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Sample records for hierarchically nanoporous film

  1. New approach to fabricate nanoporous gold film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhou; Lan Jin; Wei Xu

    2007-01-01

    A simple preparation of ultrathin nanoporous gold film was described. Copper and gold were used to fabricate Cu-Au alloy films through vacuum deposition. The formation of nanoporous gold films from the alloy films involved thermal process and chemical etch by hydrochloric acid or by nitric acid. The free-standing nanoporous gold films have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It was noted that the nanoporous gold film etched by hydrochloric acid is uniform with a cover of fog-like moieties.

  2. Electroanalysis using modified hierarchical nanoporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rusbel Coneo; Moncada, Angelica Baena; Acevedo, Diego F; Planes, Gabriel A; Miras, Maria C; Barbero, Cesar A

    2013-01-01

    The role of the electrode nanoporosity in electroanalytical processes is discussed and specific phenomena (slow double layer charging, local pH effects) which can be present in porous electrode are described. Hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials are synthesized using a hard template method. The three dimensional carbon porosity is examined using scanning electron microscopy on flat surfaces cut using a focused ion beam (FIB-SEM). The electrochemical properties of the HPC are measured using cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance, chronoamperometry and Probe Beam Deflection (PBD) techniques. Chronoamperometry measurements of HPC seems to fit a transmission line model. PBD data show evidence of local pH changes inside the pores, during double layer charging. The HPC are modified by in situ (chemical or electrochemical) formation of metal (Pt/Ru) or metal oxide (CoOx, Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Additionally, HPC loaded with Pt decorated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles is produced by galvanic displacement. The modified HPC materials are used for the electroanalysis of different substances (CO, O2, AsO3(-3)). The role of the nanoporous carbon substrate in the electroanalytical data is evaluated.

  3. Engineered nanoporous and nanostructured films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel L. Plawsky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous and nanostructured films have become increasingly important to the microelectronics and photonics industries. They provide a route to low dielectric constant materials that will enable future generations of powerful microprocessors. They are the only route to achieving materials with refractive indices less than 1.2, a key feature for the future development of photonic crystal devices, enhanced omni-directional reflectors, enhanced anti-reflection coatings and black-body absorbers. In addition, these films exhibit tremendous potential for separations, catalytic, biomedical and heat transfer applications. This article will review two primary techniques for manufacturing these films, evaporation induced self-assembly and oblique or glancing angle deposition, and will discuss some of the film properties critical to their use in the microelectronics and photonics industries.

  4. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERATION OF NANOPOROUS SILICA FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷明志; 张良莹; 姚熹

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal silica sol is formed by a novel hydrolyzing procedure of tetraethyl-orthosilicate(TEOS) catalyzing with NH3*H2O in aqueous mediums. Glycerol, combining with the hydrolyzed intermediates of TEOS, controls growing of the silica particles; poly(vinyl-vinyl alcohol makes the colloidal silica sol with polymeric structure and spinning, thermal strain makes the gel silica film changed into a nanoporous structure with diameter ranging 50-150 nm. Morphologies of the nanoporous silica film have been characterized; the porosities (%) is 32-64; the average dielectric constant at 1MHz region is 2.0 and 2.1; the thermal conductivity is less than 0.8. Chemical mechanism of the sol-gel process is discussed.

  5. Hierarchical structural nanopore arrays fabricated by pre-patterning aluminum using nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinnan; Xu, Shuping; Cong, Ming; Li, Haibo; Gu, Yuejiao; Xu, Weiqing

    2012-04-10

    A highly ordered and hierarchical structural nanopore array is fabricated via anodizing a pre-patterned aluminum foil under an optimized voltage. A pre-patterned hexagonal nanoindentation array on an aluminum substrate is prepared via the nanosphere lithography method. This pattern leads to an elaborate nanochannel structure with seven nanopores in each nanoindentation after anodization treatment. The structure achieved in our study is new, interesting, and likely to be applied in photonic devices.

  6. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...

  7. Fracture of nanoporous organosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, David Maxwell

    Nanoporous organosilicate thin films are attractive candidates for a number of emerging technologies, ranging from biotechnology to optics and microelectronics. However, integration of these materials is challenged by their fragile nature and susceptibility to mechanical failure. Debonding and cohesive cracking of the organosilicate film are principal concerns that threaten the reliability and yield of device structures. Despite the intense interest in these materials, there is currently a need for greater understanding of the relationship between glass structure and thermomechanical integrity. The objective of this research was to investigate strategies for improving mechanical performance through variations in film chemistry, process conditions, and pore morphology. Several approaches to effecting improvements in elastic and fracture properties were examined in depth, including post-deposition curing, molecular reinforcement using hydrocarbon network groups, and manipulation of pore size and architecture. Detailed structural characterization was employed along with quantitative fracture mechanics based testing methods. It was shown that ultra-violet irradiation and electron bombardment post-deposition treatments can significantly impact glass structure in ways that cannot be achieved through thermal activation alone. Both techniques demonstrated high porogen removal efficiency and enhanced the glass matrix through increased network connectivity and local bond rearrangements. The increases in network connectivity were achieved predominantly through the replacement of terminal groups, particularly methyl and silanol groups, with Si-O network bonds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful and quantitative method for gaining new insight into the underlying cure reactions and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that curing leads to significant progressive enhancement of elastic modulus and adhesive fracture energies due to increased network bond

  8. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  9. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of nanoporous polyvinylidence fluoride (PVDF) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Shifa; Kadlec, Alec

    2016-04-01

    A nanoporous polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) thin film was developed for applications in energy harvesting, medical surgeries, and industrial robotics. This sponge-like nanoporous PVDF structure dramatically enhanced the piezoelectric effect because it yielded considerably large deformation under a small force. A casting-etching method was adopted to make films, which is effective to control the porosity, flexibility, and thickness of the film. The films with various Zinc Oxide (ZnO) mass fractions ranging from 10 to 50% were fabricated to investigate the porosity effect. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 as well as dielectric constant and loss of the films were characterized. The results were analyzed and the optimal design of the film with the right amount of ZnO nanoparticles was determined.

  10. Nanoporous thin film platform for biophotonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Suresh; Solanki, Rina; Mattley, Yvette D.; Dabhi, Harish; Shahriari, Mahmoud R.

    2009-02-01

    A Nanoporous glass matrix is developed to encapsulate molecular probes for monitoring important biological parameters such as DO. The hydrophobic nanoporous host matrix is designed and fabricated using room temperature sol gel technique. The doped sol gel is then coated on biocompatible self adhesive patches or directly coated on the biocontainers. We demonstrate the application of this technique in non-invasive monitoring DO as well as oxygen partial pressure in a closed fermentation process as well as in a cell culture plate during bacterial growth. Dynamic response of sensor, sensitivity and accuracy is also demonstrated in this paper.

  11. Fracture and fatigue of ultrathin nanoporous polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Andrew V.

    Nanoporous polymer layers are being considered for a range of emerging nanoscale applications, from low permittivity materials for interlayer dielectrics in microelectronics and anti-reflective coatings in optical technologies, to biosensors and size-selective membranes for biological applications. Polymer thin films have inherently low elastic modulus, strength and hardness, but exhibit fracture properties that are higher than those reported for glass, ceramic, and even some metal layers. However, constraint of a ductile polymer between two elastic layers is expected to affect the local plasticity ahead of a crack tip and its contribution to the film adhesion with films below a micron in thickness. Additionally, nanoporosity would be expected to have a deleterious effect on mechanical properties, producing materials and layers that are structurally weaker than fully dense versions they replace. Therefore, the integration of these nanoporous polymer layer at nanometer thicknesses would present significantly processing and mechanical reliability challenges. In this dissertation, surprising evidence is presented that nanoporous polymer films exhibit increasing fracture energy with increasing porosity. Such behavior is in stark contrast to a wide range of reported behavior for porous solids. A ductile nano-void growth and coalescence fracture mechanics-based model is presented to rationalize the increase in fracture toughness of the voided polymer film. The model is shown to explain the behavior in terms of a specific scaling of the size of the pores with pore volume fraction. It is demonstrated that the pore size must increase with close to a linear dependence on the volume fraction in order to increase rather than decrease the fracture energy. Independent characterization of the pore size as a function of volume fraction is shown to confirm predictions made by the model. The fracture behavior of these constrained polymer films are also examined with film thickness

  12. Molecular release from patterned nanoporous gold thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Ozge; Daggumati, Pallavi; Seker, Erkin

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured materials have shown significant potential for biomedical applications that require high loading capacity and controlled release of drugs. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising novel material that benefits from compatibility with microfabrication, tunable pore morphology, electrical conductivity, well-established gold-thiol conjugate chemistry, and biocompatibility. While np-Au's non-biological applications are abundant, its performance in the biomedical field is nascent. In this work, we employ a combination of techniques including nanoporous thin film synthesis, quantitative electron microscopy, fluorospectrometry, and electrochemical surface characterization to study loading capacity and molecular release kinetics as a function of film properties and discuss underlying mechanisms. The sub-micron-thick sputter-coated nanoporous gold films provide small-molecule loading capacities up to 1.12 μg cm-2 and molecular release half-lives between 3.6 hours to 12.8 hours. A systematic set of studies reveals that effective surface area of the np-Au thin films on glass substrates plays the largest role in determining loading capacity. The release kinetics on the other hand depends on a complex interplay of micro- and nano-scale morphological features.Nanostructured materials have shown significant potential for biomedical applications that require high loading capacity and controlled release of drugs. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising novel material that benefits from compatibility with microfabrication, tunable pore morphology, electrical conductivity, well-established gold-thiol conjugate chemistry, and biocompatibility. While np-Au's non-biological applications are abundant, its performance in the biomedical field is nascent. In this work, we employ a combination of techniques including nanoporous thin film synthesis, quantitative electron microscopy

  13. Chemical Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mikkel U-B; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) is conventionally made via dealloying methods1. We present an alternative method for bottom-up chemical synthesis of nanoporous gold film (cNPGF), with properties resembling those of dealloyed NPG. The developed procedure is simple and only benign chemicals are used....... Chloroauric acid is reduced to nanoparticles (NPs) by 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonate, acting also as a protecting agent for the NPs and as a pH buffer, while potassium chloride is used to control ionic strength. The film formation is controlled by parameters such as temperature, ionic strength...... and protonation of the buffer. Therefore, it is possible to influence the trapping of nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface, yielding porous thin film structures, Figure 1A. The produced cNPGFs have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic...

  14. Protein biomineralized nanoporous inorganic mesocrystals with tunable hierarchical nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xiang; Li, Wei; Shao, Zhengzhong; Seeger, Stefan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xin

    2014-11-05

    Mesocrystals with the symmetry defying morphologies and highly ordered superstructures composed of primary units are of particular interest, but the fabrication has proved extremely challenging. A novel strategy based on biomineralization approach for the synthesis of hematite mesocrystals is developed by using silk fibroin as a biotemplate. The resultant hematite mesocrystals are uniform, highly crystalline, and porous nanostructures with tunable size and morphologies by simply varying the concentration of the silk fibroin and iron(III) chloride in this biomineralization system. In particular, we demonstrate a complex mesoscale biomineralization process induced by the silk fibroin for the formation of hematite mesocrystals. This biomimetic strategy features precisely tunable, high efficiency, and low-cost and opens up an avenue to access new novel functional mesocrystals with hierarchical structures in various practical applications.

  15. Intrinsically Hierarchical Nanoporous Polymers via Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael B.; Van Horn, J. David; Wu, Fei; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2017-05-17

    The synthesis of microporous polymers generally requires postpolymerization modification via hyper-cross-linking to trap the polymeric network in a state with high void volume. An alternative approach utilizes rigid, sterically demanding monomers to inhibit efficient packing, thus leading to a high degree of free volume between polymer side groups and main chains. Herein we combine polymers of intrinsic microporosity with polymerization-induced microphase separation (PIMS), a versatile methodology for the synthesis of nanostructured materials that can be rendered mesoporous. Copolymerization of various styrenic monomers with divinylbenzene in the presence of a poly(lactide) terminated with a chain-transfer agent (PLA-CTA) results in kinetic trapping of a microphase-separated state. Subsequent etching of PLA provides a bicontinuous mesoporous network. Using equilibrium and kinetic nitrogen sorption experiments as well as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), we demonstrate that variations in the steric characteristics of the styrenic monomer impart the network with microporosity, resulting in hierarchically (meso and micro) porous materials. Additionally, structure–property relationships of the styrenic monomer with total surface area and pore volume indicate that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the corresponding styrenic homopolymers provides a reasonable measure of the steric interactions and resultant microporosity in these systems. Finally, PALS provides insight into micro- and mesoscopic void volume differences between porous monoliths containing either tert-butyl or TMS-modified styrenic monomers compared to the parent, unmodified styrene.

  16. Mobility and carrier density in nanoporous indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissbon, Jaqueline; Gondorf, Andreas; Geller, Martin; Lorke, Axel [Fakultaet fuer Physik and CeNIDE, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Inhester, Martina; Prodi-Schwab, Anna; Adam, Dieter [Evonik Degussa GmbH, D-45772 Marl (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has become an indispensable material for a range of electronic devices. It is transparent in the entire visible range and electrically conducting, hence, a well suited material for transparent electrodes. An interesting possibility to realize transparent, conducting films without the use of vacuum techniques is the printing of dispersions containing ITO nanoparticles. We study here the charge carrier concentration and mobility of various nanoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) films, using Hall measurements and optical spectroscopy. For the carrier density inside the particles (2-4 . 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), the results of these complementary measurement techniques are in good agreement with each other and suggest that even in highly porous materials the common equations for the Hall resistance can be applied. However, for the mobilities in these layers the results differ very strongly: from 50 (cm{sup 2})/(Vs) in optical spectroscopy (which is comparable to bulk ITO) to 0.4 (cm{sup 2})/(Vs) in Hall measurements.This suggests that the mobility for electrical transport in nanoporous ITO films is strongly suppressed by scattering at interparticle boundaries.

  17. Low-dielectric, nanoporous polyimide thin films prepared from block copolymer templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method to the preparation of low-dielectric nanoporous polyimide (PI films was addressed, based on the self-assembly structures of PS-b-P4VP/poly(amic acid (PAA, precursor of PI blends. It is found the microphase-separation structure of PS-b-P4VP/PAA is a precondition of the formation of nanoporous structures, which could be achieved by solvent annealing. Nanoporous PI films with spherical pore size of ~11 nm were obtained by thermal imidization followed by the removal of the PS-b-P4VP block copolymer. The porosity of the nanoporous PI films could be controlled by the weight fraction of the PS-b-P4VP block copolymer. The dielectric properties of the nanoporous PI films were studied, and it was found that the introduction of nanopores could effectively reduce the dielectric constant from 3.60 of dense PI films to 2.41 of nanoporous PI films with a porosity of 26%, making it promising in microelectronic devices. The fabrication method described here could be extended to other polymer systems.

  18. Nanoporous characteristics of sol-gel-derived ZnO thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Alhoshan; S. A. Alrokayan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2012-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived nanoporous ZnO film has been successfully deposited on glass substrate at 200 ℃ and subsequently annealed at different temperatures of 300,400 and 600 ℃.Atomic force micrographs demonstrated that the film was crack-free,and that granular nanoparticles were homogenously distributed on the film surface.The average grain size of the nanoparticles and RMS roughness of the scanned surface area was 10 nm and 13.6nm,respectively,which is due to the high porosity of the film.Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the nanoporous ZnO film at room temperature show a diffused band,which might be due to an increased amount of oxygen vacancies on the lattice surface.The observed results of the nanoporous ZnO film indicates a promising applicationin the development of electrochemical biosensors due to the porosity of film enhancing the higher loading of biomacromolecules (enzyme and proteins).

  19. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

    2017-06-22

    Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Hydrogen evolution at nanoporous gold/tungsten sulfide composite film and its optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian; Li, Zheshen

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient and economical electrochemical systems for water splitting is a key part of renewable energy technology. Amorphous films of tungsten sulfide have been deposited by electrochemical reduction of tetrathiotungstate ions (WS42-) on dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG) for electroc......Development of efficient and economical electrochemical systems for water splitting is a key part of renewable energy technology. Amorphous films of tungsten sulfide have been deposited by electrochemical reduction of tetrathiotungstate ions (WS42-) on dealloyed nanoporous gold (NPG...

  1. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harumoto, Takashi; Tamura, Yohei; Ishiguro, Takashi, E-mail: ishiguro@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijyuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo, 125-8585 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabrication method only requires aluminum alloy film and hot-water with chelating agent, the ultrafine nanoporous film can be prepared simply and environmentally friendly.

  2. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E.-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  3. High Performance Optical Coatings Utilizing Tailored Refractive Index Nanoporous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxson, David J.

    Refractive index is perhaps the most important quantity in optics. It is particularly relevant in the field of optical coatings, where the refractive index appears in virtually every optics equation as a figure of merit. Recently it has been demonstrated through control of the deposition angle during oblique-angle electron-beam deposition, nanoporous films of virtually any desired porosity may be accurately deposited. As the porosity of a nanoporous film directly relates to its effective refractive index, the refractive index value of a film may be tailored to any value between that of the bulk material and close to that of air. These two characteristics, namely; (i) tailored-refractive index and (ii) very low-refractive index values close to that of air, offer significant advantages in the design and optical performance in all optical coating applications. In this dissertation we explore optical coating applications whose performance can be greatly enhanced by utilization of a tailored- and low-refractive index nanoporous material system. One such important application is in the design and fabrication of broadband, omnidirectional antireflection (AR) coatings on solar cell devices. To harness the full spectrum of solar energy, Fresnel reflections at the surface of a photovoltaic cell must be reduced as much as possible over the relevant solar wavelength range and over a wide range of incident angles. However, the development of AR coatings embodying omni-directionality over a wide range of wavelengths is challenging. By utilizing the tailored- and low-refractive index properties of the nanoporous material system, in conjunction with a computational genetic algorithm and a predictive quantitative model for the porosity of such nanoporous films, truly optimized AR coatings can be designed and fabricated on solar cells. Here we show that these optimized AR structures demonstrate significant improvement to overall device efficiency. Traditionally, nanoporous films

  4. Ultrathin suspended nanopores with surface plasmon resonance fabricated by combined colloidal lithography and film transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junesch, Juliane; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2014-05-14

    Suspended plasmonic nanopores in ultrathin film layers were fabricated through a simple and widely applicable method combining colloidal lithography and thin film transfer, which allows mass production of short-range ordered nanopore arrays on a large scale. By this combined method, mechanically stable and flexible free-standing nanopore membranes with a thickness down to 15-30 nm were produced. The plasmon resonances of the ultrathin plasmonic nanopores fabricated in AlN/Au/AlN trilayer and single layer Au membranes were tuned to lie in the vis-NIR wavelength range by properly designing their dimensions. The optical responses to the refractive index changes were tested and applied to adlayer sensing. The trilayer nanopore membrane showed a unique property to support water only on one side of the membrane, which was confirmed by the resonance shift and comparison with numerical simulation. Pore size reduction down to 10 nm can be achieved through additional material deposition. The filtering function of such pore-size-reduced conical shaped nanofunnels has also been demonstrated. The presented nanopore fabrication method offers new platforms for ultrathin nanopore sensing or filtering devices with controlled pore-size and optical properties. The film transfer technique employed in this work would enable the transformation of any substrate-based nanostructures to free-standing membrane based devices without complicated multiple etching processes.

  5. Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanoporous Ni and NiCu Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboski, Kyla; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films are interesting candidates to catalyze certain reactions because of their large surface areas. This project focuses on the deposition of Ni and NiCu thin films on a Au substrate and further explores the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Depositions are created using controlled potential electrolysis. Samples are then dealloyed using linear sweep voltammetry. Before and after the dealloying, all the samples are characterized using multiple techniques. Electrochemical capacitance measurements allow comparisons of sample roughness. HER measurements characterize the reactivity of the sample with respect to the specific catalytic reaction. The Tafel equation is fit to the data to obtain information about the kinetics of the HER of the samples. Other methods for characterizing the samples include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The use of SEM allows images to be taken of the deposition to determine the change in the structure pre- and post- dealloy of the sample. EDS allows the elemental composition of the deposition to be determined before and after the dealloy stage. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-1126462, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  6. Surface-modified silica colloidal crystals: nanoporous films and membranes with controlled ionic and molecular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharov, Ilya; Khabibullin, Amir

    2014-02-18

    Nanoporous membranes are important for the study of the transport of small molecules and macromolecules through confined spaces and in applications ranging from separation of biomacromolecules and pharmaceuticals to sensing and controlled release of drugs. For many of these applications, chemists need to gate the ionic and molecular flux through the nanopores, which in turn depends on the ability to control the nanopore geometry and surface chemistry. Most commonly used nanoporous membrane materials are based on polymers. However, the nanostructure of polymeric membranes is not well-defined, and their surface is hard to modify. Inorganic nanoporous materials are attractive alternatives for polymers in the preparation of nanoporous membranes. In this Account, we describe the preparation and surface modification of inorganic nanoporous films and membranes self-assembled from silica colloidal spheres. These spheres form colloidal crystals with close-packed face centered cubic lattices upon vertical deposition from colloidal solutions. Silica colloidal crystals contain ordered arrays of interconnected three dimensional voids, which function as nanopores. We can prepare silica colloidal crystals as supported thin films on various flat solid surfaces or obtain free-standing silica colloidal membranes by sintering the colloidal crystals above 1000 °C. Unmodified silica colloidal membranes are capable of size-selective separation of macromolecules, and we can surface-modify them in a well-defined and controlled manner with small molecules and polymers. For the surface modification with small molecules, we use silanol chemistry. We grow polymer brushes with narrow molecular weight distribution and controlled length on the colloidal nanopore surface using atom transfer radical polymerization or ring-opening polymerization. We can control the flux in the resulting surface-modified nanoporous films and membranes by pH and ionic strength, temperature, light, and small molecule

  7. Dielectric breakdown in nano-porous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Juan Pablo

    Unknown to most computer users and mobile device enthusiasts, we have finally entered into a critical age of chip manufacturing. January of 2014 marks the official start of the quest by the semiconductor industry to successfully integrate sub 14nm process technology nodes in accordance to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). The manufacturing of nano-scale features represents a major bottleneck of its own. However, a bigger challenge lies in reliably isolating the massive chip interconnect network. The present work is aimed at generating a theoretical and experimental framework to predict dielectric breakdown for thin films used in computer chip components. Here, a set of experimental techniques are presented to assess and study dielectric failure in novel thin films. A theory of dielectric breakdown in thin nano-porous films is proposed to describe combined intrinsic and metal ion catalyzed failure. This theory draws on experimental evidence as well as fundamental concepts from mass and electronic charge transport. The drift of metal species was found to accelerate intrinsic dielectric failure. The solubility of metals species such as Cu was found to range from 7.0x1025 ions/m3 to 1.86x1026 ions/m3 in 7% porous SiCOH films. The diffusion coefficient for Cu species was found to span from 4.2x10-19 m2/s to 1.86x10-21 m2/s. Ramped voltage stress experiments were used to identify intrinsic failure from metal catalyzed failure. Intrinsic breakdown is defined when time to failure against applied field ramp rate results in ∂(ln(TTF))/∂(ln(R)) ≈ -1. Intrinsic failure was studied using Au. Here, ∂(ln(TTF))/∂(ln(R)) ≈ -0.95, which is an experimental best case scenario for intrinsic failure. Au is commonly reluctant to ionize which means that failure occurs in the absence of ionic species. Metal catalyzed failure was investigated using reactive electrodes such as Cu, and Ag. Here, trends for ∂(ln(TTF))/∂(ln(R)) significantly

  8. Fast-response humidity-sensing films based on methylene blue aggregates formed on nanoporous semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Ryota; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2016-05-01

    We prepared fast-response colorimetric humidity-sensing (vapochromic) films based on methylene blue adsorption onto nanoporous semiconductor (TiO2, Al2O3) films. Color changes caused by changes of humidity could be easily identified visually. A characteristic feature of the vapochromic films was their fast response to changes of humidity. We found that the response began to occur within 10 ms. The response was rapid because all the methylene blue molecules attached to the nanoporous semiconductor surface were directly exposed to the environment. We also deduced that the color changes were caused by structural changes of the methylene blue aggregates on the surface.

  9. Photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films prepared in phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Abolghasem; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Yousefi, Mohammad Hasan; Ghasemzadeh, Majid

    2012-12-01

    The photoluminescence emission of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide films formed in phosphoric acid is studied in order to explore their defect-based subband electronic structure. Different excitation wavelengths are used to identify most of the details of the subband states. The films are produced under different anodizing conditions to optimize their emission in the visible range. Scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm pore formation in the produced layers. Gaussian analysis of the emission data indicates that subband states change with anodizing parameters, and various point defects can be formed both in the bulk and on the surface of these nanoporous layers during anodizing.

  10. Nanoporous Polymer Films of Cyanate Ester Resins Designed by Using Ionic Liquids as Porogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainleib, Alexander; Vashchuk, Alina; Starostenko, Olga; Grigoryeva, Olga; Rogalsky, Sergiy; Nguyen, Thi-Thanh-Tam; Grande, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Novel nanoporous film materials of thermostable cyanate ester resins (CERs) were generated by polycyclotrimerization of dicyanate ester of bisphenol E in the presence of varying amounts (from 20 to 40 wt%) of an ionic liquid (IL), i.e., 1-heptylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, followed by its quantitative extraction after complete CER network formation. The completion of CER formation and IL extraction was assessed using gel fraction content determination, FTIR, 1H NMR, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). SEM and DSC-based thermoporometry analyses demonstrated the formation of nanoporous structures after IL removal from CER networks, thus showing the effective role of IL as a porogen. Pore sizes varied from 20 to 180 nm with an average pore diameter of around 45-60 nm depending on the initial IL content. The thermal stability of nanoporous CER-based films was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. Studies on the preparation and the photoelectrochemical properties of the nanoporous titania films attached with and without photosensitizer TCPP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yun-Lan Gong; Fei-Hui Li; Fei Lu; Chang Dai

    2015-08-01

    Fabrication of TiO2 nanoporous films was carried out by anodic oxidation using two-step voltage mode while the subsequent attaching of the photosensitizer 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) on the prepared TiO2 nanoporous films was carried out by the electrochemical method. Photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanoporous films attached with and without photosensitizer TCPP were analysed by fluorescence spectroscopy and electrochemical test. Effects of process parameters on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanoporous films were also investigated. The optimized process parameters for the preparation of TiO2 nanoporous films with the best photoelectrochemical property can be concluded as follows: oxidation potentials is 70–140 V, oxidation temperature is 25°C, H2SO4 electrolyte concentration is 0.5 mol l−1 and oxidation time is 60 min. The results also show that attaching of the photosensitizer TCPP on the TiO2 nanoporous films can indeed improve the properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, and the optimized attaching temperature and attaching voltage are 25°C and 60 V, respectively.

  12. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nickel, Iron, Copper Thin Films and the Creation of Nanoporous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarranton, Jonathan; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    There has been much research in creating nanoporous platinum or gold thin films for catalysis, but there has not been as much work done with other, less noble metals. This research explored the deposition of nickel, iron, and copper ternary alloys using controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) and the selective removal of the copper with DC potential amperometry (DCPA) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) to create nanoporous structures. These structures have the advantage of increased surface area creating more efficient catalysts. All films were characterized before and after dealloying using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for composition. The roughness of each of the films was characterized by the capacitance of the film, with higher capacitances indicating a higher electrochemical surface area. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  13. Characteristic length of phonon transport within periodic nanoporous thin films and two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    In the past two decades, phonon transport within nanoporous thin films has attracted enormous attention for their potential applications in thermoelectrics and thermal insulation. Various computational studies have been carried out to explain the thermal conductivity reduction within these thin films. Considering classical phonon size effects, the lattice thermal conductivity can be predicted assuming diffusive pore-edge scattering of phonons and bulk phonon mean free paths. Following this, detailed phonon transport can be simulated for a given porous structure to find the lattice thermal conductivity [Hao et al., J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114321 (2009)]. However, such simulations are intrinsically complicated and cannot be used for the data analysis of general samples. In this work, the characteristic length Λ P o r e of periodic nanoporous thin films is extracted by comparing the predictions of phonon Monte Carlo simulations and the kinetic relationship using bulk phonon mean free paths modified by Λ P o r e . Under strong ballistic phonon transport, Λ P o r e is also extracted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method for graphene with periodic nanopores. The presented model can be widely used to analyze the measured thermal conductivities of such nanoporous structures.

  14. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-05-10

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  15. Effect of annealing temperature on electrochemical luminescence properties of nanoporous fluorine-doped tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Bong-Hyun; Yoon, Seog-Young; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2013-04-01

    Nanoporous Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) materials were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method for electrochemical luminescence (ECL) application. The influence of annealing temperature on the structures and morphology of the nanoporous FTO films was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical transmittance and BET specific surface measurements. The naoporous FTO-based ECL cell is composed of FTO glass/nanoporous FTO/Ru(bpy)2+ electrolyte/FTO glass. The peak intensity of emitting light from the cell was obtained at the wavelength of about 615 nm, which corresponds to dark orange color. At 5 V bias, ECL efficiency of the cell using the 550 degrees C annealed FTO was about 975 cd/m2, which is much higher than those of other cells. The result shows that the nanoporous FTO layer was more effective for increasing ECL intensities. The sol-gel combustion method at annealing temperature of 550 degrees C could be employed to synthesize the nanoporous FTO materials with high porosity and ECL performance.

  16. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  17. Nanoporous Silver Film Fabricated by Oxygen Plasma: A Facile Approach for SERS Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoxiong; Trujillo, Michael J; Camden, Jon P

    2016-09-14

    Nanoporous metal films are promising substrates for surfaced-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurement, owing to their homogeneity, large surface area, and abundant hot-spots. Herein, a facile procedure was developed to fabricate nanoporous Ag film on various substrate surfaces. Thermally deposited Ag film was first treated with O2 plasma, resulting in porous Ag/AgxO film (AgxO-NF) with nanoscale feature. Sodium citrate was then used to reduce AgxO to Ag, forming nanoporous Ag film (AgNF) with similar morphology. The AgNF substrate demonstrates 30-fold higher Raman intensity than Ag film over polystyrene nanospheres (d = 600 nm) using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) as the sensing molecule. Comparing with ordinary Raman measurement on 4-MBA solution, an enhancement factor of ∼6 × 10(6) was determined for AgNF. The AgNF substrate was evaluated for benzoic acid, 4-nitrophenol, and 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, showing high SERS sensitivity for chemicals that bind weakly to Ag surface and molecules with relatively small Raman cross section at micromolar concentration. In addition to its simplicity, the procedure can be applied to various materials such as transparency film, filter paper, hard polystyrene film, and aluminum foil, revealing similar Raman sensitivity. By testing the durability of the substrate, we found that the AgxO films can be stored in ambient conditions for more than 90 days and still deliver the same SERS intensity if the films are treated with sodium citrate before use. These results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach for mass production of low-cost, sensitive, and durable SERS substrates. The transferable nature of these AgNF to different flexible surfaces also allows their easy integration with other sensing schemes.

  18. Fabrication of hierarchically ordered crystalline titania thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermeier, Martin; Kaune, Gunar; Rawolle, Monika; Koerstgens, Volker; Ruderer, Matthias; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department LS E13, Garching (Germany); Gutmann, Jochen S. [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Thin films of nanostructured titania have received a lot of attention in various applications such as photovoltaics within the last years. Having a well defined morphology is crucial for the functionality and performance of these films because it defines the volume to surface ratio and thereby the surface being available for interface reactions. Increasing the total film thickness is a common approach in order to increase the surface area. The present work focuses on the fabrication of hierarchically structured titania thin films and their crystallinity. A layer-by-layer spin-coating approach is investigated. A solution based sol-gel process using diblock copolymers as a template to obtain nanocomposite films is followed by calcination to obtain crystalline titania structures. The obtained structures are investigated using several imaging techniques like SEM and AFM. The crystallinity and the thickness of the films are analyzed with XRD and XRR.

  19. Schottky Junction Methane Sensors Using Electrochemically Grown Nanocrystalline-Nanoporous ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Basu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline-nanoporous ZnO thin films were prepared by an electrochemical anodization method, and the films were tested as methane sensors. It was found that Pd-Ag catalytic contacts showed better sensing performance compared to other noble metal contacts like Pt and Rh. The methane sensing temperature could be reduced to as low as 100∘C by sensitizing nanocrystalline ZnO thin films with Pd, deposited by chemical method. The sensing mechanism has been discussed briefly.

  20. Vortex pinning in superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous alumina templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinckx, W.; Vanacken, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of magnetization and transport properties of superconducting Nb thin films deposited on nanoporous aluminium oxide templates. Periodic oscillations in the critical temperature vs. field, matching effects in fields up to 700 mT and strongly enhanced critical currents were observ...... centers, which enhances vortex pinning in broad field and temperature ranges. © EDP Sciences/Società Italiana di Fisica/Springer-Verlag 2006....

  1. Use of nanoporous columnar thin film in the wafer-level packaging of MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kee; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new packaging technology that uses a nanoporous columnar thin film to seal microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices at the wafer level. In the proposed packaging process, the processing temperature is 350 °C. The process is relatively inexpensive compared to wafer level packaging processes, because the wafer-bonding step is eliminated and the die size is shrunk. In the suggested approach, a sputtered columnar thin film at room temperature forms vertical nanopores as etch holes, and an air cavity is formed by the removal of a sacrificial layer through the nanopores in the columnar membrane. Subsequent hermetic vacuum packaging of the cavity is achieved by depositing thin films over the membrane under low pressure. The hermeticity of the packaging was verified by using an optical surface morphology microscope to measure the deflection change of the sealing membrane before and after breaking of the vacuum through an interconnected membrane. The long-term hermeticity was monitored by measuring the maximum central deflection of the PECVD sealing layer over a period of 170 days. The precise pressure (0.7 Torr) and short-term (30 days) pressure change inside the cavity were measured by encapsulated Ni Pirani gauges, representing packaged freestanding MEMS devices.

  2. Diffusion and photoswitching in nanoporous thin films of metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are intensively investigated with respect to various applications such as in gas storage, in molecular separation and as sensors. In all these applications, the interaction with the guest molecules in the nanopores, as well as the diffusion properties, are crucial. In this topical review, thin MOF films, referred to as surface-mounted MOFs (SURMOFs), are discussed as a well-defined model system for detailed mass transfer studies. The origins of mass transport hindering surface barriers, which often slow down the mass transfer tremendously, and the slow diffusion of large molecules, are investigated by using thin MOF films. Another focus of this topical review is on photoswitchable MOF films. Azobenzene side groups in the MOF structure allow a remote control of the adsorption and diffusion properties. This is employed for demonstrating the remote-controlled release from a nanoporous container as well as for membrane separation where the separation factor can be continuously tuned by light irradiation.

