line balancing will be used as the master draft layout that will be proposed to Company X.

  14. Production facility layout by comparing moment displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, M.; Ginting, E.; Sari, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Production floor layout settings include the organizing of machinery, materials, and all the equipments used in the production process in the available area. PT. XYZ is a company that manufactures rubber and rubber compounds for retreading tire threaded with hot and cold cooking system. In the production of PT. XYZ is divided into three interrelated parts, namely Masterbatch Department, Department Compound, and Procured Thread Line Department. PT. XYZ has a production process with material flow is irregular and the arrangement of machine is complicated and need to be redesigned. The purpose of this study is comparing movement displacement using BLOCPLAN and ALDEP algorithm in order to redesign existing layout. Redesigning the layout of the production floor is done by applying algorithms of BLOCPLAN and ALDEP. The algorithm used to find the best layout design by comparing the moment displacement and the flow pattern. Moment displacement on the floor layout of the company’s production currently amounts to 2,090,578.5 meters per year and material flow pattern is irregular. Based on the calculation, the moment displacement for the BLOCPLAN is 1,551,344.82 meter per year and ALDEP is 1,600,179 meter per year. Flow Material resulted is in the form of straight the line.

  15. Study of the layout plan in the tokamak complex building for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Yagenji, Akira; Sekiya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hideo; Tamura, Kousaku; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ogino, Shunji; Nagamatsu, Nobuhide; Motohashi, Keiichi; Uehara, Masaharu; Kataoka, Takahiro; Ohashi, Hironori

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes study of the layout plan in the ITER Tokamak complex building as an invite to set up its plant in Japan. To draw up this arrangement plan, final design report (FDR), which was designed for main components and determined for the non-site specific design, was reconstructed systematically for the Japanese site. A supplementary design was performed for the insufficiency parts of FDR. An additional study was also performed for the adaptation of a regulatory framework including technical safety requirements in Japan. We proposed the tokamak complex building with seismic isolation to combine with the hot cell building. Through the studies, a layout plan has been constructed including maintenance plan for personnel access and component route with in the building from assembly to operation period. This layout plan would be used as a basis in the construction period, although final decision will be done by ITER organization. (author)

  16. General layout of a 1300 MW PWR buildings: standard lay-out and influence factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Messias, M. da

    1986-01-01

    The Standardization concept of a 1300 MW Nuclear Power Plant equipped with pressurized-water reactors (PWR) will be considered with regard to the factors which have various degrees of influence on the Layout of the Site. Standardization with regard to the Layout of nuclear power plant, stands, however also for a fixed arrangement of the components in the main buildings and a fixed arrangement of the buildings in the site plan. Standardization may result in simplified and shorter licensing procedures and mean less planning effort. Concentration of systems, optimization of the electro-mechanical design, clear separation of the controlled area, need for shielding, maintenance and safety aspects are some of number of factors which have various degress of influence on the layout of the buildings. (Author) [pt

  17. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  18. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  19. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  20. Weather regimes over Senegal during the summer monsoon season using self-organizing maps and hierarchical ascendant classification. Part II: interannual time scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueye, A.K. [ESP, UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Janicot, Serge; Sultan, Benjamin [LOCEAN/IPSL, IRD, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris cedex 05 (France); Niang, A. [LTI, ESP/UCAD, Dakar (Senegal); Sawadogo, S. [LTI, EPT, Thies (Senegal); Diongue-Niang, A. [ANACIM, Dakar (Senegal); Thiria, S. [LOCEAN/IPSL, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2012-11-15

    The aim of this work is to define over the period 1979-2002 the main synoptic weather regimes relevant for understanding the daily variability of rainfall during the summer monsoon season over Senegal. ''Interannual'' synoptic weather regimes are defined by removing the influence of the mean 1979-2002 seasonal cycle. This is different from Part I where the seasonal evolution of each year was removed, then removing also the contribution of interannual variability. As in Part I, the self-organizing maps approach, a clustering methodology based on non-linear artificial neural network, is combined with a hierarchical ascendant classification to compute these regimes. Nine weather regimes are identified using the mean sea level pressure and 850 hPa wind field as variables. The composite circulation patterns of all these nine weather regimes are very consistent with the associated anomaly patterns of precipitable water, mid-troposphere vertical velocity and rainfall. They are also consistent with the distribution of rainfall extremes. These regimes have been then gathered into different groups. A first group of four regimes is included in an inner circuit and is characterized by a modulation of the semi-permanent trough located along the western coast of West Africa and an opposite modulation on the east. This circuit is important because it associates the two wettest and highly persistent weather regimes over Senegal with the driest and the most persistent one. One derivation of this circuit is highlighted, including the two driest regimes and the most persistent one, what can provide important dry sequences occurrence. An exit of this circuit is characterised by a filling of the Saharan heat low. An entry into the main circuit includes a southward location of the Saharan heat low followed by its deepening. The last weather regime is isolated from the other ones and it has no significant impact on Senegal. It is present in June and September, and

  1. Josephson shift register design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.; Buttyan, J.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips were designed and fabricated, based on Josephson shift register circuit that simulated operation at 25 GHz using the SPICE program. The 6.25 mm square chip featured a twelve-gate, four-stage shift register fabricated with Nb/AlO/sub x//Nb Josephson junctions with a design value of 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ critical current density. SUPERCOMPACT, a general program for the design of monolithic microwave integrated circuits, was used to model the effects of layout geometry on the uniformity and phase coherence of logic gate bias currents. Gate bias resistors were treated as resistive transmission lines. A layout geometry for the superconductive transmission lines and thin film bias resistors was developed. The original SPICE-designed circuit was modified as a result of these calculations. Modeling indicated that bias current variations could be limited to 3% for all possible logic states of the shift register, and phase coherence of the gates could be maintained to within 2 degrees of 10 Ghz. The fundamental soundness of the circuit design was demonstrated by the proper operation of fabricated shift registers

  2. Evolutionary optimization technique for site layout planning

    KAUST Repository

    El Ansary, Ayman M.

    2014-02-01

    Solving the site layout planning problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to a favorite view). This paper introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique is based on genetic algorithm which explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional site planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in solving the site layout planning of simple residential dwellings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Document reconstruction by layout analysis of snippets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Florian; Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Document analysis is done to analyze entire forms (e.g. intelligent form analysis, table detection) or to describe the layout/structure of a document. Also skew detection of scanned documents is performed to support OCR algorithms that are sensitive to skew. In this paper document analysis is applied to snippets of torn documents to calculate features for the reconstruction. Documents can either be destroyed by the intention to make the printed content unavailable (e.g. tax fraud investigation, business crime) or due to time induced degeneration of ancient documents (e.g. bad storage conditions). Current reconstruction methods for manually torn documents deal with the shape, inpainting and texture synthesis techniques. In this paper the possibility of document analysis techniques of snippets to support the matching algorithm by considering additional features are shown. This implies a rotational analysis, a color analysis and a line detection. As a future work it is planned to extend the feature set with the paper type (blank, checked, lined), the type of the writing (handwritten vs. machine printed) and the text layout of a snippet (text size, line spacing). Preliminary results show that these pre-processing steps can be performed reliably on a real dataset consisting of 690 snippets.

  4. Getting it across : layout issues for kiosk systems

    OpenAIRE

    Borchers, Jan; Deussen, Oliver; Knörzer, Clemens

    1995-01-01

    A clear and appealing screen layout is crucial to the success of on-line kiosk systems, public terminals that are connected to a network. This paper addresses the problem of developing such a layout, and provides several guidelines, drawn from traditional typography and Gestalt psychology as well as from hypertext authoring, and human-computer interaction. To identify how a kiosk system s primary task influences optimal layout, kiosk systems are classified into four basic types. The usability...

  5. Creation of Warehouse Models for Different Layout Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Mirko; Lukić, Ivica; Nenadić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Warehouse is one of the most important components in logistics of the supply chain network. Efficiency of warehouse operations is influenced by many different factors. One of the key factors is the racks layout configuration. A warehouse with good racks layout may significantly reduce the cost of warehouse servicing. The objective of this paper is to give a scheme for building warehouses models with one-block and two-block layout for future research in warehouse optimization. An algorithm ...

  6. A New Layout Method for Graphical User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Scoditti , Adriano; Stuerzlinger , Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The layout mechanisms for many GUI toolkits are hard to understand, the associated tools and API's often difficult to use. This work investigates new, easy-to-understand layout mechanisms and evaluates its implementation. We will analyze the requirements for the definition of layouts of a graphical user interface. Part of the issue is that several aspects need to be considered simultaneously while laying-out a component: the alignment with other components as well as i...

  7. Automatic Hierarchical Color Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizing images into semantic categories can be extremely useful for content-based image retrieval and image annotation. Grouping images into semantic classes is a difficult problem, however. Image classification attempts to solve this hard problem by using low-level image features. In this paper, we propose a method for hierarchical classification of images via supervised learning. This scheme relies on using a good low-level feature and subsequently performing feature-space reconfiguration using singular value decomposition to reduce noise and dimensionality. We use the training data to obtain a hierarchical classification tree that can be used to categorize new images. Our experimental results suggest that this scheme not only performs better than standard nearest-neighbor techniques, but also has both storage and computational advantages.

  8. Three-dimensional computer aided design system for plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Tokumasu, Shinji; Kumamoto, Kenjiro.

    1986-01-01

    The CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, with which the layout of pipings, cable trays, air conditioning ducts and so on in nuclear power plants can be planned and designed effectively in a short period is reported. This system comprises the automatic routing system by storing the rich experience and know-how of designers in a computer as the knowledge, and deciding the layout automatically following the predetermined sequence by using these, the interactive layout system for reviewing the routing results from higher level and modifying to the optimum layout, the layout evaluation system for synthetically evaluating the layout from the viewpoint of the operability such as checkup and maintenance, and the data base system which enables these effective planning and design. In this report, the total constitution of this system and the technical features and effects of the individual subsystems are outlined. In this CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning, knowledge engineering, CAD/CAM, computer graphics and other latest technology were introduced, accordingly by applying this system to plant design, the design can be performed quickly, various case studies can be carried out at planning stage, and systematic and optimum layout planning becomes possible. (Kako, I.)

  9. Layout compliance for triple patterning lithography: an iterative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Garreton, Gilda; Pan, David Z.

    2014-10-01

    As the semiconductor process further scales down, the industry encounters many lithography-related issues. In the 14nm logic node and beyond, triple patterning lithography (TPL) is one of the most promising techniques for Metal1 layer and possibly Via0 layer. As one of the most challenging problems in TPL, recently layout decomposition efforts have received more attention from both industry and academia. Ideally the decomposer should point out locations in the layout that are not triple patterning decomposable and therefore manual intervention by designers is required. A traditional decomposition flow would be an iterative process, where each iteration consists of an automatic layout decomposition step and manual layout modification task. However, due to the NP-hardness of triple patterning layout decomposition, automatic full chip level layout decomposition requires long computational time and therefore design closure issues continue to linger around in the traditional flow. Challenged by this issue, we present a novel incremental layout decomposition framework to facilitate accelerated iterative decomposition. In the first iteration, our decomposer not only points out all conflicts, but also provides the suggestions to fix them. After the layout modification, instead of solving the full chip problem from scratch, our decomposer can provide a quick solution for a selected portion of layout. We believe this framework is efficient, in terms of performance and designer friendly.

  10. The Offshore Wind Farm Array Cable Layout Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Joanna; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane. For this p......In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane....... For this problem, both exact and heuristic methods are of interest. We optimize cable layouts for real-world OWFs by a hop-indexed integer programming formulation, and develop a heuristic for computing layouts based on the Clarke and Wright savings heuristic for vehicle routing. Our heuristic computes layouts...... on average only 2% more expensive than the optimal layout. Finally, we present two problem extensions arising from real-world OWF cable layouts, and adapt the integer programming formulation to one of them. The thus obtained optimal layouts are up to 13% cheaper than the actually installed layouts....

  11. Analysis on flexible manufacturing system layout using arena simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzly, M. K.; Saad, Mohd Sazli; Shayfull, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) was defined as highly automated group technology machine cell, consisting of a group of processing stations interconnected by an automated material handling and storage system, and controlled by an integrated computer system. FMS can produce parts or products are in the mid-volume, mid-variety production range. The layout system in FMS is an important criterion to design the FMS system to produce a part or product. This facility layout of an FMS involves the positioning of cells within given boundaries, so as to minimize the total projected travel time between cells. Defining the layout includes specifying the spatial coordinates of each cell, its orientation in either a horizontal or vertical position, and the location of its load or unloads point. There are many types of FMS layout such as In-line, loop ladder and robot centered cell layout. The research is concentrating on the design and optimization FMS layout. The final conclusion can be summarized that the objective to design and optimisation of FMS layout for this study is successful because the FMS In-line layout is the best layout based on effective time and cost using ARENA simulation software.

  12. Hierarchical Linked Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robert; Frincke, Deb

    2007-07-02

    Coordinated views have proven critical to the development of effective visualization environments. This results from the fact that a single view or representation of the data cannot show all of the intricacies of a given data set. Additionally, users will often need to correlate more data parameters than can effectively be integrated into a single visual display. Typically, development of multiple-linked views results in an adhoc configuration of views and associated interactions. The hierarchical model we are proposing is geared towards more effective organization of such environments and the views they encompass. At the same time, this model can effectively integrate much of the prior work on interactive and visual frameworks. Additionally, we expand the concept of views to incorporate perceptual views. This is related to the fact that visual displays can have information encoded at various levels of focus. Thus, a global view of the display provides overall trends of the data while focusing in on individual elements provides detailed specifics. By integrating interaction and perception into a single model, we show how one impacts the other. Typically, interaction and perception are considered separately, however, when interaction is being considered at a fundamental level and allowed to direct/modify the visualization directly we must consider them simultaneously and how they impact one another.

  13. Ergonomics influence on control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfiel, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)

  14. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  15. Multiple dynamical time-scales in networks with hierarchically

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modular networks; hierarchical organization; synchronization. ... we show that such a topological structure gives rise to characteristic time-scale separation ... This suggests a possible functional role of such mesoscopic organization principle in ...

  16. Hydroxyapatite hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres: rapid, sustainable microwave-hydrothermal synthesis by using creatine phosphate as an organic phosphorus source and application in drug delivery and protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jin

    2013-04-22

    Hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres of hydroxyapatite (HAP) are a promising biomaterial, owing to their excellent biocompatibility and porous hollow structure. Traditionally, synthetic hydroxyapatite is prepared by using an inorganic phosphorus source. Herein, we report a new strategy for the rapid, sustainable synthesis of HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres by using creatine phosphate disodium salt as an organic phosphorus source in aqueous solution through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The as-obtained products are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen sorptometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM micrographs show that HAP hierarchically nanostructured porous hollow microspheres consist of HAP nanosheets or nanorods as the building blocks and DLS measurements show that the diameters of HAP hollow microspheres are within the range 0.8-1.5 μm. The specific surface area and average pore size of the HAP porous hollow microspheres are 87.3 m(2) g(-1) and 20.6 nm, respectively. The important role of creatine phosphate disodium salt and the influence of the experimental conditions on the products were systematically investigated. This method is facile, rapid, surfactant-free and environmentally friendly. The as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres show a relatively high drug-loading capacity and protein-adsorption ability, as well as sustained drug and protein release, by using ibuprofen as a model drug and hemoglobin (Hb) as a model protein, respectively. These experiments indicate that the as-prepared HAP porous hollow microspheres are promising for applications in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery and protein adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Optimal layout of radiological environment monitoring based on TOPSIS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sufen; Zhou Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    TOPSIS is a method for multi-objective-decision-making, which can be applied to comprehensive assessment of environmental quality. This paper adopts it to get the optimal layout of radiological environment monitoring, it is proved that this method is a correct, simple and convenient, practical one, and beneficial to supervision departments to scientifically and reasonably layout Radiological Environment monitoring sites. (authors)

  18. Layout and cabling considerations for a large communications antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Layout considerations for a large deep space communications antenna array are discussed. A fractal geometry for the antenna layout is described that provides optimal packing of antenna elements, efficient cable routing, and logical division of the array into identical sub-arrays.

  19. Mental Layout Extrapolations Prime Spatial Processing of Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Carmela V.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether scene processing is facilitated by layout representation, including layout that was not perceived but could be predicted based on a previous partial view (boundary extension). In a priming paradigm (after Sanocki, 2003), participants judged objects' distances in photographs. In Experiment 1, full scenes (target),…

  20. Selecting a pharmacy layout design using a weighted scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Alissa L; Huang, Yu-Li

    2012-05-01

    A weighted scoring system was used to select a pharmacy layout redesign. Facilities layout design techniques were applied at a local hospital pharmacy using a step-by-step design process. The process involved observing and analyzing the current situation, observing the current available space, completing activity flow charts of the pharmacy processes, completing communication and material relationship charts to detail which areas in the pharmacy were related to one another and how they were related, researching applications in other pharmacies or in scholarly works that could be beneficial, numerically defining space requirements for areas within the pharmacy, measuring the available space within the pharmacy, developing a set of preliminary designs, and modifying preliminary designs so they were all acceptable to the pharmacy staff. To select a final layout that could be implemented in the pharmacy, those layouts were compared via a weighted scoring system. The weighted aspect further allowed additional emphasis on categories based on their effect on pharmacy performance. The results produced a beneficial layout design as determined through simulated models of the pharmacy operation that more effectively allocated and strategically located space to improve transportation distances and materials handling, employee utilization, and ergonomics. Facilities layout designs for a hospital pharmacy were evaluated using a weighted scoring system to identify a design that was superior to both the current layout and alternative layouts in terms of feasibility, cost, patient safety, employee safety, flexibility, robustness, transportation distance, employee utilization, objective adherence, maintainability, usability, and environmental impact.

  1. Optimization of machining fixture layout for tolerance requirements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dimensional accuracy of workpart under machining is strongly influenced by the layout of the fixturing elements like locators and clamps. Setup or geometrical errors in locators result in overall machining error of the feature under consideration. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that the layout is optimized for the desired ...

  2. Layout Geometry in Encoding and Retrieval of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Liu, Xianyun; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the spatial reference directions that are used to specify objects' locations in memory can be solely determined by layout geometry. Participants studied a layout of objects from a single viewpoint while their eye movements were recorded. Subsequently, participants used memory to make judgments of relative…

  3. Layout Of Antennas And Cables In A Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Layout devised to minimize total land area occupied by large phased array of antennas and to minimize total length of cables in array. In original intended application, array expanded version of array of paraboloidal-dish microwave communication antennas of Deep Space Network. Layout also advantageous for other phased arrays of antennas and antenna elements, including notably printed-circuit microwave antenna arrays.

  4. DSS 13 phase 2 pedestal room microwave layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, T.; Chen, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and predicted performance is described of the microwave layout for three band operation of the beam waveguide antenna Deep Space Station 13. Three pedestal room microwave candidate layout designs were produced for simultaneous X/S and X/Ka band operation. One of the three designs was chosen based on given constraints, and for this design the microwave performance was estimated.