  3. Optimum Nanoporous TiO2 Film and Its Application to Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴松元; 王孔嘉

    2003-01-01

    Properties of TiO2 nanoporous films, which are one of the crucial technologies in dye-sensitized solar cell, are investigated. The nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared with the sol-gel method at different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave for their application to dye-sensitized solar cells. The thickness of the TiO2 film is very important to the transfer of photoelectron as well as adsorption of dye, it is also known as one of the source to the dark current. The results show that the TiO2 films, such as different particle sizes of TiO2, different pH in precursor and treatment temperature in autoclave, have a strong influence on the photoelectrochemical properties of the dye-sensitized solar cells. We give the optimum TiO2 film thickness and morphology for the application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Surface Modification for Controlling the Orientation of Block Copolymers in thin film and in Cylindrical Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Guan; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2012-02-01

    A series of benzocyclobutene-functionalized random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinylpyridine were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated controlled radical polymerization with BPO and TEMPO. Our research was to use these random copolymers of P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) to control the orientation of microdomains in block copolymers(BCPs) of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)(PS-b-P4VP) thin films and in cylindrical nanopores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. On P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified substrate,we found that in some particular compositions of random copolymer ,the parallel orientation of the microdomains is switched to be perpendicular in PS-b-P4VP thin film. We also introduced P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) solution into the nanopores of the AAO and nanotubes formed after solvent evaporation and pyrolysis. And then BCPs of PS-b-P4VP were drawn into the P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP)-modified nanopores in the melt via capillary action to form P(S-r-BCB-r-4VP) coated nanorods of PS-b-P4VP.Similarly,in some particular compositions of random copolymer, we observed that the interactions of the blocks with the walls are not strong or if the interactions are balanced, then the orientation of the microdomains will change from being parallel to being perpendicular to the confining walls.

  5. Surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of single R6G molecules on nanoporous gold films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwen; Zhang, L.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Iwasaki, H.; Inouye, Y.; Xue, Q. K.; Chen, M. W.

    2011-03-01

    Detecting single molecules with high sensitivity and molecular specificity is of great practical interest in many fields such as chemistry, biology, medicine, and pharmacology. For this purpose, cheap and highly active substrates are of crucial importance. Recently, nanoporous metals (NPMs), with a three-dimensional continuous network structure and pore channels usually much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, revealed outstanding optical properties in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, we further modify the nanoporous gold films by growing a high density of gold nano-tips on the surface. Extremely focused electromagnetic fields can be produced at the apex of the nano-tips, resulting in so-called hot spots. With this NPM-based and affordable substrate, single molecule-detection is achievable with ultrahigh enhancement in SERS.

  6. Nanoporous membrane based on block copolymer thin film for protein drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yun; Yang, Jeong-A.; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Oh, Eun Ju; Choi, Kwan Yong; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kim, Jin Kon

    2010-03-01

    We studied long term and controlled release of protein drugs by using nanoporous membranes with various pore sizes. Nanoporous membrane consists of the separation layer prepared by polystyrene-block-poly(methylmethacrylate) copolymer thin film and conventional microfiltration membrane as a support. We demonstrate a long-term constant in vitro release of bovine serum albumin (BSA)and human growth hormone ) (hGH) without their denaturation up to 2 months. A nearly constant serum concentration of hGH was maintained up to 3 weeks in SD rats. The long-term constant delivery based on this membrane for protein drugs within the therapeutic range can be highly appreciated for the patients with hormone- deficiency.

  7. Atomistic understandings of reduced graphene oxide as an ultrathin-film nanoporous membrane for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2015-09-01

    The intrinsic defects in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) formed during reduction processes can act as nanopores, making rGO a promising ultrathin-film membrane candidate for separations. To assess the potential of rGO for such applications, molecular dynamics techniques are employed to understand the defect formation in rGO and their separation performance in water desalination and natural gas purification. We establish the relationship between rGO synthesis parameters and defect sizes, resulting in a potential means to control the size of nanopores in rGO. Furthermore, our results show that rGO membranes obtained under properly chosen synthesis conditions can achieve effective separations and provide significantly higher permeate fluxes than currently available membranes.

  8. A nanoporous thin-film miniature interdigitated capacitive impedance sensor for measuring humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a development of a low-cost miniature humidity sensor with an interdigitated aluminium electrode connected in parallel on quartz substrate. Interdigitated capacitive device has been fabricated using the photolithography method. The aluminium electrode was covered with sensitive film of a nanoporous thin film of γ-Al2O3 made from novel sol–gel technique. Nanostructured thin film offers very high surface to volume ratio with distribution of micro pores for moisture detection. Pore morphologies of the film have been studied by field emission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction methods. Impedance measurement of the miniature capacitive humidity sensor toward relative humidity was investigated at room temperature by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA. The device exhibits short response and recovery times and good repeatability.

  9. Microstructure Control of Nanoporous Silica Thin Film Prepared by Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous silica films were prepared by sol-gel process with base, acid and base/acid two-step catalysis.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size analyzer were used to characterize the microstructure and the particle size distribution of the sols. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometer were used to characterize the surface microstructure and the optical properties of the silica films. Stability of the sols during long-term storage was investigated. Moreover,the dispersion relation of the optical constants of the silica films, and the control of the microstructure and properties of the films by changing the catalysis conditions during sol-gel process were also discussed.

  10. Electrodeposition of hierarchical manganese oxide on metal nanoparticles decorated nanoporous gold with enhanced supercapacitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhigang, E-mail: zgzeng@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of NanoMicroEnergy, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhou, Haijun; Long, Xiao; Guo, Erjuan [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of NanoMicroEnergy, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang, Xiaohong [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of NanoMicroEnergy, College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Pt-NPs decorated NPG as current collector for electrodeposition of MnO{sub x} nanosheets. • Pt-NPs facilitate the formation of MnO{sub x} nanosheets and improve the conductivity. • MnO{sub x}/Pt@NPG electrode shows low contact resistance and excellent cycling stability. • Nanosized subunits in hybrid electrode can improve the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A novel three dimensional nanoarchitecture of manganese oxide nanosheets/Pt@nanoporous gold (MnO{sub x}/Pt@NPG) was designed and synthesized by galvanostatic electrodepositon for supercapacitors application. Nanoporous gold (NPG) membrane was fabricated by a dealloying method as a current collector and discontinuous platinum nanoparticles were pulse electrodeposited on NPG. The morphology and chemical composition of the MnO{sub x}/Pt@NPG products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared MnO{sub x} as an electrode material for supercapacitor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Importantly, the optimized MnO{sub x}/Pt@NPG hybrid electrodes obtain a maximum specific capacitance of 775 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} (about two times larger than that of MnO{sub x}/NPG electrodes with 404 F g{sup −1}), about half of the internal resistance of MnO{sub x}/NPG electrodes and excellent cycling stability, making it a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  11. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO-PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO-PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO-PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0-110.0mg dL(-1) with the limit of detection as 5.0mg dL(-1).

  12. Electrically tunable pore morphology in nanoporous gold thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana S. Dorofeeva; Erkin Seker

    2015-01-01

    Nanoporous gold (np-Au) is an emerging nanostructured material that exhibits many desirable properties, including high electrical and thermal conductivity, high surface area-to-volume ratio, tunable pore morphology well-established surface-binding chemistry, and compatibility with microfabrication. These features make np-Au a popular material for use in fuel cells, optical and electrical biosensors, drug delivery vehicles, neural electrode coatings, and as a model system for nanoscale mechanics. In each of its many applications, np-Au morphology plays an essential role in the overall device operation. Therefore, precise morphological control is necessary to attain optimal device performance. Traditionally thermal treatment by furnaces and hot plates is used to obtain np-Au with self-similar but coarser morphologies. However, this approach lacks the ability to create different morphologies on a single substrate and requires high temperatures (〉 250 ℃) incompatible with most plastic substrates. Herein, we report electro-annealing as a novel method that permits control of the extent and location of pore coarsening on a single substrate in one fast treatment step. The electro-annealing entails much lower temperatures (〈 150 ℃) than traditional thermal treatment, putatively due to electrically assisted phenomena contributing to the thermally activated surface diffusion of gold atoms, responsible for coarsening. Overall, this approach is easily scaled to display multiple pore morphologies on a single chip, therefore enabling high-throughput screening of optimal nanostructures for specific applications.

  13. Rational Design of Photonic Dust from Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Films: A Versatile Photonic Nanotool for Visual Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Santos, Abel; Wang, Ye; Kumeria, Tushar; Ho, Daena; Li, Junsheng; Wang, Changhai; Losic, Dusan

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we present a systematic study on the development, optimisation and applicability of interferometrically coloured distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs) in the form of films and nanoporous microparticles as visual/colorimetric analytical tools. Firstly, we synthesise a complete palette of NAA-DBRs by galvanostatic pulse anodisation approach, in which the current density is altered in a periodic fashion in order to engineer the effective medium of the resulting photonic films in depth. NAA-DBR photonic films feature vivid colours that can be tuned across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum by structural engineering. Secondly, the effective medium of the resulting photonic films is assessed systematically by visual analysis and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) in order to establish the most optimal nanoporous platforms to develop visual/colorimetric tools. Then, we demonstrate the applicability of NAA-DBR photonic films as a chemically selective sensing platform for visual detection of mercury(II) ions. Finally, we generate a new nanomaterial, so-called photonic dust, by breaking down NAA-DBRs films into nanoporous microparticles. The resulting microparticles (μP-NAA-DBRs) display vivid colours and are sensitive towards changes in their effective medium, opening new opportunities for developing advanced photonic nanotools for a broad range of applications.

  14. Nanoporous Structure in Low-Dielectric Films with Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; SUN Jia-Ning; D. W. Gidley

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate nano-porous structures in thin low-dielectric films, i.e. the pore sizes, distributions, and interconnectivity, by using depth profiled positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is found that PALS has good sensitivity to probe both interconnected and closed pores in the range from 0.3nm to 30nm, even in the film buried beneath a diffusion barrier. A series of low dielectric constant films of organosilicon-silsequioxane with different weight percentages of porogen have been comparatively investigated. The PALS technique can be used to distinguish the open porosity from the closed one, to determine the pore size, and to detect the percolation threshold with the increasing porosity that represents the transition from closed pores to interconnected pores.Furthermore, the pore percolation length can be derived.

  15. Characterization of hydrogen responsive nanoporous palladium films synthesized via a spontaneous galvanic displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. F.; Lavrik, N. V.; Joy, D. C.; Hunter, S. R.; Datskos, P. G.; Smith, D. B.; Sepaniak, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A model is presented regarding the mechanistic properties associated with the interaction of hydrogen with nanoporous palladium (np-Pd) films prepared using a spontaneous galvanic displacement reaction (SGDR), which involves PdCl2 reduction by atomic Ag. Characterization of these films shows both chemical and morphological factors, which influence the performance characteristics of np-Pd microcantilever (MC) nanomechanical sensing devices. Raman spectroscopy, uniquely complemented with MC response profiles, is used to explore the chemical influence of palladium oxide (PdO). These combined techniques support a reaction mechanism that provides for rapid response to H2 and recovery in the presence of O2. Post-SGDR processing via reduction of PdCl2(s) in a H2 environment results in a segregated nanoparticle three-dimensional matrix dispersed in a silver layer. The porous nature of the reduced material is shown by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Extended grain boundaries, typical of these materials, result in a greater surface area conducive to fast sorption/desorption of hydrogen, encouraged by the presence of PdO. X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy are employed to study changes in morphology and chemistry occurring in these nanoporous films under different processing conditions. The unique nature of chemical/morphological effects, as demonstrated by the above characterization methods, provides evidence in support of observed nanomechanical response/recovery profiles offering insight for catalysis, H2 storage and improved sensing applications.

  16. Humidity sensing properties of Ce-doped nanoporous ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoor Anbia; Seyyed Ebrahim Moosavi Fard

    2012-01-01

    The humidity sensitive characteristics of the sensor fabricated from Ce-doped nanoporous ZnO by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes were investigated at different sintering temperatures.The nanoporous thin films were prepared by sol-gel technique.It was found that the impedance of the sensor sintered at 600 ℃ changed more than four order of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH) range of 11%-95% at 25 ℃.The response and recovery time of the sensor were about 13 and 17 s,respectively.The sensor showed high humidity sensitivity,rapid response and recovery,prominent stability,good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop.These results indicated that Ce-doped nanoporous ZnO thin films can be used in fabricating high-performance humidity sensors.

  17. Photoelectrochemical water splitting on nanoporous GaN thin films for energy conversion under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dezhong; Xiao, Hongdi; Fang, Jiacheng; Liu, Jianqiang; Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Xiangdong; Ma, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous (NP) GaN thin films, which were fabricated by an electrochemical etching method at different voltages, were used as photoelectrodes during photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in 1 M oxalic acid solution. Upon illumination at a power density of 100 mW cm‑2 (AM 1.5), water splitting is observed in NP GaN thin films, presumably resulting from the valence band edge which is more positive than the redox potential of the oxidizing species. In comparison with NP GaN film fabricated at 8 V, NP GaN obtained at 18 V shows nearly twofold enhancement in photocurrent with the maximum photo-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 1.05% at ~0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). This enhancement could be explained with (i) the increase of surface area and surface states, and (ii) the decrease of resistances and carrier concentration in the NP GaN thin films. High stability of the NP GaN thin films during the PEC water splitting further confirms that the NP GaN thin film could be applied to the design of efficient solar cells and solar fuel devices.

  18. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Alexander B.; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Stefan; Howell, Caitlin; Ahanotu, Onye; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Formation of unwanted deposits on steels during their interaction with liquids is an inherent problem that often leads to corrosion, biofouling and results in reduction in durability and function. Here we report a new route to form anti-fouling steel surfaces by electrodeposition of nanoporous tungsten oxide (TO) films. TO-modified steels are as mechanically durable as bare steel and highly tolerant to compressive and tensile stresses due to chemical bonding to the substrate and island-like morphology. When inherently superhydrophilic TO coatings are converted to superhydrophobic, they remain non-wetting even after impingement with yttria-stabilized-zirconia particles, or exposure to ultraviolet light and extreme temperatures. Upon lubrication, these surfaces display omniphobicity against highly contaminating media retaining hitherto unseen mechanical durability. To illustrate the applicability of such a durable coating in biofouling conditions, we modified naval construction steels and surgical instruments and demonstrated significantly reduced marine algal film adhesion, Escherichia coli attachment and blood staining.

  19. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Alexander B; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Stefan; Howell, Caitlin; Ahanotu, Onye; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-10-20

    Formation of unwanted deposits on steels during their interaction with liquids is an inherent problem that often leads to corrosion, biofouling and results in reduction in durability and function. Here we report a new route to form anti-fouling steel surfaces by electrodeposition of nanoporous tungsten oxide (TO) films. TO-modified steels are as mechanically durable as bare steel and highly tolerant to compressive and tensile stresses due to chemical bonding to the substrate and island-like morphology. When inherently superhydrophilic TO coatings are converted to superhydrophobic, they remain non-wetting even after impingement with yttria-stabilized-zirconia particles, or exposure to ultraviolet light and extreme temperatures. Upon lubrication, these surfaces display omniphobicity against highly contaminating media retaining hitherto unseen mechanical durability. To illustrate the applicability of such a durable coating in biofouling conditions, we modified naval construction steels and surgical instruments and demonstrated significantly reduced marine algal film adhesion, Escherichia coli attachment and blood staining.

  20. Flexible Transparent Supercapacitors Based on Hierarchical Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanhong; Wan, Pengbo; Xu, Haijun; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-05-31

    Flexible transparent electronic devices have recently gained immense popularity in smart wearable electronics and touch screen devices, which accelerates the development of the portable power sources with reliable flexibility, robust transparency and integration to couple these electronic devices. For potentially coupled as energy storage modules in various flexible, transparent and portable electronics, the flexible transparent supercapacitors are developed and assembled from hierarchical nanocomposite films of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and aligned polyaniline (PANI) nanoarrays upon their synergistic advantages. The nanocomposite films are fabricated from in situ PANI nanoarrays preparation in a blended solution of aniline monomers and rGO onto the flexible, transparent, and stably conducting film (FTCF) substrate, which is obtained by coating silver nanowires (Ag NWs) layer with Meyer rod and then coating of rGO layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Optimization of the transparency, the specific capacitance, and the flexibility resulted in the obtained all-solid state nanocomposite supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced capacitance performance, good cycling stability, excellent flexibility, and superior transparency. It provides promising application prospects for exploiting flexible, low-cost, transparent, and high-performance energy storage devices to be coupled into various flexible, transparent, and wearable electronic devices.

  1. Hexagonally-arranged-nanoporous and continuous NiO films with varying electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, A., E-mail: a.gutierrez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Cañizares, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Preda, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Díaz-Fernández, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Villacorta, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Castro, G.R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Chaboy, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC, and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Soriano, L. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering, with different Ar/O{sub 2} ratios in the plasma, on several substrates, including hexagonally arranged nanoporous anodic alumina membranes (AAM). The obtained films exhibit columnar growth, which makes it possible to preserve the hexagonal order of the AAM substrates in the NiO thin films. X ray diffraction patterns show a polycrystalline structure with a crystallographic texture that depends on the plasma composition. Additionally, the NiO lattice parameter increases with the oxygen content of the plasma. The presence of oxygen during deposition is responsible for these structural changes, as well as for an oxygen enrichment in the NiO films, which leads to changes in their electrical properties. The electrical resistivity of the films decreases with the oxygen content of the plasma, which suggests p-type conductivity due to oxygen enrichment in the NiO lattice. Indeed, an analysis of the EXAFS oscillations at the Ni–K edge confirms the lattice expansion and a decrease of the Ni–Ni coordination number when the oxygen content of the plasma increases, which points towards an increasing presence of Ni vacancies for larger values of the O{sub 2}/Ar ratio.

  2. Tribological and thermal stability study of nanoporous amorphous boron carbide films prepared by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liza, Shahira; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan M.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the thermal stability and the oxidation and tribological behavior of nanoporous a-BC:H films are studied and compared with those in conventional diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. a-BC:H films were deposited by pulsed plasma chemical vapor deposition using B(CH3)3 gas as the boron source. A DLC interlayer was used to prevent the a-BC:H film delamination produced by oxidation. Thermal stability of a-BC:H films, with no delamination signs after annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, is better than that of the DLC films, which completely disappeared under the same conditions. Tribological test results indicate that the a-BC:H films, even with lower nanoindentation hardness than the DLC films, show an excellent boundary oil lubricated behavior, with lower friction coefficient and reduce the wear rate of counter materials than those on the DLC film. The good materials properties such as low modulus of elasticity and the formation of micropores from the original nanopores during boundary regimes explain this better performance. Results show that porous a-BC:H films may be an alternative for segmented DLC films in applications where severe tribological conditions and complex shapes exist, so surface patterning is unfeasible.

  3. A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film electrode based on nanoporous gold/IrO2 composite for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yachao; Guo, Xiaoqian; Shao, Zhigang; Yu, Hongmei; Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongjie; Yi, Baolian

    2017-02-01

    A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film (NPUF) electrode based on nanoporous gold (NPG)/IrO2 composite has been constructed for proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The electrode was fabricated by integrating IrO2 nanoparticles into NPG through a facile dealloying and thermal decomposition method. The NPUF electrode is featured in its 3D interconnected nanoporosity and ultrathin thickness. The nanoporous ultrathin architecture is binder-free and beneficial for improving electrochemical active surface area, enhancing mass transport and facilitating releasing of oxygen produced during water electrolysis. Serving as anode, a single cell performance of 1.728 V (@ 2 A cm-2) has been achieved by NPUF electrode with a loading of IrO2 and Au at 86.43 and 100.0 μg cm-2 respectively, the electrolysis voltage is 58 mV lower than that of conventional electrode with an Ir loading an order of magnitude higher. The electrolysis voltage kept relatively constant up to 300 h (@250 mA cm-2) during the course of durability test, manifesting that NPUF electrode is promising for gas evolution.

  4. Ubiquitous quantum dot-sensitized nanoporous film for hydrogen production under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Masahiro, E-mail: mmiyauchi@ceram.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); JST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Shiga, Yuhiro; Srinivasan, Nagarajan; Atarashi, Daiki; Sakai, Etsuo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    To develop the efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production device, tin monosulfide (SnS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited onto a nanoporous TiO{sub 2} electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. When Pt nanoparticles as co-catalysts were modified at the interface between the electroconductive glass substrate and nanoporous SnS QDs/TiO{sub 2} layer, hydrogen molecules were produced under visible-light irradiation without applying a bias potential. In addition, the size and color of SnS QDs could be tailored using SILAR method, and the optimal structure of the SnS QDs was determined for efficient photocurrent generation and hydrogen production. The photocatalysis device developed in the present study was constructed as a simple single plate consisting of non-toxic elements. - Highlights: • Unique photo-electrochemical thin film device without application of a bias potential. • Non-toxic and inexpensive SnS quantum dot for visible-light harvesting. • Tailored SnS quantum dots using the SILAR method for efficient hydrogen production.

  5. DNA damage due to perfluorooctane sulfonate based on nano-gold embedded in nano-porous poly-pyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Liping, E-mail: lipinglu@bjut.edu.cn; Xu, Laihui; Kang, Tianfang; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage induced from perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was further developed on a nano-porous bionic interface. The interface was formed by assembling DNA on nano-gold particles which were embedded in a nano-porous overoxidized polypyrrole film (OPPy). Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscope and electrochemical investigations indicate that OPPy can be treated to form nano-pore structures. DNA damage due to PFOS was proved using electrochemistry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and was investigated by detecting differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) response of methylene blue (MB) which was used as electro-active indicator in the system. The current of MB attenuates obviously after incubation of DNA in PFOS. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) demonstrates that PFOS weakens DNA charge transport. The tentative binding ratio of PFOS: DNA base pair was obtained by analyzing XPS data of this system.

  6. Perturbation of the Electron Transport Mechanism by Proton Intercalation in Nanoporous TiO2 Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, A. F.; Zhu, K.; Erslev, P. T.; Kim, J. Y.; Neale, N. R.; Frank, A. J.

    2012-04-11

    This study addresses a long-standing controversy about the electron-transport mechanism in porous metal oxide semiconductor films that are commonly used in dye-sensitized solar cells and related systems. We investigated, by temperature-dependent time-of-flight measurements, the influence of proton intercalation on the electron-transport properties of nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films exposed to an ethanol electrolyte containing different percentages of water (0-10%). These measurements revealed that increasing the water content in the electrolyte led to increased proton intercalation into the TiO{sub 2} films, slower transport, and a dramatic change in the dependence of the thermal activation energy (E{sub a}) of the electron diffusion coefficient on the photogenerated electron density in the films. Random walk simulations based on a microscopic model incorporating exponential conduction band tail (CBT) trap states combined with a proton-induced shallow trap level with a long residence time accounted for the observed effects of proton intercalation on E{sub a}. Application of this model to the experimental results explains the conditions under which E{sub a} dependence on the photoelectron density is consistent with multiple trapping in exponential CBT states and under which it appears at variance with this model.

  7. Effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal coarsening of nanoporous gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.Y.; Shi, S.S.; Liu, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Wang, Y. [Information Center, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gu, J.F. [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie, X.F., E-mail: xxfshcn@163.com [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of the NPG films annealed at different atmospheres for 2 h. (a–c) Annealed at 200, 300, and 400 °C in O{sub 2}, respectively; (d–f) annealed at 300, 400, and 500 °C in Ar, respectively; (g–i) annealed at 400, 500, and 600 °C in CO, respectively. All SEM images have the same scale bar. - Highlights: • The annealing atmosphere controls the coarsening of nanoporous gold (NPG). • The structure evolutions of NPG annealed in different atmospheres were studied. • The desorption of O{sub 2} induces a rapid coarsening of NPG above 200 °C. • The NPG can be stabilized high up to 600 °C in reductive CO gas. • The adsorbed CO onto the NPG surface can inhibit pore growth. - Abstract: The coarsening of nanoporous gold (NPG) is significantly influenced by surface adsorbates at elevated temperature. In this paper, the effect of annealing atmosphere on the thermal growth of the porous structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The NPG films were annealed in oxidative (air), inert (Ar) and reductive (CO) atmospheres at 100–600 °C for 2 h, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the NPG films show the best stability in the reductive atmosphere and the worst thermal properties in oxidative air. The NPG films annealed in air exhibit a significant pore growth at 200 °C and lose the porous structure at 300 °C, while those annealed in CO gas at 600 °C still remain the porous network. The thermal-induced coarsening of NPG films in air can be attributed to the desorption of O{sub 2} from the NPG surface above 200 °C. In contrast, the stabilization of the NPG films in CO gas originates from the strong binding of CO with Au atoms to form a complex adsorption layer, which effectively inhibits the surface diffusion of Au atoms.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of High-Crystalline Nanoporous ZnO Thin Films by Modified Thermal Evaporation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Hossain, M. F.; Razzak, S. M. A.; Haque, M. M.; Saha, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate high-crystalline nanoporous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by a modified thermal evaporation system. First, zinc thin films have been deposited on bare glass substrate by the modified thermal evaporation system with pressure of 0.05mbar, source-substrate distance of 3cm and source temperature 700∘C. Then, high-crystalline ZnO thin film is obtained by annealing at 500∘C for 2h in atmosphere. The prepared ZnO films are characterized with various deposition times of 10min and 20min. The structural property was investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The optical bandgap and absorbance/transmittance of these films are examined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer. The surface morphological property has been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). ZnO films have showed uniform nanoporous surface with high-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. The ZnO films prepared with 20min has excitation absorption-edge at 369nm, which is blueshifted with respect to the bulk absorption-edge appearing at 380nm. The gap energy of ZnO film is decreased from 3.14eV to 3.09eV with increase of the deposition time, which can enhance the excitation of ZnO films by the near visible light, and is suitable for the application of photocatalyst of waste water cleaning and polluted air purification.

  9. GISAXS/GIXRD View of ZnO Films with Hierarchical Structural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lučić Lavčević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films constituted of porous sheet-like structures, formed by calcination of precursor, were examined using scanning electron microscopy and simultaneous small-angle scattering and diffraction of the synchrotron-sourced X-rays, under the grazing-incidence conditions. The presented analysis enabled insight into the complexity of the film morphology, which revealed substrate sensitivity on the microscopic and nanoscopic length scales. The average size and spatial arrangement of nanoparticles, single-crystal domains, and the average size and features of nanopores in sheet-like structures were determined for films deposited on glass, polycrystalline ZnO layer, and silicon.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 on surface modified nanoporous low-k films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrau, Elisabeth; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Dendooven, Jolien; Ludwig, Karl F; Verdonck, Patrick; Meersschaut, Johan; Baklanov, Mikhail R; Detavernier, Christophe

    2013-10-01

    This paper explores the effects of different plasma treatments on low dielectric constant (low-k) materials and the consequences for the growth behavior of atomic layer deposition (ALD) on these modified substrates. An O2 and a He/H2 plasma treatment were performed on SiCOH low-k films to modify their chemical surface groups. Transmission FTIR and water contact angle (WCA) analysis showed that the O2 plasma changed the hydrophobic surface completely into a hydrophilic surface, while the He/H2 plasma changed it only partially. In a next step, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used to characterize ALD growth of TiO2 on these substrates. The initial growth of TiO2 was found to be inhibited in the original low-k film containing only Si-CH3 surface groups, while immediate growth was observed in the hydrophilic O2 plasma treated film. The latter film was uniformly filled with TiO2 after 8 ALD cycles, while pore filling was delayed to 17 ALD cycles in the hydrophobic film. For the He/H2 plasma treated film, containing both Si-OH and Si-CH3 groups, the in situ XRF data showed that TiO2 could no longer be deposited in the He/H2 plasma treated film after 8 ALD cycles, while EP measurements revealed a remaining porosity. This can be explained by the faster deposition of TiO2 in the hydrophilic top part of the film than in the hydrophobic bulk which leaves the bulk porous, as confirmed by RBS depth profiling. The outcome of this research is not only of interest for the development of advanced interconnects in ULSI technology, but also demonstrates that ALD combined with RBS analysis is a handy approach to analyze the modifications induced by a plasma treatment on a nanoporous thin film.

  11. Transport of ions and biomolecules through single asymmetric nanopores in polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedt, Birgitta; Healy, Ken; Morrison, Alan P.; Neumann, Reinhard; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2005-07-01

    Single conical nanopores in polymer foils show 'rectifying' diode-like current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, with preferential cation flow in the direction from the narrow to the wide opening [P. Apel, Y.E. Korchev, Z. Siwy, R. Spohr, M. Yoshida, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 184 (2001) 337-346, Z. Siwy, D. Dobrev, R. Neumann, C. Trautmann, K. Voss, Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) 781-785]. To produce single-pore membranes, we irradiated polymer films (polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide) with single heavy ions (using kinetic energies in the GeV range) and subsequently performed asymmetric chemical track-etching. The resulting conical pores had narrow openings of 4-20 nm. The I-V curves of these pores were measured in aqueous KCl solutions of various concentrations and pH values, and it was found that both parameters influence the rectification properties of the pores. For decreasing concentrations, down to 0.1 M, the degree of rectification increases, as predicted by a recently proposed model [Z. Siwy, A. Fulinski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 198103], however, as the concentration decreases further, the rectification unexpectedly begins to decrease again. We suspect that this is due to conformation changes occurring in the pore. Also, our results have shown that the pores exhibit a non-classical conductance versus electrolyte concentration characteristic, having elevated conductances at low concentrations, for which we propose an explanation based on surface conductivity. Finally, we present an application of the polyimide conical nanopores as single-molecule DNA sensors, with results demonstrating their ability to detect individual plasmid DNA molecules.

  12. Fabrication of Highly Ordered Polymeric Nanodot and Nanowire Arrays Templated by Supramolecular Assembly Block Copolymer Nanoporous Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xikui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Realizing the vast technological potential of patternable block copolymers requires both the precise controlling of the orientation and long-range ordering, which is still a challenging topic so far. Recently, we have demonstrated that ordered nanoporous thin film can be fabricated from a simple supramolecular assembly approach. Here we will extend this approach and provide a general route to fabricate large areas of highly ordered polymeric nanodot and nanowire arrays. We revealed that under a mixture solvent annealing atmosphere, a near-defect-free nanoporous thin film over large areas can be achieved. Under the direction of interpolymer hydrogen bonding and capillary action of nanopores, this ordered porous nanotemplate can be properly filled with phenolic resin precursor, followed by curation and pyrolysis at middle temperature to remove the nanotemplate, a perfect ordered polymer nanodot arrays replication was obtained. The orientation of the supramolecular assembly thin films can be readily re-aligned parallel to the substrate upon exposure to chloroform vapor, so this facile nanotemplate replica method can be further extend to generate large areas of polymeric nanowire arrays. Thus, we achieved a successful sub-30 nm patterns nanotemplates transfer methodology for fabricating polymeric nanopattern arrays with highly ordered structure and tunable morphologies.

  13. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic...

  14. Three-dimensional nanoporous Fe₂O₃/Fe₃C-graphene heterogeneous thin films for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Xiujun; Casillas, Gilberto; Peng, Zhiwei; Ruan, Gedeng; Wang, Gunuk; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Tour, James M

    2014-04-22

    Three-dimensional self-organized nanoporous thin films integrated into a heterogeneous Fe2O3/Fe3C-graphene structure were fabricated using chemical vapor deposition. Few-layer graphene coated on the nanoporous thin film was used as a conductive passivation layer, and Fe3C was introduced to improve capacity retention and stability of the nanoporous layer. A possible interfacial lithium storage effect was anticipated to provide additional charge storage in the electrode. These nanoporous layers, when used as an anode in lithium-ion batteries, deliver greatly enhanced cyclability and rate capacity compared with pristine Fe2O3: a specific capacity of 356 μAh cm(-2) μm(-1) (3560 mAh cm(-3) or ∼1118 mAh g(-1)) obtained at a discharge current density of 50 μA cm(-2) (∼0.17 C) with 88% retention after 100 cycles and 165 μAh cm(-2) μm(-1) (1650 mAh cm(-3) or ∼518 mAh g(-1)) obtained at a discharge current density of 1000 μA cm(-2) (∼6.6 C) for 1000 cycles were achieved. Meanwhile an energy density of 294 μWh cm(-2) μm(-1) (2.94 Wh cm(-3) or ∼924 Wh kg(-1)) and power density of 584 μW cm(-2) μm(-1) (5.84 W cm(-3) or ∼1834 W kg(-1)) were also obtained, which may make these thin film anodes promising as a power supply for micro- or even nanosized portable electronic devices.

  15. Growth of hierarchical based ZnO micro/nanostructured films and their tunable wettability behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, P.; Dhayal Raj, A.; Mangalaraj, D.; Nataraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Li, Lin; Chabrol, G.

    2011-05-01

    Hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanostructured thin films were grown onto as-prepared and different annealed ZnO seed layer films by a simple two step chemical process. A cost effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was employed to grow the seed layer films at optimal temperature (80 °C) and secondly, different hierarchical based ZnO structured thin films were deposited over the seed layered films by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The influence of seed layer on the structural, surface morphological, optical and wettability behavior of the ZnO thin films were systematically investigated. The XRD analysis confirms the high crystalline nature of both the seed layer and corresponding ZnO micro/nanostructured films with a perfect hexagonal structure oriented along (0 0 2) direction. The surface morphology revels a complex and orientated hierarchical based ZnO structured films with diverse shapes from plates to hexagonal rod-like crystal to tube-like structure and even much more complex needle-like shapes during secondary nucleation, by changing the seed layer conditions. The water contact angle (WCA) measurements on hierarchical ZnO structured films are completely examined to study its surface wettability behavior for its suitability in future self-cleaning application. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO structured film exhibit UV and visible emissions in the range of 420-500 nm. The present approach demonstrates its potential for low-temperature, large-scale, controlled synthesis of crystalline hierarchical ZnO nanostructures films.

  16. Thermal Investigations of Periodically Nanoporous Si Films -- The Impact of Structure Sizes and Pore-Edge Amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongchao; Zhao, Hongbo; Hao, Qing

    In recent years, nanoporous Si films have been intensively studied as promising thermoelectric materials, which mainly benefits from their dramatically reduced lattice thermal conductivity kL and bulk-like electrical properties.1,2 Despite many encouraging results, challenges still exist in the theoretical explanation of the observed low kL.3 Existing studies mainly attribute the low kL to 1) phonon bandstructure modification by coherent phonon processes in a periodic structure (phononic effects), and/or 2) pore-edge defects. In this work, temperature-dependent kL is measured for nanoporous Si films with different pore sizes and spacing to compare with model predictions. For systematic studies, two fabrication techniques are used to drill the nanopores: 1) reactive ion etching, and 2) a focus ion beam to introduce more pore-edge defects. The results from this work will provide guidance for phonon engineering in general materials with periodic interfaces or boundaries. References: 1. Tang et al., Nano Letters 10, 4279-4283 (2010). 2. Yu et al., Nature Nanotechnology 5, 718-721 (2010). 3. Cahill et al., Applied Physics Reviews 1, 011305/1-45 (2014) Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012.