  5. Layout and flow of dermatology clinics: principles from operations management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jordan V

    2018-04-15

    Dermatology is a medical specialty that experiences high patient demand and long patient wait times. Dermatology clinics should look for ways to improve efficiency through the incorporation of principles from operations management. Addressing the layout and flow of a clinic can lead to operational efficiency. An ideal layout may lead to increased patient volume, satisfaction, and retention.

  6. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman; Yokota, Rio; Ahmadia, Aron

    2012-01-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach

  7. A linear time layout algorithm for business process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gschwind, T.; Pinggera, J.; Zugal, S.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.

    2014-01-01

    The layout of a business process model influences how easily it can beunderstood. Existing layout features in process modeling tools often rely on graph representations, but do not take the specific properties of business process models into account. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that is

  8. Simulation Modeling of a Facility Layout in Operations Management Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hulya Julie

    2006-01-01

    Teaching quantitative courses can be challenging. Similarly, layout modeling and lean production concepts can be difficult to grasp in an introductory OM (operations management) class. This article describes a simulation model developed in PROMODEL to facilitate the learning of layout modeling and lean manufacturing. Simulation allows for the…

  9. Agriculture Education. Elements of Farm and Building Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in elements of farm and building layout. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) sketching and drawing equipment, (2) gothic lettering, (3) layout of a standard sheet, (4) job…

  10. Developing an Integrated Design Strategy for Chip Layout Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; van Vliet, Frank Edward; te Riele, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated design strategy for chip layout optimization. The strategy couples both electric and thermal aspects during the conceptual design phase to improve chip performances; thermal management being one of the major topics. The layout of the chip circuitry is optimized

  11. On the impact of layout quality to understanding UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    previous research considered them in isolation only. In this paper, we report the results of a series of controlled experiments using compound layouts on requirements analysis models. With very high significance, we find a notable impact of the layout quality measured by different aspects of cognitive load....

  12. FUZZY NEURAL NETWORK FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION ON INTEGRATED CIRCUIT LAYOUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Doudkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy neural network model based on neocognitron is proposed to identify layout objects on images of topological layers of integrated circuits. Testing of the model on images of real chip layouts was showed a highеr degree of identification of the proposed neural network in comparison to base neocognitron.

  13. Issues in Text Design and Layout for Computer Based Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of computer-based communications (CBC) focuses on issues involved with screen design and layout for electronic text, based on experiences with electronic messaging, conferencing, and publishing within the Australian Open Learning Information Network (AOLIN). Recommendations for research on design and layout for printed text are also…

  14. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  15. Layout of the LER [Low Energy Ring] Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently been trying to accumulate all of the information necessary to decide on the layout of the regular curved arcs of the Low Energy Ring (LER) and there have been several ABC Notes published on different aspects of the problem. This note will describe the layout that has been derived from these considerations

  16. Planning, layout and infrastructure of modern coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarmann, K R

    1978-02-01

    When designing layout and infrastructure of new coal mines, the principles of planning play a decisive role. Apart from exploration, ventilation, transport, dirt haulage and product haulage, material transport is very important. Illustrated by three examples, modern layout and infrastructure design is presented.

  17. Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose layout drawing of metalware of bridge crane load trolley is proposed. The numerical analysis of proposed layout drawing is conducted using the example of bridge crane load trolley with capacity of 20 t. This analysis is carried out using the finite element method.

  18. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  19. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... with changing and increasing demands. Two-layer networks consist of one backbone network, which interconnects cluster networks. The clusters consist of nodes and links, which connect the nodes. One node in each cluster is a hub node, and the backbone interconnects the hub nodes of each cluster and thus...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks...

  20. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  1. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  2. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  3. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  4. Optimal Control Surface Layout for an Aeroservoelastic Wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a technique for locating the optimal control surface layout of an aeroservoelastic Common Research Model wingbox, in the context of maneuver load alleviation and active utter suppression. The combinatorial actuator layout design is solved using ideas borrowed from topology optimization, where the effectiveness of a given control surface is tied to a layout design variable, which varies from zero (the actuator is removed) to one (the actuator is retained). These layout design variables are optimized concurrently with a large number of structural wingbox sizing variables and control surface actuation variables, in order to minimize the sum of structural weight and actuator weight. Results are presented that demonstrate interdependencies between structural sizing patterns and optimal control surface layouts, for both static and dynamic aeroelastic physics.

  5. Topology-optimized metasurfaces: impact of initial geometric layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianji; Fan, Jonathan A

    2017-08-15

    Topology optimization is a powerful iterative inverse design technique in metasurface engineering and can transform an initial layout into a high-performance device. With this method, devices are optimized within a local design phase space, making the identification of suitable initial geometries essential. In this Letter, we examine the impact of initial geometric layout on the performance of large-angle (75 deg) topology-optimized metagrating deflectors. We find that when conventional metasurface designs based on dielectric nanoposts are used as initial layouts for topology optimization, the final devices have efficiencies around 65%. In contrast, when random initial layouts are used, the final devices have ultra-high efficiencies that can reach 94%. Our numerical experiments suggest that device topologies based on conventional metasurface designs may not be suitable to produce ultra-high-efficiency, large-angle metasurfaces. Rather, initial geometric layouts with non-trivial topologies and shapes are required.

  6. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  7. ITER plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The ITER site has not yet been determined. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electrical power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, demineralized water, steam and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radiation exposure of workers and the public. To prevent interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographical centre of the site. The locations of the buildings on the generic site were selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach was used to determine the locations of services above, at and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography, resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  8. A generic algorithm for layout of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Dwyer, Tim; Marriott, Kim; Wybrow, Michael

    2009-11-12

    Biological networks are widely used to represent processes in biological systems and to capture interactions and dependencies between biological entities. Their size and complexity is steadily increasing due to the ongoing growth of knowledge in the life sciences. To aid understanding of biological networks several algorithms for laying out and graphically representing networks and network analysis results have been developed. However, current algorithms are specialized to particular layout styles and therefore different algorithms are required for each kind of network and/or style of layout. This increases implementation effort and means that new algorithms must be developed for new layout styles. Furthermore, additional effort is necessary to compose different layout conventions in the same diagram. Also the user cannot usually customize the placement of nodes to tailor the layout to their particular need or task and there is little support for interactive network exploration. We present a novel algorithm to visualize different biological networks and network analysis results in meaningful ways depending on network types and analysis outcome. Our method is based on constrained graph layout and we demonstrate how it can handle the drawing conventions used in biological networks. The presented algorithm offers the ability to produce many of the fundamental popular drawing styles while allowing the exibility of constraints to further tailor these layouts.

  9. Hierarchical representations of the five-factor model of personality in predicting job performance: integrating three organizing frameworks with two theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Rodell, Jessica B; Klinger, Ryan L; Simon, Lauren S; Crawford, Eean R

    2013-11-01

    Integrating 2 theoretical perspectives on predictor-criterion relationships, the present study developed and tested a hierarchical framework in which each five-factor model (FFM) personality trait comprises 2 DeYoung, Quilty, and Peterson (2007) facets, which in turn comprise 6 Costa and McCrae (1992) NEO facets. Both theoretical perspectives-the bandwidth-fidelity dilemma and construct correspondence-suggest that lower order traits would better predict facets of job performance (task performance and contextual performance). They differ, however, as to the relative merits of broad and narrow traits in predicting a broad criterion (overall job performance). We first meta-analyzed the relationship of the 30 NEO facets to overall job performance and its facets. Overall, 1,176 correlations from 410 independent samples (combined N = 406,029) were coded and meta-analyzed. We then formed the 10 DeYoung et al. facets from the NEO facets, and 5 broad traits from those facets. Overall, results provided support for the 6-2-1 framework in general and the importance of the NEO facets in particular. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  11. Fast grid layout algorithm for biological networks with sweep calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-06-15

    Properly drawn biological networks are of great help in the comprehension of their characteristics. The quality of the layouts for retrieved biological networks is critical for pathway databases. However, since it is unrealistic to manually draw biological networks for every retrieval, automatic drawing algorithms are essential. Grid layout algorithms handle various biological properties such as aligning vertices having the same attributes and complicated positional constraints according to their subcellular localizations; thus, they succeed in providing biologically comprehensible layouts. However, existing grid layout algorithms are not suitable for real-time drawing, which is one of requisites for applications to pathway databases, due to their high-computational cost. In addition, they do not consider edge directions and their resulting layouts lack traceability for biochemical reactions and gene regulations, which are the most important features in biological networks. We devise a new calculation method termed sweep calculation and reduce the time complexity of the current grid layout algorithms through its encoding and decoding processes. We conduct practical experiments by using 95 pathway models of various sizes from TRANSPATH and show that our new grid layout algorithm is much faster than existing grid layout algorithms. For the cost function, we introduce a new component that penalizes undesirable edge directions to avoid the lack of traceability in pathways due to the differences in direction between in-edges and out-edges of each vertex. Java implementations of our layout algorithms are available in Cell Illustrator. masao@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Biominerals- hierarchical nanocomposites: the example of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniash, Elia

    2010-01-01

    Many organisms incorporate inorganic solids in their tissues to enhance their functional, primarily mechanical, properties. These mineralized tissues, also called biominerals, are unique organo-mineral nanocomposites, organized at several hierarchical levels, from nano- to macroscale. Unlike man made composite materials, which often are simple physical blends of their components, the organic and inorganic phases in biominerals interface at the molecular level. Although these tissues are made of relatively weak components at ambient conditions, their hierarchical structural organization and intimate interactions between different elements lead to superior mechanical properties. Understanding basic principles of formation, structure and functional properties of these tissues might lead to novel bioinspired strategies for material design and better treatments for diseases of the mineralized tissues. This review focuses on general principles of structural organization, formation and functional properties of biominerals on the example the bone tissues. PMID:20827739

  13. Neighboring Structure Visualization on a Grid-based Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcou, G; Horvath, D; Varnek, A

    2017-10-01

    Here, we describe an algorithm to visualize chemical structures on a grid-based layout in such a way that similar structures are neighboring. It is based on structure reordering with the help of the Hilbert Schmidt Independence Criterion, representing an empirical estimate of the Hilbert-Schmidt norm of the cross-covariance operator. The method can be applied to any layout of bi- or three-dimensional shape. The approach is demonstrated on a set of dopamine D5 ligands visualized on squared, disk and spherical layouts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc...... with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%....

  15. A compact and realistic cerebral cortical layout derived from prewhitened resting-state fMRI time series: Cherniak's adjacency rule, size law, and metamodule grouping upheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott M; Christova, Peka; Jerde, Trenton A; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2012-01-01

    We used hierarchical tree clustering to derive a functional organizational chart of 52 human cortical areas (26 per hemisphere) from zero-lag correlations calculated between single-voxel, prewhitened, resting-state BOLD fMRI time series in 18 subjects. No special "resting-state networks" were identified. There were four major features in the resulting tree (dendrogram). First, there was a strong clustering of homotopic, left-right hemispheric areas. Second, cortical areas were concatenated in multiple, partially overlapping clusters. Third, the arrangement of the areas revealed a layout that closely resembled the actual layout of the cerebral cortex, namely an orderly progression from anterior to posterior. And fourth, the layout of the cortical areas in the tree conformed to principles of efficient, compact layout of components proposed by Cherniak. Since the tree was derived on the basis of the strength of neural correlations, these results document an orderly relation between functional interactions and layout, i.e., between structure and function.

  16. A compact and realistic cerebral cortical layout derived from prewhitened resting-state fMRI time series: Cherniak's adjacency rule, size law, and metamodule grouping upheld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott M.; Christova, Peka; Jerde, Trenton A.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2012-01-01

    We used hierarchical tree clustering to derive a functional organizational chart of 52 human cortical areas (26 per hemisphere) from zero-lag correlations calculated between single-voxel, prewhitened, resting-state BOLD fMRI time series in 18 subjects. No special “resting-state networks” were identified. There were four major features in the resulting tree (dendrogram). First, there was a strong clustering of homotopic, left-right hemispheric areas. Second, cortical areas were concatenated in multiple, partially overlapping clusters. Third, the arrangement of the areas revealed a layout that closely resembled the actual layout of the cerebral cortex, namely an orderly progression from anterior to posterior. And fourth, the layout of the cortical areas in the tree conformed to principles of efficient, compact layout of components proposed by Cherniak. Since the tree was derived on the basis of the strength of neural correlations, these results document an orderly relation between functional interactions and layout, i.e., between structure and function. PMID:22973198

  17. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  18. Quantitative comparison between two geometrical layouts for diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Hu Tiandou; Wu Ziyu

    2007-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with two crystals has been performed at the 4W1A beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two different crystal geometrical layouts were used to collect images, in the first layout the rotation axis of the crystal has been set perpendicular to the orbital plane while in the second the axis is parallel to the orbital plane. Performance comparison between the two layouts is discussed in terms of thermal expansion of the crystal induced by the heat load, imaging homogeneity, spatial resolution and angular resolution. From both experimental and theoretical data we show that the best images may be obtained with the optical layout in which the rotation axis of the crystals is perpendicular to the orbital plane

  19. Quantitative comparison between two geometrical layouts for diffraction enhanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhupp@ihep.ac.cn; Wang Junyue; Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hu Tiandou [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-07-15

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with two crystals has been performed at the 4W1A beamline at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two different crystal geometrical layouts were used to collect images, in the first layout the rotation axis of the crystal has been set perpendicular to the orbital plane while in the second the axis is parallel to the orbital plane. Performance comparison between the two layouts is discussed in terms of thermal expansion of the crystal induced by the heat load, imaging homogeneity, spatial resolution and angular resolution. From both experimental and theoretical data we show that the best images may be obtained with the optical layout in which the rotation axis of the crystals is perpendicular to the orbital plane.

  20. Optimal Material Layout - Applied on Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible to deter......This paper introduces a general, finite-element-based optimisation tool for improving the material layout of concrete structures. The application presented is general and exemplified by material optimisation of reinforced concrete slabs. By utilising the optimisation tool, it is possible...... to determine the optimal material layout of a slab in the ultimate load state, based on simple inputs such as outer geometry, boundary conditions, multiple load cases and design domains. The material layout of the optimal design can either be fully orthotropic or isotropic, or a combination with a predefined...

  1. Factors driving the spatial layout of distribution channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, A.T.C.; Ektesaby, M.; Rezaei, J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; van Damme, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Research statement Our study analyses the factors that drive decision-making on distribution structures, including the layout of distribution channels and the locations of distribution centres. Distribution is a primary firm activity, which strongly influences logistics costs and logistics

  2. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  3. Perceptual Grouping of Closed Contours Is Disrupted by the Interpretation of the Scene Layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Wan, Chaoyang; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Closure is one of the grouping principles in perceptual organization. Studies have shown that closure can be affected by several factors, specifically by low-level image features. However, the effects of high-level non-image factors on grouping by closure are unknown. In two experiments we investigated how closure is affected when depth information is introduced to the 2D closed contours, whilst the other 2D features remain intact. The first experiment showed that the grouping of closed contours was disrupted by the manipulation in 3D layout. The second experiment showed that thus disruption resulted in the impairment of searching efficiency. These findings suggest that closure is not only determined by the image features, but also affected by the interpretation of the contextual scene layout.

  4. KBS-3H layout adaptation 2007 for the Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Hagros, Annika; Autio, Jorma; Kirkkomaeki, Timo

    2008-05-01

    As part of the KBS-3H design an Olkiluoto-specific layout of a KBS-3H repository has been produced based on the latest Olkiluoto data and the bedrock model. One of the main goals of this work was to support the evaluation of the feasibility of the one layer KBS-3H concept and to compare the layouts based on the KBS-3H and KBS-3V disposal concepts. The layout presented in this work can be considered only preliminary and involves a number of uncertainties. The percentage of unusable host rock was assumed to be 25% in this work but can change due to the further design of the different components of the KBS-3H disposal system and further development of the host rock criteria. The layout is also significantly affected by the layout-determining fracture zones. In this work 11 major (highly transmissive) fracture zones interpreted to intersect the -420 m level were considered deterministically. The KBS-3H layout requires a larger area than the KBS-3V repository and takes up most of the available area between the major fracture zones HZ20 and HZ21. This is mainly due to the long drift sections occupied by the compartment plugs (30 m) and the bentonite blocks in the blank zones (10 m), which reduces the usability of the host rock and results in larger canister spacings than in the KBS-3V concept, where the positioning of the deposition holes is very flexible and narrow zones with a moderate transmissivity usually have only a minor effect on the locations of the canisters. According to the results, there is enough bedrock in the current investigation area at central Olkiluoto for KBS-3H layout in one layer. However the layout takes up nearly all of the potential bedrock resource and therefore the result is quite sensitive to possible changes in the design bases

  5. Site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunmao; Rongfeng

    2011-01-01

    The site selection and general layout of uranium mill is an important work in the design and consultation stage of uranium mining and metallurgy's engineering construction. Based on the design practices, the principles and methods for the site selection and general layout of heap leaching uranium mill are analyzed and studied. Some problems which should be paid much attention to in the design are discussed in hopes of providing a useful reference for the design and consultation of similar projects. (authors)

  6. Influence of offshore wind farms layout on electrical resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Koldby, Erik

    2014-01-01

    , winding resistances and winding capacitances. Considering the frequency range of the present investigations, up to about 1 MHz, a lumped representation of the transformer characteristics was deemed sufficient. Breakers and capacitors are modelled as ideal components. The chosen wind farm layout includes...... ranges. The results show the influence of specific parameters being varied depending on the farm layout. In particular, cable lengths and transformer broad band characteristics turned out to have significant impact on the results....

  7. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  8. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  9. The Hierarchical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sofron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the hierarchical perspective, one of the methods for representing space that was used before the discovery of the Renaissance linear perspective. The hierarchical perspective has a more or less pronounced scientific character and its study offers us a clear image of the way the representatives of the cultures that developed it used to perceive the sensitive reality. This type of perspective is an original method of representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface, which characterises the art of Ancient Egypt and much of the art of the Middle Ages, being identified in the Eastern European Byzantine art, as well as in the Western European Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art. At the same time, the hierarchical perspective is also present in naive painting and infantile drawing. Reminiscences of this method can be recognised also in the works of some precursors of the Italian Renaissance. The hierarchical perspective can be viewed as a subjective ranking criterion, according to which the elements are visually represented by taking into account their relevance within the image while perception is ignored. This paper aims to show how the main objective of the artists of those times was not to faithfully represent the objective reality, but rather to emphasize the essence of the world and its perennial aspects. This may represent a possible explanation for the refusal of perspective in the Egyptian, Romanesque and Byzantine painting, characterised by a marked two-dimensionality.

  10. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  11. Layout design of user interface components with multiple objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer S.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-goal layout problem may be formulated as a Quadratic Assignment model, considering multiple goals (or factors, both qualitative and quantitative in the objective function. The facilities layout problem, in general, varies from the location and layout of facilities in manufacturing plant to the location and layout of textual and graphical user interface components in the human–computer interface. In this paper, we propose two alternate mathematical approaches to the single-objective layout model. The first one presents a multi-goal user interface component layout problem, considering the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of closeness relationships and the interactions. The second one considers the distance-weighted sum of congruent objectives of normalized weighted closeness relationships and normalized weighted interactions. The results of first approach are compared with that of an existing single objective model for example task under consideration. Then, the results of first approach and second approach of the proposed model are compared for the example task under consideration.