  17. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Bhattacharya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic system for membrane fabrication and subsequent liposome fusion onto the nanoporous support structure. The resulting bilayer formation is monitored by impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane in real-time. Our approach offers a simple and efficient methodology to investigate the activity of transmembrane proteins or ion diffusion across membrane bilayers.

  18. Microfluidic anodization of aluminum films for the fabrication of nanoporous lipid bilayer support structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Jaydeep; Kisner, Alexandre; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Solid state nanoporous membranes show great potential as support structures for biointerfaces. In this paper, we present a technique for fabricating nanoporous alumina membranes under constant-flow conditions in a microfluidic environment. This approach allows the direct integration of the fabrication process into a microfluidic setup for performing biological experiments without the need to transfer the brittle nanoporous material. We demonstrate this technique by using the same microfluidic system for membrane fabrication and subsequent liposome fusion onto the nanoporous support structure. The resulting bilayer formation is monitored by impedance spectroscopy across the nanoporous alumina membrane in real-time. Our approach offers a simple and efficient methodology to investigate the activity of transmembrane proteins or ion diffusion across membrane bilayers.

  19. Hybrid Energy Cell with Hierarchical Nano/Micro-Architectured Polymer Film to Harvest Mechanical, Solar, and Wind Energies Individually/Simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lim, Joo Ho; Yu, Jae Su

    2016-11-09

    We report the creation of hybrid energy cells based on hierarchical nano/micro-architectured polydimethylsiloxane (HNMA-PDMS) films with multifunctionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micropyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide film formed on the micropyramidal-structured silicon substrate. The HNMA-PDMS film plays multifunctional roles as a triboelectric layer in nanogenerators and an antireflection layer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), as well as a self-cleaning surface. This film is employed in triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) devices, fabricated by laminating it on indium-tin oxide-coated polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) as a bottom electrode. The large effective contact area that emerged from the densely packed hierarchical nano/micro-architectures of the PDMS film leads to the enhancement of TENG device performance. Moreover, the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, with a high transmittance of >90%, also results in highly transparent TENG devices. By placing the HNMA-PDMS/ITO/PET, where the ITO/PET is coated with zinc oxide nanowires, as the top glass substrate of DSSCs, the device is able to add the functionality of TENG devices, thus creating a hybrid energy cell. The hybrid energy cell can successfully convert mechanical, solar, and wind energies into electricity, simultaneously or independently. To specify the device performance, the effects of external pushing frequency and load resistance on the output of TENG devices are also analyzed, including the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid energy cells.

  20. The use of a hierarchically platinum-free electrode composed of tin oxide decorated polypyrrole on nanoporous copper in catalysis of methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, Elnaz, E-mail: elnazasghari@yahoo.com; Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Vahed, Akram; Rezaei-Moghadam, Babak; Charmi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a galvanostatic pathway on polypyrrole, PPy, coated nanoporous copper. The morphology and surface analysis of the assemblies were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM, and energy dispersive X-ray, EDX, analysis, respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior of electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution. FESEM results showed that uniformly distributed nanoparticles with diameters of about 20–30 nm have been dispersed on PPy matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution showed a significant enhancement in the catalytic action of PPy after decoration of tin oxide nanoparticles. Porous Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} electrodes showed enhanced anodic peak current density for methanol oxidation compared to smooth Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} and porous Cu/PPy. The effects of synthesis current density and time on the electrocatalytic behavior of the electrodes were evaluated. The significant enhancement of electrocatalytic behavior of the Cu/PPy electrode after decoration of SnO{sub x} overlayer was attributed to the effect of tin oxide on the adsorption of intermediates of methanol oxidation as well as oxidation of bi-products such as CO; huge tendency of tin oxides for dehydrogenation of the alcohols and the increase in microscopic surface area of the electrodes were introduced as other affecting factors. - Highlights: • Nanoporous copper–zinc substrates were formed by chemical leaching of zinc. • Polypyrrole thin film was electrodeposited on nanoporous copper. • Thin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized electrochemically on polypyrrole layer. • The catalytic performance of the electrodes was evaluated for methanol oxidation.

  1. A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous membrane for lithium-ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ming; Liu, Qiongzhen; Zhou, Zhou; Tao, Yifei; Li, MuFang; Liu, Ke; Wu, Zhihong; Wang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    A novel hierarchically structured and highly hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanoporous separator (referred to NFs/PET/NFs) composed of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven sandwiched between two interconnected poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) nanofibrous membranes is successfully developed for lithium-ion battery. Systematical investigations including structural characterization, porosity measurement, water contact angle testing, electrolyte uptake, and thermal shrinkage testing demonstrate that the notable feature of this NFs/PET/NFs nanofibrous separator is an electrolyte-philic, highly porous and hierarchically nanoscaled structure, thus resulting in superior electrolyte wettability, lower thermal shrinkage, and higher ion conductivity, in comparison to the commercial Polypropylene (PP) separator. These structural characteristics enable the NFs/PET/NFs separator to offer an excellent cell performance including outstanding C-rate capability, high capacity and excellent cycling performance. This suggests that the NFs/PET/NFs separator is a promising material for practical application in lithium-ion battery due to it low cost production and high performance.

  2. Hierarchical structure graphitic-like/MoS2 film as superlubricity material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenbin; Jia, Xiaolong; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Junyan

    2017-08-01

    Friction and wear result in a great amount of energy loss and the invalidation of mechanical parts, thus it is necessary to minimize friction in practical application. In this study, the graphitic-like/MoS2 films with hierarchical structure were synthesized by the combination of pulse current plasma chemical-vapor deposition and medium frequency unbalanced magnetron sputtering in preheated environment. This hierarchical structure composite with multilayer nano sheets endows the films excellent tribological performance, which easily achieves macro superlubricity (friction coefficient ∼0.004) under humid air. Furthermore, it is expected that hierarchical structure of graphitic-like/MoS2 films could match the requirements of large scale, high bear-capacity and wear-resistance of actual working conditions, which could be widely used in the industrial production as a promising superlubricity material.

  3. Effect of Pore Size and Film Thickness on Gold-Coated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Substrates for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassu, Aschalew; Farley, Carlton; Sharma, Anup; Kim, Wonkyu; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-30

    A sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering chemical sensor is demonstrated by using inexpensive gold-coated nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates. To optimize the performance of the substrates for sensing by the Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the size of the nanopores is varied from 18 nm to 150 nm and the gold film thickness is varied from 30 nm to 120 nm. The sensitivity of gold-coated nanoporous surface enhanced Raman scattering sensor is characterized by detecting low concentrations of Rhodamine 6G laser dye molecules. The morphology of the SERS substrates is characterized by atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanoporous SERS substrates including transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance are also investigated. Relative signal enhancement is plotted for a range of substrate parameters and a detection limit of 10(-6) M is established.

  4. Enhanced electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanoporous film prepared based on an assistance of polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Xiaorui; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Zhong, Wei; Ou, Hui; Li, Yinshuai

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was employed as pore-forming agent to prepare TiO2 nanoporous film based on spin-coating a TiO2 nanoparticle mixed paste on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The electrochromic and optical properties of the obtained TiO2 film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the PEG in the mixed paste endows the TiO2 film with well-developed porous structure and improves the uniformity of the TiO2 film, which are helpful for the rapid intercalation and extraction of lithium ions within the TiO2 film and the strengthening of the diffuse reflection of visible light in the TiO2 film. As a result, the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste with PEG displays higher electrochemical activity and more excellent electrochromic performances compared with the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste without PEG. The switching times of coloration/bleaching are respectively 10.16/5.65 and 12.77/6.13 s for the TiO2 films with PEG and without PEG. The maximum value of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film with PEG is 21.2% while that of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film without PEG is 14.9%. Furthermore, the TiO2 film with PEG has better stability of the colored state than the TiO2 film without PEG.

  5. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  6. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  7. Understanding and Enhancing the Photostability of Nanoporous Metal Oxide Thin Films for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrada, Kalyan Chakravarthi

    under dark conditions. The binary bismuth (III) oxide, in spite being a good photocatalytic material, did not receive as much attention as other bismuth based ternary oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting application. In this present study, large surface area nanoporous bismuth oxide thin films were synthesized by the electrochemical anodization. These anodic oxides exhibited a dual layered structure having a planar inner oxide and nanoporous outer oxide. Effect of the nanoscale dimensions of the oxides on the photoelectrochemical behavior was studied to understand the charge transport, charge recombination behavior, and long term stability of the material. A maximum photo current density of 0.97 mA/cm2 was observed for the sample anodized at 10 V at 1.53 VRHE. The nanoporous anodic oxides showed a charge carrier density in the range of 1.2 x 1017 -- 4.8 x 1018 cm-3 without illumination and about 60% increase in the charge carrier density upon illumination. However a decay in photo current was observed for the bismuth oxide samples was due to accumulation of holes on the electrode surface. This hole-accumulation was mitigated by the addition of hole scavengers. Addition of hydrogen peroxide as hole scavenger increased the photo current density by about 4 times in 0.5 M Na2SO 4 (pH: 5.8) electrolyte. Addition of H2O2 in 1 M KOH (pH: 13.7) showed an increase-decrease behavior and high photo current density of ~10 mA/cm2 at a bias potential of 0.65 VRHE . The high photo activity observed in this electrolyte was attributed to the in-situ formation of Bi2O4-x phase by the photo-conversion of the beta-Bi2O3 at the surface. The photo-converted Bi2O4-x has a smaller band gap (1.4 eV) and therefore harvested more light in the visible region. This in-situ formation of low band gap phases in the presence of H2O2 during solar water splitting is an interesting observation which has been reported for the first time and this will help design material with very high photo-activity.

  8. Increased Hierarchical Wrinklons on Stiff Metal Thin Film on a Liquid Meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shikai; Berry, Vikas

    2016-09-21

    Wrinklons-the hierarchical merging of wrinkles-are observed on several surfaces including thin films, curtains, graphene sheets, and skin. Wrinklons are a consequence of the interplay between bending, stretching, and gravitational energies and generally exhibit 1 to 2 hierarchical transitions (λn+1 = 2λn). Here we show that parallel and self-similar wrinklons on ultrathin cobalt/chromium film atop a contracting silicone oil meniscus can produce up to 5 hierarchical wrinklon transitions near the fluid-solid boundary. Further, these wrinklons do not follow the standard von-Kármán wrinklon scaling near the edge, attributed to the added surface energy (L/λ ∝ (A/t)(0.31)). A model developed via scale analysis shows (a) the relationship between wavelength and length of the wrinkles and (b) a linear relation between the amplitude and the length of wrinkles at all observed hierarchic levels (L ∝ A), fitted well with previous literature results. This work provides a mechanism for thin-film metal wrinkling on liquids and shows that surface stretching effects can allow increased hierarchical levels in wrinklons.

  9. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible, transparent superhydrophobic films with hierarchical surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Ha, Sung-Hun; Jang, Nam-Su; Kim, Jeonghyo; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Lee, Jaebeom; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2015-03-11

    Optical transparency and mechanical flexibility are both of great importance for significantly expanding the applicability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Such features make it possible for functional surfaces to be applied to various glass-based products with different curvatures. In this work, we report on the simple and potentially cost-effective fabrication of highly flexible and transparent superhydrophobic films based on hierarchical surface design. The hierarchical surface morphology was easily fabricated by the simple transfer of a porous alumina membrane to the top surface of UV-imprinted polymeric micropillar arrays and subsequent chemical treatments. Through optimization of the hierarchical surface design, the resultant superhydrophobic films showed superior surface wetting properties (with a static contact angle of >170° and contact angle hysteresis of 82% at 550 nm wavelength). The superhydrophobic films were also experimentally found to be robust without significant degradation in the superhydrophobicity, even under repetitive bending and pressing for up to 2000 cycles. Finally, the practical usability of the proposed superhydorphobic films was clearly demonstrated by examining the antiwetting performance in real time while pouring water on the film and submerging the film in water.

  10. Hierarchically structured titania films for application in photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermeier, M.A.; Kaune, G.; Mueller-Buschbaum, P. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien; Perlich, J. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Funktionelle Materialien; DESY, Hamburg (Germany). HASYLAB; Memesa, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Gutmann, J.S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie

    2010-07-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured titania films is investigated. The nanostructures are prepared using the diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-polyethyleneoxide (P(S-b-EO)) as a structure directing agent. Using repetitive sol-gel chemistry together with spin coating a thin polymer-nanocomposite film is deposited on silicon substrates which is calcined in air to obtain crystalline titania nanostructures. Furthermore, different types of morphologies are combined. The thus obtained structures are investigated regarding their morphologies, for example using imaging techniques like SEM. Additionally, information about the crystallinity is obtained with XRD. From our results we discuss the use of our films for photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  11. Dopamine sensitized nanoporous TiO2 film on electrodes: photoelectrochemical sensing of NADH under visible irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2009-04-15

    Dopamine-coordinated photoactive TiO(2) nanoporous films with a wide excitation range of light in the visible region (up to 580 nm) were prepared and used for sensitive detection of NADH. Colloidal TiO(2) was firstly covered on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface and sintered at 450 degrees C to form a nanoporous TiO(2) film, then the electrode was dipped in a dopamine solution to form a dopamine-TiO(2) charge transfer complex via coordinating dopamine with undercoordinated titanium atoms on the electrode surface. This charge transfer complex provided an anodic photocurrent under visible light and the photocurrent could be largely enhanced by NADH. The photocurrent enhancement might be due to the electron transfer between NADH and the holes localized on dopamine. A new photoelectrochemical methodology for sensitive detection of NADH at a relatively low potential was developed. The detection limit of NADH was 1.4x10(-7) M, and the detection range could extend up to 1.2x10(-4) M. The dopamine-TiO(2) modified electrode exhibits its major advantages such as effective electronic transducer, fast response and easy fabrication for photoelectrochemical determination of NADH. This strategy largely reduces the destructive effect of UV light and the photogenerated holes of illuminated TiO(2) to biomolecules and opens a new avenue for the applications of TiO(2) in photoelectrochemical biosensing.

  12. Facile Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Rod-Capped Nanopore Films with Condensate Microdrop Self-Propelling Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Wenjing; Luo, Yuting; Zhu, Jie; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-08-26

    We report that aluminum surfaces can be endowed with condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) function by one-step voltage-rising mild anodization in hot phosphoric acid solution followed by fluorosilane modification. Via regulating reaction parameters, we can achieve anodic alumina self-standing rod-capped nanopore films and minimize their solid-liquid interface adhesion. Such low-adhesive nanostructured film owns remarkable CMDSP function, especially to condensate microdrops with sizes below 50 μm, differing from usual gravity-driven dropwise condensation on flat aluminum surfaces. Clearly, this work offers a facile, efficient, and industry-compatible approach to processing CMDSP aluminum materials, which is significant for developing innovative energy-saving air-conditioner heat exchangers.

  13. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  14. Hierarchically structured self-supported latex films for flexible and semi-transparent electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: anni.maattanen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Ihalainen, Petri, E-mail: petri.ihalainen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Törngren, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.torngren@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Rosqvist, Emil, E-mail: emil.rosqvist@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Pesonen, Markus, E-mail: markus.pesonen@abo.fi [Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland); Peltonen, Jouko, E-mail: jouko.peltonen@abo.fi [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Porthaninkatu 3, 20500, Turku (Finland)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent self-supported latex films were fabricated by a peel-off process. • Various template substrates were used for creating e.g. hierarchically structured latex films. • Ultra-thin and semi-transparent conductive gold electrodes were evaporated on the latex films.Electrochemical experiments were carried out to verify the applicability of the electrodes. - Abstract: Different length scale alterations in topography, surface texture, and symmetry are known to evoke diverse cell behavior, including adhesion, orientation, motility, cytoskeletal condensation, and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this work, self-supported latex films with well-defined isotropic/anisotropic surface features and hierarchical morphologies were fabricated by a peel-off process from different template surfaces. In addition, the latex films were used as substrates for evaporated ultrathin gold films with nominal thicknesses of 10 and 20 nm. Optical properties and topography of the samples were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. The latex films showed high-level transmittance of visible light, enabling the fabrication of semi-transparent gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out for a number of days to investigate the long-term stability of the electrodes. The effect of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and HS(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}OH (MuOH) thiolation and protein (human serum albumin, HSA) adsorption on the impedance and capacitance was studied. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were carried out to determine active medicinal components, i.e., caffeic acid with interesting biological activities and poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. The results show that the fabrication procedure presented in this study enables the formation of platforms with hierarchical morphologies for multimodal

  15. Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film for improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Myeong-Soo; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Park, Songyi; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je, E-mail: heeje@pusan.ac.kr

    2014-11-03

    Copper (Cu) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method with different at% (0 and 0.5 at%) of Cu dopant. Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous (NP) films were fabricated to enhance the performance of the ZnO based cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The existence of Cu ions in the Cu-doped ZnO NP film was detected by X-ray fluorescence. The surface morphology, microstructure and crystal structure of Cu-doped ZnO NP films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The optical property of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized Cu-doped ZnO NP film was studied by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance and electrical property of Cu-doped ZnO CdS/CdSe QDSSCs were studied by current–voltage characteristic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under air mass 1.5 condition. As a result, short circuit current density and fill factor increased from 9.074 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.403 to 9.865 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.427 respectively, based on the enhanced absorbance and electron transport by Cu-doping. This led to the increasing light conversion efficiency from 2.27% to 2.61%. - Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous films with high crystallinity were uniformly deposited. • Absorbance of Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film was enhanced. • Electron conductivity of Cu-doped ZnO nanoporous film was enhanced. • Performance of Cu-doped ZnO CdS/CdSe QDSSC was improved.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of nanoporous TiO2: the impact on thin-film composite membranes for engineered osmosis application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadzadeh, D.; Ghanbari, M.; Lau, W. J.; Rahbari-Sisakht, M.; Matsuura, T.; Ismail, A. F.; Kruczek, B.

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, the impact of self-synthesized nanoporous titanium oxide (NT) on the morphology, performance and fouling of a polyamide (PA) thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was investigated when the membrane was applied for engineering osmosis (EO). The nanoporous structure and the spindle-like shape of NT were revealed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while the AATPS modification of NT was verified by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the presence of modified NT (mNT) in the PA dense active layer of the TFC membrane. The outgrowth of the ‘leaf-like’ structure, upon mNT loading, at the surface of the PA layer was observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TFC membrane prepared with 0.05 wt% mNT loading in the organic phase showed the water flux of 26.4 l m-2 h-1 when tested in the forward osmosis (FO) mode using 0.5M and 10 mM NaCl solution as the draw and feed solution, respectively. Moreover, the TFC-mNT membrane also demonstrated an intensified antifouling property against organic foulant during FO application and it was possible to retrieve the initial water flux almost completely with a simple water-rinsing process.

  17. Preparation of Transparent TiO2 Nanoporous Coating with Highly Photocatalytic Activity by Anodizing Ti Film with Loose Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Yin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ti film with special structure was deposited onto glass substrate by magnetron sputtering, then via the process of electrochemical anodization and annealing, a transparent TiO2 nanoporous coating (denoted as TNP with high photocatalytic activity can be directly formed on glass substrate. The crystal structure of the TNP was detected by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and the morphology of the coating was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The transmittance, wettability and adhesion of TNP were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, contact angle meter and scratch tester respectively. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of TNP was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue solution under UV illumination. The results show that the prepared TNP coating has a nanoporous structure and only anatase can be found after annealing, the transmittance of TNP coating can reach 80% or more in visible region, with a super hydrophilic surface (contact angleC0=1×10-5mol/L can reach 94% in 2 hours and the photocatalysis reaction rate constant is 1.47h-1.

  18. Generation of Hierarchically Ordered Structures on a Polymer Film by Electrohydrodynamic Structure Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongmiao; Shao, Jinyou; Hu, Hong; Wang, Li; Ding, Yucheng

    2016-06-29

    The extensive applications of hierarchical structures in optoelectronics, micro/nanofluidics, energy conservation, etc., have led to the development of a variety of approaches for their fabrication, which can be categorized as bottom-up or top-down strategies. Current bottom-up and top-down strategies bear a complementary relationship to each other due to their processing characteristics, i.e., the advantages of one method correspond to the disadvantages of the other, and vice versa. Here we propose a novel method based on electrohydrodynamic structure formation, aimed at combining the main advantages of the two strategies. The method allows the fabrication of a hierarchically ordered structure with well-defined geometry and high mechanical durability on a polymer film, through a simple and low-cost process also suitable for mass-production. In this approach, upon application of an electric field between a template and a substrate sandwiching an air gap and a polymer film, the polymer is pulled toward the template and further flows into the template cavities, resulting in a hierarchical structure with primary and secondary patterns determined by electrohydrodynamic instability and by the template features, respectively. In this work, the fabrication of a hierarchical structure by electrohydrodynamic structure formation is studied using numerical simulations and experimental tests. The proposed method is then employed for the one-step fabrication of a hierarchical structure exhibiting a gradual transition in the periodicity of the primary structure using a slant template and a flat polymer film, which presents an excellent performance on controllable wettability.

  19. Fabrication of semi-transparent superoleophobic thin film from fabrics and nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa S.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoleophobic thin films have many potential applications including fluid transfer, fluid power systems, stain resistant and antifouling materials, and microfluidics among others. Transparency is also desired with superhydrophobicity for their numerous applications; however transparency and oleophobicity are almost incompatible relationship with each other in the point of surface structure. Because oleophobicity required rougher structure at nano-micro scale than hydrophobicity, and these rough structure brings light scattering. So far, there is very few report of the compatible of transparency and superoleophobicity. In this report, we proposed the see-through type fabrics using the nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure thin film for improving both of oleophobicity and transparency. The vacant space between fibrils of fabrics has two important roles: the one is to through the light, another one is to introduce air layer to realize Cassie state of liquid droplet on thin film. To realize the low surface energy and nanoscale rough structure surface on fibrils, we used the spray method with perfluoroalkyl methacrylic copolymer (PMC, silica nano particles and volatile solvent. From the SEM image, the hierarchical structures of nanoparticle were formed uniformly on the fabrics. The transparency of thin film obtained was approximately 61% and the change of transparency between pre-coated fabrics and coated was 11%. From investigation of the surface wettability, the contact angles of oils (rapeseed oil and hexadecane and water droplet on the fabricated film were over 150 degree.

  20. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO2 films under above-band-gap illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO2 nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  1. Diffusion length in nanoporous TiO{sub 2} films under above-band-gap illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. D.; Son, B. H.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Sang Yong; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Soonil; Ahn, Y. H., E-mail: ahny@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We determined the carrier diffusion lengths in TiO{sub 2} nanoporous layers of dye-sensitized solar cells by using scanning photocurrent microscopy using an ultraviolet laser. Here, we excited the carrier directly in the nanoporous layers where the diffusion lengths were found to 140 μm as compared to that of visible illumination measured at 90 μm. The diffusion length decreased with increasing laser modulation frequency, in which we determined the electron lifetimes and the diffusion coefficients for both visible and UV illuminations. The diffusion lengths have been studied in terms of the sintering temperatures for both cells with and without binding molecules. We found a strong correlation between the diffusion length and the overall light-to-current conversion efficiency, proving that improving the diffusion length and hence the interparticle connections, is key to improving cell efficiency.

  2. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and mechanism of CdS thin film grown on Si nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ling Ling [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Li, Yan Tao [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 454052 (China); Hu, Chu Xiong [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Xin Jian, E-mail: lixj@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CdS/silicon nanoporous pillar array (CdS/Si-NPA) was prepared by a CBD method. • The PL spectrum of CdS/Si-NPA was measured at different temperatures, from 10 to 300 K. • The PL spectrum was composed of four emission bands, obeying different mechanisms. • The PL degradation with temperature was due to phonon-induced escape of carriers. - Abstract: Si-based cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a prospective semiconductor system in constructing optoelectronic nanodevices, and this makes the study on the factors which may affect its optical and electrical properties be of special importance. Here we report that CdS thin film was grown on Si nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) by a chemical bath deposition method, and the luminescent properties of CdS/Si-NPA as well as its mechanism were studied by measuring and analyzing its temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The low-temperature measurement disclosed that the PL spectrum of CdS/Si-NPA could be decomposed into four emission bands, a blue band, a green band, a red band and an infrared band. The blue band was due to the luminescence from Si-NPA substrate, and the others originate from the CdS thin film. With temperature increasing, the peak energy, PL intensity and peak profile shape for the PL bands from CdS evolves differently. Through theoretical and fitting analyses, the origins of the green, red and infrared band are attributed to the near band-edge emission, the radiative recombination from surface defects to Cd vacancies and those to S interstitials, respectively. The cause of PL degradation is due to the thermal quenching process, a phonon-induced electron escape but with different activation energies. These results might provide useful information for optimizing the preparing parameters to promote the performance of Si-based CdS optoelectronic devices.

  3. Hierarchical graphene-polyaniline nanocomposite films for high-performance flexible electronic gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunlong; Wang, Ting; Chen, Fanhong; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Wan, Pengbo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    A hierarchically nanostructured graphene-polyaniline composite film is developed and assembled for a flexible, transparent electronic gas sensor to be integrated into wearable and foldable electronic devices. The hierarchical nanocomposite film is obtained via aniline polymerization in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) solution and simultaneous deposition on flexible PET substrate. The PANI nanoparticles (PPANI) anchored onto rGO surfaces (PPANI/rGO) and the PANI nanofiber (FPANI) are successfully interconnected and deposited onto flexible PET substrates to form hierarchical nanocomposite (PPANI/rGO-FPANI) network films. The assembled flexible, transparent electronic gas sensor exhibits high sensing performance towards NH3 gas concentrations ranging from 100 ppb to 100 ppm, reliable transparency (90.3% at 550 nm) for the PPANI/rGO-FPANI film (6 h sample), fast response/recovery time (36 s/18 s), and robust flexibility without an obvious performance decrease after 1000 bending/extending cycles. The excellent sensing performance could probably be ascribed to the synergetic effects and the relatively high surface area (47.896 m2 g-1) of the PPANI/rGO-FPANI network films, the efficient artificial neural network sensing channels, and the effectively exposed active surfaces. It is expected to hold great promise for developing flexible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive electronic sensors with real-time analysis to be potentially integrated into wearable flexible electronics.A hierarchically nanostructured graphene-polyaniline composite film is developed and assembled for a flexible, transparent electronic gas sensor to be integrated into wearable and foldable electronic devices. The hierarchical nanocomposite film is obtained via aniline polymerization in reduced graphene oxide (rGO) solution and simultaneous deposition on flexible PET substrate. The PANI nanoparticles (PPANI) anchored onto rGO surfaces (PPANI/rGO) and the PANI nanofiber (FPANI) are successfully

  4. 多级纳米孔分子筛在非均相催化中的应用现状及发展前景%Application status and development prospects of hierarchically nanoporous molecular sieves in heterogeneous catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢玉红; 李健; 马向荣; 马亚军

    2016-01-01

    传统分子筛因其单一的微孔孔道,在工业应用中表现为扩散阻力差、催化易失活,尤其在涉及大分子的反应过程中催化活性较差是阻碍其工业应用的现实难题,通过优化制备路线得到的多级纳米孔分子筛催化材料可有效解决传统分子筛存在的上述应用缺陷。多级纳米孔分子筛相比传统分子筛因其特殊的孔道结构和物化性能,在非均相催化方面具有丰富的催化活性位点、较短的扩散路径、较高的传递效率和较长的催化寿命,特别在涉及非均相催化反应的现代化学工业中展现出重要的潜在应用价值。综述多级纳米孔分子筛在烃类异构化反应、加氢裂化反应、烷基化与酰基化反应、烯烃氧化反应以及甲醇制烃类等反应中的诸多优势及潜在应用。%Compared to the conventional molecular sieves with single microporous channels,the main pur-pose of the development of synthetic routes for hierarchically nanoporous molecular sieves is to improve the catalytic performances of conventional molecular sieves by resolving some problems such as low molec-ular diffusion efficiency,quick catalytic deactivation and weak activity to bulky molecules. Hierarchically nanoporous molecular sieves with special texture and physicochemical properties possess rich catalytic active sites,short diffusion path,high transfer efficiency,and long catalytic life in heterogeneous catalysis aspect. Hierarchically nanoporous molecular sieves have important and potential application in modern chemical industry involving heterogeneous catalytic reactions. In this paper,the advantages and potential applications of hierarchically nanoporous molecular sieves in hydrocarbon isomerization reaction,hydro-cracking reaction,alkylation and acylation reaction,hydrocarbon oxidation reaction and methanol to hydro-carbon reaction were reviewed.

  5. Hierarchical porous TiO{sub 2} thin films by soft and dual templating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrist, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.henrist@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege, Department of Chemistry, GREENMAT-LCIS, B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); University of Liege, Center for Applied Technology in Microscopy (CATmu), B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); Dewalque, Jennifer [University of Liege, Department of Chemistry, GREENMAT-LCIS, B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); Cloots, Rudi [University of Liege, Department of Chemistry, GREENMAT-LCIS, B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); University of Liege, Center for Applied Technology in Microscopy (CATmu), B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium); Vertruyen, Bénédicte; Jonlet, Jonathan; Colson, Pierre [University of Liege, Department of Chemistry, GREENMAT-LCIS, B6 Sart Tilman, Liege 4000 (Belgium)

    2013-07-31

    Hierarchical porous structures, with different pore sizes, including pores larger than 10 nm, constitute an important field of research for many applications such as selective molecule detection, catalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanobiotechnology and nanomedecine. However, increasing the pore size logically results in the decrease of specific surface. There is a need to quantify and predict the resulting porosity and specific surface. We have prepared hierarchical porous TiO{sub 2} thin films either by surfactant templating (soft) or dual surfactant/nanospheres templating (soft/hard). They all show narrow, bimodal distribution of pores. Soft templating route uses a modified sol–gel procedure by adding a swelling agent (polypropylene glycol) to a precursor solution containing Ti alkoxide and block-copolymer surfactant. This scheme leads to very thin films showing high specific surface and bimodal porosity with diameters of 10 nm and 54 nm. Dual templating route combines a precursor solution made of Ti alkoxide and block-copolymer surfactant with polystyrene (PS) nanospheres (diam. 250 nm) in a one-pot simple process. This gives thicker films with a bimodal distribution of pores (8 nm and 165-200 nm). The introduction of PS nanospheres in the surfactant–Ti system does not interfere with the soft templating process and results in a macroporosity with a pore diameter 20–30% smaller than the original beads diameter. The dye loading of hierarchical films is compared to pure surfactant-templated TiO{sub 2} films and shows a relative decrease of 29% for soft templating and 43% for dual templating. The microstructure of bimodal porous films is characterized by several techniques such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, profilometry and ellipsometry. Finally, a geometrical model is proposed and validated for each system, based on the agreement between calculated specific surfaces and experimental dye loading with N719 dye

  6. Precision Photothermal Annealing of Nanoporous Gold Thin Films for the Microfabrication of a Single-chip Material Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rubenchik, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Demos, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Single-chip material libraries of thin films of nanostructured materials are a promising approach for high throughput studies of structure-property relationship in the fields of physics and biology. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a nanostructured material of specific interest in both these fields. One attractive property of np-Au is its self-similar coarsening behavior by thermally induced surface diffusion. However, traditional heat application techniques for the modification of np-Au are bulk processes that cannot be used to generate a library of different pore sizes on a single chip. Laser micromachining offers an attractive solution to this problem by providing a means to apply energy with high spatial and temporal resolution. In the present study we use finite element multiphysics simulations to predict the effects of laser mode (continuous-wave vs. pulsed) and supporting substrate thermal conductivity on the local np-Au film temperatures during photothermal annealing and subsequently investigate the mechanisms by which the np-Au network is coarsening. Our simulations predict that continuous-wave mode laser irradiation on a silicon supporting substrate supports the widest range of morphologies that can be created through the photothermal annealing of thin film np-Au. Using this result we successfully fabricate a single-chip material library consisting of 81 np-Au samples of 9 different morphologies for use in increased throughput material interaction studies.

  7. Hierarchical opal grating films prepared by slide coating of colloidal dispersions in binary liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Kim, Seulgi; Kim, Seulki; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-02-15

    There are active researches on well ordered opal films due to their possible applications to various photonic devices. A recently developed slide coating method is capable of rapid fabrication of large area opal films from aqueous colloidal dispersion. In the current study, the slide coating of polystyrene colloidal dispersions in water/i-propanol (IPA) binary media is investigated. Under high IPA content in a dispersing medium, resulting opal film showed a deterioration of long range order, as well as a decreased film thickness due to dilution effect. From the binary liquid, the dried opal films exhibited the unprecedented topological groove patterns with varying periodic distances as a function of alcohol contents in the media. The groove patterns were consisted of the hierarchical structures of the terraced opal layers with periodic thickness variations. The origin of the groove patterns was attributed to a shear-induced periodic instability of colloidal concentration within a thin channel during the coating process which was directly converted to a groove patterns in a resulting opal film due to rapid evaporation of liquid. The groove periods of opal films were in the range of 50-500 μm, and the thickness differences between peak and valley of the groove were significantly large enough to be optically distinguishable, such that the coated films can be utilized as the optical grating film to disperse infra-red light. Utilizing a lowered hydrophilicity of water/IPA dispersant, an opal film could be successfully coated on a flexible Mylar film without significant dewetting problem.

  8. Hierarchically structured self-supported latex films for flexible and semi-transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Törngren, Björn; Rosqvist, Emil; Pesonen, Markus; Peltonen, Jouko

    2016-02-01

    Different length scale alterations in topography, surface texture, and symmetry are known to evoke diverse cell behavior, including adhesion, orientation, motility, cytoskeletal condensation, and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. In this work, self-supported latex films with well-defined isotropic/anisotropic surface features and hierarchical morphologies were fabricated by a peel-off process from different template surfaces. In addition, the latex films were used as substrates for evaporated ultrathin gold films with nominal thicknesses of 10 and 20 nm. Optical properties and topography of the samples were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. The latex films showed high-level transmittance of visible light, enabling the fabrication of semi-transparent gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out for a number of days to investigate the long-term stability of the electrodes. The effect of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and HS(CH2)11OH (MuOH) thiolation and protein (human serum albumin, HSA) adsorption on the impedance and capacitance was studied. In addition, cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were carried out to determine active medicinal components, i.e., caffeic acid with interesting biological activities and poorly water-soluble anti-inflammatory drug, piroxicam. The results show that the fabrication procedure presented in this study enables the formation of platforms with hierarchical morphologies for multimodal (optical and electrical) real-time monitoring of length-scale-dependent biomaterial-surface interactions.

  9. New amperometric glucose biosensor by entrapping glucose oxidase into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Wan-zhi; ZHAI Xiu-rong; ZENG Jin-xiang; GAO Yan-ping; GONG Shu-guo

    2007-01-01

    A new nanocomposite material for construction of glucose biosensor was prepared. The biosensor was formed by entrapping glucose oxidase(Gox) into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film.In this biosensing thin film.the multiwalled carbon nanotubes can effectively catalyze hydrogen peroxide and nanoporous ZrO2, can enhance the stability of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensor provides a very effective matrix for the immobilization of glucose oxidase and exhibits a wide linear response range from 8 μmol/L to 3 mmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.994 for the detection of glucose.And the response time and detection limit of the biosensor are determined to be 6 S and 3.5 μmaol/L.respectively. Another attractive characteristic is that the biosensor is inexpensive. stable and reliable.

  10. Preparation of hierarchically aligned carbon nanotube films using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Kang, Won-Seok; Nam, Gwang-Hyeon; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2009-12-01

    Hierarchically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films over large areas were fabricated by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Thiophenyl-modified SWNTs spreading solution in chloroform was prepared through amidation reaction of oxidized SWNTs. The resulting SWNTs were found to form stable colloidal suspensions in organic solvents, such as chloroform, which is a suitable solvent for the LB application. The compression of the thiophenyl-modified SWNTs spread onto the water surface of an LB trough leading to a uniform SWNT Langmuir monolayer, where SWNTs were aligned parallel to the trough barrier. Optical anisotropy of SWNTs LB films on quartz substrate was confirmed by polarized UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopic measurement. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of the resulting SWNT films, which were parallel to the tube axis, was found to be approximately 15 times higher than those that were perpendicular to the axis, reflecting anisotropic electrical properties due to the uniaxial alignment of individual SWNT bundles.

  11. Facile fabrication of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres film on transparent FTO glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lei, Bing-Xin; Hou, Yuan-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Liang, Chao-Lun; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2010-02-15

    Hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres consisting of nanosheets on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates are successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal synthesis process. The as-prepared novel microsphere films were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Moreover, SnO(2) nanoparticles with 30-80 nm in size covered on the surface of nanosheets/microspheres were also obtained by optimizing the hydrothermal reaction temperature, time, or volume ratio of acetylacetone/H(2)O. The detailed investigations disclose the experimental parameters, such as acetylacetone, NH(4)F, and seed layer play important roles in the morphology of hierarchical SnO(2) microspheres on the FTO glass. The formation process of SnO(2) microspheres is also proposed based on the observations of time dependent samples.

  12. Microstructure analysis and formation mechanism of ZnO nanoporous film via the ultrasonic irradiation mediated SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang-Dong; Li, Xiao-Min; Yu, Wei-Dong; Li, Lei; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Can-Yun

    2006-05-01

    Nanoporous ZnO film was prepared by the stepwise solution route: the ultrasonic irradiation mediated successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The growth of ZnO submicron particles in the film was arrested in the immature status by reducing the deposition cycle from 50 to 30. The morphology and microstructure of individual ZnO submicron particle was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron diffraction. Results reveal that ZnO submicron particle was constituted by numerous nanocrystallites with size of 3-10 nm, and exhibited ordered nanostructure preferably along (0 0 2) plane. The formation mechanism of specific submicron particle on the nanometer level was discussed, emphasizing the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the nucleation and growth of ZnO nanocrystals in zinc-ammonia aqueous system. In addition, effects of NH 3-Zn ratio and pH value in the precursor were examined, which has established the suitable chemical environment for the formation of dense ZnO submicron particles on substrate, and especially provided further experimental proof for the function of ultrasonic irradiation on promoting the nucleation on submicron particles.

  13. Hierarchical pattern formation through photo-induced disorder in block copolymer/additive composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Watkins, James

    2013-03-01

    Segregation strength in hybrid materials can be increased through selective hydrogen bonding between organic or nanoparticle additives and one block of weakly segregated block copolymers to generate well ordered hybrid materials. Here, we report the use of enantiopure tartaric acid as the additive to dramatically improve ordering in poly(ethylene oxide-block-tert-butyl acrylate) (PEO-b-PtBA) copolymers. Phase behavior and morphologies within both bulk and thin films were studied by TEM, AFM and X-ray scattering. Suppression of PEO crystallization by the interaction between tartaric acid and the PEO block enables the formation of well ordered smooth thin films. With the addition of a photo acid generator, photo-induced disorder in PEO-b-PtBA/tartaric acid composite system can be achieved upon UV exposure to deprotect PtBA block to yield poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which is phase-miscible with PEO. Due to the strong interaction of tartaric acid with both blocks, the system undergoes a disordering transition within seconds during a post-exposure baking. With the assistance of trace-amounts of base quencher, high resolution, hierarchical patterns of sub-micron regions of ordered and disordered domains were achieved in thin films through area-selective UV exposure using a photo-mask. Funding from Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing (CHM); Facility support from Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at UMass Amherst and Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

  14. Nanoporous TiO2/polyion thin-film-coated long-period grating sensors for the direct measurement of low-molecular-weight analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Zhu; Dong, Wen-Fei; Meng, Xiang; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Sun, Yun-Lu; Hao, Ya-Wei; Guo, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Yu, Yong-Sen; Song, Jun-Feng; Qi, Zhi-Mei; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2012-06-12

    We present novel nanoporous TiO(2)/polyion thin-film-coated long-period fiber grating (LPFG) sensors for the direct measurement of low-molecular-weight chemicals by monitoring the resonance wavelength shift. The hybrid overlay films are prepared by a simple layer-by-layer deposition approach, which is mainly based on the electrostatic interaction of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyions. By the alternate immersion of LPFG into dispersions of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyions, respectively, the so-formed TiO(2)/polyion thin film exhibits a unique nanoporous internal structure and has a relative higher refractive index than LPFG cladding. In particular, the porosity of the thin film reduces the diffusion coefficient and enhances the permeability retention of low-molecular-weight analytes within the porous film. The increases in the refractive index of the LPFG overlay results in a distinguished modulation of the resonance wavelength. Therefore, the detection sensitivity of LPFG sensors has been greatly improved, according to theoretical simulation. After the structure of the TiO(2)/polyion thin film was optimized, glucose solutions as an example with a low concentration of 10(-7) M was easily detected and monitored at room temperature.

  15. Hierarchically Self-Assembled Nanofiber Films from Amylose-Grafted Carboxymethyl Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hatanaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the formation of hierarchically self-assembled nanofiber films from amylose-grafted sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (NaCMCs that were synthesized by a chemoenzymatic approach. First, maltooligosaccharide primer-grafted NaCMCs were prepared by a chemical reaction using two kinds of NaCMCs with different degrees of polymerization (DPs from Avicel and cotton sources. Then, phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucose 1-phosphate from the nonreducing ends of the primer chains on the products was conducted to produce the prescribed amylose-grafted NaCMCs. The films were obtained by drying aqueous alkaline solutions of the amylose-grafted NaCMCs. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM image of the film fabricated from the material with the higher DP from the cotton source showed a clear, self-assembled, highly condensed tangle of nanofibers. The SEM image of the material with the lower DP from the Avicel source, on the other hand, showed an unclear nanofiber morphology. These results indicate that the DPs of the main chains in the materials strongly affected the hierarchically self-assembled nanofiber formation. The SEM images of the films after washing out the alkali, furthermore, showed that the fibers partially merged with each other at the interfacial area owing to the double helix formation between the amylose-grafted chains. The mechanical properties of the films under tensile mode also depended on the self-assembled morphologies of the amylose-grafted NaCMCs from the different sources.

  16. Hierarchically oriented macroporous anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell with thin ceria electrolyte film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Baker, Jeffrey; Majumdar, Prasun; Yang, Zhibin; Han, Minfang; Chen, Fanglin

    2014-04-09

    Application of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with ceria based electrolyte has often been limited by high cost of electrolyte film fabrication and high electrode polarization. In this study, dense Gd0.1Ce0.9O2 (GDC) thin film electrolytes have been fabricated on hierarchically oriented macroporous NiO-GDC anodes by a combination of freeze-drying tape-casting of the NiO-GDC anode, drop-coating GDC slurry on NiO-GDC anode, and co-firing the electrolyte/anode bilayers. Using 3D X-ray microscopy and subsequent analysis, it has been determined that the NiO-GDC anode substrates have a porosity of around 42% and channel size from around 10 μm at the electrolyte side to around 20 μm at the other side of the NiO-GDC (away from the electrolyte), indicating a hierarchically oriented macroporous NiO-GDC microstructure. Such NiO-GDC microstructure shows a tortuosity factor of ∼1.3 along the thickness direction, expecting to facilitate gas diffusion in the anode during fuel cell operation. SOFCs with such Ni-GDC anode, GDC film (30 μm) electrolyte, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-GDC (LSCF-GDC) cathode show significantly enhanced cell power output of 1.021 W cm(-2) at 600 °C using H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicates a decrease in both activation and concentration polarizations. This study has demonstrated that freeze-drying tape-casting is a very promising approach to fabricate hierarchically oriented porous substrate for SOFC and other applications.

  17. Preparation, structural and electrical properties of zinc oxide grown on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thick film of zinc oxide (ZnO) is grown on a unique silicon substrate with a hierarchical structure,silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA), by using a vapour phase transport method. It is found that as-grown ZnO film is composed of closely packed ZnO crystallites with an average size of ~10 μm. The film resistivity of ZnO/Siheterostructure is measured. Theoretical analysis shows that the carrier transport across ZnO/Si-NPA heterojunction is dominated by two mechanisms, i.e. a thermionic process at high voltages and a quantum tunnelling process at low voltages.

  18. Exploiting the hierarchical morphology of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube films for highly hydrophobic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled hierarchical solid surfaces are very interesting for wetting phenomena, as observed in a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. Here, we report single-walled (SWCNT and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT thin films realized by a simple, rapid, reproducible, and inexpensive filtration process from an aqueous dispersion, that was deposited at room temperature by a dry-transfer printing method on glass. Furthermore, the investigation of carbon nanotube films through scanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals the multi-scale hierarchical morphology of the self-assembled carbon nanotube random networks. Moreover, contact angle measurements show that hierarchical SWCNT/MWCNT composite surfaces exhibit a higher hydrophobicity (contact angles of up to 137° than bare SWCNT (110° and MWCNT (97° coatings, thereby confirming the enhancement produced by the surface hierarchical morphology.

  19. Gyroid nanoporous scaffold for conductive polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars; Zhang, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanoporous polymers with interconnected large surface area have been prepared by depositing polypyrrole onto nanocavity walls of nanoporous 1,2-polybutadiene films with gyroid morphology. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole was used to generate ultrathin films and prevent pore blocking...

  20. Spectrophotochemical and electrochemical characterization of perylene derivatives adsorbed on nanoporous metaloxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, M.; Demic, S.; Zafer, C.; Saygili, G.; Bilgili, H.; Icli, S.

    2007-03-01

    Electrochemistry of perylene imide and anhydride derivatives adsorbed on semiconductor TiO{2} (NT) and insulator Al{2}O{3} (NA) metal oxide films were presented. Adsorption rates on metal oxide surface are observed to be strongly depending on molecular structure. Monoanhydride-monoimide derivatives show two reversible reductions in solution and one reversible reduction in films. Color change from red to blue and violet is observed indicating the formation of monoanion and dianion radicals. Spectroelectrochemical measurements support this interpretation. The color reversal is quite stable in NA films in comparison with NT films. This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  1. Unusual dealloying effect in gold/copper alloy thin films: the role of defects and column boundaries in the formation of nanoporous gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Boukli-Hacene, Farah; Molina-Luna, Leopoldo; Bouts, Nicolas; Chauvin, Adrien; Thiry, Damien; Gautron, Eric; Gautier, Nicolas; Tessier, Pierre-Yves

    2015-02-04

    Understanding the dealloying mechanisms of gold-based alloy thin films resulting in the formation of nanoporous gold with a sponge-like structure is essential for the future design and integration of this novel class of material in practical devices. Here we report on the synthesis of nanoporous gold thin films using a free-corrosion approach in nitric acid applied to cosputtered Au-Cu thin films. A relationship is established between the as-grown Au-Cu film characteristics (i.e., composition, morphology, and structure) and the porosity of the sponge-like gold thin films. We further demonstrate that the dealloying approach can be applied to nonhomogenous Au-Cu alloy thin films consisting of periodic and alternate Au-rich/Au-poor nanolayers. In such a case, however, the dealloying process is found to be altered and unusual etching stages arise. Thanks to defects and column boundaries playing the role of channels, the nitric acid is found to quickly penetrate within the films and then laterally (i.e., parallel to the film surface) attacks the nanolayers rather than perpendicularly. As a consequence to this anisotropic etching, the Au-poor layers are etched preferentially and transform into Au pillars holding the Au-rich layers and preventing them against collapsing. A further exposure to nitric acid results in the collapsing of the Au-rich layers accompanied by a transition from a multilayered to a sponge-like structure. A scenario, supported by experimental observations, is further proposed to provide a detailed explanation of the fundamental mechanisms occurring during the dealloying process of films with a multilayered structure.

  2. Fabrication of regular TiO2 nanoporous films derived by combining nanoimprint technique with sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peng; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, honeycomb-like regular TiO2 nanoporous films deposited on different substrates including ITO glass and silicon wafer are fabricated by combining a nanoimprint technique with a sol-gel method. A novel soft polymer mold containing a thin layer of polymethylmethacrylate and a thicker layer of polydimethylsiloxane, which is obtained from an anodic aluminum oxide template, is carried out for the nanoimprint process. TiO2 precursor solution prepared by the sol-gel processing is used as the nanoimprinted material. After imprinting, the polydimethylsiloxane back layer is easily peeled off before the polymethylmethacrylate mold is chemically removed to avoid any demolding problem. The SEM images show that the honeycomb-like regular nanostructure of the initial anodic aluminum oxide template can be preserved completely on TiO2 via this method, and the XRD results indicate that there is a crystalline transition from amorphous to anatase of TiO2 after 450 degrees C heat treatment.

  3. Synthesis, Humidity Sensing, Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Properties of Thin Film Nanoporous PbWO4-WO3 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markasagayam Visagamani Arularasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A humidity sensor thin film based on nanoporous PbWO4-WO3 composites has been prepared by spin coating technique with different weight ratio of PbWO4 (Pb and WO3 (WO (PWWO-01, PWWO-82, PWWO-64, PWWO-46, PWWO-28, PWWO-01 and their humidity sensing properties have also been investigated at different relative humidity (RH in the range of 5% - 98% at room temperature with dc resistance. It is found that composite PWWO-28 show best humidity sensing properties with the sensitivity factor value of (Sf 3733. The response and recovery time of humidity sensor are about 50 s and 120 s, respectively. High sensitivity, narrow hysteresis loop, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability and good repeatability are obtained. Synthesized PbWO4-WO3 composites were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, BET and photoluminescence studies. The photocatalytic result demonstrated photocatalytic efficiency of nonporous PWWO-28 composite.  The antimicrobial activity of the composites was determined by disc diffusion method.

  4. Fabrication of platinum coated nanoporous gold film electrode: A nanostructured ultra low-platinum loading electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani, Abolfazl; Hatami, Somayeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    The electrolytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on platinum coated nanoporous gold film (PtNPGF) electrode is demonstrated. The deposition of platinum occurred as a spontaneous redox process in which a copper layer, obtained by underpotential deposition, was oxidized by platinum ions, which were reduced and simultaneously deposited. The present method could provide a very low Pt-loading electrode and the results demonstrated that ultra thin Pt coating effected efficiently and behaved as the nanostructured Pt for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. The loading of Pt was calculated as 4.2 x 10{sup -3} {mu}g cm{sup -2} for PtNPGF electrode. The current density at -0.4 V and -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl was as high as 0.66 A {mu}g{sup -1} Pt and 3 A {mu}g{sup -1} Pt, respectively and the j{sub 0} was evaluated as 0.03 mA cm{sup -2} or 8 mA {mu}g{sup -1} Pt. The results indicated that increasing electrode area had no catalytic effect, but the nanostructure nature of as-fabricated electrode and submonolayer deposition of copper resulted in electrocatalytic activity for PtNPGF electrode. (author)

  5. Formation of hierarchical porous graphene films with defects using a nanosecond laser on polyimide sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangcheng; Wang, Kedian; Dong, Xia; Mei, Xuesong; Zhai, Zhaoyang; Zheng, Buxiang; Lv, Jing; Duan, Wenqiang; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-10-01

    The cost of effective preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials is a challenge in high-performance flexible electrodes. We demonstrated the formation of hierarchical porous graphene (HPG) films with defects from polyimide (PI) sheets using a high repetition rate nanosecond fiber laser. The honeycomb structure with mesopores and macropores can be rapidly induced on the polyimide by the localized focused laser beam in air atmosphere. Employing laser direct writing method, the one-step synthesis and patterning of conductive HPG films were achieved directly on the surface of polyimide sheets. The results show that the unique honeycomb porous structure on HPG film is composed of few-layer graphene or graphene stacks. The lattice structure of graphene nanoplatelets contains the Stone-Wales defects. Furthermore, there are a lot of small-size graphene nanoplatelets on the surface of HPG films with high content of edge defects. These two defects can not only enhance the adsorption without compromising on high diffusivity of ions, but also contribute to the infiltration and flow of electrolyte on the surface of electrode. The proposed one-step laser direct writing technique with highly valuable suitable for developing large-scale fabrication of conductive HPG based flexible electrodes at low-cost.

  6. Template-mediated, Hierarchical Engineering of Ordered Mesoporous Films and Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zheng

    Hierarchical control over pore size, pore topology, and meso/mictrostructure as well as material morphology (e.g., powders, monoliths, thin films) is crucial for meeting diverse materials needs among applications spanning next generation catalysts, sensors, batteries, sorbents, etc. The overarching goal of this thesis is to establish fundamental mechanistic insight enabling new strategies for realizing such hierarchical textural control for carbon materials that is not currently achievable with sacrificial pore formation by 'one-pot' surfactant-based 'soft'-templating or multi-step inorganic 'hard-templating. While 'hard'-templating is often tacitly discounted based upon its perceived complexity, it offers potential for overcoming key 'soft'-templating challenges, including bolstering pore stability, accommodating a more versatile palette of replica precursors, realizing ordered/spanning porosity in the case of porous thin films, simplifying formation of bi-continuous pore topologies, and inducing microstructure control within porous replica materials. In this thesis, we establish strategies for hard-templating of hierarchically porous and structured carbon powders and tunable thin films by both multi-step hard-templating and a new 'one-pot' template-replica precursor co-assembly process. We first develop a nominal hard-templating technique to successfully prepare three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous (3DOm) and 3DOm-supported microporous carbon thin films by exploiting our ability to synthesize and assemble size-tunable silica nanoparticles into scalable, colloidal crystalline thin film templates of tunable mono- to multi-layer thickness. This robust thin film template accommodates liquid and/or vapor-phase infiltration, polymerization, and pyrolysis of various carbon sources without pore contraction and/or collapse upon template sacrifice. The result is robust, flexible 3DOm or 3DOm-supported ultra-thin microporous films that can be transferred by stamp

  7. Active Antifogging Property of Monolayer SiO2 Film with Bioinspired Multiscale Hierarchical Pagoda Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Li, Bo; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2016-09-27

    Antifogging surfaces with hydrophilic or even superhydrophilic wetting behavior have received significant attention due to their ability to reduce light scattering by film-like condensation. However, a major challenge remains in achieving high-speed antifogging performance and revealing the hydrophilic-based antifogging mechanism of glass or other transparent materials under aggressive fogging conditions. Herein, with inspiration from the fog-free property of the typical Morpho menelaus terrestris butterfly (Butler, 1866) wing scales, a monolayer SiO2 film with multiscale hierarchical pagoda structures (MHPSs) based on glass substrate was designed and fabricated using an optimized biotemplate-assisted wet chemical method without any post-treatments. The biomimetic monolayer film (BMF) composed of nanoscale SiO2 3D networks displayed excellent antifogging properties, which is superior to that of the glass substrate itself. The MHPS-based BMF even kept high transmittance (∼95%) under aggressive fog conditions, and it almost instantaneously recovered to a fog-free state (properties mainly benefit from the synergistic effect of both hydrophilic chemical compositions (nanoscale SiO2) and physical structures (biomimetic MHPSs) of the BMF. High-speed active antifogging performance of the glass materials enabled the retention of a high transmittance property even in humid conditions, heralding reliable optical performance in outdoor practical applications, especially in aggressive foggy environments. More importantly, the investigations in this work offer a promising way to handily design and fabricate quasi-textured surfaces with multiscale hierarchical structures that possess high-performance physicochemical properties.

  8. Organic-inorganic Hybrids Towards the Preparation of Nanoporous Composite Thin Films for Microelectronic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon containing materials have traditionally been used in microelectronic fabrication. Semiconductor devices often have one or more arrays of patterned interconnect levels that serve to electrically couple the individual circuit elements forming an integrated circuit. These interconnect levels are typically separated by an insulating or dielectric film. Previously, a silicon oxide film was the most commonly used material for such dielectric films having dielectric constants(k) near 4. 0. However, as the feature size is continuously scaling down, the relatively high k of such silicon oxide films became inadequate to provide efficient electrical insulation. As such, there has been an increasing market demand for materials with even lower dielectric constant for Interlayer Dielectric (ILD) applications, yet retaining thermal and mechanical integrity. We wish to report here our investigations on the preparation of ultra-low k ILD materials using a sacrificial approach whereby organic groups are burnt out to generate low k porous ORMOSIL films. We have been able to prepare a variety of organically modified silicone resins leading to highly microporous thin films, exhibiting ultra-low k from 1.80 to 2.87, and good to high modulus, 1.5 to 5.5 Gpa. Structure property influences on porosity, dielectric constant and modulus will be discussed.

  9. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...... functional nanoporous polymers based on nanoporous 1,2- polybuatdiene 1,2-PB, which is derived from a 1,2-PB-b-PDMS diblock copolymer precursor. As a result, nanoporous 1,2-PB with pores decorated of polyacrylates, sulfonated polymers and poly(ethylene glycol) are created. A method of vapor phase deposition...... has also been generated to obtain nanoporous polymers with functional coatings on pore walls. Vapor phase polymerization of pyrrole is performed to incorporate an ultra thin film of polypyrrole into nanoporous 1,2-PB. The preliminary test shows that nanoporous 1,2-PB gains conductivity. Generally...

  10. Durable polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films with a hierarchical structure by sol-gel and heat treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenlin; Fang, Shuying; Wang, Chaosheng; Wang, Huaping; Ji, Chengchang

    2016-12-01

    For a surface to be superhydrophobic a combination of surface roughness and low surface energy is required. In this study, polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using a sol-gel and heat treatment process followed by coating with a nanosilica (SiO2) sol and organosiloxane 1, 1, 1, 3, 5, 5, 5-heptamethyl-3-[2-(trimethoxysilyl)ethyl]-trisiloxane (β-HPEOs). The nano-structure was superimposed using self-assembled, surface-modified silica nanoparticles, forming two-dimensional hierarchical structures. The water contact angle (WCA) of polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic surface was 143.7 ± 0.6°, which was further increased to 156.7 ± 1.1° with water angle hysteresis of 2.5 ± 0.6° by superimposing nanoparticles using a heat treatment process. An analytical characterization of the surface revealed that the nano-silica and polyorganosiloxane formed a micro/nano structure on the films and the wetting behaviour of the films changed from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic. The WCA of these films were 143.7 ± 0.6° and at heat treatment temperatures of less than 400 °C, the WCA increased from 144.5 ± 0.7° to 156.7 ± 1.1°. The prepared superhydrophobic films were stable even after heat treatment at 430 °C for 30 min and their superhydrophobicity was durable for more than 120 days. The effects of heat treatment process on the surface chemistry structure, wettability and morphology of the polyorganosiloxane superhydrophobic films were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the stability of the chemical structure was required to yield a thermally-stable superhydrophobic surface.

  11. Nanoporous Thin Film Templates for the Fabrication of Nanowires and Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Kirill

    2011-01-01

    of nanowires or nanotubes are obtained. Such arrays can be subsequently integrated into e.g. solar cells and other electronic devices. This thesis is focused on the fabrication of thin-film porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates on different substrates. The fabrication of organic nanowires and nanotubes via....... The prepared thin-film PAA templates were directly used for the fabrication of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanotubes by means of melt-assisted wetting. Different architectures of solar cells based on P3HT nanotube arrays and thin films of PCBM were considered. Additionally, 1D nanostructures from P3HT, poly......The method of template wetting allows one to fabricate highly ordered arrays of upright standing nanowires or nanotubes from different materials in a controllable manner. In this method, a porous template is filled by an appropriate solution or melt. After selective removal of the template, arrays...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous anodic oxide film on aluminum in H3PO4 + KMnO4 electrolyte mixture at different anodization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Naveen; Jindal, Jitender; Singh, Krishan Chander; Mari, Bernabe

    2016-04-01

    The micro structural properties of nanoporous anodic oxide film formed in H3PO4 were highly influenced by addition of a low concentration of KMnO4 (0.0005 M) in 1 M H3PO4 solution. The KMnO4 as additive enhanced the growth rate of oxide film formation as well as thickness of pore walls. Furthermore the growth rate was found increased with increase in applied current density. The increase in temperature and lack of stirring during anodization causes the thinness of pore wall which leads to increase in pore volume. With the decrease in concentration of H3PO4 in anodizing electrolyte from 1M to 0.3 M, keeping all other conditions constant, the decrease in porosity was observed. This might be due to the dissolution of aluminium oxide film in highly concentrated acidic solution.

  13. Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Bo; Wu Guojun; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Su Zhaohui, E-mail: zhsu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Low dielectric (low-{kappa}) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-{kappa} polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-{kappa} polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

  14. Aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film for high-performance direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye, E-mail: zhuye@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Chuqing; Yan, Xupeng; Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang@tjut.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy Materials & Low-Carbon Technologies, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-07-09

    Highlights: • NPGF exhibits excellent catalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA. • The perfect combination of NPGF with aptamer ensures high sensitivity and selectivity. • The detection limit is determined to be 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. • The detection limit is 15-fold lower than gold nanoparticle-based sensor. • The sensor was successfully applied to detect BPA in human serum samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film (NPGF) was successfully developed for direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA). NPGF was prepared by dealloying Ag from Au/Ag alloy leaf in concentrated nitric acid. The obtained NPGF was attached onto glassy carbon electrode and then was functionalized with BPA-specific aptamer via the formation of Au−S bond. The fabrication of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NPGF exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA, which ensured high sensitivity of the sensor. The aptamer-captured BPA showed a pair of redox peaks around 0.35/0.28 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The experimental parameters in terms of aptamer concentration, reaction time, pH, and temperature were optimized. The calibration plot showed a linear range from 0.1 nM to 100 nM BPA with a remarkable detection limit of 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. Particularly, the successful application of the developed sensor for the detection of BPA in human serum samples suggests its promising potential for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Improved optical properties of silica/UV-cured polymer composite films made of hollow silica nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure for light diffuser film applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthabanditpong, W; Takai, C; Fuji, M; Buntem, R; Shirai, T

    2016-06-28

    This study successfully improved the optical properties of silica/UV-cured polymer composite films made of hollow silica nanoparticles having a hierarchical structure. The particles were synthesized by an inorganic particle method, which involves two steps of sol-gel silica coating around the template and acid dissolution removal of the template. The pH of the acid was varied to achieve different hierarchical structures of the particles. The morphologies and surface properties of the obtained particles were characterized before dispersing in a UV-curable acrylate monomer solution to prepare dispersions for fabricating light diffuser films. The optical properties and the light diffusing ability of the fabricated films were studied. The results revealed that the increased pH of the acid provides the particles with a thinner shell, a larger hollow interior and a higher specific surface area. Moreover, the films with these particles exhibit a better light diffusing ability and a higher diffuse transmittance value when compared to those without particles. Therefore, the composite films can be used as light diffuser films, which is an essential part of optical diffusers in the back-light unit of LCDs. In addition, utilizing the hierarchical particles probably reduces the number of back-light units in the LCDs leading to energy-savings and subsequently lightweight LCDs.

  16. Optimized nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

  17. Sol-Gel Processing of Low Dielectric Constant Nanoporous Silica Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    under the influence of attractive van der Waals forces. Spin coating has been used to deposit the porous thin silica films on desired substrates. This...for spin coating using a Model PC 101 spinner by Headway Research, Inc. All the wafers were used as-received without any pretreatment process... spin coating . Spin coating did not start until the solution reached the about-to-gel point, approximately 6/7 of its gelation time. After spin

  18. Hydrothermal deposition and photochromic performances of three kinds of hierarchical structure arrays of WO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Defang; Shen, Yi, E-mail: sysy7373@163.com; Ouyang, Yali; Li, Zhen

    2012-10-01

    Three kinds of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) thin films have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal deposition method. Scanning electron microscopy images of the products revealed that the capping agents did impact the microstructure of WO{sub 3} films. Films prepared without capping agents were ordered nanorod arrays, while the ones obtained with ethanol and oxalic acid revealed peeled-orange-like and cauliflower-like hierarchical structure arrays, respectively. Both of the two hierarchical structures were composed of much thinner nanorods compared with the one obtained without capping agents. All the WO{sub 3} films exhibited good photochromic properties and the two with inducers performed even better, which could be due to the changes in the microstructure that increased the amount of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and the proton diffusion rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ordered WO{sub 3} nanorod arrays were prepared by hydrothermal deposition process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two hierarchical WO{sub 3} structure arrays were obtained with ethanol and oxalic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism for the improved photochromic performances of WO{sub 3} films is proposed.

  19. A direct assay of carboxyl-containing small molecules by SALDI-MS on a AgNP/rGO-based nanoporous hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min; Xu, Lidan; Wang, Fangli; Geng, Zhirong; Li, Haibo; Wang, Huaisheng; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-04-25

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nanoporous structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic self-assembly have been applied as a simple platform for the rapid analysis of carboxyl-containing small molecules by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (D/I) mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). By the simple one-step deposition of analytes onto the (AgNP/rGO)9 multilayer film, the MS measurements of various carboxyl-containing small molecules (including amino acids, fatty acids and organic dicarboxylic acids) can be done. In contrast to other energy transfer materials relative to AgNPs, the signal interferences of a Ag cluster (Agn(+) or Agn(-)) and a C cluster (Cn(+) or Cn(-)) have been effectively reduced or eliminated. The effects of various factors, such as the pore structure and composition of the substrates, on the efficiency of D/I have been investigated by comparing with the (AgNP)9 LBL nanoporous structure, (AgNP/rGO)9/(SiO2NP)6 LBL multilayer film and AgNP/prGO nanocomposites.

  20. Gas sensing and conductivity relationship on nanoporous thin films: A CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, A.A., E-mail: aafelixy@yahoo.com.br; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Orlandi, M.O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO) thin films were synthesized with the polymeric precursor method and characterized by structural (X-ray diffraction) and morphological (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. These films were composed of a single CCTO phase and presented high surface porosity. The gas sensing response and conductivity-type relationship were investigated by two different approaches. Gas sensing measurements performed at different temperatures using different atmospheres showed that the CCTO has n-type gas sensing behavior and can detect small amounts of oxidizing gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The type of intrinsic conductivity was also investigated through thermopower measurements, which indicated intrinsic n-type conductivity in CCTO thin films prepared with the polymeric precursor method and confirmed the direct relationship between the gas sensing behavior and the intrinsic conductivity of CCTO. - Highlights: • Nanoporous gas sensing CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} thin films • CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} thin films are prepared with the polymeric precursor method • Films exhibited n-type gas sensing behavior and high sensitivity to oxidizing gases. • Gas sensing and conductivity relationship is established.

  1. Fabrication of monometallic (Co, Pd, Pt, Au) and bimetallic (Pt/Au, Au/Pt) thin films with hierarchical architectures as electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cuicui; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2010-05-01

    Co thin films with novel hierarchical structures were controllably fabricated by simple electrochemical deposition in the absence of hard and soft templates, which were used as sacrificial templates to further prepare noble metal (Pd, Pt, Au) hierarchical micro/nanostructures via metal exchange reactions. SEM characterization demonstrated that the resulting noble metal thin films displayed hierarchical architectures. The as-prepared noble metal thin films could be directly used as the anode catalysts for the electro-oxidation of formic acid. Moreover, bimetallic catalysts (Pt/Au, Au/Pt) fabricated based on the monometallic Au, Pt micro/nanostructures exhibited the higher catalytic activity compared to the previous monometallic catalysts.

  2. Designing robust alumina nanowires-on-nanopores structures: superhydrophobic surfaces with slippery or sticky water adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shan; Tian, Dong; Miao, Xinrui; Yang, Xiaojun; Deng, Wenli

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical alumina surfaces with different morphologies were fabricated by a simple one-step anodization method. These alumina films were fabricated by a new raw material: silica gel plate (aluminum foil with a low purity of 97.17%). The modulation of anodizing time enabled the formation of nanowires-on-nanopores hybrid nanostructures having controllable nanowires topographies through a self-assembly process. The resultant structures were demonstrated to be able to achieve superhydrophobicity without any hydrophobic coating layer. More interestingly, it is found that the as-prepared superhydrophobic alumina surfaces exhibited high contrast water adhesion. Hierarchical alumina film with nanowire bunches-on-nanopores (WBOP) morphology presents extremely slippery property which can obtain a sliding angle (SA) as low as 1°, nanowire pyramids-on-nanopores (WPOP) structure shows strongly sticky water adhesion with the adhesive ability to support 15 μL inverted water droplet at most. The obtained superhydrophobic alumina surfaces show remarkable mechanical durability even treated by crimping or pressing without impact on the water-repellent performance. Moreover, the created surfaces also show excellent resistivity to ice water, boiling water, high temperature, organic solvent and oil contamination, which could expand their usefulness and efficacy in harsh conditions.

  3. Anodized Nanoporous Titania Thin Films for Dental Application: Structure’ Effect on Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boucheham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. For this purpose, we aimed to study in the current work the structural and electrochemical properties of amorphous and crystallized nanostructured TiO2 thin films elaborated on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrochemical anodization in fluoride ions (F– containing electrolyte at 10 V during 15 min and heat treated in air at 550 °C for 2 h. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of synthesized layers were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The corrosion resistance improvement of both as-anodized and annealed titania layers was evaluated in 0.9 wt. % NaCl solution with pH = 6.4 at room temperature by means of open circuit potential (Eoc,potentiodynamic polarization (PDYN and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.

  4. Construction of hierarchical porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} films composed of nanowalls as cathode materials for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Qingyun, E-mail: hizhengqingyun@126.com; Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} mesowall films exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for supercapacitor application. - Highlights: • Hierarchical porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanowall films are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanowall films show excellent electrochemical performance. • Hierarchical porous film structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Hierarchical porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} films composed of nanowalls on nickel foam are synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. Besides the mesoporous walls, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanowalls are interconnected with each other to form hierarchical porous structure. These unique porous structured films possess a high specific surface area. The supercapacitor performance of the hierarchical porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} film is fully characterized. A high capacity of 130 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} with 97% capacity maintained after 2,000 cycles. Importantly, 75.6% of capacity is retained when the current density changes from 3 A g{sup −1} to 36 A g{sup −1}. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique hierarchical porous structure with large surface area as well as shorter diffusion length for ion and charge transport.