  12. Scalable force directed graph layout algorithms using fast multipole methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yunis, Enas Abdulrahman

    2012-06-01

    We present an extension to ExaFMM, a Fast Multipole Method library, as a generalized approach for fast and scalable execution of the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm. The Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is a physics-based approach to graph layout that treats the vertices V as repelling charged particles with the edges E connecting them acting as springs. Traditionally, the amount of work required in applying the Force-Directed Graph Layout algorithm is O(|V|2 + |E|) using direct calculations and O(|V| log |V| + |E|) using truncation, filtering, and/or multi-level techniques. Correct application of the Fast Multipole Method allows us to maintain a lower complexity of O(|V| + |E|) while regaining most of the precision lost in other techniques. Solving layout problems for truly large graphs with millions of vertices still requires a scalable algorithm and implementation. We have been able to leverage the scalability and architectural adaptability of the ExaFMM library to create a Force-Directed Graph Layout implementation that runs efficiently on distributed multicore and multi-GPU architectures. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. [The concept of the organ, as a hierarchal unit of human body, and its place in teaching histology at the medical university and medical college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miadelets, O D; Miadelets, N Ia; Miadelets, V O

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the methodological aspects of teaching histology at the medical university and medical college. The authors raise the issue of the necessity of teaching of the topic "Introduction to Special Histology" and the inclusion of the appropriate chapter into the textbooks. This is important for the students, as the formation of the general concepts of organ structure and function, components, and classification will aid in the further study of specific organs during the course of Special Histology. The authors describe their own experience in teaching of the section, dedicated to the general regularities of organ structure, present some definitions and classifications that are used by them for a number of years.

  14. Design of underground layout and their maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 1) Direction: The main haulage way of the mines where diesel equipment are operating is ramp way system. For optimizing safety measures, and minimizing maintenance cost of the tunnels, it is strongly recommended that all the tunnels including ramp way, rooms and sublevels should be designed in parallel to the direction of principal stress and perpendicular to the direction of major discontinuity. 2) Inclination: Basically, the inclination of the ramp way depends on the specification of the equipment, but 10-15% is usual. The steep inclination needs less initial investment but there will be an adverse effects such as higher operating and maintenance costs. 3) Profile (Cross section): The maximum dimension of the equipment operating in local mines appeared 12.8m long, 3.705m wide and 3.68m high. Considering the dimension, the requested profile simply can be calculated to 4m x 4m, but it should be decided according to the regulated minimum clearances from the walls and roof. The minimum inner curvature radius of the tunnels should be more than 5.2m, and in this case, the tunnel width of the curved zone should be more than 5.5m. 4) Sight distance and braking distance: For the safe operation of the equipment, the sight distance must be longer than braking distance, so that the driver can hold up the equipment safely after finding the obstacles in front of him. The maximum braking distance without heating of brake shoe is 60m. 5) Support and maintenance: Due to the large dimensional tunnels where diesel equipment are operating, the conventional supporting system is not applicable. Therefore, the active support concept should be

  15. Using discrete event simulation to change from a functional layout to a cellular layout in an auto parts industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Buselato Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discrete event simulation employed in a Brazilian automotive company. There was a huge waste caused by one family scrap. It was believed one reason was the company functional layout. In this case, changing from current to cellular layout, employee synergy and knowledge about this family would increase. Due to the complexity for dimensioning a new cellular layout, mainly because of batch size and client’s demand variation. In this case, discrete event simulation was used, which made possible to introduce those effects improving accuracy in final results. This accuracy will be shown by comparing results obtained with simulation and without it (as company used to do. To conclude, cellular layout was responsible for increasing 15% of productivity, reducing lead-time in 7 days and scrap in 15% for this family.

  16. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  17. Stability of glassy hierarchical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Camargo-Forero, L.; Vicsek, T.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of interactions in most animal and human societies can be best represented by complex hierarchical networks. In order to maintain close-to-optimal function both stability and adaptability are necessary. Here we investigate the stability of hierarchical networks that emerge from the simulations of an organization type with an efficiency function reminiscent of the Hamiltonian of spin glasses. Using this quantitative approach we find a number of expected (from everyday observations) and highly non-trivial results for the obtained locally optimal networks, including, for example: (i) stability increases with growing efficiency and level of hierarchy; (ii) the same perturbation results in a larger change for more efficient states; (iii) networks with a lower level of hierarchy become more efficient after perturbation; (iv) due to the huge number of possible optimal states only a small fraction of them exhibit resilience and, finally, (v) ‘attacks’ targeting the nodes selectively (regarding their position in the hierarchy) can result in paradoxical outcomes.

  18. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziopa, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

  19. Planejamento sistemático de layout com apoio de análise de decisão multicritério Systematic layout planning aided by multicriteria decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme L. Tortorella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A correta utilização do espaço físico de uma fábrica é fator importante para o seu bom funcionamento, já que estabelece a sua organização fundamental, bem como os padrões de fluxo de materiais e informações, com efeitos que se farão presentes no longo prazo. A fim de sistematizar um adequado planejamento de layout, métodos para planejamento do macroespaço, como o SLP (Systematic Layout Planning - Planejamento Sistemático de Layout, podem auxiliar no desenvolvimento de alternativas de layout. Contudo, devido à geração de soluções subótimas com benefícios e desvantagens distintos, o processo decisório da melhor alternativa de layout torna-se crítico para garantir a eficiência e flexibilidade de empresas frente aos diferentes cenários de mercado. Este artigo propõe a utilização de ferramentas de apoio à decisão multicritério em sistemáticas de planejamento de layout, refinando a fase de Seleção do método SLP. A sistemática proposta foi colocada em prática na seleção de alternativas de layout em uma empresa do ramo automotivo, que necessita ampliar seu parque fabril de modo a possibilitar a incorporação de novos equipamentos e otimização do fluxo de materiais. Nove alternativas de macro-layout foram geradas no caso apresentado, sendo avaliada a melhor alternativa geral em relação a sete critérios de avaliação.The proper use of physical space in a factory is an important operational factor since it establishes its primary organization as well as the material and information flow patterns, with long run impacts. In order to systematize an adequate plant layout, methods for macro-space planning such as SLP (Systematic Layout Planning have been proposed to support the development of layout alternatives. However, due to the generation of sub-optimal solutions with different pros and cons, the process of determining the best layout alternative becomes critical to assure the company's efficiency and

  20. 32 CFR 553.7 - Design and layout of Army national cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Design and layout of Army national cemeteries... RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.7 Design and layout of Army national cemeteries. (a) General cemetery layout plans, landscape planting plans and gravesite layout plans for Army...

  1. Preliminary Design Through Graphs: A Tool for Automatic Layout Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Biagini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams are essential in the preliminary stages of design for understanding distributive aspects and assisting the decision-making process. By drawing a schematic graph, designers can visualize in a synthetic way the relationships between many aspects: functions and spaces, distribution of layouts, space adjacency, influence of traffic flows within a facility layout, and so on. This process can be automated through the use of modern Information and Communication Technologies tools (ICT that allow the designers to manage a large quantity of information. The work that we will present is part of an on-going research project into how modern parametric software influences decision-making on the basis of automatic and optimized layout distribution. The method involves two phases: the first aims to define the ontological relation between spaces, with particular reference to a specific building typology (rules of aggregation of spaces; the second entails the implementation of these rules through the use of specialist software. The generation of ontological relations begins with the collection of data from historical manuals and analyses of case studies. These analyses aim to generate a “relationship matrix” based on preferences of space adjacency. The phase of implementing the previously defined rules is based on the use of Grasshopper to analyse and visualize different layout configurations. The layout is generated by simulating a process involving the collision of spheres, which represents specific functions of the design program. The spheres are attracted or rejected as a function of the relationships matrix, as defined above. The layout thus obtained will remain in a sort of abstract state independent of information about the exterior form, but will still provide a useful tool for the decision-making process. In addition, preliminary results gathered through the analysis of case studies will be presented. These results provide a good variety

  2. SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF SMALL SIZED UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLE LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong reduction of new aircraft design period using new technology based on artificial intelligence is the key problem mentioned in forecasts of leading aerospace industry research centers. This article covers the approach to devel- opment of quick aerodynamic design methods based on artificial intelligence neural system. The problem is being solved for the classical scheme of small sized unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV. The principal parts of the method are the mathe- matical model of layout, layout generator of this type of aircraft is built on aircraft neural networks, automatic selection module for cleaning variety of layouts generated in automatic mode, robust direct computational fluid dynamics method, aerodynamic characteristics approximators on artificial neural networks.Methods based on artificial neural networks have intermediate position between computational fluid dynamics methods or experiments and simplified engineering approaches. The use of ANN for estimating aerodynamic characteris-tics put limitations on input data. For this task the layout must be presented as a vector with dimension not exceeding sev-eral hundred. Vector components must include all main parameters conventionally used for layouts description and com- pletely replicate the most important aerodynamics and structural properties.The first stage of the work is presented in the paper. Simplified mathematical model of small sized UAV was developed. To estimate the range of geometrical parameters of layouts the review of existing vehicle was done. The result of the work is the algorithm and computer software for generating the layouts based on ANN technolo-gy. 10000 samples were generated and the dataset containig geometrical and aerodynamic characteristics of layoutwas created.

  3. Hierarchical species distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.

  4. Bayesian nonparametric hierarchical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, David B

    2009-04-01

    In biomedical research, hierarchical models are very widely used to accommodate dependence in multivariate and longitudinal data and for borrowing of information across data from different sources. A primary concern in hierarchical modeling is sensitivity to parametric assumptions, such as linearity and normality of the random effects. Parametric assumptions on latent variable distributions can be challenging to check and are typically unwarranted, given available prior knowledge. This article reviews some recent developments in Bayesian nonparametric methods motivated by complex, multivariate and functional data collected in biomedical studies. The author provides a brief review of flexible parametric approaches relying on finite mixtures and latent class modeling. Dirichlet process mixture models are motivated by the need to generalize these approaches to avoid assuming a fixed finite number of classes. Focusing on an epidemiology application, the author illustrates the practical utility and potential of nonparametric Bayes methods.

  5. An efficient biological pathway layout algorithm combining grid-layout and spring embedder for complicated cellular location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-06-18

    Graph drawing is one of the important techniques for understanding biological regulations in a cell or among cells at the pathway level. Among many available layout algorithms, the spring embedder algorithm is widely used not only for pathway drawing but also for circuit placement and www visualization and so on because of the harmonized appearance of its results. For pathway drawing, location information is essential for its comprehension. However, complex shapes need to be taken into account when torus-shaped location information such as nuclear inner membrane, nuclear outer membrane, and plasma membrane is considered. Unfortunately, the spring embedder algorithm cannot easily handle such information. In addition, crossings between edges and nodes are usually not considered explicitly. We proposed a new grid-layout algorithm based on the spring embedder algorithm that can handle location information and provide layouts with harmonized appearance. In grid-layout algorithms, the mapping of nodes to grid points that minimizes a cost function is searched. By imposing positional constraints on grid points, location information including complex shapes can be easily considered. Our layout algorithm includes the spring embedder cost as a component of the cost function. We further extend the layout algorithm to enable dynamic update of the positions and sizes of compartments at each step. The new spring embedder-based grid-layout algorithm and a spring embedder algorithm are applied to three biological pathways; endothelial cell model, Fas-induced apoptosis model, and C. elegans cell fate simulation model. From the positional constraints, all the results of our algorithm satisfy location information, and hence, more comprehensible layouts are obtained as compared to the spring embedder algorithm. From the comparison of the number of crossings, the results of the grid-layout-based algorithm tend to contain more crossings than those of the spring embedder algorithm due to

  6. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    in the natural lotus and silver ragwort leaves. Figure 4. Examples of electrospun bio-mimics of natural hierarchical structures. (A) Lotus leaf...B) pillared poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrospun fiber mimic; (C) silver ragwort leaf; (D) electrospun fiber mimic made from nylon 6 and...domains containing the protein in the surrounding EVA fibers [115]. A wide variety of core-shell fibers have been generated, including PCL/ gelatin

  7. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  8. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  9. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meunier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or “modules-within-modules” decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at the highest level of the hierarchy were medial occipital, lateral occipital, central, parieto-frontal and fronto-temporal systems; occipital modules demonstrated less sub-modular organization than modules comprising regions of multimodal association cortex. Connector nodes and hubs, with a key role in inter-modular connectivity, were also concentrated in association cortical areas. We conclude that methods are available for hierarchical modular decomposition of large numbers of high resolution brain functional networks using computationally expedient algorithms. This could enable future investigations of Simon's original hypothesis that hierarchy or near-decomposability of physical symbol systems is a critical design feature for their fast adaptivity to changing environmental conditions.

  10. Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Visuwan D.; Phruksaphanrat B

    2014-01-01

    In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyze and de...

  11. A flexible layout design method for passive micromixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Yongshun; Gao, Qingyong; Wu, Yihui

    2012-10-01

    This paper discusses a flexible layout design method of passive micromixers based on the topology optimization of fluidic flows. Being different from the trial and error method, this method obtains the detailed layout of a passive micromixer according to the desired mixing performance by solving a topology optimization problem. Therefore, the dependence on the experience of the designer is weaken, when this method is used to design a passive micromixer with acceptable mixing performance. Several design disciplines for the passive micromixers are considered to demonstrate the flexibility of the layout design method for passive micromixers. These design disciplines include the approximation of the real 3D micromixer, the manufacturing feasibility, the spacial periodic design, and effects of the Péclet number and Reynolds number on the designs obtained by this layout design method. The capability of this design method is validated by several comparisons performed between the obtained layouts and the optimized designs in the recently published literatures, where the values of the mixing measurement is improved up to 40.4% for one cycle of the micromixer.

  12. The Influence of Environmental Spatial Layout on Perceived Lightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Inagami, Makoto; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2011-01-01

    It is obvious that perceived lightness of a surface depends on the surrounding luminance distribution in 2D and 3D. These effects are usually explained by the mechanisms at relatively low level of visual system. However, there seems to be a relation between the illuminance and spatial layout of the scene regardless of the surrounding luminance distribution. If this is valid, perceived lightness of a surface in the scene could be influenced by the spatial layout in the scene. In this research, we investigated the relation between the perceived lightness of surface and the spatial layout of the scene. The subject matched the lightness of test patch presented on a natural picture with various spatial layout to that of comparison stimulus presented on a uniform gray background. The mean luminance of the surround stimuli were the same and the local contrast between the text patch and the surround was kept constant. Results showed that the perceived lightness of a stimulus depended on the spatial structure presented in the background. This result indicates that the spatial layout of the scene is related to the illuminance of that and influenced on perceived lightness.

  13. Genetic Algorithm (GA)-Based Inclinometer Layout Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weijie; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Xianping; Cai, Miao; Yang, Daoguo

    2015-04-17

    This paper presents numerical simulation results of an airflow inclinometer with sensitivity studies and thermal optimization of the printed circuit board (PCB) layout for an airflow inclinometer based on a genetic algorithm (GA). Due to the working principle of the gas sensor, the changes of the ambient temperature may cause dramatic voltage drifts of sensors. Therefore, eliminating the influence of the external environment for the airflow is essential for the performance and reliability of an airflow inclinometer. In this paper, the mechanism of an airflow inclinometer and the influence of different ambient temperatures on the sensitivity of the inclinometer will be examined by the ANSYS-FLOTRAN CFD program. The results show that with changes of the ambient temperature on the sensing element, the sensitivity of the airflow inclinometer is inversely proportional to the ambient temperature and decreases when the ambient temperature increases. GA is used to optimize the PCB thermal layout of the inclinometer. The finite-element simulation method (ANSYS) is introduced to simulate and verify the results of our optimal thermal layout, and the results indicate that the optimal PCB layout greatly improves (by more than 50%) the sensitivity of the inclinometer. The study may be useful in the design of PCB layouts that are related to sensitivity improvement of gas sensors.

  14. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  15. Layout design in order to improve efficiency in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Tarigan, U.; Nasution, T. H.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at the company that produces bobbins and ream type cigarette paper. Problems that found on the production process is the back and forth (back tracking) movement. Back and forth (back tracking) movement extending the total distance moved by the material and increase the total moment of transfer materials thus reducing the efficiency of the transfer of materials in the production process. The purpose of this study is to give design for the layout of production facilities in the company, so that the expected production produced by the company can reach the targets set by the management company. The method used in this research is the Graph-Based Construction and Travel Chart Method. The results of the analysis of the proposed layout with Graph-Based Construction was selected with a total value that is equal to the moment of transfer of 780 758 m / year. This result is better than the actual layout in the amount of 1,021,038.12 meters / year and the results of the method Travel Alternative Chart I of 826.236,60 meters/year, Alternative II of 1.004.433,56 meters / year, and Alternative III for 828,467.12 meters/year. The design layout of Graph-Based Construction material increases the transfer efficiency for 23.53%. With this layout proposal, expected production capacity will be increased along with the shortening of the distance of the displacement that must be passed by the material to be processed.

  16. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong; Soltani, Mohsen; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc., the WTs are expected to be placed outside specific areas. Based on this fact, a restriction zone concept is proposed in this paper and implemented with the penalty function method. In order to find a feasible solution, a recent proposed stochastic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%. - Highlights: • The offshore restricted area concept is proposed. • The recent developed PSO-MAM algorithm is arranged to optimize the layout. • The penalty function method is adopted to help find the feasible solution. • The optimized layout increases energy yields 3.84% than reference wind farm.

  17. Conceptual layout design of CFETR Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zheng, E-mail: gongz@mail.ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Qi, Minzhong, E-mail: qiminzhong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Cheng, Yong, E-mail: chengyong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This article proposed a conceptual layout design for CFETR. • The design principles are to support efficient maintenance to ensure the realization of high duty time. • The preliminary maintenance process and logistics are described in detail. • Life cycle management, maneuverability, risk and safety are in the consideration of design. - Abstract: CFETR (China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor) is new generation of Tokomak device beyond EAST in China. An overview of hot cell layout design for CFETR has been proposed by ASIPP&USTC. Hot Cell, as major auxiliary facility, not only plays a pivotal role in supporting maintenance to meet the requirements of high duty time 0.3–0.5 but also supports installation and decommissioning. Almost all of the Tokomak devices are lateral handling internal components like ITER and JET, but CFETR maintain the blanket module from 4 vertical ports, which is quite a big challenge for the hot cell layout design. The activated in-vessel components and several diagnosis instruments will be repaired and refurbished in the Hot Cell Facility, so the appropriate layout is very important to the Hot Cell Facility to ensure the high duty time, it is divided into different parts equipped with a variety of RH equipment and diagnosis devices based on the functional requirements. The layout of the Hot Cell Facility should make maintenance process more efficient and reliable, and easy to service and rescue when a sudden events taking place, that is the capital importance issue considered in design.