  5. Fabrication of flexible hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber films for application in binder-free supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kaibing, E-mail: kbhuang8888@163.com; Yao, Yiyuan; Yang, Xiuwen; Chen, Zhenhua; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (HPNCNF) films were prepared via a simple electrospinning process, in which polyacrylonitrile and silicone surfactants were adopted as carbon source and porogen, respectively, followed by a thermal treatment. The morphology, chemical composition, and porosity of the HPNCNFs were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments. The as-prepared HPNCNFs with a specific surface area of 656 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, a hierarchical pore structure, and a nitrogen content of 8.1 at% showed a specific capacitance of 289 F g{sup −1} in a 6 mol L{sup −1} KOH aqueous solution with excellent cycle durability, making HPNCNF films a promising electrode material for a future application in supercapacitors. - Highlights: • HPNCNF films are prepared by electrospinning followed by thermal treatment. • Silicone surfactants are adopted as porogen to prepare HPNCNF films. • The HPNCNF films show a specific capacitance of 289 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1}.

  6. Nanoporous gold on three-dimensional nickel foam: An efficient hybrid electrode for hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xi; Xu, Yantong; Yu, Changchun; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Guofeng; Higgins, Drew; Li, Qing; Wu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    A hybrid structure of nanoporous gold (NPG) on three-dimensional (3D) macroporous Ni foam has been synthesized by electrodeposition of Au-Sn alloy film followed by a facile chemical dealloying process under free corrosion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the morphology and structure of the NPG/Ni foam hybrids. It is shown that the Ni foam skeletons are uniformly wrapped by the NPG film which is composed of bicontinuous nanostructures consisting of interconnected ligaments and nanopores. Electroreduction of H2O2 on the NPG/Ni foam hybrid electrode in acid media is investigated by linear scan voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that such hierarchical porous electrode displays superior activity, durability and mass transport property for H2O2 electroreduction. These results demonstrate the potential of the NPG/Ni foam hybrid electrodes for the applications in fuel cell technology.

  7. Hierarchical nanocomposites of vanadium oxide thin film anchored on graphene as high-performance cathodes in li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Fei; Zhang, Hangyu; Liu, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Stanciu, Lia; Xie, Jian

    2014-11-12

    Hierarchical nanocomposites of V2O5 thin film anchored on graphene sheets were prepared by slow hydrolysis of vanadyl triisobutoxide on graphene oxide followed by thermal treatment. The nanocomposite possessed a hierarchical structure of thin V2O5 film uniformly grown on graphene, leading to a high specific surface area and a good electronic/ionic conducting path. When used as the cathode material, the graphene/V2O5 nanosheet nanocomposites exhibit higher specific capacity, better rate performance, and longer cycle life, as compared to the pure V2O5. The nanocomposite cathode was able to deliver a specific capacity of 243 mAh/g, 191 mAh/g, and 86 mAh/g at a current density of 50 mA/g, 500 mA/g, and 15 A/g, respectively. Even after 300 cycles at 500 mA/g, the composite electrode still exhibited a specific capacity of ∼ 122 mAh/g, which corresponds to ∼ 64% of its initial capacity. This enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to facile electron transport between graphene and V2O5, fast Li-ion diffusion within the electrode, the high surface area of the composites, and a pore structure that can accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation, which results from the unique hierarchical nanostructure of the V2O5 anchored on graphene.

  8. Superhydrophobic hierarchical structures produced through novel low-cost stamp fabrication and hot embossing of thermoplastic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hee; Han, Sol Yi; Kim, Kwang; Kim, Wook Bae [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Dong [SNDENG Co., Ltd., Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We present a simple and cost-effective method to produce super hydrophobic surfaces in thermoplastic polymer substrates, which contain hierarchical micro/nano structures that resemble lotus leaves. The method involved the fabrication of an Al stamp through the sequential application of laser ablation and anodization to create micro- and nano-structures, respectively. The fabricated patterns on the Al stamp were replicated on the thermoplastic Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film surfaces through a hot embossing technique. Static water contact angles were measured to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the patterned COC surfaces. The static water contact angle on the micro/nano hierarchical structured COC surface was measured to be 162.3 .deg. on average. The hot embossing process was repeated 31 times with a nano-structured Al stamp, and the replicated COC surfaces showed consistent water contact angles.

  9. Schottky junction/ohmic contact behavior of a nanoporous TiO(2) thin film photoanode in contact with redox electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masao; Ueno, Hirohito; Nemoto, Junichi

    2011-01-01

    The nature and photoelectrochemical reactivity of nanoporous semiconductor electrodes have attracted a great deal of attention. Nanostructured materials have promising capabilities applicable for the construction of various photonic and electronic devices. In this paper, a mesoporous TiO(2) thin film photoanode was soaked in an aqueous methanol solution using an O(2)-reducing Pt-based cathode in contact with atmospheric air on the back side. It was shown from distinct photocurrents in the cyclic voltammogram (CV) that the nanosurface of the mesoporous n-TiO(2) film forms a Schottky junction with water containing a strong electron donor such as methanol. Formation of a Schottky junction (liquid junction) was also proved by Mott-Schottky plots at the mesoporous TiO(2) thin film photoanode, and the thickness of the space charge layer was estimated to be very thin, i.e., only 3.1 nm at -0.1 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the other hand, the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) and the absence of methanol brought about ohmic contact behavior on the TiO(2) film and exhibited reversible redox waves in the dark due to the [Fe(CN)(6)](4-/3-) couple. Further studies showed that multiple Schottky junctions/ohmic contact behavior inducing simultaneously both photocurrent and overlapped reversible redox waves was found in the CV of a nanoporous TiO(2) photoanode soaked in an aqueous redox electrolyte solution containing methanol and [Fe(CN)(6)](4-). That is, the TiO(2) nanosurface responds to [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) to give ohmic redox waves overlapped simultaneously with photocurrents due to the Schottky junction. Additionally, a second step photocurrent generation was observed in the presence of both MeOH and [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) around the redox potential of the iron complex. It was suggested that the iron complex forms a second Schottky junction for which the flat band potential (E(fb)) lies near the redox potential of the iron complex.

  10. Schottky junction/ohmic contact behavior of a nanoporous TiO2 thin film photoanode in contact with redox electrolyte solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kaneko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and photoelectrochemical reactivity of nanoporous semiconductor electrodes have attracted a great deal of attention. Nanostructured materials have promising capabilities applicable for the construction of various photonic and electronic devices. In this paper, a mesoporous TiO2 thin film photoanode was soaked in an aqueous methanol solution using an O2-reducing Pt-based cathode in contact with atmospheric air on the back side. It was shown from distinct photocurrents in the cyclic voltammogram (CV that the nanosurface of the mesoporous n-TiO2 film forms a Schottky junction with water containing a strong electron donor such as methanol. Formation of a Schottky junction (liquid junction was also proved by Mott–Schottky plots at the mesoporous TiO2 thin film photoanode, and the thickness of the space charge layer was estimated to be very thin, i.e., only 3.1 nm at −0.1 V vs Ag/AgCl. On the other hand, the presence of [Fe(CN6]4− and the absence of methanol brought about ohmic contact behavior on the TiO2 film and exhibited reversible redox waves in the dark due to the [Fe(CN6]4−/3− couple. Further studies showed that multiple Schottky junctions/ohmic contact behavior inducing simultaneously both photocurrent and overlapped reversible redox waves was found in the CV of a nanoporous TiO2 photoanode soaked in an aqueous redox electrolyte solution containing methanol and [Fe(CN6]4−. That is, the TiO2 nanosurface responds to [Fe(CN6]4− to give ohmic redox waves overlapped simultaneously with photocurrents due to the Schottky junction. Additionally, a second step photocurrent generation was observed in the presence of both MeOH and [Fe(CN6]4− around the redox potential of the iron complex. It was suggested that the iron complex forms a second Schottky junction for which the flat band potential (Efb lies near the redox potential of the iron complex.

  11. Direct synthesis of large-scale hierarchical MoS2 films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Saifeng; Chen, Bohua; Wang, Hao; Wu, Kan; Chen, Yang; Fan, Jintai; Qi, Shen; Cui, Xiaoli; Zhang, Long; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical MoS2 thin films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers were designed and excellent passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser was demonstrated. A special solvothermal system containing a small amount of water was applied to synthesize such hierarchical MoS2 nanofilms, in which the reaction rate is carefully controlled by the diffusion rate of the sulfur precursor. Wafer-scale MoS2 thin films with hierarchical structures are formed on various substrates. Moreover, the hierarchical MoS2 thin films consisting of both vertical and horizontal layers can be tuned to possess only horizontally aligned layers by controlling the solvothermal time. To show the potential application proof-of-concept, the nonlinear optical performance of the hierarchical MoS2 was investigated. Superior passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser with a minimum pulse width of 2.2 μs was observed.Hierarchical MoS2 thin films nanostructured with orthogonally oriented vertically and horizontally aligned layers were designed and excellent passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser was demonstrated. A special solvothermal system containing a small amount of water was applied to synthesize such hierarchical MoS2 nanofilms, in which the reaction rate is carefully controlled by the diffusion rate of the sulfur precursor. Wafer-scale MoS2 thin films with hierarchical structures are formed on various substrates. Moreover, the hierarchical MoS2 thin films consisting of both vertical and horizontal layers can be tuned to possess only horizontally aligned layers by controlling the solvothermal time. To show the potential application proof-of-concept, the nonlinear optical performance of the hierarchical MoS2 was investigated. Superior passive Q-switching behavior in a fiber laser with a minimum pulse width of 2.2 μs was observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05938k

  12. TiO2 hierarchical porous film constructed by ultrastable foams as photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; He, Xuan; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hui; Li, Weixin; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Wanqiu; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Huan

    2016-11-01

    It reported a novel and simple method for the first time to prepare TiO2 hierarchical porous film (THPF) using ultrastable foams as a soft template to construct porous structures. Moreover, dodecanol as one foam component was creatively used as solvent during the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to decrease reaction temperature and simplify precipitation process. The result showed that hierarchical pores in scale of microns introduced by foams were regarded to benefit for high coverage and unimodal distribution of QDs on the surface of THPF to increase the efficiencies of light-harvesting, charge-collection and charge-transfer. The increased efficiencies caused an enhancement in quantum efficiency of the cell and thus remarkably increased the short circuit current density (Jsc). In addition, the decrease of charge recombination resulted in the increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc) as well. The QDSSC based on THPF exhibited about 2-fold higher power conversion efficiency (η = 2.20%, Jsc = 13.82 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.572 V) than that of TiO2 nanoparticles film (TNF) (η = 1.06%, Jsc = 6.70 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.505 V). It provided a basis to use foams both as soft template and carrier to realize simultaneously construction and in-situ sensitization of photoanode in further work.

  13. Applying graphene oxide nano-film over a polycarbonate nanoporous membrane to monitor E. coli by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna Pal; Dhek, Neeraj Singh; Nehra, Anuj; Ahlawat, Sweeti; Puri, Anu

    2017-01-01

    Nano-biosensors are excellent monitoring tools for rapid, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, in-field, on-line, and/or real-time detection of pathogens in foods, soil, air, and water samples. A variety of nano-materials (metallic, polymeric, and/or carbon-based) were employed to enhance the efficacy, efficiency, and sensitivity of these nano-biosensors, including graphene-based materials, especially graphene oxide (GO)-based materials. GO bears many oxygen-bearing groups, enabling ligand conjugation at the high density critical for sensitive detection. We have fabricated GO-modified nano-porous polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes that were conjugated to an Escherichia coli-specific antibody (Ab) and used to detect E. coli. The random distribution of nanopores on the PCTE membrane surface and the bright coating of the GO onto the membrane were confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Anti-E. coli β-gal Abs were conjugated to the GO surface via 1-ethyl-3,3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride-N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry; antibody coating was confirmed by the presence of a characteristic IR peak near 1600 cm- 1. A non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas) was used as a negative control under identical conditions. When E. coli interacted anti-E.coli β-gal with Ab-coated GO-nano-biosensor units, we observed a clear shift in the IR peak from 3373.14 to 3315 cm- 1; in contrast, we did not observe any shift in IR peaks when the GO unit was coated with the non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas). Therefore, the detection of E. coli using the described GO-nano-sensor unit is highly specific, is highly selective and can be applied for real-time monitoring of E. coli with a detection limit between 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, similar to existing detection systems.

  14. Photoinduced superhydrophilicity of TiO2 thin film with hierarchical Cu doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Liu, Yun Wang, Xinli Peng, Yabin Li, Zhichao Liu, Chengcheng Liu, Jing Ya and Yizhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic Cu–TiO2 thin films with a gradient in the Cu concentration were prepared on glass by layer-by-layer dip-coating from TiO2 precursors. The effects of the Cu doping on the structure and properties of TiO2 self-cleaning thin films are discussed. The Cu gradient markedly affects the hydrophilicity of the films, with the water contact angle significantly reduced compared with those of the pure or uniformly doped TiO2 thin films. This enhanced hydrophilicity is explained by the more efficient absorption of the solar light and by the reduced recombination of photoexcited electrons and holes in the TiO2 films containing a gradient of Cu dopants.

  15. Correlation of serum hepcidin levels with disease progression in hepatitis B virus-related disease assessed by nanopore film based assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Ailian; Liu, Gang; Anderson, Gregory J.; Hu, Tony Y.; Shi, Jian; Hu, Yulin; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often develop into cirrhosis, and both are major risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, effective approaches for the monitoring of HBV-related disease progress are still in need. Increased iron storage has an important role in HBV-related diseases. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis whose expression changes are often indicative of abnormal iron metabolism. There are few reports of hepcidin levels in patients with HBV infections, and the available results are inconsistent. In this study, using a recently validated nanopore silica film based method, we measured serum hepcidin levels in 46 HBV-related patients and 20 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: chronic hepatitis B without cirrhosis; HBV-related cirrhosis; and HBV-related cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma. Compared to healthy controls, the mean serum hepcidin level was significantly higher in CHB patients without cirrhosis, and in those with hepatocellular carcinoma, but not in those with cirrhosis. Iron-loading, viral infection and liver dysfunction are determined to be the major regulators of hepcidin in these patients. These observations suggest correlations between serum hepcidin and progression of chronic HBV infection, and may shed a new light on the development of biomarkers for HBV-related disease surveillance. PMID:27694815

  16. Applying graphene oxide nano-film over a polycarbonate nanoporous membrane to monitor E. coli by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna Pal; Dhek, Neeraj Singh; Nehra, Anuj; Ahlawat, Sweeti; Puri, Anu

    2017-01-05

    Nano-biosensors are excellent monitoring tools for rapid, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, in-field, on-line, and/or real-time detection of pathogens in foods, soil, air, and water samples. A variety of nano-materials (metallic, polymeric, and/or carbon-based) were employed to enhance the efficacy, efficiency, and sensitivity of these nano-biosensors, including graphene-based materials, especially graphene oxide (GO)-based materials. GO bears many oxygen-bearing groups, enabling ligand conjugation at the high density critical for sensitive detection. We have fabricated GO-modified nano-porous polycarbonate track-etched (PCTE) membranes that were conjugated to an Escherichia coli-specific antibody (Ab) and used to detect E. coli. The random distribution of nanopores on the PCTE membrane surface and the bright coating of the GO onto the membrane were confirmed by scanning electron microscope. Anti-E. coli β-gal Abs were conjugated to the GO surface via 1-ethyl-3,3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride-N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry; antibody coating was confirmed by the presence of a characteristic IR peak near 1600cm(-1). A non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas) was used as a negative control under identical conditions. When E. coli interacted anti-E.coli β-gal with Ab-coated GO-nano-biosensor units, we observed a clear shift in the IR peak from 3373.14 to 3315cm(-1); in contrast, we did not observe any shift in IR peaks when the GO unit was coated with the non-corresponding Ab (anti-Pseudomonas). Therefore, the detection of E. coli using the described GO-nano-sensor unit is highly specific, is highly selective and can be applied for real-time monitoring of E. coli with a detection limit between 100μg/mL and 10μg/mL, similar to existing detection systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogenated nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film on Ti−25Nb−3Mo−2Sn−3Zr alloy with enhanced photocatalytic and sterilization activities driven by visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lixia; He, Fang, E-mail: fanghe_tju@tju.edu.cn; Huang, Yuan; Meng, Yuhuan; Guo, Ruisong, E-mail: rsguo@tju.edu.cn

    2016-09-05

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} film with highly-ordered nanoporous structure was successfully synthesized on Ti−25Nb−3Mo−2Sn−3Zr (TLM) alloy through a simple two-step anodization method and a subsequent hydrogenated process. The results show that the obtained TiO{sub 2} film on TLM alloy presents a thickness of 900 nm and contains numerous oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, the concentration of oxygen vacancies can be tuned by controlling the temperature of hydrogen annealing. Through the first-principles calculations, it is found that the presence of oxygen vacancy can effectively narrow the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and thus expand light absorption range of TiO{sub 2} to visible light. The sample hydrogenated at 400 °C displays good photocatalytic and photocatalytic sterilization activities, which can be ascribed to the special structure, enhanced crystallinity and oxygen vacancies content of TiO{sub 2} film. These features make the material a good candidate in practical application. - Highlights: • Well-bonded and nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film on TLM alloy was successfully prepared using a modified two-step anodization. • The content-controlled oxygen vacancies are introduced into TiO{sub 2} via hydrogen annealing. • The obtained sample displays good photocatalytic and sterilization activities under visible-light irradiation.

  18. An oblique angle radio frequency sputtering method to fabricate nanoporous hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sriparna, E-mail: sriparna@immt.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); CSIR—Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR-IMMT), Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Gohil, Smita [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Som, Tapobrata [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigate growth of ordered arrays of amorphous TiO{sub 2} nano-columns by using radio frequency sputter deposition technique. The as-prepared thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The nano-columnar films are found to be porous in nature which results from glancing angle sputter deposition. In fact, porosity has a linear relationship with increasing deposition angle. Reflectance of the thin films is also studied as a function of porosity. In addition, contact angle measurements demonstrate the roughness dependent transition from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} surface. - Highlights: • Porous nano-columnar array of TiO{sub 2} thin film • Transition of hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface • Correlation of optical property with porosity.

  19. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-04-23

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  20. NOTE: Fabrication of a gecko-like hierarchical fibril array using a bonded porous alumina template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi Kustandi, Tanu; Samper, Victor Donald; Ng, Wan Sing; Chong, Ai Shing; Gao, Han

    2007-10-01

    We report a new method to fabricate a hierarchical microfibril array by using bonded porous alumina templates. The fabrication approach extends a powerful and well-established technique of creating porous alumina to create a polymer multilevel structure, mimicking the hierarchical structure of gecko adhesive foot hairs. The nanoporous alumina (pore diameter ≈60 nm; interpore distance ≈100 nm) was generated by the anodization of an aluminum film in an oxalic acid solution. The microporous alumina was produced by exploiting the parallel wafer-scale processing of conventional lithography and anisotropic chemical etching of the thick film of anodic alumina pores. The micro- and nanoporous alumina membranes were subsequently brought into intimate contact and their bonding was accomplished by means of capillary forces and then van der Waals bonding. Hierarchical polymeric microfibrils (fibril diameter ≈10 µm fibril length ≈70 µm) with nanofibril arrays at their tips were obtained after depositing a desired material into the pores and selective etching of the template membranes. The nanofibril has a lateral dimension of approximately 60 nm with length-to-diameter aspect ratios as high as 100:1.

  1. Fabrication and gas sensitivity of SnO{sub 2} hierarchical films with interwoven tubular conformation by a biotemplate-directed sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Qun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Huilan [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang Fangying [National Key Lab of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2006-08-14

    A facile and versatile method is reported to fabricate the interwoven tubular hierarchy of SnO{sub 2} films using a biotemplate eggshell membrane (ESM) combined sol-gel approach. In order to promote the crystallization of SnO{sub 2} films, calcination is necessary and can adjust the size of the building units in the range 2.8-26 nm. Under the direction of ESM biomacromolecules, SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites come into being and assemble into nanotubes, and further pattern porous hierarchical meshworks to faithfully retain the morphology of natural ESM. The sensor performance of as-prepared biomorphic SnO{sub 2} was measured for ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), H{sub 2}S, and gasoline. It is found that the SnO{sub 2} hierarchical films obtained have a good selectivity for LPG with a working temperature above 300 deg. C while for ethanol below 270 deg. C.

  2. A facile approach to fabricate hierarchically structured poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weihua; Zong, Chuanyong; Xie, Jixun

    2017-01-01

    for patterning films. The crease-templated ridge-like structures were well modulated by the THF swelling time, the modulus of the PDMS substrate, the P3HT/THF solution concentration and the selective/blanket exposure of the PDMS substrate to O2 plasma. UV–vis and fluorescence spectrometry measurements indicated...

  3. Fabrication of semi-transparent superoleophobic thin film from fabrics and nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa S.; Shiratori S.

    2013-01-01

    Superoleophobic thin films have many potential applications including fluid transfer, fluid power systems, stain resistant and antifouling materials, and microfluidics among others. Transparency is also desired with superhydrophobicity for their numerous applications; however transparency and oleophobicity are almost incompatible relationship with each other in the point of surface structure. Because oleophobicity required rougher structure at nano-micro scale than hydrophobicity, and these r...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite thin film using metal organic chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun-Sik [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Beom, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-29

    By employing strontium as a dopant of lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO{sub 3}), strontium-doped lanthanum cobaltite (La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3−δ}, LSC) thin film was fabricated using a metal organic chemical solution deposition (MOCSD) method. Lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate [La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}6H{sub 2}O], strontium acetate [Sr(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}], and cobalt acetate tetrahydrate [Co(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}4H{sub 2}O] were used as precursors. The coating process was performed through a spin coating method on a substrate, which were then heat treated under various temperature conditions. Electrical properties, microstructures, and crystalline structures with respect to sintering temperature were analyzed. According to these analyses, the change in surface morphology, phase shift, and conductive properties were closely related, which could explain their respective behaviors. Furthermore, sintered strontium-doped lanthanum perovskite oxides showed various conductivities according to the amount of dopant. With the molar ratio of strontium that is stoichiometrically equivalent to lanthanum (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3−δ}) thin film showed the best conductivity in the sintering temperature range of 650–700 °C, with perovskite phases formed at this temperature condition. As the electrically conductive properties of the thin film are a function of thickness, the films were coated several times to a thickness of approximately 300 nm, with the lowest resistivity (approximately 9.06 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm) observed at the optimized sintering temperature and solution composition. - Highlights: • LSC thin film was fabricated by metal organic chemical solution deposition (MOCSD). • The film shows good agreement on the electrical conductivity of LSC by conventional methods. • The properties of LSC film are influenced by the surface morphology and crystalline phase. • Optimal molar ratio of strontium for the highest conductivity was investigated.

  5. Wet-chemical enzymatic preparation and characterization of ultrathin gold-decorated single glass nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

    2014-05-20

    The conical glass nanopore was modified through layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition of a monolayer of glucose oxidase, and then an ultrathin gold film was formed in situ through enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The morphology and components of single glass nanopore before and after ultrathin Au deposition were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, respectively. In particular, the quenching of the quantum dots fluorescence in the nanopore tip zone further illustrated that the gold nanofilm was successfully deposited on the inner wall of the single glass nanopore. The Au thin films make the glass nanopores more biologically friendly and allow the nanopores facile functionalization of the surface through the Au-S bonds. For instance, the ionic current rectification (ICR) properties of the gold-decorated glass nanopores could be switched readily at different pHs by introducing different thiol molecules.

  6. In-situ 3D characterization of He bubble and displacement damage in dense and nanoporous thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This initial work attempted to determine the feasibility of using advanced in-situ, electron tomography, and precession electron diffraction techniques to determine the structural evolution that occurs during advanced aging of Pd films with nanometer resolution. To date, significant progress has been made in studying the cavity structures in sputtered, evaporated, and pulsed-laser deposited Pd films that result from both the deposition parameters, as well as from He ion implantation. In addition, preliminary work has been done to determine the feasibility of performing precession electron diffraction (PED) and electron tomography in these type of systems. Significant future work is needed to determine the proper conditions such that relevant advanced aging protocols can be developed.

  7. 纳米多孔金薄膜显微结构分析%Microstructures of nanoporous gold films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 胡文成; 杜凯; 张运娟; 张淑洋; 张林

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide-free gold plating introducing Na3Au(SO3)2 as the gold compound is employed to prepare gold films by electroless plating and pulsed electroplating. The gold films are coated on an anodic aluminum oxide template, which is then dissolved in nitric acid solution. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses show that the gold films prepared by both methods present a porous structure. However, the difference in their microstructures is evident: the sample prepared by electroless plating possesses a dendritic structure, and that prepared by electroplating consists of nanowires.%采用亚硫酸金钠为主盐,在阳极氧化铝模板上进行了化学镀和电镀金实验研究.通过扫描电子显微镜和X射线衍射分析测试表明:采用以上两种方法均能制备出纳米多孔金薄膜.两种方法制备的多孔金薄膜微观结构存在较大的差异.化学镀制备的多孔金薄膜微观上是枝晶状的,电镀制备的多孔金薄膜微观上由纳米线构成.

  8. Nanoporous AAO: A platform for regular heterogeneous nanostructures and energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Israel

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has vast implications as a tool for nanoscience research and as a nanostructure in which nanoscale devices can be fabricated because of its regular and ordered nanopores. Self-assembly plays a critical role in pore ordering, causing nanopores to grow parallel with one another in high density. The mild electrochemical conditions in which porous AAO grows along with its relatively cheap starting materials makes this nanomaterial a cost effective alternative to advanced photolithography techniques for forming high surface area nanostructures over large areas. In this research, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit conformal films within in nanoporous AAO with hopes to (1) develop methodologies to characterize ALD depositions within its high aspect ratio nanopores and (2) to better understand how to use nanoporous AAO templates as a scaffold for energy devices, specifically Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors. Using the nanotube template synthesis method, ALD films were deposited onto nanoporous AAO, later removing the films deposited within the templates nanopores for characterization in TEM. This nanotube metrology characterization involves first obtaining images of full length ALD-AAO nanotubes, and then measuring wall thickness as a function of depth within the nanopore. MIM nanocapacitors were also constructed in vertical AAO nanopores by deposition of multilayer ALD films. MIM stacks were patterned into micro-scale capacitors for electrical characterization.

  9. Low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films for efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Organohalide perovskite films are usually prepared with the solid-state reaction at a high temperature ≥100 °C, which causes the increase of non-radiative defects and decomposition of perovskite films. Here, we demonstrate it's feasible to prepare high-quality perovskite films with the solid-state reaction method even at a temperature of 75 °C, when enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 (ln-PbI2) films. The replacement of compact PbI2 (c-PbI2) by ln-PbI2, results in a significant improvement of crystallinity of perovskite films, besides the elimination of remnant PbI2. As a result, ln-PbI2 based perovskite solar cells display much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and better stability. Moreover, annealing duration was found to be critical for high PCE and was optimized as 60 min. Finally, with the optimal process, the champion device displayed a PCE of 13.8% and the average PCE reached 10.1% with a satisfactory deviation. Furthermore, we found annealing at high temperature (140 °C) led to a lower PCE compared with that annealed at 75 °C, because non-radiative defects increased significantly during high-temperature annealing. This work may open up a promising avenue for preparing high-quality perovskite films with the low-temperature solid-state reaction method, which is desirable for real application.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis Au-Bi2Te3 Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film with a Hierarchical Sub-Micron Antireflection Quasi-Periodic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus forewing (T_FW as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without the requirement of expensive equipment and energy intensive processes. The microstructure and the morphology of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FESEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Coupled the plasmon resonances of the Au nanoparticles with the hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure, the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film possesses an effective infrared absorption and infrared photothermal conversion performance. Based on the finite difference time domain method and the Joule effect, the heat generation and the heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film were studied. The heterogeneity of heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film opens up a novel promising technique for generating thermoelectric power under illumination.

  11. Influence of Yb-Doped Nanoporous TiO2 Films on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Wei; DAI Song-Yuan; HU Lin-Hua; LIANG Lin-Yun; WANG Kong-Jia

    2006-01-01

    @@ Yb-doped TiO2 pastes with different Yb/TiO2 weight ratios are prepared in the sol-gel process to obtain dyesensitized solar cells (DSCs). The nanocrystalline size of Yb-TiO2 becomes smaller and the lattice parameters change. Lattice distortion is observed and dark current is detected. It is found that a part of Yb existing as insulating oxide Yb2Oa state acts as barrier layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface to suppress charge recombination. A Yb-doped TiO2 electrode applied in DSCs leads to a higher open-circuit voltage and a higher fill factor. How the Yb-doped TiO2 films affect the photovoltaic response of DSCs is discussed.

  12. CdS/CdSe Co-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured SnO2/TiO2 Hybrid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng; Wei, Chaochao; Li, Shengjun; Diao, Chunli; Li, Wei; Kong, Wenping; Zhang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    SnO2 nanosheet-structured films were prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using ZnO nanosheet as template. The as-prepared SnO2 nanosheets contained plenty of nano-voids and were generally vertical to the substrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited into the intervals between the SnO2 nanosheets to prepare a hierarchically structured SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film. The hybrid films were co-sensitized with CdS and CdSe quantum dots. The sensitized solar cells assembled with the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film showed much higher photoelectricity conversion efficiency than the cells assembled with pure TiO2 films. The lifetime of photoinduced electron was also investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which showed that the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film electrode is as long as the TiO2 film electrode.

  13. CdS/CdSe Co-sensitized Solar Cells Based on Hierarchically Structured SnO2/TiO2 Hybrid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeng; Wei, Chaochao; Li, Shengjun; Diao, Chunli; Li, Wei; Kong, Wenping; Zhang, Zhenlong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2016-12-01

    SnO2 nanosheet-structured films were prepared on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using ZnO nanosheet as template. The as-prepared SnO2 nanosheets contained plenty of nano-voids and were generally vertical to the substrate. TiO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited into the intervals between the SnO2 nanosheets to prepare a hierarchically structured SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film. The hybrid films were co-sensitized with CdS and CdSe quantum dots. The sensitized solar cells assembled with the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film showed much higher photoelectricity conversion efficiency than the cells assembled with pure TiO2 films. The lifetime of photoinduced electron was also investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which showed that the SnO2/TiO2 hybrid film electrode is as long as the TiO2 film electrode.

  14. TiO2薄膜优化对染料敏化太阳电池性能的影响%Influence of Nanoporous TiO2 Films on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚小网; 胡林华; 方霞琴; 戴松元

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure of nanoporous TiO2 films has obvious influence on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). In this work, the effect of different treatment methods such as autoclaving temperature, film thickness, scattering particles, TiCl4 solution treatment and electroposition treatment on DSC photovoltaic performance is introduced, and the optimized results were obtained. Such simple but effective strategies provided a good way to improve the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSC and to future mass production of nanoporous TiO2 films.%纳米TiO2多孔薄膜微结构对染料敏化太阳电池(DSC)光伏性能有很大的影响.本文采用不同实验和测试方法研究和分析了溶胶-凝胶法制备纳米TiO2颗粒时的热处理温度、TiO2多孔薄膜厚度、纳米TiO2大颗粒光散射、TiCl4溶液处理和电沉积致密TiO2层对纳米多孔薄膜电极和染料敏化太阳电池光伏性能的影响,得到了最佳的优化条件,为纳米TiO2薄膜材料的批量化制作打下了良好基础.

  15. Nanoporous metal oxides with tunable and nanocrystalline frameworks via conversion of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, Kyung Joo; Cheon, Jae Yeong; Lee, Jae Hwa; Joo, Sang Hoon; Moon, Hoi Ri

    2013-06-19

    Nanoporous metal oxide materials are ubiquitous in the material sciences because of their numerous potential applications in various areas, including adsorption, catalysis, energy conversion and storage, optoelectronics, and drug delivery. While synthetic strategies for the preparation of siliceous nanoporous materials are well-established, nonsiliceous metal oxide-based nanoporous materials still present challenges. Herein, we report a novel synthetic strategy that exploits a metal-organic framework (MOF)-driven, self-templated route toward nanoporous metal oxides via thermolysis under inert atmosphere. In this approach, an aliphatic ligand-based MOF is thermally converted to nanoporous metal oxides with highly nanocrystalline frameworks, in which aliphatic ligands act as the self-templates that are afterward evaporated to generate nanopores. We demonstrate this concept with hierarchically nanoporous magnesia (MgO) and ceria (CeO2), which have potential applicability for adsorption, catalysis, and energy storage. The pore size of these nanoporous metal oxides can be readily tuned by simple control of experimental parameters. Significantly, nanoporous MgO exhibits exceptional CO2 adsorption capacity (9.2 wt %) under conditions mimicking flue gas. This MOF-driven strategy can be expanded to other nanoporous monometallic and multimetallic oxides with a multitude of potential applications.

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of patterned copper nanostructure electrolessly plated on arrayed nanoporous silicon pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei Fen; Shan, Wen Wen; Ling, Hong; Wang, Yu Sheng; Cao, Yan Xia; Li, Xin Jian

    2010-10-20

    A new synthesized composite structure, a patterned copper/silicon nanoporous pillar array (Cu/Si-NPA) made by depositing Cu on Si-NPA using an immersion plating method, can be used as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Its surface component and morphology were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. It was found that the surface was Cu with two kinds of crystal structures: a continuous film composed of Cu nanocrystallites covering the Si-NPA, and a quasi-regular, interconnected network composed of loop-chains of Cu crystallites, with the size in the range of several tens of nanometer to 300 nm, surrounding the porous Si pillars. The composite structure is strongly SERS active using rhodamine 6G as probe molecules, which is mainly due to the patterned hierarchical Cu structure. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd

  17. Self-Organizing Evolution of Anodized Oxide Films on Ti-25Nb-3Mo-2Sn-3Zr Alloy and Hydrophilicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何芳; 李立军; 陈利霞; 李凤娇; 黄远

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, hierarchical nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated on Ti-25Nb-3Mo-2Sn-3Zr (TLM) alloy for biomedical applications via one-step anodization process in ethylene glycol-based electrolyte containing 0.5wt%NH4F. The nanostructured TiO2 films exhibited three distinct types depending on the anodization time:top irregular nanopores (INP)/beneath regular nanopores (RNP), top INP/middle regular nano-tubes (RNT)/bottom RNP and top RNT with underlying RNP. The evolution of the nanostructured TiO2 films with anodization time demonstrated that self-organizing nanopores formed at the very beginning and individual nanotubes originated from underlying nanopore dissolution. Furthermore, a modified two-stage self-organizing mechanism was introduced to illustrate the growth of the nanostructured TiO2 films. Compared with TLM titanium alloy matrix, the TiO2 films with special nano-structure hold better hydrophilicity and higher specific surface area, which lays the foun-dation for their biomedical applications.

  18. Open nanoporous morphologies from polymeric blends by carbon dioxide foaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, B.; Diekmann, K.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    We report the formation of open nanoporous polymer films composed of homogeneous polysulfone/polyimide blends. Porosity is introduced by expansion of carbon dioxide-saturated films at elevated temperatures. To interpret details of the porous morphologies in terms of the experimental conditions

  19. Preparation and properties of nanoporous polyimide films with low dielectric permittivity%低介电常数聚酰亚胺薄膜的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾红娟; 尹训茜; 查俊伟; 施昌勇; 党智敏

    2011-01-01

    SiO2/polyimide(PI) nanocomposite films with low dielectric permittivity with diamines of pyromellitic dianhydride(PMDA) and 4,4-oxydianiline(ODA) were successfully synthesized by a wet phase inversion process.Then removal of the silica cores of the nano-composite films by HF etching gives rise to the nanoporous of PI films.It is found that the dielectric permittivities of the porous films can be reduced from 3.54 of the pure PI to 3.05(1kHz) by using 15 wt% pore-former(SiO2).The nanopores were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).The relationships between the structure of the films and the properties,including the dielectric permittivity,the heat resistance,the contact angles and the mechanical strength,were researched.%用单体4,4′-二胺基二苯醚(ODA)和均苯四甲酸二酐(PMDA)添加纳米SiO2,在溶剂N,N-二甲基乙酰胺(DMAC)中,采用原位聚合法合成SiO2/聚酰亚胺(PI)复合薄膜。用氢氟酸刻蚀SiO2纳米粒子,引入纳米微孔,形成含有微孔的PI薄膜。造孔剂含量为15%时,薄膜的介电常数从纯聚酰亚胺的3.54降低至3.05(1kHz)。用透射电镜表征微孔结构,分析了微孔孔径和造孔剂(SiO2)含量对薄膜介电常数、耐热性、疏水性和机械强度等性质的影响。

  20. Silver porous nanotube built three-dimensional films with structural tunability based on the nanofiber template-plasma etching strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Cai, Weiping; Lin, Yongxing; Dai, Zhengfei

    2011-03-01

    A facile and high-throughput strategy is presented to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) hierarchically porous Ag films, with clean surfaces, via plasma etching Ag-coated electrospun nanofiber template. The films are built of Ag porous nanotubes and are homogeneous in macro-size but rough and porous in nanoscale. Each nanotube-block is micro/nanostructured with evenly distributed nanopores on the tube walls. The film architecture (or the shape, arrangement, and distribution density of porous nanotubes; the number and size of nanopores) can be easily controlled by the nanofiber-template configuration, Ag coating, and plasma etching conditions. Such hierarchically porous films could be very useful, such as in catalysis, sensors, and nanodevices. They have exhibited significantly structurally enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance with good stability and reproduction, and shown the possibility of molecule-level detection. Also, the strategy is universal for fabricating other hierarchically structured 3D metal porous films, such as porous Ag hollow sphere arrays.

  1. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  2. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  3. Hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-08-03

    The present invention is a structure, method of making and method of use for a novel macroscopic hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped, nano-porous carbon membrane (HNDCMs) with asymmetric and hierarchical pore architecture that can be produced on a large-scale approach. The unique HNDCM holds great promise as components in separation and advanced carbon devices because they could offer unconventional fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. Overall, the invention set forth herein covers a hierarchically structured, nitrogen-doped carbon membranes and methods of making and using such a membranes.

  4. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  5. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn(2+) Tailored Hierarchical ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-10

    A simple method combing Mn(2+) doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn(2+) doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn(2+) concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn(2+). Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  6. Role of aluminum doping on phase transformations in nanoporous titania anodic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayata, Fatma [Istanbul Bilgi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34060, Eyup, Istanbul (Turkey); Ürgen, Mustafa, E-mail: urgen@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    The role of aluminium doping on anatase to rutile phase transformation of nanoporous titanium oxide films were investigated. For this purpose pure and aluminum doped metal films were deposited on alumina substrates by cathodic arc physical deposition. The nanoporous anodic oxides were prepared by porous anodizing of pure and aluminum doped titanium metallic films in an ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F based electrolyte. Nanoporous amorphous structures with 60–80 nm diameter and 2–4 μm length were formed on the surfaces of alumina substrates. The amorphous undoped and Al-doped TiO{sub 2} anodic oxides were heat-treated at different temperatures in the range of 280–720 °C for the investigation of their crystallization behavior. The combined effects of nanoporous structure and Al doping on crystallization behavior of titania were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro Raman analysis. The results indicated that both Al ions incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} structure and the nanoporous structure retarded the rutile formation. It was also revealed that presence or absence of metallic film underneath the nanopores has a major contribution to anatase-rutile transformation. - Highlights: • Al-doped TiO{sub 2} nanopores were grown on alumina substrates using anodization method. • The crystallization behavior of nanoporous Al-doped TiO{sub 2} were investigated. • Al doping into nanoporous TiO{sub 2} retarded the anatase-rutile transformation. • Nanostructuring has significant role in controlling rutile formation temperature. • The absence of the metallic film under the nanopores delayed the rutile formation.

  7. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  8. Growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 using the solid-state reaction method enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Weiqi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Compact, pinhole-free and PbI2-free perovskite films, are desirable for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), especially if large columnar grains are obtained in which the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be minimized. However, the conventional solid-state reaction methods, originated from the two-step method, failed to grow columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 in a facile way. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3, by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 (ln-PbI2) film enhanced solid-state reaction method. We demonstrated columnar grains were obtainable only when ln-PbI2 films were applied. Therefore, the replacement of compact PbI2 by ln-PbI2 in the solid-sate reaction, leads to higher power conversion efficiency, better reproducibility, better stability and less hysteresis. Furthermore, by systematically investigating the effects of annealing temperature and duration, we found that an annealing temperature ≥120 °C was also critical for growing columnar grains. With the optimal process, a champion efficiency of 16.4% was obtained and the average efficiency reached 14.2%. Finally, the mechanism of growing columnar grains was investigated, in which a VPb″ -assisted hooping model was proposed. This work reveals the origins of grain growth in the solid-state reaction method, which will contribute to preparing high quality perovskite films with much larger columnar grains.

  9. Theory of Sorption Hysteresis in Nanoporous Solids: II. Molecular condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the puzzle of sorption hysteresis in Portland cement concrete or cement paste, we develop in Part II of this study a general theory of vapor sorption and desorption from nanoporous solids, which attributes hysteresis to hindered molecular condensation with attractive lateral interactions. The classical mean-field theory of van der Waals is applied to predict the dependence of hysteresis on temperature and pore size, using the regular solution model and gradient energy of Cahn and Hilliard. A simple "hierarchical wetting" model for thin nanopores is developed to describe the case of strong wetting by the first monolayer, followed by condensation of nanodroplets and nanobubbles in the bulk. The model predicts a larger hysteresis critical temperature and enhanced hysteresis for molecular condensation across nanopores at high vapor pressure than within monolayers at low vapor pressure. For heterogeneous pores, the theory predicts sorption/desorption sequences similar to those seen in molecular dynami...

  10. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  11. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.05, the ......The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.......05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...... of the polymer matrix; (c) irradiating at least a part of said nanoporous material with light of a wave length of in the range of 250-400 nm (or 200-700 nm) in the presence of oxygen and/or ozone. Corresponding hydrophilic nanoporous materials are also disclosed. L...

  12. Building membrane nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Membrane nanopores--hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes--have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function. I also discuss the future challenges of developing nanopore technology, and consider what the next-generation of nanopore structures could be and where further practical applications might emerge.

  13. Synthesis of Nanoporous Metals, Oxides, Carbides, and Sulfides: Beyond Nanocasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Wesley; Jiao, Feng

    2016-07-19

    Nanoporous metal-based solids are of particular interest because they combine a large quantity of surface metal sites, interconnected porous networks, and nanosized crystalline walls, thus exhibiting unique physical and chemical properties compared to other nanostructures and bulk counterparts. Among all of the synthetic approaches, nanocasting has proven to be a highly effective method for the syntheses of metal oxides with three-dimensionally ordered porous structures and crystalline walls. A typical procedure involves a thermal annealing process of a porous silica template filled with an inorganic precursor (often a metal nitrate salt), which converts the precursor into a desired phase within the silica pores. The final step is the selective removal of the silica template in either a strong base or a hydrofluoric acid solution. In the past decade, nanocasting has become a popular synthetic approach and has enabled the syntheses of a variety of nanoporous metal oxides. However, there is still a lack of synthetic methods to fabricate nanoporous materials beyond simple metal oxides. Therefore, the development of new synthetic strategies beyond nanocasting has become an important direction. This Account describes new progress in the preparation of novel nanoporous metal-based solids for heterogeneous catalysis. The discussion begins with a method called dealloying, an effective method to synthesize nanoporous metals. The starting material is a metallic alloy containing two or more elements followed by a selective chemical or electrochemical leaching process that removes one of the preferential elements, resulting in a highly porous structure. Nanoporous metals, such as Cu, Ag, and CuTi, exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic properties in carbon dioxide reduction, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions. In addition, the syntheses of metal oxides with hierarchical porous structures are also discussed. On the basis of the choice of hard template, nanoporous

  14. Template Transfer Nanoimprint for Uniform Nanopores and Nanopoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology is developed for the fabrication of nanostructures on substrate based on anodized Al2O3 (AAO porous template transfer process. It includes (1 forming amorphous alloy, negative UV-resist resin (i.e., SU-8, or PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate plate nanorod arrays by hot-press molding amorphous alloy, negative UV-resist resin (i.e., SU-8, or PMMA plate into the anodized Al2O3 porous substrates; (2 removing AAO templates by chemical etching process after suitable posttreatment (annealing and/or irradiation to improve the mechanical strength of the nanorod arrays; (3 reforming nanopore films by hot-embossing the nanorod arrays into a thin layer of polymer film on substrates (e.g., silica; (4 cleaning the bottom residues in pores of the films by oxygen plasmon. The results indicate that the diameters of amorphous alloy (or negative UV-resist resin or PMMA nanorod arrays can be ranged from 32 nm to 200 nm. The diameters of the imprinted ILR-1050 photoresist nanopores are about 94.5 ± 12.2 nm and the diameters of the imprinted or SU-8 resin on glass slides nanopores are about 207 ± 26.4 nm, which inherit the diameters of AAO templates. This methodology provides a general method to fabricate nanorods arrays and/or thin nanopore films by template transfer nanoimprint process.

  15. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  16. Physisorption of SDS in a Hydrocarbon Nanoporous Polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Wang, Yanwei; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2010-01-01

    as diffusion-controlled dynamics. Both the specific equilibrium loading and the final SDS adsorption reached plateau values at concentrations above 6.8 m M. The infiltration of SDS into the nanoporous film was mainly followed by gravimetry and for a few samples confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  17. Mechanical behavior of intragranular, nano-porous electrodeposited zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Rejin, E-mail: r.raghavan@mpie.de [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Elias, Jamil [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Erni, Rolf; Parlinska, Magdalena [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Electron Microscopy Center, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Philippe, Laetitia; Michler, Johann [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2015-03-02

    The mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of nano-porous ZnO thin films electrodeposited on glass substrates were determined by nanoindentation and in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) micropillar compression. The intragranular nature of the nanoscale porosity within the individual mono-crystals of the films was probed at nano- and micro-scales for determining their mechanical response. The hardness (3.5 GPa) and reduced elastic modulus (65 GPa) of the compact thin film were found to decrease by increasing the intragranular porosity controlled by the electrochemical deposition potential of ZnO. Focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sections of residual imprints reveal that the decrease in hardness and elastic modulus observed is primarily due to compaction of the nano-porous structure. In situ SEM compression of FIB machined micropillars reveals brittle fracture and near theoretical strengths in the compact film (~ 2 GPa), and a higher flaw tolerant response despite lower failure stress in the most porous film. - Highlights: • Micromechanical behavior of intragranular, nanoporous electrodeposited ZnO thin films • Densification by closure of porosity during indentation • Resistance to fracture by crack deflection and blunting in porous films during microcompression.

  18. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  19. Research on fabrication and properties of nanoporous GaN epilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolong; YU Guanghui; WANG Xinzhong; LIN Chaotong; LEI Benliang; QI Ming; NOUET Gérard; RUTERANA Pierre; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers with nanopore arrays were fabricated by inductive coupled plasma (ICP) etching using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as mask.Nanoporous AAO templates were formed by anodizing the Al films deposited on GaN epilayers.The diameter of the perforations in the AAO masks could be easily controlled by tuning the technique parameters of AAO fabrication process.Cl2/Ar and Cl2/He were employed as etching gas.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that vertical nanoporous arrays with uniform distribution can directly be transferred from AAO masks to GaN films in some proper conditions.Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to assess properties of the nanoporous GaN films with different average pore diameters and interpore distances.

  20. Preparation of Scratch-Resistant Nano-Porous Silica Films Derived by Sol-Gel Process and Their Anti-reflective Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangming WU; Jun SHEN; Tianhe YANG; Bin ZHOU; Jue WANG

    2003-01-01

    Structural strengthening of the nano porous silica films has been reported. The films were prepared with a base/acid two-step catalyzed TEOS-based sol-gel processing and dip-coating, and then baked in the mixed gas of ammonia and water vapor. The silica films were characterized with TEM, AFM, FTIR, spectrophotometer, ellipsometer, and abrasion test, respectively. The experimental results have shown that the films have a nanostructure with a low refractive index and can form an excellent scratch-resistant broadband anti-reflectance. The two-step catalysis noticeably strengthens the films, and the mixed gas treatment further improves mechanical strength of the silica network. Finally the strengthening mechanism has been discussed.

  1. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    .05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...

  2. Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanoporous ceramics, renowned for their special transport properties, have typical applications in the fields of energy, the environment, and separation technology. One example is a solid oxide fuel cell, where an anode with improved characteristics was obtained by an optimized n

  3. Nanoporous of W/WO{sub 3} thin film electrode grown by electrochemical anodization applied in the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of the basic red 51 used in hair dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Luciano E.; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B., E-mail: fraga@iq.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IQ/UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Self-organized W/WO{sub 3} nanoporous electrodes can be obtained by simple electrochemical anodization of W foil in 0.15 mol L{sup -1} NaF solution as the supporting electrolyte, applying a ramp potential of 0.2 V s{sup -1} until it reached 60 V, which was maintained for 2 h. The monoclinic form is majority in the highly ordered WO{sub 3} annealed at 450 deg C, obtaining a higher photoactivity when irradiated by visible light than by UV light. The electrode promotes complete discoloration of the investigated basic red 51 dye after 60 min of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation, on current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} and irradiation on wavelength of 420-630 nm. In this condition it was obtained 63% of mineralization. Lower efficiency is obtained for the system irradiated by wavelength (280- 400 nm) when only 40% of total organic carbon removal is obtained and 120 min is required for complete discoloration. (author)

  4. Slow charge recombination in dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) using Al2O3 coated nanoporous TiO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Emilio; Clifford, John N; Haque, Saif A; Lutz, Thierry; Durrant, James R

    2002-07-21

    The conformal growth of an overlayer of Al2O3 on a nanocrystalline TiO2 film is shown to result in a 4-fold retardation of interfacial charge recombination, and a 30% improvement in photovoltaic device efficiency.

  5. Effects of working pressure and annealing on bulk density and nanopore structures in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Keisuke; Kikuchi, Mitsuho; Ota, Masato; Sasase, Masato; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kumomi, Hideya; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    Microstructures of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films of different densities were analyzed. Device-quality a-IGZO films were deposited under optimum conditions, e.g., the total pressure P tot = 0.55 Pa produced high film densities of ˜6.1 g/cm3, while a very high P tot = 5.0 Pa produced low film densities of 5.5 g/cm3. Both films formed uniform high-density layers in the vicinity of the glass substrate, 10-20 nm in thickness depending on P tot, while their growth mode changed to a sparse columnar structure in thicker regions. X-ray reflectivity and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry provided different results on densification by post deposition thermal annealing; i.e., the latter has a higher sensitivity. High-Z-contrast images obtained by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy were also useful for detecting nanometer-size non uniformity even in device-quality a-IGZO films.

  6. Nanopore sensors for DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solovyeva, Vita; Venkatesan, B.M.; Shim, Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nanopore sensors are promising devices for single DNA molecule detection and sequencing. This paper presents a review of our work on solid-state nanopores performed over the last decade. In particular, here we discuss atomic-layer-deposited (ALD)-based, graphene-based, and functionali......Solid-state nanopore sensors are promising devices for single DNA molecule detection and sequencing. This paper presents a review of our work on solid-state nanopores performed over the last decade. In particular, here we discuss atomic-layer-deposited (ALD)-based, graphene...

  7. Engineered/tailored nanoporous gold structures for infrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoli, Denis; Calandrini, Eugenio; Cattarin, Sandro; Barison, Simona; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Bozzola, Angelo; Toma, Andrea; De Angelis, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Nanoporous gold is a very promising and novel material platform for mid-infrared and THz plasmonics. Nanoporous gold can be formed by dealloying of Au-Ag alloys, previously grown by means of Ag-Au co-sputtering. The optical response is completely determined by the nanostructural film features, that depends on the initial alloy composition and on the preparation procedure. The behavior of the material in mid-infrared and its peculiar morphology with a very high surface/volume ratio can be applied for nanostructure fabrication, such for example nanoantennas. Here we report the design and fabrication of nanoporous antennas engineered to support resonances in the 1500-1700 cm-1 range where them can be exploited, for example, in the detection of protein conformational states. This novel paradigm points toward the development of a new class of efficient and high-selective biosensors.

  8. Planarization of a surface of nanoporous silica-titania composition by atomic-molecular chemical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinin, V. V.; Panov, M. F.; Romanov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    The processes involved in the planarization of the surface of nanoporous SiO2 by the atomicmolecular deposition of nanoscale TiO2 films were studied in regimes with different degrees of penetration of TiO2 into SiO2 nanopores. The technological process parameters that correspond to different regimes of surface planarization were examined. The degree of penetration of TiO2 into SiO2 nanopores was monitored using reflection ellipsometry by measuring the depth distribution of the refraction index within the two-layer model.

  9. Nanoporous Ni-Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9-x thin film cermet SOFC anodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infortuna, Anna; Harvey, Ashley S; Muecke, Ulrich P; Gauckler, Ludwig J

    2009-05-21

    Nickel oxide-gadolinia-doped ceria thin films with a ceria composition of 80 at% Ce and 20 at% Gd were grown by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and SiO2/Si wafers as well as on yttria stabilized zirconia polycrystalline substrates. Upon reduction of the NiO phase in a H2/N2 atmosphere at 600 degrees C, a stable three-phase, 3-D interconnecting microstructure was obtained of metallic Ni, ceramic, and pores. Coarsening and segregation of the Ni to the surface of the film was observed at higher temperatures. The kinetics of this process depend strongly on the microstructures that can be developed in situ during deposition or post-deposition heat treatments. In situ minimization of Ni-coarsening can be achieved at temperatures as low as 500 degrees C when the deposition pressure does not exceed 0.02 mbar. For films deposited at higher pressure and at temperatures below 800 degrees C, coarsening can be minimized post deposition by annealing in air at 1000 degrees C. The films showed very good metallic conductivity and stability upon thermal cycling in a reducing atmosphere. Redox cycles performed at 600 degrees C between air and H2 induced a loss of connectivity of the metallic phase and consequent degradation of the conductivity. After 16 cycles, corresponding to 65 hrs, the conductivity is reduced by one order of magnitude.

  10. Photoinduced charge separation in an aqueous phase using nanoporous TiO{sub 2} film and a quasi-solid made of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Masao; Nomura, Tomoyo; Sasaki, Chie [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito (Japan)

    2003-05-07

    Solar cells comprised of nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} porous film photosensitized with an adsorbing dye have been utilized as photoinduced charge separation systems in aqueous media with the view to forming future artificial photosynthetic systems able to create fuels from solar energy and water. The photoinduced charge separation of the sensitized TiO{sub 2} cell in a quasi-solid, made from agarose or {kappa}-carrageenan, was investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Nickel Oxide Thin Films Spray-Deposited onto Indium-Doped Tin Oxide for Solar Conversion Scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonstoichiometric nickel oxide (NiOx has been deposited as thin film utilizing indium-doped tin oxide as transparent and electrically conductive substrate. Spray deposition of a suspension of NiOx nanoparticles in alcoholic medium allowed the preparation of uniform NiOx coatings. Sintering of the coatings was conducted at temperatures below 500°C for few minutes. This scalable procedure allowed the attainment of NiOx films with mesoporous morphology and reticulated structure. The electrochemical characterization showed that NiOx electrodes possess large surface area (about 1000 times larger than their geometrical area. Due to the openness of the NiOx morphology, the underlying conductive substrate can be contacted by the electrolyte and undergo redox processes within the potential range in which NiOx is electroactive. This requires careful control of the conditions of polarization in order to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of reduction/oxidation processes in both components of the multilayered electrode. The combination of the open structure with optical transparency and elevated electroactivity in organic electrolytes motivated us to analyze the potential of the spray-deposited NiOx films as semiconducting cathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells of p-type when erythrosine B was the sensitizer.

  12. DNA-Based Nanopore Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wu, Hai-Chen

    2016-12-05

    Nanopore sensing is an attractive, label-free approach that can measure single molecules. Although initially proposed for rapid and low-cost DNA sequencing, nanopore sensors have been successfully employed in the detection of a wide variety of substrates. Early successes were mostly achieved based on two main strategies by 1) creating sensing elements inside the nanopore through protein mutation and chemical modification or 2) using molecular adapters to enhance analyte recognition. Over the past five years, DNA molecules started to be used as probes for sensing rather than substrates for sequencing. In this Minireview, we highlight the recent research efforts of nanopore sensing based on DNA-mediated characteristic current events. As nanopore sensing is becoming increasingly important in biochemical and biophysical studies, DNA-based sensing may find wider applications in investigating DNA-involving biological processes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sythesis of TiO2 Nanocrystalline Nanoporous Films with Polyethylene Glycol in Hydrothermal Reaction%聚乙二醇共水热合成TiO2纳米晶多孔薄膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兵初; 梁丽杰; 周聪华; 王丽丽; 童思超

    2011-01-01

    TiO2 nanocrystallines were prepared by hydrothermal reaction using tetrabutyl titanate as the starting material and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG, MW = 2 000) as the additive. TiO2 nanoporous thin films were fabricated using the synthesized nanocrystallines and used to assemble dye-sensitized solar cells. The crystallographic structure of the nanocrystalline was characterized by X-ray diffraction, while the thickness, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, profiler measuring system and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was studied. The influence of addition of PEG on the crystallite structure and average crystal size was analyzed. It was found that the growth of the anatase nanocrystallines was inhibited by PEG. When the content of PEG is about 5% of TiO2, the rutile appears, and the best photo-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 2.86% is reached using liquid state electrolyte without 4-tert-pyridine.%以钛酸丁酯为原料,在水热过程中加入聚乙二醇(分子量2000) 合成TiO2纳米晶,并制备多孔薄膜用于染料敏化太阳能电池(DSSCs).采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、台阶仪、紫外-可见分光光度计(UV-vis)对纳米晶粒的晶体结构、薄膜的表面形貌、厚度和光学吸收性能以及电池的光电能量转换性能随聚乙二醇的加入量变化的规律进行了探索.结果表明,聚乙二醇的加入抑制了锐钛矿相TiO2晶粒的生长,诱导了金红石相的形成.当聚乙二醇的加入量为TiO2质量的5%时性能达到最佳,采用单层多孔薄膜以及不添加四-叔丁基吡啶的电解质组装的电池获得了2.86%的光电能量转换效率.

  14. Vibrational relaxation dynamics of catalysts on TiO{sub 2} Rutile (1 1 0) single crystal surfaces and anatase nanoporous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricks, Allen M.; Anfuso, Chantelle L.; Rodríguez-Córdoba, William; Lian, Tianquan, E-mail: tlian@emory.edu

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: • Investigated vibrational relaxation dynamics of a CO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst on TiO{sub 2} surfaces. • IR pump-vibration sum-frequency generation probe spectroscopy on Rutile (1 1 0) surface. • IR-pump/IR probe transient absorption spectroscopy on nano-crystalline thin films. • CO stretching modes show a ultrafast population equilibration followed by population decay. - Abstract: Time-resolved vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the vibrational relaxation dynamics of the rhenium bipyridyl CO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst Re(CO){sub 3}Cl(dcbpy) [dcbpy = 4,4′-dicarboxy-2,2′-bipyridine] adsorbed onto the (1 1 0) surface of a Rutile TiO{sub 2} single crystal. IR pump-VSFG probe spectra of the a′(1) CO stretching mode indicate a ultrafast population equilibration between three CO stretching modes followed by their population relaxation via intramolecular vibrational energy transfer. Similar vibational relaxation dynamics was also observed for the same complex on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline thin films measured by IR pump-IR probe transient absorption spectroscopy. The relaxation dynamics of ReCOA on TiO{sub 2}, in DMF solution, and immobilized on Au through alkane thiol linkers were compared to examine possible effects of adsorbate-TiO{sub 2} interaction.

  15. Hierarchical photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2016-05-01

    As a green and sustainable technology, semiconductor-based heterogeneous photocatalysis has received much attention in the last few decades because it has potential to solve both energy and environmental problems. To achieve efficient photocatalysts, various hierarchical semiconductors have been designed and fabricated at the micro/nanometer scale in recent years. This review presents a critical appraisal of fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and applications of advanced hierarchical photocatalysts. Especially, the different synthesis strategies such as two-step templating, in situ template-sacrificial dissolution, self-templating method, in situ template-free assembly, chemically induced self-transformation and post-synthesis treatment are highlighted. Finally, some important applications including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, photocatalytic H2 production and photocatalytic CO2 reduction are reviewed. A thorough assessment of the progress made in photocatalysis may open new opportunities in designing highly effective hierarchical photocatalysts for advanced applications ranging from thermal catalysis, separation and purification processes to solar cells.

  16. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  17. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  18. Optical characteristics of wet-thermally oxidized bulk and nanoporous GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sinjae; Kadam, Mahadev; Kang, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2016-09-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films deposited on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition were successfully transformed into bulk and nanoporous gallium oxide (Ga2O3) using a wet thermal oxidation technique. Oxidation depth measurements confirmed that the oxide growth appeared to be faster in the case of nanoporous GaN than that of bulk GaN. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to evaluate and compare the optical properties of nanoporous and bulk Ga2O3 films, such as refractive index and extinction coefficient, which revealed improved optical properties for nanoporous Ga2O3 compared to the bulk. The simulations conducted on the ellipsometric spectra for bulk and nanoporous Ga2O3 using the Forouhi-Bloomer model and the Bruggeman effective medium approximation revealed the best fit with a low mean square error value. In the case of nanoporous Ga2O3, zero absorption was observed in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 840 nm, supporting the use of this material as a transparent coating in optoelectronic devices.

  19. Using Focused Electron Beams to Drill Straight Nanopores on a Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A high-resolution focused electron beam is used for the fabrication of metal nanostructures and devices with insulating membranes by nanosculpting metal films. This top-down focused electron beam drilling method uses the controlled ablation of materials to produce nanoscale devices with near-atomic precision of order. Using the proposed procedure, nano-drilling is not directly realized through the aperture, but by using a focused electron beam to burn away the solvent. Recent studies have investigated silicon nitride nanopores with an hourglass profile and silica nanopores with a pyramid-shaped cross-section, but electronic drilling in these approaches failed to produce straight nanopores. A method is proposed to improve the membranes’ thermal conductivity to rapidly produce straight nanopores, and is experimentally confirmed and has significant potential for use in nano-sensors or nano-devices.

  20. Nanoporous polymer liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Ndoni, Sokol

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented.......We demonstrate liquid core waveguides defined by UV to enable selective water infiltration in nanoporous polymers, creating an effective refractive index shift Δn=0.13. The mode confinement and propagation loss in these waveguides are presented....

  1. Unusually Stable Hysteresis in the pH-Response of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes Confined within Nanoporous Block Polymer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Jacob L; Mulvenna, Ryan A; Boudouris, Bryan W; Phillip, William A

    2016-06-01

    Stimuli-responsive soft materials are a highly studied field due to their wide-ranging applications; however, only a small group of these materials display hysteretic responses to stimuli. Moreover, previous reports of this behavior have typically shown it to be short-lived. In this work, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) chains at extremely high grafting densities and confined in nanoscale pores displayed a unique long-lived hysteretic behavior caused by their ability to form a metastable hydrogen bond network. Hydraulic permeability measurements demonstrated that the conformation of the PAA chains exhibited a hysteretic dependence on pH, where different effective pore diameters arose in a pH range of 3 to 8, as determined by the pH of the previous environment. Further studies using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that the fraction of ionized PAA moieties depended on the thin film history; this was corroborated by metal adsorption capacity, which demonstrated the same pH dependence. This hysteresis was shown to be persistent, enduring for days, in a manner unlike most other systems. The hypothesis that hydrogen bonding among PAA units contributed to the hysteretic behavior was supported by experiments with a urea solution, which disrupted the metastable hydrogen bonded state of PAA toward its ionized state. The ability of PAA to hydrogen bond within these confined pores results in a stable and tunable hysteresis not previously observed in homopolymer materials. An enhanced understanding of the polymer chemistry and physics governing this hysteresis gives insight into the design and manipulation of next-generation sensors and gating materials in nanoscale applications.

  2. Noise Properties of Rectifying Nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M R; Sa, N; Davenport, M; Healy, K; Vlassiouk, I; Letant, S E; Baker, L A; Siwy, Z S

    2011-02-18

    Ion currents through three types of rectifying nanoporous structures are studied and compared for the first time: conically shaped polymer nanopores, glass nanopipettes, and silicon nitride nanopores. Time signals of ion currents are analyzed by power spectrum. We focus on the low-frequency range where the power spectrum magnitude scales with frequency, f, as 1/f. Glass nanopipettes and polymer nanopores exhibit non-equilibrium 1/f noise, thus the normalized power spectrum depends on the voltage polarity and magnitude. In contrast, 1/f noise in rectifying silicon nitride nanopores is of equilibrium character. Various mechanisms underlying the voltage-dependent 1/f noise are explored and discussed, including intrinsic pore wall dynamics, and formation of vortices and non-linear flow patterns in the pore. Experimental data are supported by modeling of ion currents based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier Stokes equations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent 1/f noise observed in polymer and glass asymmetric nanopores might result from high and asymmetric electric fields inducing secondary effects in the pore such as enhanced water dissociation.

  3. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  4. Functionalized Nanoporous Track-Etched b-PVDF Membrane Electrodes for Heavy Metal Determination by Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessbousse H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Track-etched functionalized nanoporous β-PVDF membrane electrodes, or functionalized membrane electrodes (FMEs, are electrodes made from track-etched, poly(acrylic acid (PAA functionalized nanoporous β-poly(vinylidene fluoride (β-PVDF membranes with thin porous Au films sputtered on each side as electrodes. To form the β-PVDF nanoporous membranes, β-PVDF films are irradiated by swift heavy ions. After irradiation, radical tracks are stable in the membranes. Chemical etching removes some of the radical tracks revealing nanopores. Radicals, remaining in the pores, initiate radio grafting of PAA from the pore walls of the nanoporous β-PVDF. PAA is a cation exchange polymer that adsorbs metal ions, such as Pb2+, from aqueous solutions thus concentrating the ions into the membrane. After a calibrated time the FME is transferred to an electrochemical cell for square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry analysis.

  5. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Characterization of nanopores ordering in anodic alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2008-01-01

    A simple characterization method of the ordering of the nanopores is described for nanoporous anodized aluminium oxides. The method starts with image analysis on scanning electron microscopy representations for the purpose to find repetitive shapes and their centres, i.e. nanopores. Then triangles...

  8. Multiplexed ionic current sensing with glass nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Thacker, Vivek V; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Fuentes-Perez, Maria E; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Liedl, Tim; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2013-05-21

    We report a method for simultaneous ionic current measurements of single molecules across up to 16 solid state nanopore channels. Each device, costing less than $20, contains 16 glass nanopores made by laser assisted capillary pulling. We demonstrate simultaneous multichannel detection of double stranded DNA and trapping of DNA origami nanostructures to form hybrid nanopores.

  9. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  10. The optical Tamm states at the interface between a photonic crystal and nanoporous silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbaev, R. G.; Vetrov, S. Ya; Timofeev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The optical Tamm states (OTSs) localized at the edges of a photonic crystal bounded by a nanoporous silver (NPS) film are investigated. NPS involves spherical vacuum nanopores dispersed in the metal matrix and is characterized by the effective resonance permittivity. The transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of the structures under study at the normal incidence of light are calculated. It is shown that each Tamm state has its own frequency range where the real part of effective permittivity is negative. The light field localization at the high- and low-frequency OTSs is investigated. The specific features of spectral manifestation of the OTSs are studied in dependence on the nanopore concentration in the metal matrix and on the NPS film thickness.

  11. Nanoporous poly(lactide) by olefin metathesis degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arthur; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2013-07-31

    We describe an approach to ordered nanoporous poly(lactide) that relies on self-assembly of poly(butadiene)-poly(lactide) (PB-PLA) diblock copolymers followed by selective degradation of PB using olefin metathesis. The block copolymers were obtained by a combination of anionic and ring-opening transesterification polymerizations. The molar mass of each block was tailored to target materials with either a lamellar or cylindrical microphase-separated morphology. Orientation of these nanoscale domains was induced in thin films and monolithic samples through solvent annealing and mechanical deformation, respectively. Selective degradation of PB was achieved by immersing the samples in a solution of Grubbs first-generation catalyst in cyclohexane, a nonsolvent for PLA. Successful elimination of PB was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Direct imaging of the resulting nanoporous PLA was obtained by scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Nanopores formed by DNA origami: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2014-10-01

    Nanopores have emerged over the past two decades to become an important technique in single molecule experimental physics and biomolecule sensing. Recently DNA nanotechnology, in particular DNA origami, has been used for the formation of nanopores in insulating materials. DNA origami is a very attractive technique for the formation of nanopores since it enables the construction of 3D shapes with precise control over geometry and surface functionality. DNA origami has been applied to nanopore research by forming hybrid architectures with solid state nanopores and by direct insertion into lipid bilayers. This review discusses recent experimental work in this area and provides an outlook for future avenues and challenges.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger J Narayan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  14. Nanopore-CMOS Interfaces for DNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierowski, Sebastian; Huang, Yiyun; Wang, Chengjie; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-08-06

    DNA sequencers based on nanopore sensors present an opportunity for a significant break from the template-based incumbents of the last forty years. Key advantages ushered by nanopore technology include a simplified chemistry and the ability to interface to CMOS technology. The latter opportunity offers substantial promise for improvement in sequencing speed, size and cost. This paper reviews existing and emerging means of interfacing nanopores to CMOS technology with an emphasis on massively-arrayed structures. It presents this in the context of incumbent DNA sequencing techniques, reviews and quantifies nanopore characteristics and models and presents CMOS circuit methods for the amplification of low-current nanopore signals in such interfaces.