  18. Spiking neurons in a hierarchical self-organizing map model can learn to develop spatial and temporal properties of entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Pilly

    Full Text Available Medial entorhinal grid cells and hippocampal place cells provide neural correlates of spatial representation in the brain. A place cell typically fires whenever an animal is present in one or more spatial regions, or places, of an environment. A grid cell typically fires in multiple spatial regions that form a regular hexagonal grid structure extending throughout the environment. Different grid and place cells prefer spatially offset regions, with their firing fields increasing in size along the dorsoventral axes of the medial entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The spacing between neighboring fields for a grid cell also increases along the dorsoventral axis. This article presents a neural model whose spiking neurons operate in a hierarchy of self-organizing maps, each obeying the same laws. This spiking GridPlaceMap model simulates how grid cells and place cells may develop. It responds to realistic rat navigational trajectories by learning grid cells with hexagonal grid firing fields of multiple spatial scales and place cells with one or more firing fields that match neurophysiological data about these cells and their development in juvenile rats. The place cells represent much larger spaces than the grid cells, which enable them to support navigational behaviors. Both self-organizing maps amplify and learn to categorize the most frequent and energetic co-occurrences of their inputs. The current results build upon a previous rate-based model of grid and place cell learning, and thus illustrate a general method for converting rate-based adaptive neural models, without the loss of any of their analog properties, into models whose cells obey spiking dynamics. New properties of the spiking GridPlaceMap model include the appearance of theta band modulation. The spiking model also opens a path for implementation in brain-emulating nanochips comprised of networks of noisy spiking neurons with multiple-level adaptive weights for controlling autonomous

  19. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jing; Schneider, Jens; Ovsjanikov, Maks; Wonka, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

  20. Effect of layout on surge line thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jianyong; Huang Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate the effect of layout on the thermal stratification for PWR Pressurizer surge line, numerical simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is taken on 6 kinds of layout improvement with 2 improvement schemes, i.e., increasing the obliquity of quasi horizontal section and adding a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow, and the maximum temperature differences of quasi horizontal section of surge line of various layouts under different flowrate are obtained. The comparison shows that, the increasing of the obliquity of quasi horizontal section can mitigate the thermal stratification phenomena but can not eliminate this phenomena, while the adding of a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow can effectively mitigate and eliminate the thermal stratification phenomena. (authors)

  1. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  2. Production layout improvement in emergency services: a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Volunteer fire department is a service that responds emergency situations in places where there are no military emergency services. These services need to respond quickly, because time is often responsible for the operation success besides work environment and setup time interfere with the prompt response to these calls and care efficiency. The layout design is one factor that interferes with the quick setup. In this case, the spaces arrangement can result in excessive or unnecessary movements; also the equipment provision may hinder the selection and collection of these or even create movement barriers for the workers. This work created a new layout for the emergency assistance service, considering the human factors related to work through the task analysis and workers participation on the alternatives of improvement. The results showed an alternate layout with corridors and minimization of unusable sites, allowing greater flexibility and new possibilities of requirements.

  3. Analysis of Sequence Diagram Layout in Advanced UML Modelling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ņikiforova Oksana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System modelling using Unified Modelling Language (UML is the task that should be solved for software development. The more complex software becomes the higher requirements are stated to demonstrate the system to be developed, especially in its dynamic aspect, which in UML is offered by a sequence diagram. To solve this task, the main attention is devoted to the graphical presentation of the system, where diagram layout plays the central role in information perception. The UML sequence diagram due to its specific structure is selected for a deeper analysis on the elements’ layout. The authors research represents the abilities of modern UML modelling tools to offer automatic layout of the UML sequence diagram and analyse them according to criteria required for the diagram perception.

  4. Optimization of Orchestral Layouts Based on Instrument Directivity Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan Paul

    The experience of hearing an exceptional symphony orchestra perform in an excel- lent concert hall can be profound and moving, causing a level of excitement not often reached for listeners. Romantic period style orchestral music, recognized for validating the use of intense emotion for aesthetic pleasure, was the last significant development in the history of the orchestra. In an age where orchestral popularity is waning, the possibil- ity of evolving the orchestral sound in our modern era exists through the combination of our current understanding of instrument directivity patterns and their interaction with architectural acoustics. With the aid of wave field synthesis (WFS), newly proposed variations on orchestral layouts are tested virtually using a 64-channel WFS array. Each layout is objectively and subjectively compared for determination of which layout could optimize the sound of the orchestra and revitalize the excitement of the performance.

  5. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jing

    2017-09-12

    We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

  6. Ergonomics and simulation-based approach in improving facility layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jocelyn D.

    2018-02-01

    The use of the simulation-based technique in facility layout has been a choice in the industry due to its convenience and efficient generation of results. Nevertheless, the solutions generated are not capable of addressing delays due to worker's health and safety which significantly impact overall operational efficiency. It is, therefore, critical to incorporate ergonomics in facility design. In this study, workstation analysis was incorporated into Promodel simulation to improve the facility layout of a garment manufacturing. To test the effectiveness of the method, existing and improved facility designs were measured using comprehensive risk level, efficiency, and productivity. Results indicated that the improved facility layout generated a decrease in comprehensive risk level and rapid upper limb assessment score; an increase of 78% in efficiency and 194% increase in productivity compared to existing design and thus proved that the approach is effective in attaining overall facility design improvement.

  7. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity distribut......Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity...... are subject to boundary conditions and minimum distance conditions. The improved genetic algorithm (GA) for real number coding was used to search the optimal result. Then the optimized result was compared to the result from the experienced layout method. Results show the advantages of the present method...

  8. Hierarchical Cobalt Hydroxide and B/N Co-Doped Graphene Nanohybrids Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Mahmood, Asif; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Liang, Zibin; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-02-27

    To cater for the demands of electrochemical energy storage system, the development of cost effective, durable and highly efficient electrode materials is desired. Here, a novel electrode material based on redox active β-Co(OH) 2 and B, N co-doped graphene nanohybrid is presented for electrochemical supercapacitor by employing a facile metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) route through pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The Co(OH) 2 could be firmly stabilized by dual protection of N-doped carbon polyhedron (CP) and B/N co-doped graphene (BCN) nanosheets. Interestingly, the porous carbon and BCN nanosheets greatly improve the charge storage, wettability, and redox activity of electrodes. Thus the hybrid delivers specific capacitance of 1263 F g -1 at a current density of 1A g -1 with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the new aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was also designed by using Co(OH) 2 @CP@BCN nanohybrid and BCN nanosheets as positive and negative electrodes respectively, which leads to high energy density of 20.25 Whkg -1 . This device also exhibits excellent rate capability with energy density of 15.55 Whkg -1 at power density of 9331 Wkg -1 coupled long termed stability up to 6000 cycles.

  9. Collimator Layouts for HL-LHC in the Experimental Insertions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Jowett, John; Lechner, Anton; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Schaumann, Michaela; Skordis, Eleftherios; Eleanor Steele, G; Garcia Morales, H; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the layout of collimators for HL-LHC in the experimental insertions. On the incoming beam, we propose to install additional tertiary collimators to protect potential new aperture bottlenecks in cells 4 and 5, which in addition reduce the experimental background. For the outgoing beam, the layout of the present LHC with three physics debris absorbers gives sufficient protection for highluminosity proton operation. However, collisional processes for heavy ions cause localized beam losses with the potential to quench magnets. To alleviate these losses, an installation of dispersion suppressor collimators is proposed.

  10. An Evolutionary Approach for Robust Layout Synthesis of MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, Jiachuan; Goodman, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduces a robust design method for layout synthesis of MEM resonators subject to inherent geometric uncertainties such as the fabrication error on the sidewall of the structure. The robust design problem is formulated as a multi-objective constrained optimisation problem after certain...... assumptions and treated with multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA), a special type of evolutionary computing approaches. Case study based on layout synthesis of a comb-driven MEM resonator shows that the approach proposed in this paper can lead to design results that meet the target performance and are less...

  11. Testing of polarimeter UVP layout on telescope AZT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Morozhenko, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Layout of on-board small-sized ultraviolet polarimeter was created. On its basis a ground version of the layout was prepared. It was installed on the AZT-2 telescope for carrying out special tests. With this device we investigated the possibility of determining the degree of polarization of the twilight glow of the Earth's atmosphere, and also worked out the observation methodology required for such work, and the basic principles of the implementation of this method. For this purpose, a special complex of auxiliary equipment was developed.

  12. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  13. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  14. Layout of 'hard' and 'soft' control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Large control panels, containing hundreds of indicators and controls, have long been used in process plants. The general arrangement of instruments on the panel should reflect ergonomic principles to help operators to quickly and accurately locate, identify and select controls and displays as they monitor and supervise plant systems and processes. For the multiplexed systems now displacing dedicated components, there is a corresponding set of design problems involving display-page formats and the design of display ensembles. A list of alternative organizing principles is presented, with particular emphasis on those based on plant function. Methodologies for selecting and applying the principles are discussed

  15. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  16. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  17. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius; Huser, Raphaë l; Prasad, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  18. Nested and Hierarchical Archimax copulas

    KAUST Repository

    Hofert, Marius

    2017-07-03

    The class of Archimax copulas is generalized to nested and hierarchical Archimax copulas in several ways. First, nested extreme-value copulas or nested stable tail dependence functions are introduced to construct nested Archimax copulas based on a single frailty variable. Second, a hierarchical construction of d-norm generators is presented to construct hierarchical stable tail dependence functions and thus hierarchical extreme-value copulas. Moreover, one can, by itself or additionally, introduce nested frailties to extend Archimax copulas to nested Archimax copulas in a similar way as nested Archimedean copulas extend Archimedean copulas. Further results include a general formula for the density of Archimax copulas.

  19. Evidence-based ergonomics. A comparison of Japanese and American office layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Kageyu; Fujimaki, Goroh; Kishi, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    There is a variety of alternatives in office layouts. Yet the theoretical basis and criteria for predicting how well these layouts accommodate employees are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate criteria for selecting office layouts. Intensive computer workers worked in simulated office layouts in a controlled experimental laboratory. Eye movement measures indicate that knowledge work requires both concentration and interaction. Findings pointed to one layout as providing optimum balance between these 2 requirements. Recommendations for establishing a theoretical basis and design criteria for selecting office layouts based on work style are suggested.

  20. CONTROLLABILITY OF TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD AND ITS SIMPLIFIED LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Street hierarchy, as a way of presenting intended information, conforms to social rules that underlay architectural and urban designs to create public, semi-public, and semi-private. These social rules have the responsibility to convey necessary information about place to outsiders as well as to insiders. This research looks at urban spaces as physical structures that represent foci of attention of users and that are collectively a part of the social pattern framework. The argument of this study is that connectivity and forms of streets house certain social rules that intended to serve users, so that any changes in the street layout lead to changes in its social rules. As a case study, the complexity of a walled Arab neighborhood was examined through Sur Lawatyia, located in Muscat Governorate, Oman. By replacing the curvilinear and broken streets of this neighborhood with straight ones; a simplified street layout was derived. Then, a comparison of both street layouts was carried out through mapping, tabulation, charts, correlation test, and with reliance on the method of measurement of street control values introduced by Hillier and Hanson in 1984. The result was that the simple form is far short to be the representation of the space syntax of the traditional street layout.

  1. Seismic analysis of a reactor building with eccentric layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, T.; Deng, D.Z.F.; Lui, K.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional design for a reactor building in a high seismic area has adopted an essentially concentric layout in response to fear of excessive torsional effect due to horizontal seismic load on an eccentric plant. This concentric layout requirement generally results in an inflexible arrangement of the plant facilities and thus increases the plant volume. This study is performed to investigate the effect of eccentricity on the overall seismic structural response and to provide technical information in this regard to substantiate the volume reduction of the overall power plant. The plant layout is evolved from the Bechtel standard plan of a PWR plant by integrating the reactor building and the auxiliary building into a combined building supported on a common basemat. This plant layout is optimized for volume utilization and to reduce the length of piping systems. The mass centers at various elevations of the combined building do not coincide with the rigidity center (RC) of the respective floor and the geometric center of the basemat, thus creating an eccentric response of the building in a seismic environment. Therefore, the torsional effects of the structure have to be taken into account in the seismic analysis

  2. An online planning tool for designing terrace layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A web-based conservation planning tool, WebTERLOC (web-based Terrace Location Program), was developed to provide multiple terrace layout options using digital elevation model (DEM) and geographic information systems (GIS). Development of a terrace system is complicated by the time-intensive manual ...

  3. Why multicamp layouts? | BR | African Journal of Range and Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it has become standard practice in Southern Africa to recommend grazing systems based on a maximum of five camps, there are indications that the use of multicamp layouts, employing a greater number of camps per herd, may increase the efficiency of animal production from natural veld. The basic advantage of ...

  4. Representing Spatial Layout According to Intrinsic Frames of Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Shiyi; Tao, Weidong; Wei, Yiping; Sun, Hong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mou and McNamara have suggested that object locations are represented according to intrinsic reference frames. In three experiments, we investigated the limitations of intrinsic reference frames as a mean to represent object locations in spatial memory. Participants learned the locations of seven or eight common objects in a rectangular room and then made judgments of relative direction based on their memory of the layout. The results of all experiments showed that when all objects were positioned regularly, judgments of relative direction were faster or more accurate for novel headings that were aligned with the primary intrinsic structure than for other novel headings; however, when one irregularly positioned object was added to the layout, this advantage was eliminated. The experiments further indicated that with a single view at study, participants could represent the layout from either an egocentric orientation or a different orientation, according to experimental instructions. Together, these results suggest that environmental reference frames and intrinsic axes can influence performance for novel headings, but their role in spatial memory depends on egocentric experience, layout regularity, and instructions.

  5. Modeling human-machine interactions for operations room layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Keith C.; Edwards, Jack L.; Beevis, David

    2000-11-01

    The LOCATE layout analysis tool was used to analyze three preliminary configurations for the Integrated Command Environment (ICE) of a future USN platform. LOCATE develops a cost function reflecting the quality of all human-human and human-machine communications within a workspace. This proof- of-concept study showed little difference between the efficacy of the preliminary designs selected for comparison. This was thought to be due to the limitations of the study, which included the assumption of similar size for each layout and a lack of accurate measurement data for various objects in the designs, due largely to their notional nature. Based on these results, the USN offered an opportunity to conduct a LOCATE analysis using more appropriate assumptions. A standard crew was assumed, and subject matter experts agreed on the communications patterns for the analysis. Eight layouts were evaluated with the concepts of coordination and command factored into the analysis. Clear differences between the layouts emerged. The most promising design was refined further by the USN, and a working mock-up built for human-in-the-loop evaluation. LOCATE was applied to this configuration for comparison with the earlier analyses.

  6. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently...

  7. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  8. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    2017-01-01

    in various positions and orientations are finally investigated. This thesis intends in this way to offer a practical approach to the analysis of wave energy converters when they operate together as an array and the optimal design of array layouts. The topics covered by the text include propagation of waves...

  9. A New Data Layout For Set Intersection on GPUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pagh, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    . However, GPUs require highly regular control flow and memory access patterns, and for this reason previous GPU methods for intersecting sets have used a simple bitmap representation. This representation requires excessive space on sparse data sets. In this paper we present a novel data layout, BATMAP...

  10. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout: Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The mission of the ABC system is to destroy as effectively as possible the fissile material inserted into the core without producing any new fissile material. The contents of this report are as follows: operating conditions for the steam-cycle ABC system; flow rates and component dimensions; drawings of the ABC layout; and impact of core design parameters on containment size

  11. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  12. Preconceptual ABC design definition and system configuration layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthold, W.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the conceptual design document for the follow-on to the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, known as the ABC type reactor. It addresses blanket design options, containment options, off-gas systems, drainage systems, and components/layouts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary systems, and it contains a number of diagrams for the configuration of the major systems

  13. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included

  14. Comparisons of Flow Patterns over a Hierarchical and a Non-hierarchical Surface in Relation to Biofouling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ahmad Fawzan Mohammed Ridha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling can be defined as unwanted deposition and development of organisms on submerged surfaces. It is a major problem as it causes water contamination, infrastructures damage and increase in maintenance and operational cost especially in the shipping industry. There are a few methods that can prevent this problem. One of the most effective methods which is using chemicals particularly Tributyltin has been banned due to adverse effects on the environment. One of the non-toxic methods found to be effective is surface modification which involves altering the surface topography so that it becomes a low-fouling or a non-stick surface to biofouling organisms. Current literature suggested that non-hierarchical topographies has lower antifouling performance compared to hierarchical topographies. It is still unclear if the effects of the flow on these topographies could have aided in their antifouling properties. This research will use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations to study the flow on these two topographies which also involves comparison study of the topographies used. According to the results obtained, it is shown that hierarchical topography has higher antifouling performance compared to non-hierarchical topography. This is because the fluid characteristics at the hierarchical topography is more favorable in controlling biofouling. In addition, hierarchical topography has higher wall shear stress distribution compared to non-hierarchical topography

  15. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  16. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  17. Hierarchical organization in aggregates of protein molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer

    1997-01-01

    of the solution and the density of protein are varied shows the existence of specific growth processes resulting in different branch-like structures. The resulting structures are strongly influenced by the shape of each protein molecule. Lysozyme and ribonuclease are found to form spherical structures...

  18. Explicit and Latent Authority in Hierarchical Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink, J.R.; Gilles, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the control of access to a firm's productive asset, embedding the relevant decision makers into a general structure of formal authority relations. Within such an authority structure, each decision maker acts as a principal to some decision makers, while she acts as an agent in relation to certain other decision makers. We study under which conditions decision makers decide to exercise their own authority and to accept their superiors' authority. We dis...

  19. Explicit and Latent Authority in Hierarchical Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; Gilles, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of control of access to a firm's productive asset, embedding the decision makers into a structure of formal authority relationships.Within such a structure, decision makers act as principal to some decision makers, while they act as agent to other decision makers.We study

  20. Geochemical factors influencing vault design and layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; Sargent, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    The design and construction of a vault for used nuclear fuel in crystalline rock may be influenced by a number of geochemical factors. During the siting stage, information is needed regarding the rock type, heterogeneities in its composition and the mineralogy of permeable zones because these will cause variations in thermal conductivity, strength and radionuclide sorptive properties of the rock. These factors may affect decisions regarding depth of vault construction, tunnel dimensions and spacing of panels and waste containers. The decision on whether groundwaters are allowed to flow freely into a planned excavation may depend on measurements of their chemical compositions, microbiological contents and presence of hazardous or corrosive constituents. During site characterization, borehole drilling from the surface and subsequent hydraulic testing will introduce both chemical and microbiological contaminants that may further influence this decision. During vault construction, the geochemistry of the rock may cause changes to the characterization, design and construction of the vault. For example, high salinity fluids in micropores in the rock could prevent the use of radar surveys to detect fractures in the surrounding rock. High rock salinity may also cause unacceptably high total dissolved solids loadings in water discharged from the facility. Again, the presence of toxic, corrosive or radioactive constituents in inflowing groundwater may require grouting or, if inflow is needed for service operations, development of treatment facilities both above and below ground. In addition, the use of explosives will cause high organic and nitrate loadings in service water as well as the possible impregnation of these chemicals in the damaged wall-rock surrounding an excavation. These chemicals may remain despite cleaning efforts and act as nutrients to promote microbial activity in the post-closure phase. In the operational phase, further design and construction, changes

  1. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  2. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area; Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Preliminaer anlaeggningsbeskrivning - layout D. Oskarshamn, delomraade Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization.

  3. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Shao Jiang; Xue Chengqi; Wang Fang; Wang Haiyan; Tang Wencheng; Chen Mo; Kang Mingwu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ ...

  4. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  5. Do you know where your fingers have been? Explicit knowledge of the spatial layout of the keyboard in skilled typists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianyun; Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments evaluated skilled typists' ability to report knowledge about the layout of keys on a standard keyboard. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the relative direction of letters on the computer keyboard. One group of subjects was asked to imagine the keyboard, one group was allowed to look at the keyboard, and one group was asked to type the letter pair before judging relative direction. The imagine group had larger angular error and longer response time than both the look and touch groups. In Experiment 2, subjects placed one key relative to another. Again, the imagine group had larger angular error, larger distance error, and longer response time than the other groups. The two experiments suggest that skilled typists have poor explicit knowledge of key locations. The results are interpreted in terms of a model with two hierarchical parts in the system controlling typewriting.

  6. Rearrangement of the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector using the Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alexsandro Turati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The correct physical layout is relevant to the operational efficiency of the company. This study proposes rearranging the layout of the welding equipment of a company in the metal mechanical sector, which is located in Araras/SP, aiming to improve the production workflow. The Systematic Layout Planning method (SLP was used, with the field research divided into steps: obtaining detailed information about the process and the product; meetings with stakeholders; determining inter-related activities; analyzing space requirements; developing a new layout. The new layout has space allocated for the purchasing of new machinery, the existing machinery has been redistributed by specialty, and the unloading of raw materials has been transferred to the shed, maximizing the use of overhead cranes and keeping the stock close to the warehouse. In addition, forklift traffic flow has decreased; new movement corridors were demarcated; and painting areas were isolated. In conclusion, the SLP method proved efficient in creating a layout.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection. (c) Site layout. The...

  8. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel direct bonded copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect...

  9. Typography and layout of technical reports - Survey of current practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, T. E.; Cordle, V. M.; Mccullough, R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a review of the NASA Langley Research Center scientific and technical information program, 50 technical reports from industry, research institutions, and government agencies were systematically examined and analyzed to determine current usage and practice in regard to (1) typography, including composition method, type style, type size, and margin treatment; (2) graphic design, including layout and imposition of material on the page; and (3) physical media, including paper, ink, and binding methods. The results indicate that approximately 50 percent of the reports were typeset, 70 percent used Roman (serif) type, 80 percent used 10- or 11-point type for text, 60 percent used a ragged right-hand margin, slightly more than half used paragraph indentation, 75 percent used a single-column layout, 65 percent had one or more figures or tables placed perpendicular to (not aligned with) the text, and perfect binding was the most frequently used binding method.

  10. An UI Layout Files Analyzer for Test Data Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention actions (trainings, audits and inspections (tests, validations, code reviews are the crucial factors in achieving a high quality level for any software application simply because low investments in this area are leading to significant expenses in terms of corrective actions needed for defect fixing. Mobile applications testing involves the use of various tools and scenarios. An important process is represented by test data generation. This paper proposes a test data generator (TDG system for mobile applications using several sources for test data and it focuses on the UI layout files analyzer module. The proposed architecture aims to reduce time-to-market for mobile applications. The focus is on test data generators based on the source code, user interface layout files (using markup languages like XML or XAML and application specifications. In order to assure a common interface for test data generators, an XML or JSON-based language called Data Specification Language (DSL is proposed.

  11. Analysis tools for the interplay between genome layout and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Elati, Mohamed; Képès, François

    2016-06-06

    Genome layout and gene regulation appear to be interdependent. Understanding this interdependence is key to exploring the dynamic nature of chromosome conformation and to engineering functional genomes. Evidence for non-random genome layout, defined as the relative positioning of either co-functional or co-regulated genes, stems from two main approaches. Firstly, the analysis of contiguous genome segments across species, has highlighted the conservation of gene arrangement (synteny) along chromosomal regions. Secondly, the study of long-range interactions along a chromosome has emphasised regularities in the positioning of microbial genes that are co-regulated, co-expressed or evolutionarily correlated. While one-dimensional pattern analysis is a mature field, it is often powerless on biological datasets which tend to be incomplete, and partly incorrect. Moreover, there is a lack of comprehensive, user-friendly tools to systematically analyse, visualise, integrate and exploit regularities along genomes. Here we present the Genome REgulatory and Architecture Tools SCAN (GREAT:SCAN) software for the systematic study of the interplay between genome layout and gene expression regulation. SCAN is a collection of related and interconnected applications currently able to perform systematic analyses of genome regularities as well as to improve transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and gene regulatory network predictions based on gene positional information. We demonstrate the capabilities of these tools by studying on one hand the regular patterns of genome layout in the major regulons of the bacterium Escherichia coli. On the other hand, we demonstrate the capabilities to improve TFBS prediction in microbes. Finally, we highlight, by visualisation of multivariate techniques, the interplay between position and sequence information for effective transcription regulation.

  12. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabathe, Laurent; Lignini, Franck; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of the risks induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions: - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products → radiological zoning; - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) → beryllium zoning; - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots → electromagnetic zoning; - fire hazard: fire compartmentalization; ·explosion hazard: anti-blast zoning; - waste treatment → waste zoning. Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer has also taken into account access requirements to equipments and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows meeting the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications are been studied in the tritium building: utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological hazard zones. A direct access from

  13. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings internal layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignini, F.; Sabathe, L.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Uzan-Elbez, J.; Girard, J.-P.

    2006-01-01

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of risk induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions : - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products → radiological zoning - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) → beryllium zoning - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots → electromagnetic zoning - fire hazard : fire compartmentalisation - explosion hazard → anti-blast zoning - waste treatment → waste zoning Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop ...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer also has to take into account access requirements to equipment and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows to meet the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications were included in the tritium building : utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological hazard zones. A direct access from the

  14. Nuclear island buildings layout collaborative design platform development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Li; Huang Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on characteristics of nuclear island layout design, the large number files and complicated interface, for realizing collaborative design and fine management goal, Establish collaborative design platform, which includes the design task module, 3D design module, project management module. These three modules can package design input files, realize synchronous design and real-time track design drawings state, timely feedback between design, procurement, construction site. There is no design task delay due to tracking and has realized fine management of design. (authors)

  15. Doublet vs. FODO structure: beam dynamics and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Eshraqi, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    A FoDo (singlet) structure is designed for the CERN Superconducting Proton LINAC. This architecture is compared to the baseline (doublet) architecture of SPL on the basis of its beam dynamics performance and the required investment. The sensitivity of both layouts to quadrupole gradient errors and misalignment is checked and a correction scheme for beam steering is proposed. Finally a single quad beam dilution scheme is studied and designed for the pilot beam dump.

  16. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  17. Study of site layout in the Rokkasho site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Tamura, Kousaku; Yagenji, Akira; Sekiya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hideo; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Uehara, Masaharu; Motohashi, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ogino, Shunji; Nagamatsu, Nobuhide

    2006-03-01

    The Final Design Report (FDR) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was published on July 2001 as a summary of the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). After the EDA, site dependent design has been investigated for the invitation of ITER toward Rokkasho Site (Iyasakadai area) in Aomori prefecture. This report describes the results of site layout of major buildings and structures of ITER in the Rokkasho-Site. The data of the ground near the site and the results of site dependent design in Japan were applied to this study. Through this study, the most appropriate site layout has been constructed with satisfaction of following conditions. (1) Bedrock level at the tokamak complex building is relatively high and it can be reduced the cost of excavation and foundation work. (2) Total amount of excavation soil for site preparation is minimized and the flexibility of the layout is ensured with flat ground level. (3) Accessibility of human and equipments, reduction of noise and vibration to the environment can be obtained. Total length of ducts and piping between buildings in site is minimized. (author)

  18. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  19. CiSE: a circular spring embedder layout algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrusoz, Ugur; Belviranli, Mehmet E; Dilek, Alptug

    2013-06-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic layout of clustered graphs using a circular style. The algorithm tries to determine optimal location and orientation of individual clusters intrinsically within a modified spring embedder. Heuristics such as reversal of the order of nodes in a cluster and swap of neighboring node pairs in the same cluster are employed intermittently to further relax the spring embedder system, resulting in reduced inter-cluster edge crossings. Unlike other algorithms generating circular drawings, our algorithm does not require the quotient graph to be acyclic, nor does it sacrifice the edge crossing number of individual clusters to improve respective positioning of the clusters. Moreover, it reduces the total area required by a cluster by using the space inside the associated circle. Experimental results show that the execution time and quality of the produced drawings with respect to commonly accepted layout criteria are quite satisfactory, surpassing previous algorithms. The algorithm has also been successfully implemented and made publicly available as part of a compound and clustered graph editing and layout tool named CHISIO.

  20. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M and O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management

  1. Detecting the overlapping and hierarchical community structure in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancichinetti, Andrea; Fortunato, Santo; Kertesz, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Many networks in nature, society and technology are characterized by a mesoscopic level of organization, with groups of nodes forming tightly connected units, called communities or modules, that are only weakly linked to each other. Uncovering this community structure is one of the most important problems in the field of complex networks. Networks often show a hierarchical organization, with communities embedded within other communities; moreover, nodes can be shared between different communities. Here, we present the first algorithm that finds both overlapping communities and the hierarchical structure. The method is based on the local optimization of a fitness function. Community structure is revealed by peaks in the fitness histogram. The resolution can be tuned by a parameter enabling different hierarchical levels of organization to be investigated. Tests on real and artificial networks give excellent results.

  2. A Novel DBC Layout for Current Imbalance Mitigation in SiC MOSFET Multichip Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) layout for mitigating the current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in multichip power modules. Compared to the traditional layout, the proposed DBC layout significantly reduces the circuit mismatch and current coupling effect......, which consequently improves the current sharing among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in power module. Mathematic analysis and circuit model of the DBC layout are presented to elaborate on the superior features of the proposed DBC layout. Simulation and experimental results further verify the theoretical...

  3. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  4. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  5. Analytical Tools for Functional Assessment of Architectural Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowski, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Functional layout of the building, understood as a layout or set of the facility rooms (or groups of rooms) with a system of internal communication, creates an environment and a place of mutual relations between the occupants of the object. Achieving optimal (from the occupants’ point of view) spatial arrangement is possible through activities that often go beyond the stage of architectural design. Adopted in the architectural design, most often during trial and error process or on the basis of previous experience (evidence-based design), functional layout is subject to continuous evaluation and dynamic changing since the beginning of its use. Such verification of the occupancy phase allows to plan future, possible transformations, as well as to develop model solutions for use in other settings. In broader terms, the research hypothesis is to examine whether and how the collected datasets concerning the facility and its utilization can be used to develop methods for assessing functional layout of buildings. In other words, if it is possible to develop an objective method of assessing functional layouts basing on a set of buildings’ parameters: technical, technological and functional ones and whether the method allows developing a set of tools enhancing the design methodology of complex functional objects. By linking the design with the construction phase it is possible to build parametric models of functional layouts, especially in the context of sustainable design or lean design in every aspect: ecological (by reducing the property’s impact on environment), economic (by optimizing its cost) and social (through the implementation of high-performance work environment). Parameterization of size and functional connections of the facility become part of the analyses, as well as the element of model solutions. The “lean” approach means the process of analysis of the existing scheme and consequently - finding weak points as well as means for eliminating these

  6. Research of Digital Interface Layout Design based on Eye-tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to improve the low service efficiency and unsmooth human-computer interaction caused by currently irrational layouts of digital interfaces for complex systems. Also, three common layout structures for digital interfaces are to be presented and five layout types appropriate for multilevel digital interfaces are to be summarized. Based on the eye tracking technology, an assessment was conducted in advantages and disadvantages of different layout types through subjects’ search efficiency. Based on data and results, this study constructed a matching model which is appropriate for multilevel digital interface layout and verified the fact that the task element is a significant and important aspect of layout design. A scientific experimental model of research on digital interfaces for complex systems is provided. Both data and conclusions of the eye movement experiment provide a reference for layout designs of interfaces for complex systems with different task characteristics.

  7. Sharing the Proceeds from a Hierarchical Venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Tvede, Mich

    2017-01-01

    We consider the problem of distributing the proceeds generated from a joint venture in which the participating agents are hierarchically organized. We introduce and characterize a family of allocation rules where revenue ‘bubbles up’ in the hierarchy. The family is flexible enough to accommodate...... the no-transfer rule (where no revenue bubbles up) and the full-transfer rule (where all the revenues bubble up to the top of the hierarchy). Intermediate rules within the family are reminiscent of popular incentive mechanisms for social mobilization or multi-level marketing....

  8. Hierarchical Neural Regression Models for Customer Churn Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As customers are the main assets of each industry, customer churn prediction is becoming a major task for companies to remain in competition with competitors. In the literature, the better applicability and efficiency of hierarchical data mining techniques has been reported. This paper considers three hierarchical models by combining four different data mining techniques for churn prediction, which are backpropagation artificial neural networks (ANN, self-organizing maps (SOM, alpha-cut fuzzy c-means (α-FCM, and Cox proportional hazards regression model. The hierarchical models are ANN + ANN + Cox, SOM + ANN + Cox, and α-FCM + ANN + Cox. In particular, the first component of the models aims to cluster data in two churner and nonchurner groups and also filter out unrepresentative data or outliers. Then, the clustered data as the outputs are used to assign customers to churner and nonchurner groups by the second technique. Finally, the correctly classified data are used to create Cox proportional hazards model. To evaluate the performance of the hierarchical models, an Iranian mobile dataset is considered. The experimental results show that the hierarchical models outperform the single Cox regression baseline model in terms of prediction accuracy, Types I and II errors, RMSE, and MAD metrics. In addition, the α-FCM + ANN + Cox model significantly performs better than the two other hierarchical models.

  9. Wendelstein 7-X Torus Hall Layout and System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, D.; Damiani, C.; Hartfuss, H.-J.; Krampitz, R.; Neuner, U.

    2006-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an experimental fusion device presently under construction in Greifswald, Germany, to study the stellarator concept at reactor relevant parameters und steady-state conditions. The heart of the machine consists of the torus that houses the superconducting coils and the plasma vacuum vessel. It is located nearly in the center of a 30 m x 30 m x 20 m hall. A large number of components need to be placed in close proximity of the torus to provide the system with the required means, e.g. cryogenic gases, cooling water, electricity, and to integrate it with the peripheral diagnostic and heating components. The arrangement of these components has to be supported by suitable structures, and has to be optimized to allow for installation, maintenance, and repair. In addition, space has to be provided for escape routes and for sufficient distance between components that could negatively influence each other's performance, etc. The layout of the components has been done over many years using 3D CAD software. It was based on simple geometric models of the components and of the additionally required space. Presently the layout design is being detailed and updated by replacing the original coarse models with more refined estimates or - in some cases - with as-built models. All interface requirements are carefully taken into account. Detailed routing was specified for the cryo and cooling water supply lines whose design and installation is outsourced. Due to the limited space available and severely restricted access during experimental campaigns, the requirement to put auxiliary components like electronic racks into the torus hall is being queried. The paper summarizes the present state of the component layout in the torus hall, and how the peripheral supply, diagnostics, and heating systems are integrated into the machine. (author)

  10. [Land layout for lake tourism based on ecological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Jiang-Feng; Zou, Li-Lin; Liu, Shi-Bin

    2012-10-01

    To avoid the decrease and deterioration of lake wetlands and the other ecological issues such as lake water pollution that were caused by the unreasonable exploration of lake tourism, a land layout for the tourism development of Liangzi Lake with the priority of ecological security pattern was proposed, based on the minimal cumulative resistance model and by using GIS technology. The study area was divided into four ecological function zones, i. e., core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecotone zone, and human activity zone. The core protection zone was the landscape region of ecological source. In the protection zone, new tourism land was forbidden to be increased, and some of the existing fundamental tourism facilities should be removed while some of them should be upgraded. The ecological buffer zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 0 to 4562. In the buffer zone, expansion of tourism land should be forbidden, the existing tourism land should be downsized, and human activities should be isolated from ecological source by converting the human environment to the natural environment as far as possible. The ecotone zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 4562 to 30797. In this zone, the existing tourism land was distributed in patches, tourism land could be expanded properly, and the lake forestry ecological tourism should be developed widely. The human activity zone was the landscape region with resistance value ranged from 30797 to 97334, which would be the key area for the land layout of lake tourism. It was suggested that the land layout for tourism with the priority of landscape ecological security pattern would be the best choice for the lake sustainable development.

  11. Wind conditions in urban layout - Numerical and experimental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poćwierz, Marta; Zielonko-Jung, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents research which compares the numerical and the experimental results for different cases of airflow around a few urban layouts. The study is concerned mostly with the analysis of parameters, such as pressure and velocity fields, which are essential in the building industry. Numerical simulations have been performed by the commercial software Fluent, with the use of a few different turbulence models, including popular k-ɛ, k-ɛ realizable or k-ω. A particular attention has been paid to accurate description of the conditions on the inlet and the selection of suitable computing grid. The pressure measurement near buildings and oil visualization were undertaken and described accordingly.

  12. Automated Layout Generation of Analogue and Mixed-Signal ASIC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Rene

    search for better solutions can be guided into new and more prosperous areas of the search space. This feature also provides the designer with the ability to easily try out several implementation options, thus exploring the solution space, which are especially important in the early stages of the design...... is generated using a full-custom layout style and is based on a library of CMOS process independent device generators. The placement for the analogue circuit is derived using the interactive floorplan optimization algorithm described above. This ensures that a high degree of user control is implemented...

  13. Energy efficient LED layout optimization for near-uniform illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ramy E.; Elgala, Hany

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of designing energy efficient light emitting diodes (LEDs) layout while satisfying the illumination constraints. Towards this objective, we present a simple approach to the illumination design problem based on the concept of the virtual LED. We formulate a constrained optimization problem for minimizing the power consumption while maintaining a near-uniform illumination throughout the room. By solving the resulting constrained linear program, we obtain the number of required LEDs and the optimal output luminous intensities that achieve the desired illumination constraints.

  14. Effects of Optimizing the Scan-Path on Scanning Keyboards with QWERTY-Layout for English Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2017-01-01

    Scanning keyboards can be essential tools for individuals with reduced motor function. However, most research addresses layout optimization. Learning new layouts is time-consuming. This study explores the familiar QWERTY layout with alternative scanning paths intended for English text. The results show that carefully designed scan-paths can help QWERTY nearly match optimized layouts in performance.

  15. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks.

  16. Comparative study T-type and I-type layout of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto and Siti Alimah

    2010-01-01

    Determining plant layout is one of the five major stages during the life time of a nuclear power plant. Some important factors that affect in the selecting of plant layout are availability of infrastructure, economic aspects, social aspects, public and environment safety, and also easy to do. Another factor to be considered is requirements as seismic design, which refers to the principles of good security workers, communities and the environment of radiological risks. There are many layout types of nuclear power plant, two of them are T-type layout and I-type layout. Each type of the plant layout has advantage and disadvantage, therefore this study is to understand them. Good layout is able to provide a high level of security against earthquakes. In term of earthquake design, I-type layout has a higher security level than T-type layout. Therefore, I-type layout can be a good choice for PWR nuclear power plants 1000 MWe that will be built in Indonesia. (author)

  17. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  18. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Laxemar area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: Chapter 1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapters 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  19. Hierarchical Diagnosis of Vocal Fold Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Ahmadi-Noubari, Hossein; Seyed Aghazadeh, Babak; Khadivi Heris, Hossein

    This paper explores the use of hierarchical structure for diagnosis of vocal fold disorders. The hierarchical structure is initially used to train different second-level classifiers. At the first level normal and pathological signals have been distinguished. Next, pathological signals have been classified into neurogenic and organic vocal fold disorders. At the final level, vocal fold nodules have been distinguished from polyps in organic disorders category. For feature selection at each level of hierarchy, the reconstructed signal at each wavelet packet decomposition sub-band in 5 levels of decomposition with mother wavelet of (db10) is used to extract the nonlinear features of self-similarity and approximate entropy. Also, wavelet packet coefficients are used to measure energy and Shannon entropy features at different spectral sub-bands. Davies-Bouldin criterion has been employed to find the most discriminant features. Finally, support vector machines have been adopted as classifiers at each level of hierarchy resulting in the diagnosis accuracy of 92%.