  15. DNA Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Grégory F; Calado, Victor E; Pandraud, Grégory; Zandbergen, Henny W; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Dekker, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Nanopores -- nanosized holes that can transport ions and molecules -- are very promising devices for genomic screening, in particular DNA sequencing. Both solid-state and biological pores suffer from the drawback, however, that the channel constituting the pore is long, viz. 10-100 times the distance between two bases in a DNA molecule (0.5 nm for single-stranded DNA). Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to realize and use ultrathin nanopores fabricated in graphene monolayers for single-molecule DNA translocation. The pores are obtained by placing a graphene flake over a microsize hole in a silicon nitride membrane and drilling a nanosize hole in the graphene using an electron beam. As individual DNA molecules translocate through the pore, characteristic temporary conductance changes are observed in the ionic current through the nanopore, setting the stage for future genomic screening.

  16. Switchable Imbibition in Nanoporous Gold

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Yahui; Duan, Huiling; Weissmueller, Joerg; Huber, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous imbibition enables the elegant propelling of nano-flows because of the dominance of capillarity at small length scales. The imbibition kinetics are, however, solely determined by the static geometry of the porous host, the capillarity, and the fluidity of the imbibed liquid. This makes active control particularly challenging. Here, we show for aqueous electrolyte imbibition in nanoporous gold that the fluid flow can be reversibly switched on and off through electric potential control of the solid-liquid interfacial tension, i.e. we can accelerate the imbibition front, stop it, and have it proceed at will. Simultaneous measurements of the mass flux and the electrical current allow us to document simple scaling laws for the imbibition kinetics, and to explore the charge flow dynamics in the metallic nanopores. Our findings demonstrate that the high electric conductivity along with the pathways for ionic and/or fluid transport render nanoporous elemental gold a versatile, accurately controllable elec...

  17. Adsorption hysteresis in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimark; Ravikovitch; Vishnyakov

    2000-08-01

    Capillary condensation hysteresis in nanopores is studied by Monte Carlo simulations and the nonlocal density functional theory. Comparing the theoretical results with the experimental data on low temperature sorption of nitrogen and argon in cylindrical channels of mesoporous siliceous molecular sieves of MCM-41 type, we have revealed four qualitatively different sorption regimes depending on the temperature and pore size. As the pore size increases at a given temperature, or as the temperature decreases at a given pore size, the following regimes are consequently observed: volume filling without phase separation, reversible stepwise capillary condensation, irreversible capillary condensation with developing hysteresis, and capillary condensation with developed hysteresis. We show that, in the regime of developed hysteresis (pores wider than 5 nm in the case of nitrogen sorption at 77 K), condensation occurs spontaneously at the vaporlike spinodal while desorption takes place at the equilibrium. A quantitative agreement is found between the modeling results and the experimental hysteresis loops formed by the adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the general behavior of confined fluids and the specifics of sorption and phase transitions in nanomaterials.

  18. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications.

  19. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    etching (RIE), may be applied to make the surface rough. This helps remove the nucleation layer. A protective layer is then deposited on the wafer. The protective layer, such as silicon nitride film or photoresist film, protects the wafer from electrochemical etching in an HF-based solution. A lithography technique is applied to pattern the particles onto the protective film. The undesired area of the protective film is removed, and the protective film on the back side of the wafer is also removed. Then the pattern is exposed to HF/surfactant solution, and a larger DC electrical current is applied to the wafers for a selected time. This step removes the nucleation layer. Then a DC current is applied to generate the nanopores. Next, a large electrical current is applied to generate a release layer. The particles are mechanically suspended in the solvent and collected by filtration or centrifuge.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell derived from nano-porous polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Ndoni, Sokol

    Nano-porous cross-linked polybutadiene has been used as the template which has good wetting properties with various inorganic precursors. A novel and facile nanocasting process has been developed to fabricate of a thin film with 10-nm wide titania network which is compact, inter-connected, and co...

  1. Correlation of the structure and applications of dealloyed nanoporous metals in catalysis and energy conversion/storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, H-J; Xu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-14

    Nanoporous metals produced by dealloying have shown great promise in many areas such as catalysis/electrocatalysis, energy conversion/storage, sensing/biosensing, actuation, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Particularly, nanoscale metal ligaments with high electronic conductivity, tunable size and rich surface chemistry make nanoporous metals very promising as catalysts/electrocatalysts for energy conversion applications such as fuel cells and also as versatile three-dimensional substrates for energy-storage in supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of dealloyed nanoporous metals in both catalysis/electrocatalysis and energy storage. In particular, based on the state-of-the-art electron microscopy characterization, we explain the atomic origin of the high catalytic activity of nanoporous gold. We also highlight the recent advances in rationally designing nanoporous metal-based composites and hierarchical structures for enhanced energy storage. Finally, we conclude with some outlook and perspectives with respect to future research on dealloyed nanoporous metals in catalysis- and energy-related applications.

  2. Creation of nanoporous TiO2 surface onto polyetheretherketone for effective immobilization and delivery of bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cheol-Min; Jang, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of the creation of a nanoporous TiO2 surface to enhance the in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo osseoconductivity of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants by providing favorable sites for the effective immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). A uniform nanoporous TiO2 layer with a pore diameter of ∼70 nm was successfully created by anodizing a Ti film, which had been deposited onto a PEEK substrate via electron beam (e-beam) evaporation technique. This nanoporous, hydrophilic TiO2 surface enabled the efficient immobilization of BMP-2, resulting in a remarkable enhancement in in vitro biocompatibility that was assessed in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The in vivo animal tests also confirmed that the nanoporous TiO2 surface immobilized with BMP-2 could significantly enhance the osseoconductivity of PEEK implants. The BMP-immobilized PEEK implant with the nanoporous TiO2 surface showed much higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio (60%) than the bare PEEK (30%), PEEK with the nanoporous TiO2 surface (50%) and even BMP-immobilized PEEK without the nanoporous TiO2 surface (32%). Copyright © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  3. Synthesis of self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, F. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Wen, Y. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Chan, K.C., E-mail: mfkcchan@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Yue, T.M. [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Zhou, Y.Z. [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jiangxi 343001 (China); Zhu, S.L.; Yang, X.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal oxide was synthesized for the first time by ultrafast anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte containing 10% HNO{sub 3}. The nanoporous oxide has through-holes with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. The as-formed oxides are amorphous, and were transformed to crystalline structures by annealing. The performance of a dye sensitized solar cell using nanoporpous Ti–10Zr oxide (TZ10) was further studied. It was found that the TZ10 film could increase both the short-circuit current and the open-circuit photovoltage of the solar cell. The overall efficiency of the solar cell was 6.99%, an increase of 20.7% as compared to that using a pure TiO{sub 2} (P25) film. - Graphical abstract: The nanoporous Ti–xZr(x=10, 30) oxide layers are fabricated by anodizing in a dilute nitric acid solvent. The power conversion efficiency of the DSSC by a covering of a Ti–10Zr thin film is increased by 20.7%, with an η of 7.69% , a short circuit current of 12.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a open circuit voltage of 0.833 V, and a fill factor of 0.679. - Highlights: • Self-detached nanoporous titanium-based metal (TiZr) oxide was synthesized. • The TiZr oxides have through-hole nanopores with diameters ranging from 10 to 60 nm. • The nanoporous Ti–10Zr oxide can improve the power conversion efficiency of a DSSC.

  4. Mechanical properties of nanoporous graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous graphene holds great promise in the application of filtration such as seawater desalination, gas separation, and ionic channels. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of nanoporous graphene with different size, shape, and density of nanopore. The strength decreases as the size and porosity of the nanopore increases. However, the rough edges of the nanopore has significant influence to the strength where the blunt tip perpendicular to the loading direction has higher strength. The effective tensile modulus is only determined by porosity of the nanopore as ΔE ˜ -p0.64, while the strength is determined by the size, shape, and porosity of the nanopore, for the same type of nanopore the strength scales with the porosity as Δσs ˜ -p. In contrast, the effective fracture strain increases as porosity increases for small and moderate porosities. The work is a first study of the relation between mechanical properties and porosity of nanoporous graphene and is helpful to the design of high performance nanoporous graphene membrane.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  6. Superdiffusive gas recovery from nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyi; He, Yadong; Qiao, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative recovery scales as R ˜t1 /2 ) but follows a superdiffusive scaling law R ˜tn (n >0.5 ), which is similar to that observed in some field experiments. For the system studied here, the superdiffusive gas recovery scaling law can be captured well by continuum models in which the gas adsorption and desorption from pore walls are taken into account using the Langmuir model.

  7. Manipulation of Protein Translocation through Nanopores by Flow Field Control and Application to Nanopore Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2016-09-20

    The control of biomolecule translocation through nanopores is important in nanopore protein detection. Improvement in current nanopore molecule control is desired to enhance capture rates, extend translocation times, and ensure the effective detection of various proteins in the same solutions. We present a method that simultaneously resolves these issues through the use of a gate-modulated conical nanopore coupled with solutions of varying salt concentration. Simulation results show that the presence of an induced reverse electroosmotic flow (IREOF) results in inlet flows from the two ends of the nanopore centerline entering into the nanopore in opposite directions, which simultaneously elevates the capture rate and immobilizes the protein in the nanopore, thus enabling steady current blockage measurements for a range of proteins. In addition, it is shown that proteins with different size/charge ratios can be trapped by a gate modulation intensified flow field at a similar location in the nanopore in the same solution conditions.

  8. Variation in geometry and electrical conductance properties of asymmetric track-etched single nanopores: How uniform are they?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejniczak, K., E-mail: kziel@jinr.ru [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina Str. 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Orelovich, O.L. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Apel, P.Y. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str. 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Dubna International University, Universitetskaya Str. 19, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the transport property uniformity of single asymmetric pores in polyethylene terephthalate membranes was investigated. Two types of films, Hostaphan RN and Hostaphan RNK, were used. The foils were irradiated with either single or multiple (∼10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}) Au and Xe ions. Samples were UV-treated and etched in surfactant-doped 5 mol/L NaOH at 60 °C for 6 min and 30 s in order to obtain nanopores with bullet-shaped tips. The geometry of the nanopores was determined from SEM images of multi-pore membrane cross sections. The reproducibility of the electrical characteristics of individual nanopores with bullet-like tips in two different types of polyethylene terephthalate foils was studied. The relationship between electro-conductive properties of the asymmetric nanopores and the polymer morphology is discussed.

  9. Nanoporous Aluminium Oxide Membranes as Cell Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO has become increasingly important in biomedical applications over the past years due to its biocompatibility, increased surface area, and the possibility to tailor this nanomaterial with a wide range of surface modifications. AAO nanopores are formed in an inexpensive anodisation process of pure aluminium, which results in the self-assembly of highly ordered, vertical nanochannels with well-controllable pore diameters, depths, and interpore distances. Because of these outstanding properties AAO nanopores have become excellent candidates as nanostructured substrates for cell-interface studies. In this comprehensive review previous surveys on cell adhesion and proliferation on different AAO nanopore geometries and surface modifications are highlighted and summarised tabularly. Future applications of nanoporous alumina membranes in biotechnology and medicine are also outlined, for instance, the use of nanoporous AAO as implant modifications, coculture substrates, or immunoisolation devices.

  10. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tieyu

    2012-05-02

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  11. Nanopore analytics: sensing of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2009-08-01

    In nanopore analytics, individual molecules pass through a single nanopore giving rise to detectable temporary blockades in ionic pore current. Reflecting its simplicity, nanopore analytics has gained popularity and can be conducted with natural protein as well as man-made polymeric and inorganic pores. The spectrum of detectable analytes ranges from nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, and biomolecular complexes to organic polymers and small molecules. Apart from being an analytical tool, nanopores have developed into a general platform technology to investigate the biophysics, physicochemistry, and chemistry of individual molecules (critical review, 310 references).

  12. Threading DNA through nanopores for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyta, Maria

    2015-07-01

    This review outlines the recent achievements in the field of nanopore research. Nanopores are typically used in single-molecule experiments and are believed to have a high potential to realize an ultra-fast and very cheap genome sequencer. Here, the various types of nanopore materials, ranging from biological to 2D nanopores are discussed together with their advantages and disadvantages. These nanopores can utilize different protocols to read out the DNA nucleobases. Although, the first nanopore devices have reached the market, many still have issues which do not allow a full realization of a nanopore sequencer able to sequence the human genome in about a day. Ways to control the DNA, its dynamics and speed as the biomolecule translocates the nanopore in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the reading-out process are examined in this review. Finally, the advantages, as well as the drawbacks in distinguishing the DNA nucleotides, i.e., the genetic information, are presented in view of their importance in the field of nanopore sequencing.

  13. Preparation and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces based on hexamethyldisilazane-modified nanoporous alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superhydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (alumina surfaces were prepared using treatment with vapor-phase hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS. Nanoporous alumina substrates were first made using a two-step anodization process. Subsequently, a repeated modification procedure was employed for efficient incorporation of the terminal methyl groups of HMDS to the alumina surface. Morphology of the surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, showing hexagonally ordered circular nanopores with approximately 250 nm in diameter and 300 nm of interpore distances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance analysis showed the presence of chemically bound methyl groups on the HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces. Wetting properties of these surfaces were characterized by measurements of the water contact angle which was found to reach 153.2 ± 2°. The contact angle values on HMDS-modified nanoporous alumina surfaces were found to be significantly larger than the average water contact angle of 82.9 ± 3° on smooth thin film alumina surfaces that underwent the same HMDS modification steps. The difference between the two cases was explained by the Cassie-Baxter theory of rough surface wetting.

  14. Structural engineering of nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide by pulse anodization of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo; Schwirn, Kathrin; Steinhart, Martin; Pippel, Eckhard; Scholz, Roland; Gösele, Ulrich

    2008-04-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide has traditionally been made in one of two ways: mild anodization or hard anodization. The first method produces self-ordered pore structures, but it is slow and only works for a narrow range of processing conditions; the second method, which is widely used in the aluminium industry, is faster, but it produces films with disordered pore structures. Here we report a novel approach termed "pulse anodization" that combines the advantages of the mild and hard anodization processes. By designing the pulse sequences it is possible to control both the composition and pore structure of the anodic aluminium oxide films while maintaining high throughput. We use pulse anodization to delaminate a single as-prepared anodic film into a stack of well-defined nanoporous alumina membrane sheets, and also to fabricate novel three-dimensional nanostructures.

  15. Deformation Behavior of Nanoporous Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Hodge, A M; Hamza, A V

    2007-11-28

    Nanoporous open-cell foams are a rapidly growing class of high-porosity materials (porosity {ge} 70%). The research in this field is driven by the desire to create functional materials with unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties where the material properties emerge from both morphology and the material itself. An example is the development of nanoporous metallic materials for photonic and plasmonic applications which has recently attracted much interest. The general strategy is to take advantage of various size effects to introduce novel properties. These size effects arise from confinement of the material by pores and ligaments, and can range from electromagnetic resonances to length scale effects in plasticity. In this chapter we will focus on the mechanical properties of low density nanoporous metals and how these properties are affected by length scale effects and bonding characteristics. A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior will open the door to further improve and fine-tune the mechanical properties of these sometimes very delicate materials, and thus will be crucial for integrating nanoporous metals into products. Cellular solids with pore sizes above 1 micron have been the subject of intense research for many years, and various scaling relations describing the mechanical properties have been developed.[4] In general, it has been found that the most important parameter in controlling their mechanical properties is the relative density, that is, the density of the foam divided by that of solid from which the foam is made. Other factors include the mechanical properties of the solid material and the foam morphology such as ligament shape and connectivity. The characteristic internal length scale of the structure as determined by pores and ligaments, on the other hand, usually has only little effect on the mechanical properties. This changes at the submicron length scale where the surface-to-volume ratio becomes large and the effect

  16. Surface modification of nanoporous alumina surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Ketul C; Mor, Gopal; Grimes, Craig A; Desai, Tejal A

    2004-09-14

    Nanoporous alumina surfaces have a variety of applications in biosensors, biofiltration, and targeted drug delivery. However, the fabrication route to create these nanopores in alumina results in surface defects in the crystal lattice. This results in inherent charge on the porous surface causing biofouling, that is, nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is known to form biocompatible nonfouling films on silicon surfaces. However, its application to alumina surfaces is very limited and has not been well investigated. In this study, we have covalently attached PEG to nanoporous alumina surfaces to improve their nonfouling properties. A PEG-silane coupling technique was used to modify the surface. Different concentrations of PEG for different immobilization times were used to form PEG films of various grafting densities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to verify the presence of PEG moieties on the alumina surface. High-resolution C1s spectra show that with an increase in concentration and immobilization time, the grafting density of PEG also increases. Further, a standard overlayer model was used to calculate the thickness of PEG films formed using the XPS intensities of the Al2p peaks. The films formed by this technique are less than 2.5 nm thick, suggesting that such films will not clog the pores which are in the range of 70-80 nm.

  17. Ion selectivity of graphene nanopores

    OpenAIRE

    Rollings, Ryan C.; Kuan, Aaron T.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-01-01

    As population growth continues to outpace development of water infrastructure in many countries, desalination (the removal of salts from seawater) at high energy efficiency will likely become a vital source of fresh water. Due to its atomic thinness combined with its mechanical strength, porous graphene may be particularly well-suited for electrodialysis desalination, in which ions are removed under an electric field via ion-selective pores. Here, we show that single graphene nanopores prefer...

  18. Solid-state Nanopore for Detecting Individual Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been fabricated and used to characterize single DNA and protein molecules. Here we describe the details on how these nanopores were fabricated and characterized, the nanopore sensing system setup, and the protocols of using these nanopores to characterize DNA and protein molecules. PMID:19488695

  19. Method to fabricate functionalized conical nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Spoerke, Erik David; Wheeler, David R.

    2016-07-12

    A pressure-based chemical etch method is used to shape polymer nanopores into cones. By varying the pressure, the pore tip diameter can be controlled, while the pore base diameter is largely unaffected. The method provides an easy, low-cost approach for conically etching high density nanopores.

  20. Nanopore sensors : From hybrid to abiotic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocer, Armagan; Tauk, Lara; Dejardin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanopores of well controlled geometry for sensing molecules in solution is reviewed. Focus is concentrated especially on synthetic track-etch pores in polymer foils and on biological nanopores, i.e. ion channels. After a brief section about multipore sensors, specific attention is provide

  1. UV Defined Nanoporous Liquid Core Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    Nanoporous liquid core waveguides, where both core and cladding are made from the same material, are presented. The nanoporous polymer used is intrinsically hydrophobic, but selective UV exposure enables it to infiltrate with an aqueous solution, thus raising the refractive index from 1.26 to 1...

  2. Reconstructing solid state nanopore shape from electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Yael; Drozdov, Maria; Avital, Yotam Y.; Kauffmann, Yaron; Rapaport, Hanna; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2010-11-01

    The dependence of nanopore biosensor conductance signal on the nanopore shape makes it important to decipher the latter with high precision. We show here that the three dimensional shape of a nanopore, extracted from electron microscopy analysis, allows for modeling the conductance of the nanopore over a wide range of ionic strengths. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the nanopore conductance on ionic strength can be used to accurately extract the nanopore shape, eliminating the need for lengthy electron microscopy analysis. The suggested methodology can be used to monitor changes in the nanopore shape and evaluate them during electrical characterization.

  3. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  4. Nanopore DNA sequencing using kinetic proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xinsheng

    We propose a method of DNA sequencing by combining the physical method of nanopore electrical measurements and Southern's sequencing-by-hybridization. The new key ingredient, essential to both lowering the costs and increasing the precision, is an asymmetric nanopore sandwich device capable of measuring the DNA hybridization probe twice separated by a designed waiting time. Those incorrect probes appearing only once in nanopore ionic current traces are discriminated from the correct ones that appear twice. This method of discrimination is similar to the principle of kinetic proofreading proposed by Hopfield and Ninio in gene transcription and translation processes. An error analysis is of this nanopore kinetic proofreading (nKP) technique for DNA sequencing is carried out in comparison with the most precise 3' dideoxy termination method developed by Sanger. Nanopore DNA sequencing using kinetic proofreading.

  5. Graphene nanopore devices for DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Chris A; Drndić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a method for detecting the translocation of individual DNA molecules through nanopores created in graphene membranes. The devices consist of 1-5-nm thick graphene membranes with electron-beam sculpted nanopores from 5 to 10 nm in diameter. Due to the thin nature of the graphene membranes, and the reduced electrical resistance, we observe larger blocked currents than for traditional solid-state nanopores. We also show how ionic current noise levels can be reduced with the atomic-layer deposition of a few nanometers of titanium dioxide over the graphene surface. Unlike traditional solid-state nanopore materials that are insulating, graphene is an excellent electrical conductor, and its use opens the door to a new future class of nanopore devices in which electronic sensing and control is performed directly at the pore.

  6. Nanoporous metals for advanced energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art research in nanoporous metals for potential applications in advanced energy fields, including proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Li batteries (Li ion, Li-S, and Li-O2), and supercapacitors. The related structural design and performance of nanoporous metals as well as possible mechanisms and challenges are fully addressed. The formation mechanisms of nanoporous metals during dealloying, the microstructures of nanoporous metals and characterization methods, as well as miscrostructural regulation of nanoporous metals through alloy design of precursors and surface diffusion control are also covered in detail. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, graduate students, and government/industry officers who are in charge of R&D investments and strategy related to energy technologies.

  7. A nano-frost array technique to prepare nanoporous PVDF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Lee, Jonghwi

    2014-07-01

    Frost, the solid deposition of water vapor from humid air, forms on the surface of a solid substrate when its temperature drops below the freezing point of water. In this study, we demonstrate how this natural phenomenon can be applied to develop novel nanoporous materials. The solvent annealing of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) infiltrated into nanopores induced template-directed dewetting thus preparing nanoembossing films. Then, water nanodroplets formed on the cold polymer nanopatterned surfaces following the embossing patterns, similar to dew formation on the ground. Subsequently, the nanodroplets were frozen and then removed by freeze-drying. This nano-frost array technique produced nanoporous PVDF membranes with an average thickness of 250 (+/-48) nm. It was revealed that the nanopatterned surface formed by solvent annealing played an important role in achieving a nano-frost array with an adjustable size. Additionally, the freezing process led to significant changes of the PVDF crystallinity and polymorphism. Our results prove that the nano-frost array technique can be broadly used to design ordered nanoporous structures and provide new prospects in nanomaterial fields.Frost, the solid deposition of water vapor from humid air, forms on the surface of a solid substrate when its temperature drops below the freezing point of water. In this study, we demonstrate how this natural phenomenon can be applied to develop novel nanoporous materials. The solvent annealing of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) infiltrated into nanopores induced template-directed dewetting thus preparing nanoembossing films. Then, water nanodroplets formed on the cold polymer nanopatterned surfaces following the embossing patterns, similar to dew formation on the ground. Subsequently, the nanodroplets were frozen and then removed by freeze-drying. This nano-frost array technique produced nanoporous PVDF membranes with an average thickness of 250 (+/-48) nm. It was revealed that the

  8. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    of different types of hierarchical networks. This is supplemented by a review of ring network design problems and a presentation of a model allowing for modeling most hierarchical networks. We use methods based on linear programming to design the hierarchical networks. Thus, a brief introduction to the various....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...... linear programming based methods is included. The thesis is thus suitable as a foundation for study of design of hierarchical networks. The major contribution of the thesis consists of seven papers which are included in the appendix. The papers address hierarchical network design and/or ring network...

  9. Chemically responsive nanoporous pigments: colorimetric sensor arrays and the identification of aliphatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jin Ho; Lim, Sung H; Park, Erwin; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2008-11-18

    A general method has been developed for the preparation of microspheres of nanoporous pigments, their formulation into chemically responsive pigment inks, and the printing of these inks as colorimetric sensor arrays. Using an ultrasonic-spray aerosol-gel synthesis from chemically responsive dyes and common silica precursors, 16 different nanoporous pigment microspheres have been prepared and characterized. New colorimetric sensor arrays have been created by printing inks of these chemically responsive pigments as primary sensor elements; these arrays have been successfully tested for the detection, identification, and quantitation of toxic aliphatic amines. Among 11 structurally similar amines, complete identification of each analyte without confusion was achieved using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Furthermore, visual identification of ammonia gas was easily made at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health), PEL (permissible exposure limits), and 0.1 PEL concentrations with high reproducibility.

  10. Hierarchical Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-25

    In this paper, we investigate the use of hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) to speed up the acquisition of cooperative multiagent tasks. We...introduce a hierarchical multiagent reinforcement learning (RL) framework and propose a hierarchical multiagent RL algorithm called Cooperative HRL. In

  11. Water behaviour in nanoporous aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel, E-mail: Konstantin.Smirnov@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, Universite Lille 1, Sciences et Technologie, CNRS, Batiment C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-21

    This paper briefly reviews results of molecular dynamics simulation studies of water confined in nanoporous aluminosilicates. The behaviour of confined molecules is shown to be influenced by the nature of the host structure, and the size and the topology of the voids. For some of the systems discussed the ambiguity in results of different modelling studies call for the use of extended potential and structural models. Thus, the use of polarizable force fields was shown to be necessary to take into account the variation of the molecular dipole of confined molecules in different environments.

  12. Hierarchical Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Communication networks are immensely important today, since both companies and individuals use numerous services that rely on them. This thesis considers the design of hierarchical (communication) networks. Hierarchical networks consist of layers of networks and are well-suited for coping...... the clusters. The design of hierarchical networks involves clustering of nodes, hub selection, and network design, i.e. selection of links and routing of ows. Hierarchical networks have been in use for decades, but integrated design of these networks has only been considered for very special types of networks....... The thesis investigates models for hierarchical network design and methods used to design such networks. In addition, ring network design is considered, since ring networks commonly appear in the design of hierarchical networks. The thesis introduces hierarchical networks, including a classification scheme...

  13. DNA origami nanopores for controlling DNA translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Bell, Nicholas A W; Thacker, Vivek V; Göpfrich, Kerstin; Misiunas, Karolis; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2013-07-23

    We combine DNA origami structures with glass nanocapillaries to reversibly form hybrid DNA origami nanopores. Trapping of the DNA origami onto the nanocapillary is proven by imaging fluorescently labeled DNA origami structures and simultaneous ionic current measurements of the trapping events. We then show two applications highlighting the versatility of these DNA origami nanopores. First, by tuning the pore size we can control the folding of dsDNA molecules ("physical control"). Second, we show that the specific introduction of binding sites in the DNA origami nanopore allows selective detection of ssDNA as a function of the DNA sequence ("chemical control").

  14. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Despite the use of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica membranes in substitution of traditional separation processes is expected leading to vast energy savings, their intrinsic poor steam-stability hampers their application at an industrial level. Transition metal ions can be used as dopant...... to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...... and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile nanoporous structure...

  15. Electrochemical impedance analysis of nanoporous TiO2 electrode at low bias potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Jun Li; Yuan Lin; Zeng Chen; Jing Bo Zhang; Xiao Wen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    TiO2 colloid was prepared by the sol-gel method and was bladed on transparent conduction glass to made nanoporous electrode.The impedance performance of TiO2 electrode was studied at various bias potential.A simplified equivalent circuit was proposed to investigate the charge transport impedance of TiO2 film and good fitting results were obtained.

  16. Nanoporous-carbon adsorbers for chemical microsensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.; Staton, Alan W.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-11-01

    Chemical microsensors rely on partitioning of airborne chemicals into films to collect and measure trace quantities of hazardous vapors. Polymer sensor coatings used today are typically slow to respond and difficult to apply reproducibly. The objective of this project was to produce a durable sensor coating material based on graphitic nanoporous-carbon (NPC), a new material first studied at Sandia, for collection and detection of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic industrial chemicals (TIC), chemical warfare agents (CWA) and nuclear processing precursors (NPP). Preliminary studies using NPC films on exploratory surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices and as a {micro}ChemLab membrane preconcentrator suggested that NPC may outperform existing, irreproducible coatings for SAW sensor and {micro}ChemLab preconcentrator applications. Success of this project will provide a strategic advantage to the development of a robust, manufacturable, highly-sensitive chemical microsensor for public health, industrial, and national security needs. We use pulsed-laser deposition to grow NPC films at room-temperature with negligible residual stress, and hence, can be deposited onto nearly any substrate material to any thickness. Controlled deposition yields reproducible NPC density, morphology, and porosity, without any discernable variation in surface chemistry. NPC coatings > 20 {micro}m thick with density < 5% that of graphite have been demonstrated. NPC can be 'doped' with nearly any metal during growth to provide further enhancements in analyte detection and selectivity. Optimized NPC-coated SAW devices were compared directly to commonly-used polymer coated SAWs for sensitivity to a variety of VOC, TIC, CWA and NPP. In every analyte, NPC outperforms each polymer coating by multiple orders-of-magnitude in detection sensitivity, with improvements ranging from 103 to 108 times greater detection sensitivity! NPC-coated SAW sensors appear capable of detecting most analytes

  17. Optimization of photoelectrochemical water splitting performance on hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.

    2012-02-10

    In this paper, we show that by varying the voltages during two-step anodization the morphology of the hierarchical top-layer/bottom-tube TiO 2 (TiO 2 NTs) can be finely tuned between nanoring/nanotube, nanopore/nanotube, and nanohole-nanocave/nanotube morphologies. This allows us to optimize the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting performance on the hierarchical TiO 2 NTs. The optimized photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency in this study, occurring on the nanopore/nanotube TiO 2 NTs, were 1.59 mA cm -2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 0.84% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported on pristine TiO 2 materials under illumination of AM 1.5G. Our findings contribute to further improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of TiO 2-based devices.

  18. Catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica over nanoporous catalysts using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Jong-Ki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The catalytic pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica was carried out over a hierarchical meso-MFI zeolite (Meso-MFI and nanoporous Al-MCM-48 using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effect of the catalyst type on the product distribution and chemical composition of the bio-oil was examined using Py-GC/MS. The Meso-MFI exhibited a higher activity in deoxygenation and aromatization during the catalytic pyrolysis of L. japonica. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of Al-MCM-48 was lower than that of Meso-MFI due to its weak acidity.

  19. Super-Diffusive Gas Recovery from Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Haiyi; Qiao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the recovery of gas from reservoirs featuring pervasive nanopores is essential for effective shale gas extraction. Classical theories cannot accurately predict such gas recovery and many experimental observations are not well understood. Here we report molecular simulations of the recovery of gas from single nanopores, explicitly taking into account molecular gas-wall interactions. We show that, in very narrow pores, the strong gas-wall interactions are essential in determining the gas recovery behavior both quantitatively and qualitatively. These interactions cause the total diffusion coefficients of the gas molecules in nanopores to be smaller than those predicted by kinetic theories, hence slowing down the rate of gas recovery. These interactions also lead to significant adsorption of gas molecules on the pore walls. Because of the desorption of these gas molecules during gas recovery, the gas recovery from the nanopore does not exhibit the usual diffusive scaling law (i.e., the accumulative ...

  20. Improved Algorithms for Nanopore Signal Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2012-01-01

    Nanopore resistive pulse techniques are based on analysis of current or voltage spikes in the recorded signal. These spikes result from translocation of nanometer sized analytes through a nanopore. The most important information that needs to be extracted is the duration, amplitude and number of the translocation spikes. The recorded signal is usually considerably noisy, with a huge baseline drift and hundreds of translocation spikes. Thus, incorporation of suitable signal processing algorithms is necessary for correct and fast detection of all the translocation spikes and to accurately measure their amplitude and duration. Generally, low-pass filtering is used for denoising, averaging is used for baseline detection, and thresholding is used for spike detection and measurement. Here we present novel algorithms and specifically developed software for nanopore signal processing that are significantly improving the accuracy of the nanopore measurements. It includes an improved method for baseline removing, an op...

  1. DNA sequencing by nanopores: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Shaghayegh; Zheng, Ming; Pasquali, Matteo; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2016-10-01

    Developing inexpensive and simple DNA sequencing methods capable of detecting entire genomes in short periods of time could revolutionize the world of medicine and technology. It will also lead to major advances in our understanding of fundamental biological processes. It has been shown that nanopores have the ability of single-molecule sensing of various biological molecules rapidly and at a low cost. This has stimulated significant experimental efforts in developing DNA sequencing techniques by utilizing biological and artificial nanopores. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the nanopore sequencing field with a focus on the nature of nanopores and on sensing mechanisms during the translocation. Current challenges and alternative methods are also discussed.

  2. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, C.; van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-08-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  3. Enhanced microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous silica surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Ellen; Loeffler, Kathryn; Hu, Ye; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Lin, Kevin; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, John X. J.

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate porous silica surface modification, combined with microcontact printing, as an effective method for enhanced protein patterning and adsorption on arbitrary surfaces. Compared to conventional chemical treatments, this approach offers scalability and long-term device stability without requiring complex chemical activation. Two chemical surface treatments using functionalization with the commonly used 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) were compared with the nanoporous silica surface on the basis of protein adsorption. The deposited thickness and uniformity of porous silica films were evaluated for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled rabbit immunoglobulin G (R-IgG) protein printed onto the substrates via patterned polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) stamps. A more complete transfer of proteins was observed on porous silica substrates compared to chemically functionalized substrates. A comparison of different pore sizes (4-6 nm) and porous silica thicknesses (96-200 nm) indicates that porous silica with 4 nm diameter, 57% porosity and a thickness of 96 nm provided a suitable environment for complete transfer of R-IgG proteins. Both fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for protein layer characterizations. A porous silica layer is biocompatible, providing a favorable transfer medium with minimal damage to the proteins. A patterned immunoassay microchip was developed to demonstrate the retained protein function after printing on nanoporous surfaces, which enables printable and robust immunoassay detection for point-of-care applications.

  4. Enhanced microcontact printing of proteins on nanoporous silica surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Ellen; Loeffler, Kathryn; Hu, Ye; Gopal, Ashwini; Hoshino, Kazunori; Lin, Kevin; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhang, John X J

    2010-10-15

    We demonstrate porous silica surface modification, combined with microcontact printing, as an effective method for enhanced protein patterning and adsorption on arbitrary surfaces. Compared to conventional chemical treatments, this approach offers scalability and long-term device stability without requiring complex chemical activation. Two chemical surface treatments using functionalization with the commonly used 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) were compared with the nanoporous silica surface on the basis of protein adsorption. The deposited thickness and uniformity of porous silica films were evaluated for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled rabbit immunoglobulin G (R-IgG) protein printed onto the substrates via patterned polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) stamps. A more complete transfer of proteins was observed on porous silica substrates compared to chemically functionalized substrates. A comparison of different pore sizes (4-6 nm) and porous silica thicknesses (96-200 nm) indicates that porous silica with 4 nm diameter, 57% porosity and a thickness of 96 nm provided a suitable environment for complete transfer of R-IgG proteins. Both fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for protein layer characterizations. A porous silica layer is biocompatible, providing a favorable transfer medium with minimal damage to the proteins. A patterned immunoassay microchip was developed to demonstrate the retained protein function after printing on nanoporous surfaces, which enables printable and robust immunoassay detection for point-of-care applications.