  20. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Layout and Nurses' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doede, Megan; Trinkoff, Alison M; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) remain one of the few areas in hospitals that still use an open bay (OPBY) design for patient stays greater than 24 hr, housing multiple infants, staff, and families in one large room. This creates high noise levels, contributes to the spread of infection, and affords families little privacy. These problems have given rise to the single-family room NICU. This represents a significant change in the care environment for nurses. This literature review answers the question: When compared to OPBY layout, how does a single family room layout impact neonatal nurses' work? Thirteen studies published between 2006 and 2015 were located. Many studies reported both positive and negative effects on nurses' work and were therefore sorted by their cited advantages and disadvantages. Advantages included improved quality of the physical environment; improved quality of patient care; improved parent interaction; and improvements in nurse job satisfaction, stress, and burnout. Disadvantages included decreased interaction among the NICU patient care team, increased nurse workload, decreased visibility on the unit, and difficult interactions with family. This review suggests that single-family room NICUs introduce a complex situation in which trade-offs occur for nurses, most prominently the trade-off between visibility and privacy. Additionally, the literature is clear on what elements of nurses' work are impacted, but how the built environment influences these elements, and how these elements interact during nurses' work, is not as well understood. The current level of research and directions for future research are also discussed.

  1. Methodologies for optimizing ROP detector layout for CANDU (registered) reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: kastanyd@aecl.c [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada); Caxaj, Victor [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The regional overpower protection (ROP) systems protect CANDU (registered) reactors against overpower in the fuel that would reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. Both a localized power peaking within the core (for example, as a result of certain reactivity device configuration) or a general increase in the core power level during a slow-loss-of-regulation (SLOR) event could cause overpower in the fuel. This overpower could lead to fuel sheath dryout. In the CANDU (registered) 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, one for each fast-acting shutdown systems. Each ROP system includes a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal assemblies. Traditionally, the placement of these detectors was done using a method called the detector layout optimization (DLO). A new methodology for designing the detector layout for the ROP system has been developed recently. The new method, called the DETPLASA algorithm, utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. Both methodologies will be discussed in detail in this paper. Numerical examples are employed to better illustrate how each method works. Results from some sensitivity studies on three SA parameters are also presented.

  2. The Layout of Power and Space in Jingdezhen Imperial Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by referring to the archaeological reports and local gazetteers and comparing images of porcelain wares, makes a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the layout of power and space in Jingdezhen Imperial Factory according to its geography, geomancy, security management, space regulation, architectural features, production characteristics and production layout. It contends that the Imperial Factory which integrates porcelain making factory with local government is the embodiment of absolute monarchy in ceramic culture. The factory is located on Zhushan mountain, the center of Jingdezhen’s industry, business and transportation. Being at the center, it gives off an air of prestige and majesty, overlooking dominantly the surrounding private kilns. It has also turned the political system into power operation, setting up not only workshops but also administrative offices. By taking advantage of the best resources, it has produced porcelain for imperial family and court. Its specialized production has solved the contradiction between complicated technology and numerous procedures of production. The shape, color and pattern of the porcelain wares are strictly stipulated and the best of the best wares are demanded. Hence the porcelain production is featured with longest firing, largest scale, superb craftsmanship, and best kinds of wares. All of these reveal the process and rule power and space are intersected and different cultures overlapped.

  3. A Hierarchical Biology Concept Framework: A Tool for Course Design

    OpenAIRE

    Khodor, Julia; Halme, Dina Gould; Walker, Graham C.

    2004-01-01

    A typical undergraduate biology curriculum covers a very large number of concepts and details. We describe the development of a Biology Concept Framework (BCF) as a possible way to organize this material to enhance teaching and learning. Our BCF is hierarchical, places details in context, nests related concepts, and articulates concepts that are inherently obvious to experts but often difficult ...

  4. Aircraft Cockpit Ergonomic Layout Evaluation Based on Uncertain Linguistic Multiattribute Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxuan Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the view of the current cockpit information interaction, facilities and other characteristics are increasingly multifarious; the early layout evaluation methods based on single or partial components, often cause comprehensive evaluation unilateral, leading to the problems of long development period and low efficiency. Considering the fuzziness of ergonomic evaluation and diversity of evaluation information attributes, we refine and build an evaluation system based on the characteristics of the current cockpit man-machine layout and introduce the different types of uncertain linguistic multiple attribute combination decision making (DTULDM method in the cockpit layout evaluation process. Meanwhile, we also establish an aircraft cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation model. Finally, an experiment about cockpit layout evaluation is given, and the result demonstrates that the proposed method about cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation is feasible and effective.

  5. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...

  6. Incorporating Workflow Interference in Facility Layout Design: The Quartic Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Chyuan Chiang; Panagiotis Kouvelis; Timothy L. Urban

    2002-01-01

    Although many authors have noted the importance of minimizing workflow interference in facility layout design, traditional layout research tends to focus on minimizing the distance-based transportation cost. This paper formalizes the concept of workflow interference from a facility layout perspective. A model, formulated as a quartic assignment problem, is developed that explicitly considers the interference of workflow. Optimal and heuristic solution methodologies are developed and evaluated.

  7. Research on Layout Optimization of Urban Circle Solid Waste Transfer and Disposal Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhui Li; Gangyan Li; Guowen Sun; Huiping Shi; Bao’an Yang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Systematic Layout Planning theory and the analysis of transfer stations’ technological processes, a layout optimization model for solid waste transfer and disposal stations was made. The operating units’ layout of the solid waste transfer and disposal stations was simulated and optimized using the genetic algorithm, which could achieve reasonable technological processes, the smallest floor space and the lowest construction cost. The simulation result can also direct t...

  8. Study on comprehensive evaluation model for nuclear power plant control room layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yiming; Liu Yuan; Fan Huixian

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation model for layout of the main control room of nuclear power plants was proposed. Firstly the design scope and principle for the layout of the main control room were defined based on the standards, and then the index system for the comprehensive evaluation was established. Finally, comprehensive evaluation was carried out for the layout design by applying the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in the index system. (authors)

  9. Hierarchical processing in the prefrontal cortex in a variety of cognitive domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ae eJeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This review scrutinizes several findings on human hierarchical processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC in diverse cognitive domains. Converging evidence from previous studies has shown that the PFC, specifically Brodmann area (BA 44, may function as the essential region for hierarchical processing across the domains. In language fMRI studies, BA 44 was significantly activated for the hierarchical processing of center-embedded sentences and this pattern of activations was also observed in artificial grammar. The same pattern was observed in the visuo-spatial domain where BA44 was actively involved in the processing of hierarchy for the visual symbol. Musical syntax, which is the rule-based arrangement of musical sets, has also been construed as hierarchical processing as in the language domain such that the activation in BA44 was observed in a chord sequence paradigm. P600 ERP was also engendered during the processing of musical hierarchy. Along with a longstanding idea that a human’s number faculty is developed as a by-product of language faculty, BA44 was closely involved in hierarchical processing in mental arithmetic. This review extended its discussion of hierarchical processing to hierarchical behavior, that is, human action which has been referred to as being hierarchically composed. Several lesion and TMS studies supported the involvement of BA44 for hierarchical processing in the action domain. Lastly, the hierarchical organization of cognitive controls was discussed within the PFC, forming a cascade of top-down hierarchical processes operating along a posterior-to-anterior axis of the lateral PFC including BA44 within the network. It is proposed that PFC is actively involved in different forms of hierarchical processing and specifically BA44 may play an integral role in the process. Taking levels of proficiency and subcortical areas into consideration may provide further insight into the functional role of BA44 for hierarchical

  10. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  11. The performance of the ATLAS initial detector layout for B-physics channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, B.; Ghete, V.M.; Kuhn, D.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2004-01-01

    At the start-up of LHC one expects parts of the ATLAS detector to be missing. This layout is called initial layout, whereas the fully staged detector is called complete layout. B-physics channels were simulated, reconstructed and analyzed using the software tools of ATLAS data challenge-1 (DC1). The performance of the detector with respect to quantities relevant to the analysis of the B s → D s π channel and the validation of the full chain generation-simulation-reconstruction-analysis were evaluated for the initial and complete layout. (author)

  12. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Skands, Gustav Erik; Bertelsen, Christian Vinther

    2015-01-01

    This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested...... and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 mu m beads from 1 mu m as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes...... of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results....

  13. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  14. Hierarchical Microaggressions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathryn; Anderson, Myron; Stewart, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been substantial research examining the effects of microaggressions in the public sphere, there has been little research that examines microaggressions in the workplace. This study explores the types of microaggressions that affect employees at universities. We coin the term "hierarchical microaggression" to represent…

  15. Hierarchical modeling of molecular energies using a deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Nicholas; Smith, Justin S.; Barros, Kipton

    2018-06-01

    We introduce the Hierarchically Interacting Particle Neural Network (HIP-NN) to model molecular properties from datasets of quantum calculations. Inspired by a many-body expansion, HIP-NN decomposes properties, such as energy, as a sum over hierarchical terms. These terms are generated from a neural network—a composition of many nonlinear transformations—acting on a representation of the molecule. HIP-NN achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a dataset of 131k ground state organic molecules and predicts energies with 0.26 kcal/mol mean absolute error. With minimal tuning, our model is also competitive on a dataset of molecular dynamics trajectories. In addition to enabling accurate energy predictions, the hierarchical structure of HIP-NN helps to identify regions of model uncertainty.

  16. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  17. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-05-10

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  18. Methodology for bus layout for topological quantum error correcting codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitzka, Martin; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.; DiVincenzo, David P. [RWTH Aachen University, JARA Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Most quantum computing architectures can be realized as two-dimensional lattices of qubits that interact with each other. We take transmon qubits and transmission line resonators as promising candidates for qubits and couplers; we use them as basic building elements of a quantum code. We then propose a simple framework to determine the optimal experimental layout to realize quantum codes. We show that this engineering optimization problem can be reduced to the solution of standard binary linear programs. While solving such programs is a NP-hard problem, we propose a way to find scalable optimal architectures that require solving the linear program for a restricted number of qubits and couplers. We apply our methods to two celebrated quantum codes, namely the surface code and the Fibonacci code. (orig.)

  19. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  20. Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design Considering Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farm has drawn more and more attention recently due to its higher energy capacity and more freedom to occupy area. However, the investment is higher. In order to make a cost-effective wind farm, the wind farm layout should be optimized. The wake effect is one of the dominant factors...... leading to energy losses. It is expected that the optimized placement of wind turbines (WT) over a large sea area can lead to the best tradeoff between energy yields and capital investment. This paper proposes a novel way to position offshore WTs for a regular shaped wind farm. In addition to optimizing...... the direction of wind farm placement and the spacing between WTs, the control strategy’s impact on energy yields is also discussed. Since the problem is non-convex and lots of optimization variables are involved, an evolutionary algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), is adopted to find...

  1. Forget about switching keyboard layouts with the "Compose Key"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Growing up with a Spanish keyboard was not an easy childhood (using Shift+7 (/) to search in vim, or having to type AltGr+[ to actually have an opening bracket), so at some point in my life I switched to an American keyboard. At the beginning I was happy switching layouts to either do some coding or talk to my mum (I am not a fan of the classical excuse "sorry for my typos, I don't have the 'ñ' in my keyboard"). Things got much worse when I started to need French characters (ç, è) to interact with some services at CERN, or some Slovak letters (č, đ) to talk to Robert, my Slovak colleague . Then I discovered the Compose Key and my life has been different ever since.

  2. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed

  3. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced

  4. The perception of spatial layout in real and virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, E J; Hancock, P A; Chrysler, S T

    1997-01-01

    As human-machine interfaces grow more immersive and graphically-oriented, virtual environment systems become more prominent as the medium for human-machine communication. Often, virtual environments (VE) are built to provide exact metrical representations of existing or proposed physical spaces. However, it is not known how individuals develop representational models of these spaces in which they are immersed and how those models may be distorted with respect to both the virtual and real-world equivalents. To evaluate the process of model development, the present experiment examined participant's ability to reproduce a complex spatial layout of objects having experienced them previously under different viewing conditions. The layout consisted of nine common objects arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in a free binocular virtual condition, a free binocular real-world condition, and in a static monocular view of the real world. The first two allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe from a single viewpoint. Viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with 10 participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed using mapping accuracy and triadic comparisons of relative inter-object distances. Mapping results showed a significant effect of viewing condition where, interestingly, the static monocular condition was superior to both the active virtual and real binocular conditions. Results for the triadic comparisons showed a significant interaction for gender by viewing condition in which males were more accurate than females. These results suggest that the situation model resulting from interaction with a virtual environment was indistinguishable from interaction with real objects at least within the constraints of the present procedure.

  5. An efficient grid layout algorithm for biological networks utilizing various biological attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Mitsuru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearly visualized biopathways provide a great help in understanding biological systems. However, manual drawing of large-scale biopathways is time consuming. We proposed a grid layout algorithm that can handle gene-regulatory networks and signal transduction pathways by considering edge-edge crossing, node-edge crossing, distance measure between nodes, and subcellular localization information from Gene Ontology. Consequently, the layout algorithm succeeded in drastically reducing these crossings in the apoptosis model. However, for larger-scale networks, we encountered three problems: (i the initial layout is often very far from any local optimum because nodes are initially placed at random, (ii from a biological viewpoint, human layouts still exceed automatic layouts in understanding because except subcellular localization, it does not fully utilize biological information of pathways, and (iii it employs a local search strategy in which the neighborhood is obtained by moving one node at each step, and automatic layouts suggest that simultaneous movements of multiple nodes are necessary for better layouts, while such extension may face worsening the time complexity. Results We propose a new grid layout algorithm. To address problem (i, we devised a new force-directed algorithm whose output is suitable as the initial layout. For (ii, we considered that an appropriate alignment of nodes having the same biological attribute is one of the most important factors of the comprehension, and we defined a new score function that gives an advantage to such configurations. For solving problem (iii, we developed a search strategy that considers swapping nodes as well as moving a node, while keeping the order of the time complexity. Though a naïve implementation increases by one order, the time complexity, we solved this difficulty by devising a method that caches differences between scores of a layout and its possible updates

  6. Hierarchical analysis of dependency in metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, Julien; Jackson, David B; Casari, Georg

    2003-05-22

    Elucidation of metabolic networks for an increasing number of organisms reveals that even small networks can contain thousands of reactions and chemical species. The intimate connectivity between components complicates their decomposition into biologically meaningful sub-networks. Moreover, traditional higher-order representations of metabolic networks as metabolic pathways, suffers from the lack of rigorous definition, yielding pathways of disparate content and size. We introduce a hierarchical representation that emphasizes the gross organization of metabolic networks in largely independent pathways and sub-systems at several levels of independence. The approach highlights the coupling of different pathways and the shared compounds responsible for those couplings. By assessing our results on Escherichia coli (E.coli metabolic reactions, Genetic Circuits Research Group, University of California, San Diego, http://gcrg.ucsd.edu/organisms/ecoli.html, 'model v 1.01. reactions') against accepted biochemical annotations, we provide the first systematic synopsis of an organism's metabolism. Comparison with operons of E.coli shows that low-level clusters are reflected in genome organization and gene regulation. Source code, data sets and supplementary information are available at http://www.mas.ecp.fr/labo/equipe/gagneur/hierarchy/hierarchy.html

  7. Coherence of land surface layout as intangible environmental resource (Vooremaa landscape protection area, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Karasov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vooremaa Landscape Protection Area provides a specimen of native Estonian agricultural lands, alternating with picturesque moraine lakes. The overall visual environment within this area was basically changed by glacial agents and, hereafter, by cultural activities, such as crop farming. Topography consists of about 100 drumlins (some of them are cultivated, as well as depressions, filled with lakes and covered by forests and grasslands. A rich combination of the mentioned factors determined the study area selection. There was accepted, that the harmony, or pleasing organization of distinguishable units of visual environment (with no attention to their colours or textures, but regarding their geographical meaning only, depends on the system effect: the more complexity of the overall system exceeds the algebraic sum of the complexity of its components, the more its organization does. In this way, some developments of information theory could be applied to the analysis of visual environment (from top view, similarly to the analysis of the text (considering units of land relief, land cover, and land cover relief, or a land surface in total, as the symbols of some alphabet, and their diversity within the floating circle – as words, consisting of the symbols. Since mentioned notions of organization and harmony are frequently implied in the concept of landscape coherence, the latter term was used as a fixed and well-known one in the landscape and environmental aesthetics. Hartley’s formula was used to compute the coherence of the land surface layout and the respective regionalization within the study area and surroundings. The effectiveness of the proposed method for representation of visual harmony was non-rigorously verified with transect of Google Street View panoramic photo series, while everyone is welcomed to use the Google Street View to compare the presented results with his own conclusions. There was found, that the proposed index

  8. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and...

  9. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  10. 33 CFR 127.1105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. 127.1105 Section 127.1105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction § 127.1105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LHG. Each new waterfront facility...

  11. Design aspects of the alpha repository. II. Conceptual layouts of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Five conceptual repository layouts are presented: linear repository, 1 panel; bow tie repository, 2 panels; maltese cross repository, 4 panels; snowflake repository; 5 panels, and sash window repository, 8 panels. The layouts are compared with respect to excavation requirements, haulage distances, ventilation flow path designs, and safety features

  12. Yearbook and Magazine Layout, English, Journalism. Language Arts: 5113.200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marlene E.

    Developed as a quinmester unit for the high school on yearbook and magazine layout, this guide provides the teacher with suggested teaching strategies for a study of the theory and practice of page layout, photo cropping and editing, use of color and special effects, copy fitting and headline writing and fitting, and principles of typography.…

  13. A Tool for the Automated Design and Evaluation of Habitat Interior Layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of space habitat design is to minimize mass and system size while providing adequate space for all necessary equipment and a functional layout that supports crew health and productivity. Unfortunately, development and evaluation of interior layouts is often ignored during conceptual design because of the subjectivity and long times required using current evaluation methods (e.g., human-in-the-loop mockup tests and in-depth CAD evaluations). Early, more objective assessment could prevent expensive design changes that may increase vehicle mass and compromise functionality. This paper describes a new interior design evaluation method to enable early, structured consideration of habitat interior layouts. This interior layout evaluation method features a comprehensive list of quantifiable habitat layout evaluation criteria, automatic methods to measure these criteria from a geometry model, and application of systems engineering tools and numerical methods to construct a multi-objective value function measuring the overall habitat layout performance. In addition to a detailed description of this method, a C++/OpenGL software tool which has been developed to implement this method is also discussed. This tool leverages geometry modeling coupled with collision detection techniques to identify favorable layouts subject to multiple constraints and objectives (e.g., minimize mass, maximize contiguous habitable volume, maximize task performance, and minimize crew safety risks). Finally, a few habitat layout evaluation examples are described to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and tool to influence habitat design.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of WEC Array Layout Parameters Effect on the Power Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effect that the array layout choice has on the power performance. To this end, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with six array layout parameters, as the simulation inputs, the array power performance (q-factor), as the simulation output, and a simulation model special...

  15. Layout level design for testability strategy applied to a CMOS cell library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.C.; Oliver, J.; Rullan, M.; Ferrer, C.

    1993-01-01

    The layout level design for testability (LLDFT) rules used here allow to avoid some hard to detect faults or even undetectable faults on a cell library by modifying the cell layout without changing their behavior and achieving a good level of reliability. These rules avoid some open faults or reduce

  16. Thermal Performance for Wet Cooling Tower with Different Layout Patterns of Fillings under Typical Crosswind Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-state model experimental study was performed in lab to investigate the thermal performance of a wet cooling tower with different kinds of filling layout patterns under windless and 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions. In this paper, the contrast analysis was focused on comparing a uniform layout pattern and one kind of optimal non-uniform layout pattern when the environmental crosswind speed is 0 m/s and 0.4 m/s. The experimental results proved that under windless conditions, the heat transfer coefficient and total heat rejection of circulating water for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern can enhance by approximately 40% and 28%, respectively, compared with the uniform layout pattern. It was also discovered that the optimal non-uniform pattern can dramatically relieve the influence of crosswind on the thermal performance of the tower when the crosswind speed is equal to 0.4 m/s. For the uniform layout pattern, the heat transfer coefficient under 0.4 m/s crosswind conditions decreased by 9.5% compared with the windless conditions, while that value lowered only by 2.0% for the optimal non-uniform layout pattern. It has been demonstrated that the optimal non-uniform layout pattern has the better thermal performance under 0.4 m/s crosswind condition.

  17. Studies of Inner Detector Layouts with 5 Pixel layers for the Phase-II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Garcia-Sciveres, M

    2013-01-01

    This note describes a study of Inner Detector layouts for the phase-II upgrade. Starting from the LOI layout the impact of adding a 5th pixel layer, and shortening the pixel and/or SCT barrel layers is studied.

  18. An interactive system for the automatic layout of printed circuit boards (ARAIGNEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combet, M.; Eder, J.; Pagny, C.

    1974-12-01

    A software package for the automatic layout of printed circuit boards is presented. The program permits an interaction of the user during the layout process. The automatic searching of paths can be interrupted at any step and convenient corrections can be inserted. This procedure improves strongly the performance of the program as far as the number of unresolved connections is concerned

  19. Electrical Parasitics and Thermal Modeling for Optimized Layout Design of High Power SiC Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Dutta, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    , the presented models are verified by a conventional and an optimized power module layout. The optimized layout is designed based on the reduction of stray inductance and temperature in a P-cell and N-cell half-bridge module. The presented models are verified by FEM simulations and also experiment....

  20. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing size of offshore wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on energy yields become more and more evident. The Seafloor topography would limit the layout of the wind farm so that irregular layout is usually adopted inlarge scale offshore wind farm. However, the calculation...

  1. The changing pages of comics : Page layouts across eight decades of American superhero comics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pederson, Kaitlin; Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Page layouts are one of the most overt features of comics’ structure. We hypothesized that American superhero comics have changed in their page layout over eight decades, and investigated this using a corpus analysis of 40 comics from 1940 through 2014. On the whole, we found that comics pages

  2. A novel approach of ensuring layout regularity correct by construction in advanced technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shafquat Jahan; Vaderiya, Yagnesh; Gupta, Radhika; Parthasarathy, Chittoor; Marin, Jean-Claude; Robert, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    In advanced technology nodes, layout regularity has become a mandatory prerequisite to create robust designs less sensitive to variations in manufacturing process in order to improve yield and minimizing electrical variability. In this paper we describe a method for designing regular full custom layouts based on design and process co-optimization. The method includes various design rule checks that can be used on-the-fly during leaf-cell layout development. We extract a Layout Regularity Index (LRI) from the layouts based on the jogs, alignments and pitches used in the design for any given metal layer. Regularity Index of a layout is the direct indicator of manufacturing yield and is used to compare the relative health of different layout blocks in terms of process friendliness. The method has been deployed for 28nm and 40nm technology nodes for Memory IP and is being extended to other IPs (IO, standard-cell). We have quantified the gain of layout regularity with the deployed method on printability and electrical characteristics by process-variation (PV) band simulation analysis and have achieved up-to 5nm reduction in PV band.

  3. Young children reorient by computing layout geometry, not by matching images of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2011-02-01

    Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D layout: bumps and ridges that protruded only slightly off the floor, producing edges with low contrast. Moreover, children failed to reorient by prominent brightness contours in continuous layouts with no distinctive 3D structure. The findings provide evidence that geometric layout representations support children's reorientation.

  4. Economy analysis on vertical layout of conventional island of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefeng; Liu Xiaoyun; Liu Jinwei

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the aboveground layout scheme and integral sinking layout scheme of conventional island of nuclear power plants. Technological-economic analysis formula are given, as a result, main factors influencing scheme selection is obtained. Determination of the layout scheme selection and optimization direction through the curve between the accumulative NPV and related factors is brought forward. The paper carries out the technological-economic comparison to the two schemes referred to a 1000 MW level nuclear power project as the example, getting the curve between the accumulative NPV and the plant ground elevation, and offering the method of selecting the vertical layout scheme of conventional island and vertical layout optimization direction. (authors)

  5. Using the clustered circular layout as an informative method for visualizing protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y; Wilkins, Marc R; Hart, David; Hong, Seok-Hee

    2010-07-01

    The force-directed layout is commonly used in computer-generated visualizations of protein-protein interaction networks. While it is good for providing a visual outline of the protein complexes and their interactions, it has two limitations when used as a visual analysis method. The first is poor reproducibility. Repeated running of the algorithm does not necessarily generate the same layout, therefore, demanding cognitive readaptation on the investigator's part. The second limitation is that it does not explicitly display complementary biological information, e.g. Gene Ontology, other than the protein names or gene symbols. Here, we present an alternative layout called the clustered circular layout. Using the human DNA replication protein-protein interaction network as a case study, we compared the two network layouts for their merits and limitations in supporting visual analysis.

  6. Apron layout design and flight-to-gate assignment at Lanseria International airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard, T.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is continuously increasing and more efficient air transport systems are required to handle the air travel demand. The study investigates the expansion of Lanseria International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa. Expansion of Lanseria requires a study of the airport apron layout to ensure efficient passenger-aircraft flow as well as the efficient flow of aircraft to and from the airport. The candidate layout designs are based on the layout concept of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, USA. In the study, different airport apron layouts were compared, including the existing layout of Atlanta Airport, via a simulation model of each. Designs based mainly on passenger transfer distance between the terminal building and aircraft were evaluated. The cross-entropy method was used to develop a generic flight-to-gate assignment program that minimises passenger transfer distances.

  7. A descriptive analysis of quantitative indices for multi-objective block layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Medina Palomera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Layout generation methods provide alternative solutions whose feasibility and quality must be evaluated. Indices must be used to distinguish the feasible solutions (involving different criteria obtained for block layout to identify s solution’s suitability, according to set objectives. This paper provides an accurate and descriptive analysis of the geometric indices used in designing facility layout (during block layout phase. The indices studied here have advantages and disadvantages which should be considered by an analyst before attempting to resolve the facility layout problem. New equations are proposed for measuring geometric indices. The analysis revealed redundant indices and that a minimum number of indices covering overall quality criteria may be used when selecting alternative solutions.

  8. Constructing an optimal facility layout to maximize adjacency as a function of common boundary length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Tari, Farhad; Neghabi, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    An effective facility layout implies that departments with high flow are laid adjacent. However, in the case of a very narrow boundary length between the neighbouring departments, the adjacency would actually be useless. In traditional layout design methods, a score is generally assigned independent of the department's boundary length. This may result in a layout design with a restricted material flow. This article proposes a new concept of adjacency in which the department pairs are laid adjacent with a wider path. To apply this concept, a shop with unequal rectangular departments is contemplated and a mathematical programming model with the objective of maximizing the sum of the adjacency degrees is proposed. A computational experiment is conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the layout design. It is demonstrated that the new concept provides a more efficient and a more realistic layout design.

  9. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  10. Hierarchical Semantic Model of Geovideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Xiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The public security incidents were getting increasingly challenging with regard to their new features, including multi-scale mobility, multistage dynamic evolution, as well as spatiotemporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment. However, the existing video models, which were used/designed for independent archive or local analysis of surveillance video, have seriously inhibited emergency response to the urgent requirements.Aiming at the explicit representation of change mechanism in video, the paper proposed a novel hierarchical geovideo semantic model using UML. This model was characterized by the hierarchical representation of both data structure and semantics based on the change-oriented three domains (feature domain, process domain and event domain instead of overall semantic description of video streaming; combining both geographical semantics and video content semantics, in support of global semantic association between multiple geovideo data. The public security incidents by video surveillance are inspected as an example to illustrate the validity of this model.

  11. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  12. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  13. Fluorocarbon Adsorption in Hierarchical Porous Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Vijayakumar, M.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Martin, P F.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-07-09

    The adsorption behavior of a series of fluorocarbon derivatives was examined on a set of microporous metal organic framework (MOF) sorbents and another set of hierarchical mesoporous MOFs. The microporous M-DOBDC (M = Ni, Co) showed a saturation uptake capacity for R12 of over 4 mmol/g at a very low relative saturation pressure (P/Po) of 0.02. In contrast, the mesoporous MOF MIL-101 showed an exceptionally high uptake capacity reaching over 14 mmol/g at P/Po of 0.4. Adsorption affinity in terms of mass loading and isosteric heats of adsorption were found to generally correlate with the polarizability of the refrigerant with R12 > R22 > R13 > R14 > methane. These results suggest the possibility of exploiting MOFs for separation of azeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons and use in eco-friendly fluorocarbon-based adsorption cooling and refrigeration applications.

  14. Hierarchical reorganization of dimensions in OLAP visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, Sébastien; Bouali, Fatma; Guinot, Christiane; Venturini, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the visual reorganization of online analytical processing (OLAP) cubes that aims at improving their visualization. Our method addresses dimensions with hierarchically organized members. It uses a genetic algorithm that reorganizes k-ary trees. Genetic operators perform permutations of subtrees to optimize a visual homogeneity function. We propose several ways to reorganize an OLAP cube depending on which set of members is selected for the reorganization: all of the members, only the displayed members, or the members at a given level (level by level approach). The results that are evaluated by using optimization criteria show that our algorithm has a reliable performance even when it is limited to 1 minute runs. Our algorithm was integrated in an interactive 3D interface for OLAP. A user study was conducted to evaluate our approach with users. The results highlight the usefulness of reorganization in two OLAP tasks.

  15. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  16. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne Bailey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.

    Keywords: KEYBOARD, MULTILINGUALISM, VENDA, AFRIKAANS, TSWANA, NORTH-ERN SOTHO, ZULU, SOURCE, FREE SOFTWARE, LAYOUT

    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper, Translate.org.za, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  17. Progress report on research project [Plan for www interface layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Presentations and status reports. T. Fukahori reported the plan for www interface layout as a status report. Discussed were which functions were needed for new RIPL-3 web pages. The results are summarized in next section. Layout of the interfaces and retrieval tools and web. The RIPL-3 home page will include a summary description and link to the HANDBOOK: a) The web page for 'mass' segment contains same contents as RIPL-2 except to remove the information about ground state deformation. The abundance data will be replaced by those according to the new BNL wallet card (2005 version). The Q-value calculation tool will be also improved. The 'Nuclear Matter Density' will be renamed as 'Nucleon Density Distribution'. b) Those of 'levels' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved from 'optical' segment with the name of 'deformation'. c) Those of 'resonances' segment will be same as before. It will be considered to replace RIPL-2 database with the new Mughabghab tables. d) Those of 'optical' segment will be same as before, and the deformation parameters for excited levels will be moved to 'optical' segment with the name of 'deformation'. The optical model calculation with ECIS and OPTMAN will be considered and double-folding calculation tool will be possibly provided. e) Those of 'densities' segment will be same as before, and the programs used to plot will be checked. The 3-7 sets of combination of GC, BSFG, GSFM with/without enhancement factors will be given. f) Those of 'gamma' segment will be same as before with adding MLO and theoretical GDR calculation. g) Those of 'fission' segment will be same as before, and 'Exp.' will be renamed. New barrier evaluations will be added. Some additional information could be included, for example, fission transition states. The fission spectrum calculation tool (codes and inputs) will be considered to be added. The fundamental format will be kept as before. For new

  18. Genomic analysis of the hierarchical structure of regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyuan; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental question in biology is how the cell uses transcription factors (TFs) to coordinate the expression of thousands of genes in response to various stimuli. The relationships between TFs and their target genes can be modeled in terms of directed regulatory networks. These relationships, in turn, can be readily compared with commonplace “chain-of-command” structures in social networks, which have characteristic hierarchical layouts. Here, we develop algorithms for identifying generalized hierarchies (allowing for various loop structures) and use these approaches to illuminate extensive pyramid-shaped hierarchical structures existing in the regulatory networks of representative prokaryotes (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), with most TFs at the bottom levels and only a few master TFs on top. These masters are situated near the center of the protein–protein interaction network, a different type of network from the regulatory one, and they receive most of the input for the whole regulatory hierarchy through protein interactions. Moreover, they have maximal influence over other genes, in terms of affecting expression-level changes. Surprisingly, however, TFs at the bottom of the regulatory hierarchy are more essential to the viability of the cell. Finally, one might think master TFs achieve their wide influence through directly regulating many targets, but TFs with most direct targets are in the middle of the hierarchy. We find, in fact, that these midlevel TFs are “control bottlenecks” in the hierarchy, and this great degree of control for “middle managers” has parallels in efficient social structures in various corporate and governmental settings. PMID:17003135

  19. Hierarchical graphs for rule-based modeling of biochemical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rule-based modeling, graphs are used to represent molecules: a colored vertex represents a component of a molecule, a vertex attribute represents the internal state of a component, and an edge represents a bond between components. Components of a molecule share the same color. Furthermore, graph-rewriting rules are used to represent molecular interactions. A rule that specifies addition (removal of an edge represents a class of association (dissociation reactions, and a rule that specifies a change of a vertex attribute represents a class of reactions that affect the internal state of a molecular component. A set of rules comprises an executable model that can be used to determine, through various means, the system-level dynamics of molecular interactions in a biochemical system. Results For purposes of model annotation, we propose the use of hierarchical graphs to represent structural relationships among components and subcomponents of molecules. We illustrate how hierarchical graphs can be used to naturally document the structural organization of the functional components and subcomponents of two proteins: the protein tyrosine kinase Lck and the T cell receptor (TCR complex. We also show that computational methods developed for regular graphs can be applied to hierarchical graphs. In particular, we describe a generalization of Nauty, a graph isomorphism and canonical labeling algorithm. The generalized version of the Nauty procedure, which we call HNauty, can be used to assign canonical labels to hierarchical graphs or more generally to graphs with multiple edge types. The difference between the Nauty and HNauty procedures is minor, but for completeness, we provide an explanation of the entire HNauty algorithm. Conclusions Hierarchical graphs provide more intuitive formal representations of proteins and other structured molecules with multiple functional components than do the regular graphs of current languages for

  20. Relation between front suspension layout and handling performance. Analysis depending on the Taguchi method and ADAMS; Front suspension layout to soda tokusei no kankei ni tsuite. Kiko kaiseki gengo wo mochiita hinshitsu kogaku ni yoru kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A variation of suspension layout gives an influence to the vehicle dynamics. Examined the suspension layout variation to make the handling performance change small. Analyzed the effect of suspension layout variation about steering response delay and gain besides the tire wear effect and movable load. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Hierarchical cellular designs for load-bearing biocomposite beams and plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgueno, Rigoberto; Quagliata, Mario J.; Mohanty, Amar K.; Mehta, Geeta; Drzal, Lawrence T.; Misra, Manjusri

    2005-01-01

    Scrutiny into the composition of natural, or biological materials convincingly reveals that high material and structural efficiency can be attained, even with moderate-quality constituents, by hierarchical topologies, i.e., successively organized material levels or layers. The present study demonstrates that biologically inspired hierarchical designs can help improve the moderate properties of natural fiber polymer composites or biocomposites and allow them to compete with conventional materials for load-bearing applications. An overview of the mechanics concepts that allow hierarchical designs to achieve higher performance is presented, followed by observation and results from flexural tests on periodic and hierarchical cellular beams and plates made from industrial hemp fibers and unsaturated polyester resin biocomposites. The experimental data is shown to agree well with performance indices predicted by mechanics models. A procedure for the multi-scale integrated material/structural analysis of hierarchical cellular biocomposite components is presented and its advantages and limitations are discussed

  2. Um modelo de projeto de layout para ambientes job shop com alta variedade de peças baseado nos conceitos da produção enxuta A layout design model for job shop environments with high variety of parts based on lean production concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucas da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Segundo Canem e Williamson (1998, o planejamento do layout é importante, pois normalmente representa os maiores e mais caros recursos da organização. Além disso, a localização e disposição física dos equipamentos no chão de fábrica têm impacto em diversos fatores como nível de estoque em processo, tamanho dos lotes de transferência, dificuldade no gerenciamento das atividades, movimentação de pessoas e produtos, entre outros. Portanto, o estudo de conceitos de arranjo físico e o desenvolvimento de modelos de projeto do layout, que visem a otimização dos recursos de produção, são de vital importância na busca pela melhoria dos sistemas produtivos. Neste contexto, este artigo apresenta um novo modelo de projeto de layout, para ambientes job shop com ampla variedade de peças. O modelo foi desenvolvido durante uma pesquisa de doutorado e foi aplicado em algumas empresas do setor metal mecânico. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram a eficiência do modelo projetado. O objetivo do modelo consiste em conduzir a equipe de projeto de layout a desenvolver alternativas de arranjo físico que estejam em consonância com conceitos e princípios da filosofia de produção enxuta. Vale ressaltar novamente que o modelo foi desenvolvido para ambientes com alta variedade de peças, ambientes esses em que, devido à dificuldade em se projetar o arranjo físico, as empresas terminam por adotar o layout funcional, conceito esse de arranjo físico que apresenta sérios problemas como excesso de transporte, altos níveis de estoques em processo, etc.According to Canem and Williamson (1998, layout planning is important because it usually represents the largest and most expensive resources for an organization. Moreover, the equipment location on the factory floor has an impact on several factors such as level of in-process inventory, transfer batch sizes, difficulty in managing activities, and moving people and products, among others. Therefore

  3. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Experimental verification of layout physical verification of silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shamy, Raghi S.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2018-02-01

    Silicon photonics have been approved as one of the best platforms for dense integration of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) due to the high refractive index contrast among its materials. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is a widespread photonics technology, which support a variety of devices for lots of applications. As the photonics market is growing, the number of components in the PICs increases which increase the need for an automated physical verification (PV) process. This PV process will assure reliable fabrication of the PICs as it will check both the manufacturability and the reliability of the circuit. However, PV process is challenging in the case of PICs as it requires running an exhaustive electromagnetic (EM) simulations. Our group have recently proposed an empirical closed form models for the directional coupler and the waveguide bends based on the SOI technology. The models have shown a very good agreement with both finite element method (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) solvers. These models save the huge time of the 3D EM simulations and can be easily included in any electronic design automation (EDA) flow as the equations parameters can be easily extracted from the layout. In this paper we present experimental verification for our previously proposed models. SOI directional couplers with different dimensions have been fabricated using electron beam lithography and measured. The results from the measurements of the fabricate devices have been compared to the derived models and show a very good agreement. Also the matching can reach 100% by calibrating certain parameter in the model.

  5. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  6. LAYOUT AND DESIGN OF ELECTROMOBILE CHARGING STATIONS AS URBAN ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Chovan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is dedicated to the processing of the problems of the insufficient charging for the electric vehicles within the concrete urbanistic centre. It brings a different perspective on the mobility, which is shown in the form of electric energy as the alternative for the needs of urbanization of the cities. It analyses electromobility, new technologies in the field of electric vehicles and the charging stations as the elements of the urbanism. In terms of the solution, the contribution is focused on the Košice city and the location of the public charging stations. Košice do not have sufficient amount of the public charging stations and until the 2014 there was only one public charging station. The contribution is focused on the designing of the parking places with the charging station placed on the appropriate parking places. The resulting design is created in the CAD system, it brings the view of the layout of the charging station at the shopping centre in the open space and in the parking house.

  7. Inherent safety features in balance-of-plant layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattelet, P.L.; Green, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Future nuclear units must be more economical to construct and operate, and, at the same time, clearly incorporate advances in safety over the current generation of light water reactors. To achieve these goals, the root causes of safety issues must be addressed. In this way, global, cost-effective solutions can be implemented. With simple, direct design approaches, the licensing risk is minimized and configuration control is enhanced. With proper planning in the early stages of plant design, postulated accidents and events can often be mitigated by passive features inherent in the basic structure and layout, eliminating expensive added protective structures and components often found in current designs. Korea Electric Power Corporation's Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4, shown in an artist's rendering in Figure 1, are now under construction in Korea. Engineering is more than 85% complete, and Unit 3 construction is more than 50% complete. Significant steps toward design simplification and safety enhancement have been made by addressing safety concerns very early in the design effort. The tools used to achieve this were improved symmetry and separation, isolation of potential hazards, and an improved design process

  8. Optimization of wind farm turbines layout using an evolutive algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Javier Serrano; Santos, Jesus Riquelme; Payan, Manuel Burgos; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Angel G.; Mora, Jose Castro

    2010-01-01

    The optimum wind farm configuration problem is discussed in this paper and an evolutive algorithm to optimize the wind farm layout is proposed. The algorithm's optimization process is based on a global wind farm cost model using the initial investment and the present value of the yearly net cash flow during the entire wind-farm life span. The proposed algorithm calculates the yearly income due to the sale of the net generated energy taking into account the individual wind turbine loss of production due to wake decay effects and it can deal with areas or terrains with non-uniform load-bearing capacity soil and different roughness length for every wind direction or restrictions such as forbidden areas or limitations in the number of wind turbines or the investment. The results are first favorably compared with those previously published and a second collection of test cases is used to proof the performance and suitability of the proposed evolutive algorithm to find the optimum wind farm configuration. (author)

  9. LADS: Optimizing Data Transfers using Layout-Aware Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of signifi- cantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today s 100 gigabit networks to real- ize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink. Data stor- age infrastructure at both the source and sink and its in- terplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this paper, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network en- vironment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework called LADS for terabit networks. LADS ex- ploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to use zero-copy, OS-bypass hardware when available. It can further im- prove data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared stor- age resource, improving I/O bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks.

  10. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  11. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  12. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plant layout and site services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuyanov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER site has not been determined at this time. Nevertheless, to develop a construction plan and a cost estimate, it is necessary to have a detailed layout of the buildings, structures, and outdoor equipment integrated with the balance of plant service systems prototypical of large fusion power plants. These services include electric power for magnet feeds and plasma heating systems, cryogenic and conventional cooling systems, compressed air, gas supplies, de-mineralized water, steam, and drainage. Nuclear grade facilities are provided to handle tritium fuel and activated waste, as well as to prevent radioactive exposure of either the workers or the public. To avoid interference between services of different types and for efficient arrangement of buildings, structures, and equipment within the site area, a plan was developed which segregated different classes of services to four quadrants surrounding the tokamak building, placed at the approximate geographic center of the site. Location of the twenty-seven buildings on the generic site was selected to meet all design requirements at minimum total project cost. A similar approach has been used to determine the location of services above, at, and below grade. The generic site plan can be adapted to the site selected for ITER without significant changes to the buildings or equipment. Some rearrangements may be required by site topography resulting primarily in changes to the length of services that link the buildings and equipment. (author)

  13. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  15. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design

  16. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Shimozono, Shinichi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor) algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  17. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inoue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  18. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: Implementing inherent safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design

  19. Hierarchical Design of Tissue Regenerative Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonas C; De Laporte, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide shortage of organs fosters significant advancements in regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering and regeneration aim to supply or repair organs or tissues by combining material scaffolds, biochemical signals, and cells. The greatest challenge entails the creation of a suitable implantable or injectable 3D macroenvironment and microenvironment to allow for ex vivo or in vivo cell-induced tissue formation. This review gives an overview of the essential components of tissue regenerating scaffolds, ranging from the molecular to the macroscopic scale in a hierarchical manner. Further, this review elaborates about recent pivotal technologies, such as photopatterning, electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, or the assembly of micrometer-scale building blocks, which enable the incorporation of local heterogeneities, similar to most native extracellular matrices. These methods are applied to mimic a vast number of different tissues, including cartilage, bone, nerves, muscle, heart, and blood vessels. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in the last decade, it remains a hurdle to build biomaterial constructs in vitro or in vivo with a native-like structure and architecture, including spatiotemporal control of biofunctional domains and mechanical properties. New chemistries and assembly methods in water will be crucial to develop therapies that are clinically translatable and can evolve into organized and functional tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The MIL-88A-Derived Fe3O4-Carbon Hierarchical Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yayun; Li, Xia; Xie, Yingzhen; He, Juan; Yu, Jie; Song, Yonghai

    2015-01-01

    Metal or metal oxides/carbon nanocomposites with hierarchical superstructures have become one of the most promising functional materials in sensor, catalysis, energy conversion, etc. In this work, novel hierarchical Fe3O4/carbon superstructures have been fabricated based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-derived method. Three kinds of Fe-MOFs (MIL-88A) with different morphologies were prepared beforehand as templates, and then pyrolyzed to fabricate the corresponding novel hierarchical Fe3O4/carbon superstructures. The systematic studies on the thermal decomposition process of the three kinds of MIL-88A and the effect of template morphology on the products were carried out in detail. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analysis were employed to investigate the hierarchical Fe3O4/carbon superstructures. Based on these resulted hierarchical Fe3O4/carbon superstructures, a novel and sensitive nonenzymatic N-acetyl cysteine sensor was developed. The porous and hierarchical superstructures and large surface area of the as-formed Fe3O4/carbon superstructures eventually contributed to the good electrocatalytic activity of the prepared sensor towards the oxidation of N-acetyl cysteine. The proposed preparation method of the hierarchical Fe3O4/carbon superstructures is simple, efficient, cheap and easy to mass production. It might open up a new way for hierarchical superstructures preparation. PMID:26387535

  1. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  2. The stress analysis evaluation and pipe support layout for pressurizer discharge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Wang Wei; Zhang Yixiong

    2000-01-01

    The author presents the stress analysis and evaluation of pipe layout and support adjustment process for Qinshan phase II pressurizer discharge system. Using PDL-SYSPIPE INTERFACE software, the characteristic parameters of the system are gained from 3-D CAD engineering design software PDL and outputted as the input date file format of special pipe stress analysis program SYSPIPE. Based on that, SYSPIPE program fast stress analysis function is applied in adjusting pipe layout , support layout and support types. According to RCC-M standard, the pipe stress analysis and evaluation under deadweight, internal pressure, thermal expansion, seismic, pipe rupture and discharge loads are fulfilled

  3. Mathematical programming models for solving in equal-sized facilities layout problems. A genetic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper present unequal-sized facilities layout solutions generated by a genetic search program. named Layout Design using a Genetic Algorithm) 9. The generalized quadratic assignment problem requiring pre-determined distance and material flow matrices as the input data and the continuous plane model employing a dynamic distance measure and a material flow matrix are discussed. Computational results on test problems are reported as compared with layout solutions generated by the branch - and bound algorithm a hybrid method merging simulated annealing and local search techniques, and an optimization process of an enveloped block

  4. B-physics performance with Initial and Complete Inner detector layouts in Data Challenge-1

    CERN Document Server

    Benekos, N C; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Epp, B; Ghete, V M; Jones, R; Kartvelishvili, V G; Lagouri, T; Laporte, J F; Nairz, A; Nikitine, N; Reznicek, P; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Smizanska, M; Testa, M; Toms, K

    2004-01-01

    The B-physics performance for the Initial and the Complete Inner Detector layouts is presented. Selected types of B-physics events were simulated, reconstructed and analyzed using the software tools of ATLAS Data Challenge-1 (DC1). The results were compared to those obtained with an older ATLAS detector design the so-called TDR layout. Within the limitations of the DC1 software tools an attempt was made to evaluate the performance loss due to missing detector parts in the Initial layout in comparison with the Complete detector.

  5. dRail: a novel physical layout methodology for power gated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Jatin N.; Biggs, John; Myers, James; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M.; Flynn, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a physical layout methodology, called dRail, to allow power gated and non-power gated cells to be placed next to each other. This is unlike traditional voltage area layout which separates cells to prevent shorting of power supplies leading to impact on area, routing and power. To implement dRail, a modified standard cell architecture and physical layout is proposed. The methodology is validated by implementing power gating on the data engine in an ARM Cortex-A5 proces...

  6. A Layout for the Carbon Capture with Aqueous Ammonia without Salt Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonalumi, Davide; Valenti, Gianluca; Lillia, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Post-combustion carbon capture technologies seem to be necessary to realize the CO2 mitigation policies internationally shared for the next future, despite none of them appears to be ready for full-scale applications. This work considers the aqueous ammonia based process for a coal-fired Ultra....... The second layout operates at cooled conditions, which does not yield any salt precipitation. The Chilled layout reveals low specific heat duty and SPECCA equal to 2.2 and 2.86 MJ/kgco2, respectively. In contrast, the Cooled layout presents a higher specific heat duty of almost 3 MJ/kgco2 but, importantly...

  7. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  8. Piping data retrieval system (PDRS): An integrated package to aid piping layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Sharma, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated package to aid piping layout has been developed and implemented on PDP-11/34 system at Hall 7. The package allows various equipments to be modelled, consisting of primitive equipment components. The equipment layout for the plant can then be reproduced in the form of drawings such as plan, elevation, isometric or perspective. The package has the built in function to perform hidden line removal among equipments. Once the equipment layout is finalised, the package aids in superimposing the piping as per the specified pipe routine. The report discusses the general capabilities and the major input requirements for the package. (author)

  9. A segmentation algorithm based on image projection for complex text layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangsheng; Chen, Qin; Wei, Chuanyi; Li, Ziyang

    2017-10-01

    Segmentation algorithm is an important part of layout analysis, considering the efficiency advantage of the top-down approach and the particularity of the object, a breakdown of projection layout segmentation algorithm. Firstly, the algorithm will algorithm first partitions the text image, and divided into several columns, then for each column scanning projection, the text image is divided into several sub regions through multiple projection. The experimental results show that, this method inherits the projection itself and rapid calculation speed, but also can avoid the effect of arc image information page segmentation, and also can accurate segmentation of the text image layout is complex.

  10. A case study of printing industry plant layout for effective production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswajit, T.; Teja, T. Ravi; Deepthi, Y. P.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the overall picture of the processes happening in printing industry. This research is aimed to improve the plant layout of existing plant. The travel time was reduced by relocating machinery. Relocation is based on systematic layout planning (SLP). The complete process of raw material entering the industry to dispatching of finished product is shown in 3-D Flow diagram. The process happening in each floor explained in detail using Flow Process chart. Travel time is reduced by 25% after modifying existing plant layout.

  11. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  12. Automatic thoracic anatomy segmentation on CT images using hierarchical fuzzy models and registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaioqiong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a thoracic anatomy segmentation method based on hierarchical recognition and delineation guided by a built fuzzy model. Labeled binary samples for each organ are registered and aligned into a 3D fuzzy set representing the fuzzy shape model for the organ. The gray intensity distributions of the corresponding regions of the organ in the original image are recorded in the model. The hierarchical relation and mean location relation between different organs are also captured in the model. Following the hierarchical structure and location relation, the fuzzy shape model of different organs is registered to the given target image to achieve object recognition. A fuzzy connected delineation method is then used to obtain the final segmentation result of organs with seed points provided by recognition. The hierarchical structure and location relation integrated in the model provide the initial parameters for registration and make the recognition efficient and robust. The 3D fuzzy model combined with hierarchical affine registration ensures that accurate recognition can be obtained for both non-sparse and sparse organs. The results on real images are presented and shown to be better than a recently reported fuzzy model-based anatomy recognition strategy.

  13. Layout design process in conventional Brazilian supermarkets Proceso de formulación de layouts en supermercados convencionales en Brasil Processo de formulação de layouts em supermercados convencionais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Machado Toaldo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the layout is well known in the performance of supermarket companies. However since there are very few studies on the subject, this research sought to understand the layout design process in conventionally sized supermarkets in the South of Brazil. For this reason an exploratory study was carried out. The choice of this methodology was due to scarceness of accumulated and systematized knowledge. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with a layout supervisor and a store manager in three supermarket chains in the South of Brazil. Results confirm that layout has considerable influence on company performance. A variety of strategies is used by the companies in layouts to make the customer remain in the store longer, make his stay more enjoyable and consequently encourage spending thus bringing about greater profitability. Finally, a theoretical structure of design layout was proposed. The intention of this study is not to be definitive, but to shed light on the subject, which while important, has never been emphasized in marketing studies.Es evidente la importancia del layout en el desempeño de las empresas supermercadistas. Sin embargo, faltan estudios sobre el tema. Pensando en esa laguna, esta investigación tuvo el objetivo principal de entender como es el proceso de formulación de layouts en supermercados de porte convencional en el Sur brasileño. Para eso, se realizó un estudio exploratorio. La decisión de escoger esa metodología fue en consecuencia de la escasez de conocimiento acumulado y sistematizado. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevistas en profundidad realizadas con dos informantes en tres redes supermercadistas del sur de Brasil: un supervisor de layout y un gerente de tienda. Los resultados muestran que el layout tiene mucha influencia en el desempeño de la empresa. Por su intermedio, utilizándose una serie de estrategias, las empresas buscan los siguientes objetivos: hacer con que el

  14. Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmakis Panagiotis M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indi­cate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.

  15. Hierarchical modeling of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, Minoru

    2003-01-01

    Intelligent (or smart) materials are increasingly becoming key materials for use in actuators and sensors. If an intelligent material is used as a sensor, it can be embedded in a variety of structure functioning as a health monitoring system to make their life longer with high reliability. If an intelligent material is used as an active material in an actuator, it plays a key role of making dynamic movement of the actuator under a set of stimuli. This talk intends to cover two different active materials in actuators, (1) piezoelectric laminate with FGM microstructure, (2) ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA). The advantage of using the FGM piezo laminate is to enhance its fatigue life while maintaining large bending displacement, while that of use in FSMA is its fast actuation while providing a large force and stroke capability. Use of hierarchical modeling of the above active materials is a key design step in optimizing its microstructure for enhancement of their performance. I will discuss briefly hierarchical modeling of the above two active materials. For FGM piezo laminate, we will use both micromechanical model and laminate theory, while for FSMA, the modeling interfacing nano-structure, microstructure and macro-behavior is discussed. (author)

  16. Ion-Pair Oligomerization of Chromogenic Triangulenium Cations with Cyanostar-Modified Anions That Controls Emission in Hierarchical Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Bo; Hirsch, Brandon E.; Lee, Semin

    2017-01-01

    The hierarchical assembly of colored cationic molecules with receptor-modified counteranions can be used to control optical properties in materials. However, our knowledge of when the optical properties emerge in the hierarchical organization and the variety of cation-anion salts that are availab...

  17. A spatial multi-objective optimization model for sustainable urban wastewater system layout planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J

    2012-01-01

    Design of a sustainable city has changed the traditional centralized urban wastewater system towards a decentralized or clustering one. Note that there is considerable spatial variability of the factors that affect urban drainage performance including urban catchment characteristics. The potential options are numerous for planning the layout of an urban wastewater system, which are associated with different costs and local environmental impacts. There is thus a need to develop an approach to find the optimal spatial layout for collecting, treating, reusing and discharging the municipal wastewater of a city. In this study, a spatial multi-objective optimization model, called Urban wastewateR system Layout model (URL), was developed. It is solved by a genetic algorithm embedding Monte Carlo sampling and a series of graph algorithms. This model was illustrated by a case study in a newly developing urban area in Beijing, China. Five optimized system layouts were recommended to the local municipality for further detailed design.

  18. Constraint-aware interior layout exploration for pre-cast concrete-based buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han; Yang, Yongliang; AlHalawani, Sawsan; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2013-01-01

    Creating desirable layouts of building interiors is a complex task as designers have to manually adhere to various local and global considerations arising from competing practical and design considerations. In this work, we present an interactive

  19. An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Kikuo; Akagi, Shinsuke; Nakatogawa, Tetsundo; Tanaka, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Makoto.

    1991-01-01

    An AI-based layout design system for nuclear power plants has been developed. The design of the layout of nuclear power plants is a time-consuming task requiring expertise, in which a lot of machinery and equipment must be arranged in a plant building considering various kinds of design constraints, i.e. spatial, functional, economical etc. Computer aided layout design systems have been widely expected and the application of AI technology is expected as a promising approach for the synthesis phase of this task. In this paper, we present an approach to the layout design of nuclear power plants based on a constraint-directed search; one of the AI techniques. In addition, we show how it was implemented with an object-oriented programming technique and give an example of its application. (author)

  20. Coplanar Electrode Layout Optimized for Increased Sensitivity for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Hyttel Clausen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an improvement in the layout of coplanar electrodes for electrical impedance spectroscopy. We have developed, fabricated, and tested an improved electrode layout, which improves the sensitivity of an impedance flow cytometry chip. The improved chip was experimentally tested and compared to a chip with a conventional electrode layout. The improved chip was able to discriminate 0.5 μm beads from 1 μm as opposed to the conventional chip. Furthermore, finite element modeling was used to simulate the improvements in electrical field density and uniformity between the electrodes of the new electrode layout. Good agreement was observed between the model and the obtained experimental results.