  5. Highly sensitive thermoluminescent carbon doped nanoporous aluminium oxide detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, W M; de Oliveira, G B; da Silva, E F; Khoury, H J; Oliveira de Jesus, E F

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present the synthesis, characterisation and the thermoluminescence (TL) response of nanoporous carbon doped aluminium oxide Al2O3:C produced by anodic oxidation of aluminium in organic and inorganic solvents. The X-ray and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the synthesised samples are amorphous and present highly ordered structures with uniform pore distribution with diameter of the order 50 nm. The photoluminescence and spectroscopic analysis in the visible and infrared regions show that the luminescence properties presented by the samples prepared in organic acid are due to carboxylate species, incorporated in anodic alumina films during the synthesis process. After an annealing treatment, part of the incorporated species decomposes and is incorporated into the structure of the aluminium oxide yielding a highly thermoluminescent detector (TL) . The results for X-ray irradiation in the range from 21 to 80 keV indicate a linear TL response with the dose in the range from 5 mGy to 1 Gy, suggesting that nanoporous aluminium oxide produced in the present route of synthesis is a suitable detector for radiation measurements.

  6. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Polyimide-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofoamed Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-He; Yu, Li; Zhao, Li-Hang; Tong, Wang-Shu; Huang, Hai-Tao; Ke, Shan-Ming; Chan, H. L. W.

    2012-08-01

    Polyimide nanofoamed films have been prepared by incorporating poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into poly(amide acid) (PAA) precursors with subsequent imidization of PAA precursors at high temperature. The porous structure, thermal decomposition temperature, and dielectric property of nanofoamed films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and impedance spectroscopy. Nanopores with sizes around 40 nm to 200 nm were formed in nanofoamed films by pyrolysis of PEO during the imidization progress. The decomposition temperature of nanofoamed films decreased slightly with increasing volume fraction of nanopores and maintained the high decomposition temperature of 499.7 °C when the volume fraction of nanopores was 10.9 %. The dielectric constant of nanofoamed films decreased from 3.4 for pure PI to 2.4 at 103 Hz through the introduction of nanopores with volume fraction of 10.9 %.

  7. Micro-nanofibers with hierarchical structure by bubbfil-spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubbfil spinning is used to fabricate micro/nanofibers with hierarchical structure. The wall of a polymer film is attenuated unevenly by a blowing air. The burst of the bubble results in film fragments with different thickness, as a result, different sizes of fibers are obtained.

  8. Ion selectivity of graphene nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Ryan C.; Kuan, Aaron T.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-04-01

    As population growth continues to outpace development of water infrastructure in many countries, desalination (the removal of salts from seawater) at high energy efficiency will likely become a vital source of fresh water. Due to its atomic thinness combined with its mechanical strength, porous graphene may be particularly well-suited for electrodialysis desalination, in which ions are removed under an electric field via ion-selective pores. Here, we show that single graphene nanopores preferentially permit the passage of K+ cations over Cl- anions with selectivity ratios of over 100 and conduct monovalent cations up to 5 times more rapidly than divalent cations. Surprisingly, the observed K+/Cl- selectivity persists in pores even as large as about 20 nm in diameter, suggesting that high throughput, highly selective graphene electrodialysis membranes can be fabricated without the need for subnanometer control over pore size.

  9. In situ heavy ion irradiation studies of nanopore shrinkage and enhanced radiation tolerance of nanoporous Au

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Fan, C.; Ding, J.; Xue, S.; Chen, Y.; Li, Q.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2017-01-01

    High energy particle radiations induce severe microstructural damage in metallic materials. Nanoporous materials with a giant surface-to-volume ratio may alleviate radiation damage in irradiated metallic materials as free surface are defect sinks. Here we show, by using in situ Kr ion irradiation in a transmission electron microscope at room temperature, that nanoporous Au indeed has significantly improved radiation tolerance comparing with coarse-grained, fully dense Au. In situ studies show that nanopores can absorb and eliminate a large number of radiation-induced defect clusters. Meanwhile, nanopores shrink (self-heal) during radiation, and their shrinkage rate is pore size dependent. Furthermore, the in situ studies show dose-rate-dependent diffusivity of defect clusters. This study sheds light on the design of radiation-tolerant nanoporous metallic materials for advanced nuclear reactor applications.

  10. The Influence of Nanopore Dimensions on the Electrochemical Properties of Nanopore Arrays Studied by Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the electrochemical properties of nanopores is the key factor for better understanding their performance and applications for nanopore-based sensing devices. In this study, the influence of pore dimensions of nanoporous alumina (NPA membranes prepared by an anodization process and their electrochemical properties as a sensing platform using impedance spectroscopy was explored. NPA with four different pore diameters (25 nm, 45 nm and 65 nm and lengths (5 μm to 20 μm was used and their electrochemical properties were explored using different concentration of electrolyte solution (NaCl ranging from 1 to 100 μM. Our results show that the impedance and resistance of nanopores are influenced by the concentration and ion species of electrolytes, while the capacitance is independent of them. It was found that nanopore diameters also have a significant influence on impedance due to changes in the thickness of the double layer inside the pores.

  11. The Influence of Nanopore Dimensions on the Electrochemical Properties of Nanopore Arrays Studied by Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G.; Losic, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of the electrochemical properties of nanopores is the key factor for better understanding their performance and applications for nanopore-based sensing devices. In this study, the influence of pore dimensions of nanoporous alumina (NPA) membranes prepared by an anodization process and their electrochemical properties as a sensing platform using impedance spectroscopy was explored. NPA with four different pore diameters (25 nm, 45 nm and 65 nm) and lengths (5 μm to 20 μm) was used and their electrochemical properties were explored using different concentration of electrolyte solution (NaCl) ranging from 1 to 100 μM. Our results show that the impedance and resistance of nanopores are influenced by the concentration and ion species of electrolytes, while the capacitance is independent of them. It was found that nanopore diameters also have a significant influence on impedance due to changes in the thickness of the double layer inside the pores. PMID:25393785

  12. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  13. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  14. Coupling template nanocasting and self-activation for fabrication of nanoporous carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjun; Liu, Mingxiang; Diao, Zenghui; Chen, Diyun; Chang, Xiangyang; Xiong, Ya

    2016-11-01

    Hierarchical nanoporous carbon (NPC) with great surface area and developed pore size distribution has been intently concerned. Herein, we report a facile method coupling template nanocasting and self-activation to fabricate nanoporous carbon with continuous micro, meso and macro pores, in which CaCO3 acted as template and activation reagent while the flour was the carbon precursor. Effects of mass ratio of CaCO3 to flour and carbonized temperature on the pore structures of NPC were investigated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and SEM analysis. Another kind of carbon was prepared by directly mixed powder CaCO3 with flour carbonized at 800 °C (NPC-p) to comparatively investigate the pore fabricating mechanism. Results shown that carbonized at 800 °C was favorable to fabricate the continuous macro, meso and micro pores. The resulted NPC in a mass ratio of 1 to 2 had the considerable SBET and VT of 575.4 m2/g and 0.704 cm3/g, respectively. Only surface activation was observed for NPC-p. Nanocasting of the powder CaCO3 contributed to fabricate macropores and the CO2 activation contributed to meso- and micropores. Coupling activation and nanocasting effect due to the decomposition of CaCO3 template into CO2 and CaO was ascribed to synthesize the nanoporous carbon.

  15. Poretools: a toolkit for analyzing nanopore sequence data

    OpenAIRE

    Loman, Nicholas J.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Nanopore sequencing may be the next disruptive technology in genomics, owing to its ability to detect single DNA molecules without prior amplification, lack of reliance on expensive optical components, and the ability to sequence long fragments. The MinION™ from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) is the first nanopore sequencer to be commercialized and is now available to early-access users. The MinION™ is a USB-connected, portable nanopore sequencer that permits real-time analysi...

  16. Pink Noise of Ionic Conductance through Single Artificial Nanopores Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasserit, C.; Koutsioubas, A.; Lairez, D.; Zalczer, G.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2010-12-01

    We report voltage-clamp measurements through single conical nanopore obtained by chemical etching of a single ion track in polyimide film. Special attention is paid to the pink noise of the ionic current (i.e., 1/f noise) measured with different filling liquids. The relative pink-noise amplitude is almost independent of concentration and pH for KCl solutions, but varies strongly using ionic liquids. In particular, we show that depending on the ionic liquid, the transport of charge carriers is strongly facilitated (low noise and higher conductivity than in the bulk) or jammed. These results show that the origin of the pink noise can be ascribed neither to fluctuations of the pore geometry nor to the pore wall charges, but rather to a cooperative effect on ions motion in confined geometry.

  17. Nanoporous Mo2C functionalized 3D carbon architecture anode for boosting flavins mediated interfacial bioelectrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Lu, Zhisong; Huang, Yunhong; Long, Zhong-er; Qiao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    An efficient microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) needs both high loading of microbes (biocatalysts) and robust interfacial electron transfer from microbes to electrode. Herein a nanoporous molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) functionalized carbon felt electrode with rich 3D hierarchical porous architecture is applied as MFC anode to achieve superior electrocatalytic performance. The nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode exhibits strikingly improved microbial electrocatalysis in MFCs with 5-fold higher power density and long-term stability of electricity production. The great enhancement is attributed to the introduction of rough Mo2C nanostructural interface into macroporous carbon architecture for promoting microbial growth with great excretion of endogenous electron shuttles (flavins) and rich available nanopores for enlarging electrochemically active surface area. Importantly, the nanoporous Mo2C functionalized anode is revealed for the first time to have unique electrocatalytic activity towards redox reaction of flavins with more negative redox potential, indicating a more favourable thermodynamic driving force for anodic electron transfer. This work not only provides a promising electrode for high performance MFCs but also brings up a new insight into the effect of nanostructured materials on interfacial bioelectrocatalysis.

  18. Variable diffraction gratings using nanoporous electrodes and electrophoresis of dye ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, P. C. P.; Martinuk, M. A.; Mossman, M. A.; van Popta, A. C.; Brett, M. J.; Huizinga, J. S.; Whitehead, L. A.

    2007-09-01

    Transparent electrically-conductive nanoporous thin films can be used as electrodes to attract dye ions from solution to modulate the reflectance of a surface. Here we demonstrate that this technique can be used to create diffraction gratings that can be modified by the application of a small electrical potential with a selected spatial distribution. Using nanoporous ITO films fabricated by Glancing Angle Deposition, we have produced variable diffraction gratings, fabricated by a variety of methods, including lithography combined with etching techniques or direct patterning using focused ion beam etching. We demonstrate modulation of the diffraction pattern by employing electric force to attract the dye ions into the nanoporous electrode, thereby introducing a substantial local change in the effective refractive index value and thus altering the resultant diffraction pattern and, in some cases, yielding diffractive orders that lie between those associated with the underlying grating. These new orders are easily distinguished and their intensity can be substantially modified by controlling the applied voltage. Because this technique can work with very small pitch gratings, this approach has the potential to enable new applications that may not be readily achieved using conventional liquid crystal technology.

  19. Nanoporous Au structures by dealloying Au/Ag thermal- or laser-dewetted bilayers on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grillo, R.; Cacciato, G.; Zimbone, M.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoporous Au attracts great technological interest and it is a promising candidate for optical and electrochemical sensors. In addition to nanoporous Au leafs and films, recently, interest was focused on nanoporous Au micro- and nano-structures on surfaces. In this work we report on the study of the characteristics of nanoporous Au structures produced on surfaces. We developed the following procedures to fabricate the nanoporous Au structures: we deposited thin Au/Ag bilayers on SiO2 or FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates with thickness xAu and xAg of the Au and Ag layers; we induced the alloying and dewetting processes of the bilayers by furnace annealing processes of the bilayers deposited on SiO2 and by laser irradiations of the bilayers deposited on FTO; the alloying and dewetting processes result in the formation of AuxAgy alloy sub-micron particles being x and y tunable by xAu and xAg. These particles are dealloyed in HNO3 solution to remove the Ag atoms. We obtain, so, nanoporous sub-micron Au particles on the substrates. Analyzing the characteristics of these particles we find that: a) the size and shape of the particles depend on the nature of the dewetting process (solid-state dewetting on SiO2, molten-state dewetting on FTO); b) the porosity fraction of the particles depends on how the alloying process is reached: about 32% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the furnace annealing at 900 °C, about 45% of porosity for the particles fabricated by the laser irradiation at 0.5 J/cm2, in both cases independently on the Ag concentration in the alloy; c) After the dealloying process the mean volume of the Au particles shrinks of about 39%; d) After an annealing at 400 °C the nanoporous Au particles reprise their initial volume while the porosity fraction is reduced. Arguments to justify these behaviors are presented.

  20. Preparation of nanoporous titania spherical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kota; Sato, Soh; Matsushita, Takayuki; Ogawa, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    Preparation of nanoporous titania particles from well-defined titania-octadecylamine (titania-ODA) hybrid spherical particles with 450 nm in size, which were prepared by the method reported previously (Chem. Commun., 2009, pp. 6851-6853 [39]; RSC Adv., 2012, vol. 2, pp. 1343-1349 [40]), was studied. ODA was removed by solvent extraction with acidic ethanol to obtain nanoporous titania particles and subsequent calcination led to the formation of nanoporous titania particles with the nanopore size ranging from 2 to 4 nm depending on the calcination temperature. The as-synthesized titania was amorphous and was transformed into anatase (at around 300 °C) and rutile (at around 600 °C) by the heat treatment. The phase transition behavior was discussed in comparison with that of as-synthesized titania-ODA particles without ODA removal. Spherical particles of titania-ODA hybrids with 70 nm in size were also transformed into nanoporous titania particles composed of anatase crystallites by the washing and calcination at 500 °C for 1 h.

  1. Plasmonic properties of gold-coated nanoporous anodic alumina with linearly organized pores

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dheeraj Pratap; P Mandal; S Anantha Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    Anodization of aluminium surfaces containing linearly oriented scratches leads to the formation of nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) with the nanopores arranged preferentially along the scratch marks. NAA, when coated with a thin gold film, support plasmonic resonances. Dark-field spectroscopy revealed that gold-coated NAA with such linearly arranged pores shows a polarization-dependent scattering, that is larger when the incident light is polarized parallel to the scratch direction than when polarized perpendicular to the scratch direction. Fluorescence studies from rhodamine-6G (R6G) molecules dissolved in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and deposited on these NAA templates showed that fluorescence can be strongly enhanced with the bare NAA due to multiple light scattering in the NAA, while fluorescence from the molecules deposited on gold-coated NAA is strongly quenched due to the strong plasmonic coupling.

  2. Thermally Switchable Aligned Nanopores by Magnetic-Field Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Chinedum

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic fields provide a facile approach to direct the self-assembly of magnetically anisotropic block copolymer nanostructures in a scalable manner. Here we combine such field-based processing with materials design to enable the fabrication of polymer films with highly aligned stimuli-responsive nanopores. Etch removal of a poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) brush that is the minority component of a liquid crystalline block copolymer is used to produce nanopores of ~ 8 nm diameter. The pores can be reversibly closed and opened while retaining their alignment by appropriate heating and cooling. We present TEM and temperture resolved scattering data during pore closure and re-opening to explore the mechanism and kinetics of pore collapse. NSF DMR-0847534; DMR-1119826.

  3. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOPOROUS CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nigu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical double layer and electrochemical characteristics at the nanoporous carbon | (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface have been studied by the cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy methods. The value of zero charge potential (0.23 V vs. SCE in H2O, the region of ideal polarizability and other characteristics have been established. Analysis of complex plane plots shows that the nanoporous carbon | x M (C2H54NBF4 + acetonitrile interface can be simulated by the equivalent circuit, in which the two parallel conduction parts in the solid and liquid phases are interconnected by the double layer capacitance in parallel with the complex admittance of hindered reaction of the charge transfer process. The values of the characteristic frequency depend on the electrolyte concentration and on the electrode potential, i.e. on the nature of ions adsorbed at the surface of nanoporous carbon electrode.

  5. Ion transport through a graphene nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Guohui; Ghosal, Sandip; 10.1088/0957-4484/23/39/395501

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate the ionic transport of NaCl in solution through a graphene nanopore under an applied electric field. Results show the formation of concentration polarization layers in the vicinity of the graphene sheet. The non-uniformity of the ion distribution gives rise to an electric pressure which drives vortical motions in the fluid if the electric field is sufficiently strong to overcome the influence of viscosity and thermal fluctuations. The relative importance of hydrodynamic transport and thermal fluctuations in determining the pore conductivity is investigated. A second important effect that is observed is the mass transport of water through the nanopore, with an average velocity proportional to the applied voltage and independent of the pore diameter. The flux arises as a consequence of the asymmetry in the ion distribution with respect to reflection about the plane of the graphene sheet. The accumulation of liquid molecules in the vicinity of the nanopore...

  6. Tailored nanoporous gold for ultrahigh fluorescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, X Y; Guan, P F; Fujita, T; Chen, M W

    2011-03-07

    We report molecular fluorescence enhancement of free-standing nanoporous gold in which the nanoporosity can be arbitrarily tailored by the combination of dealloying and electroless gold plating. The nanoporous gold fabricated by this facile method possesses unique porous structures with large gold ligaments and very small pores, and exhibits significant improvements in surface enhanced fluorescence as well as structure rigidity. It demonstrates that the confluence effect of improved quantum yield and excitation of fluorophores is responsible for the large fluorescence enhancement due to the near-field enhancement of nanoporous gold, which arises from the strong electromagnetic coupling between neighboring ligaments and the weakening of plasmon damping of the large ligaments because of the small pore size and large ligament size, respectively.

  7. Vibrational spectra of molecular fluids in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakcheev, V. G.; Morozov, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is applied for quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide phase composition in pores of nanoporous glass samples at nearcritical temperatures. Measurements of the 1388 1/cm Q-branch were made in a wide pressure range corresponding to coexistence of gas (gas-like), adsorbed and condensed phases within pores. At temperatures several degrees below the critical value, CARS spectra behavior is easy to interpret in terms of thermodynamic model of surface adsorption and capillary condensation. It allows estimating mass fractions of different phase components. Moreover, spectra measured at near critical temperatures 30.5 and 33°C have pronounced inhomogeneous shapes and indicate the presence of condensed phase in the volume of pores. The effect obviously reflects the fluid behaviour near the critical point in nanopores. Pores with smaller radii are filled with condensed phase at lower pressures. The analysis of the CARS spectra is informative for quantitative evaluation of phase composition in nanopores.

  8. Polyelectrolyte Threading through a Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Yi Hsiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Threading charged polymers through a nanopore, driven by electric fields E, is investigated by means of Langevin dynamics simulations. The mean translocation time 〈 τ 〉 is shown to follow a scaling law Nα, and the exponent α increases monotonically from 1.16 (4 to 1.40 (3 with E. The result is double-checked by the calculation of mean square displacement of translocation coordinate, which asserts a scaling behavior tβ (for t near τ with β complying with the relation αβ = 2. At a fixed chain length N, 〈τ〉 displayed a reciprocal scaling behavior E−1 in the weak and also in the strong fields, connected by a transition E−1.64(5 in the intermediate fields. The variations of the radius of gyration of chain and the positions of chain end are monitored during a translocation process; far-from-equilibrium behaviors are observed when the driving field is strong. A strong field can strip off the condensed ions on the chain when it passes the pore. The total charges of condensed ions are hence decreased. The studies for the probability and density distributions reveal that the monomers in the trans-region are gathered near the wall and form a pancake-like density profile with a hump cloud over it in the strong fields, due to fast translocation.

  9. Nanoporous polymers for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Jonathan; Fréchet, Jean M J; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-05-01

    The design of hydrogen storage materials is one of the principal challenges that must be met before the development of a hydrogen economy. While hydrogen has a large specific energy, its volumetric energy density is so low as to require development of materials that can store and release it when needed. While much of the research on hydrogen storage focuses on metal hydrides, these materials are currently limited by slow kinetics and energy inefficiency. Nanostructured materials with high surface areas are actively being developed as another option. These materials avoid some of the kinetic and thermodynamic drawbacks of metal hydrides and other reactive methods of storing hydrogen. In this work, progress towards hydrogen storage with nanoporous materials in general and porous organic polymers in particular is critically reviewed. Mechanisms of formation for crosslinked polymers, hypercrosslinked polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, and covalent organic frameworks are discussed. Strategies for controlling hydrogen storage capacity and adsorption enthalpy via manipulation of surface area, pore size, and pore volume are discussed in detail.

  10. Nanowire-based polypyrrole hierarchical structures synthesized by a two-step electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dongtao; Huang, Sanqing; Qi, Rucai; Mu, Jing; Shen, Yuqing; Shi, Wei

    2009-08-03

    A simple two-step electrochemical method is proposed for the synthesis of nanowire-based polypyrrole hierarchical structures. In the first step, microstructured polypyrrole films are prepared by electropolymerization. Then, polypyrrole nanowires are electrodeposited on the surface of the as-synthesized microstructured polypyrrole films. As a result, hierarchical structures of polypyrrole nanowires on polypyrrole microstructures are obtained. The surface wettabilities of the resulting nanowire-based polypyrrole hierarchical structures are examined. It is expected that this two-step method can be developed into a versatile route to produce nanowire-based polypyrrole hierarchical structures with different morphologies and surface properties.

  11. DNA translocations through solid-state plasmonic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Francesca; Verschueren, Daniel; Klein, Misha; Dekker, Cees; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2014-12-10

    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations.

  12. How effective is graphene nanopore geometry on DNA sequencing?

    CERN Document Server

    Satarifard, Vahid; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of graphene nanopore geometry on homopolymer ssDNA pulling process through nanopore using steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations. Different graphene nanopores are examined including axially symmetric and asymmetric monolayer graphene nanopores as well as five layer graphene polyhedral crystals (GPC). The pulling force profile, moving fashion of ssDNA, work done in irreversible DNA pulling and orientations of DNA bases near the nanopore are assessed. Simulation results demonstrate the strong effect of the pore shape as well as geometrical symmetry on free energy barrier, orientations and dynamic of DNA translocation through graphene nanopore. Our study proposes that the symmetric circular geometry of monolayer graphene nanopore with high pulling velocity can be used for DNA sequencing.

  13. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  14. Hierarchical auxetic mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I; Azzopardi, Keith M; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-02-11

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  15. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  16. Hierarchical Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Ruben; Mizzi, Luke; Azzopardi, Joseph I.; Azzopardi, Keith M.; Attard, Daphne; Casha, Aaron; Briffa, Joseph; Grima, Joseph N.

    2015-02-01

    Auxetic mechanical metamaterials are engineered systems that exhibit the unusual macroscopic property of a negative Poisson's ratio due to sub-unit structure rather than chemical composition. Although their unique behaviour makes them superior to conventional materials in many practical applications, they are limited in availability. Here, we propose a new class of hierarchical auxetics based on the rotating rigid units mechanism. These systems retain the enhanced properties from having a negative Poisson's ratio with the added benefits of being a hierarchical system. Using simulations on typical hierarchical multi-level rotating squares, we show that, through design, one can control the extent of auxeticity, degree of aperture and size of the different pores in the system. This makes the system more versatile than similar non-hierarchical ones, making them promising candidates for industrial and biomedical applications, such as stents and skin grafts.

  17. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  18. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  19. Catalysis with hierarchical zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical (or mesoporous) zeolites have attracted significant attention during the first decade of the 21st century, and so far this interest continues to increase. There have already been several reviews giving detailed accounts of the developments emphasizing different aspects of this research...... topic. Until now, the main reason for developing hierarchical zeolites has been to achieve heterogeneous catalysts with improved performance but this particular facet has not yet been reviewed in detail. Thus, the present paper summaries and categorizes the catalytic studies utilizing hierarchical...... zeolites that have been reported hitherto. Prototypical examples from some of the different categories of catalytic reactions that have been studied using hierarchical zeolite catalysts are highlighted. This clearly illustrates the different ways that improved performance can be achieved with this family...

  20. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  1. Monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christophe; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-05-01

    High porosity monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases can be obtained from syndiotactic polystyrene and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)oxide thermoreversible gels by removing the solvent with supercritical CO2. The presence of crystalline nanopores in the aerogels based on these polymers allows a high uptake associated with a high selectivity of volatile organic compounds from vapor phase or aqueous solutions even at very low activities. The sorption and the fast kinetics make these materials particularly suitable as sorption medium to remove traces of pollutants from water and moist air.

  2. Nanoporous Gold: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Reed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous gold (np-Au has intriguing material properties that offer potential benefits for many applications due to its high specific surface area, well-characterized thiol-gold surface chemistry, high electrical conductivity, and reduced stiffness. The research on np-Au has taken place on various fronts, including advanced microfabrication and characterization techniques to probe unusual nanoscale properties and applications spanning from fuel cells to electrochemical sensors. Here, we provide a review of the recent advances in np-Au research, with special emphasis on microfabrication and characterization techniques. We conclude the paper with a brief outline of challenges to overcome in the study of nanoporous metals.

  3. Ultrafiltration by gyroid nanoporous polymer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Clausen, Lydia D.;

    2011-01-01

    Gyroid nanoporous cross-linked 1,2-polybutadiene membranes with uniform pores were developed for ultrafiltration applications. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure pre-alignment. The effects of solvent and surface photo-hydrophilization on perm......Gyroid nanoporous cross-linked 1,2-polybutadiene membranes with uniform pores were developed for ultrafiltration applications. The gyroid porosity has the advantage of isotropic percolation with no need for structure pre-alignment. The effects of solvent and surface photo...

  4. Optical breathing of nano-porous antireflective coatings through adsorption and desorption of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karsten H; Kittel, Thomas; Wondraczek, Katrin; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2014-10-13

    We report on the direct consequences of reversible water adsorption on the optical performance of silica-based nanoporous antireflective (AR) coatings as they are applied on glass in photovoltaic and solar thermal energy conversion systems. In situ UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy and path length measurements through high-resolution interferometric microscopy were conducted on model films during exposure to different levels of humidity and temperature. We show that water adsorption in the pores of the film results in a notable increase of the effective refractive index of the coating. As a consequence, the AR effect is strongly reduced. The temperature regime in which the major part of the water can be driven-out rapidly lies in the range of 55°C and 135°C. Such thermal desorption was found to increase the overall transmission of a coated glass by ~ 1%-point. As the activation energy of isothermal desorption, we find a value of about 18 kJ/mol. Within the experimental range of our data, the sorption and desorption process is fully reversible, resulting in optical breathing of the film. Nanoporous AR films with closed pore structure or high hydrophobicity may be of advantage for maintaining AR performance under air exposure.

  5. Optical breathing of nano-porous antireflective coatings through adsorption and desorption of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karsten H.; Kittel, Thomas; Wondraczek, Katrin; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2014-10-01

    We report on the direct consequences of reversible water adsorption on the optical performance of silica-based nanoporous antireflective (AR) coatings as they are applied on glass in photovoltaic and solar thermal energy conversion systems. In situ UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy and path length measurements through high-resolution interferometric microscopy were conducted on model films during exposure to different levels of humidity and temperature. We show that water adsorption in the pores of the film results in a notable increase of the effective refractive index of the coating. As a consequence, the AR effect is strongly reduced. The temperature regime in which the major part of the water can be driven-out rapidly lies in the range of 55°C and 135°C. Such thermal desorption was found to increase the overall transmission of a coated glass by ~ 1%-point. As the activation energy of isothermal desorption, we find a value of about 18 kJ/mol. Within the experimental range of our data, the sorption and desorption process is fully reversible, resulting in optical breathing of the film. Nanoporous AR films with closed pore structure or high hydrophobicity may be of advantage for maintaining AR performance under air exposure.

  6. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-04-04

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O2 batteries, Na-O2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO2 cubes in Na-O2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Scale-dependent diffusion anisotropy in nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, Daria; Lauerer, Alexander; Mehlhorn, Dirk; Jobic, Hervé; Feldhoff, Armin; Thommes, Matthias; Chakraborty, Dipanjan; Gommes, Cedric; Zecevic, Jovana; de Jongh, Petra; Bunde, Armin; Kärger, Jörg; Valiullin, Rustem

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous silicon produced by electrochemical etching of highly B-doped p-type silicon wafers can be prepared with tubular pores imbedded in a silicon matrix. Such materials have found many technological applications and provide a useful model system for studying phase transitions under confinement. This paper reports a joint experimental and simulation study of diffusion in such materials, covering displacements from molecular dimensions up to tens of micrometers with carefully selected probe molecules. In addition to mass transfer through the channels, diffusion (at much smaller rates) is also found to occur in directions perpendicular to the channels, thus providing clear evidence of connectivity. With increasing displacements, propagation in both axial and transversal directions is progressively retarded, suggesting a scale-dependent, hierarchical distribution of transport resistances (“constrictions” in the channels) and of shortcuts (connecting “bridges”) between adjacent channels. The experimental evidence from these studies is confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in the range of atomistic displacements and rationalized with a simple model of statistically distributed “constrictions” and “bridges” for displacements in the micrometer range via dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) simulation. Both ranges are demonstrated to be mutually transferrable by DMC simulations based on the pore space topology determined by electron tomography.

  8. Nanopore formation on Au coated pyramid under electron beam irradiations (plasmonic nanopore on pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Soo Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been tremendous interests about the single molecule analysis using a sold-state nanopore. The solid-state nanopore can be fabricated either by drilling technique, or diffusion technique by using electron beam irradiations. The solid-state SiN nanopore device with electrical detection technique recently fabricated, however, the solid-state Au nanopore with optical detection technique can be better utilized as the next generation single molecule sensor. In this report, the nanometer size openings with its size less than 10 nm on the diffused membrane on the 200 nm Au pyramid were fabricated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM electron beam irradiations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, etc. After the sample was being kept under a room environment for several months, several Au (111 clusters with ~6 nm diameter formed via Ostwald ripening are observed using a high resolution TEM imaging. The nanopore with Au nanoclusters on the diffused membrane can be utilized as an optical nanopore device.

  9. Fabrication of Advanced Thermoelectric Materials by Hierarchical Nanovoid Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare an advanced thermoelectric material has hierarchical structures embedded with nanometer-sized voids which are key to enhancement of the thermoelectric performance. Solution-based thin film deposition technique enables preparation of stable film of thermoelectric material and void generator (voigen). A subsequent thermal process creates hierarchical nanovoid structure inside the thermoelectric material. Potential application areas of this advanced thermoelectric material with nanovoid structure are commercial applications (electronics cooling), medical and scientific applications (biological analysis device, medical imaging systems), telecommunications, and defense and military applications (night vision equipments).

  10. Rapid resistome mapping using nanopore sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Imamovic, Lejla; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim

    2017-01-01

    of bacterial infections. Yet, rapid workflows for resistome characterization are lacking. To address this challenge we developed the poreFUME workflow that deploys functional metagenomic selections and nanopore sequencing to resistome mapping. We demonstrate the approach by functionally characterizing the gut...

  11. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.B.; Roij, van R.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of flow of electrolyte solutions through charged capillary nanopores or nanotubes as described by the capillary pore model (also called "space charge" theory). This theory assumes very long and thin pores and uses a one-dimensional flux-force formalism which relat

  12. Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-20

    The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H2) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H2 storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H2 tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H2 by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H2 per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H2 at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H2 molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank

  13. Self-Assembled Monolayers: Star-Shaped Crystallographic Cracking of Localized Nanoporous Defects (Adv. Mater. 33/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Frank Uwe; Ankah, Genesis Ngwa; Bashir, Asif; Ma, Duancheng; Biedermann, P Ulrich; Shrestha, Buddha Ratna; Nellessen, Monika; Khorashadizadeh, Anahita; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Duarte, Maria Jazmin; Raabe, Dierk; Valtiner, Markus

    2015-09-02

    On page 4877, F. U. Renner, A. Bashir, M. Valtiner, and co-workers describe a star-like dealloying corrosion morphology that appears during the localized attack of smooth well-prepared Cu-Au surfaces. The surfaces are initially protected by thiol or selenol inhibitior films. Localized dealloying of Cu-Au produces nanoporous gold under stress and crystallographic cracks - thereby opening a new approach combining surface science with nanoscale mechanical testing.

  14. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  15. Tunable Impedance Spectroscopy Sensors via Selective Nanoporous Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Small, Leo J

    2017-09-01

    Impedance spectroscopy was leveraged to directly detect the sorption of I 2 by selective adsorption into nanoporous metal organic frameworks (MOF). Films of three different types of MOF frameworks, respectively, were drop cast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 C. The MOF frameworks varied in topology from small pores (equivalent to I 2 diameter) to large pore frameworks. The combination of the chemistry of the framework and pore size dictated quantity and kinetics of I 2 adsorption. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8 impedance. Independent of MOF framework characteristics, all resultant sensors showed high response to I 2 in air. As an example of sensor output, I 2 was readily detected at 25 C in air within 720 s of exposure, using an un-optimized sensor geometry with a small pored MOF. Further optimization of sensor geometry, decreasing MOF film thicknesses and maximizing sensor capacitance, will enable faster detection of trace I 2 .

  16. Neutrosophic Hierarchical Clustering Algoritms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Şahin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interval neutrosophic set (INS is a generalization of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS, whose the membership and non-membership values of elements consist of fuzzy range, while single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS is regarded as extension of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS. In this paper, we extend the hierarchical clustering techniques proposed for IFSs and IVIFSs to SVNSs and INSs respectively. Based on the traditional hierarchical clustering procedure, the single valued neutrosophic aggregation operator, and the basic distance measures between SVNSs, we define a single valued neutrosophic hierarchical clustering algorithm for clustering SVNSs. Then we extend the algorithm to classify an interval neutrosophic data. Finally, we present some numerical examples in order to show the effectiveness and availability of the developed clustering algorithms.

  17. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-12-01

    Membranes utilizing nanoporous one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials are emerging as attractive candidates for applications in molecular separations and related areas. Such nanotubular and nanolayered materials include carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, layered zeolites, porous layered oxides, layered aluminophosphates, and porous graphenes. By virtue of their unique shape, size, and structure, they possess transport properties that are advantageous for membrane and thin film applications. These materials also have very different chemistry from more conventional porous 3D materials, due to the existence of a large, chemically active, external surface area. This feature also necessitates the development of innovative strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. Thereafter, we elucidate different approaches for fabrication of membranes and thin films from these materials, either as multiphase (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques on the membrane morphology is highlighted. We then discuss the applications of such membranes in areas relating to molecular transport and separation, e.g. gas and liquid-phase separations, water purification, and ion-conducting membranes. The review concludes with a discussion of the present outlook and some of the key scientific challenges to be addressed on the path to industrially applicable membranes containing nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Mechanisms of material removal and mass transport in focused ion beam nanopore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kallol, E-mail: das7@illinois.edu; Johnson, Harley T., E-mail: htj@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Laboratory, MC-236, 104 South Wright Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Despite the widespread use of focused ion beam (FIB) processing as a material removal method for applications ranging from electron microscope sample preparation to nanopore processing for DNA sequencing, the basic material removal mechanisms of FIB processing are not well understood. We present the first complete atomistic simulation of high-flux FIB using large-scale parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanopore fabrication in freestanding thin films. We focus on the root mechanisms of material removal and rearrangement and describe the role of explosive boiling in forming nanopores. FIB nanopore fabrication is typically understood to occur via sputter erosion. This can be shown to be the case in low flux systems, where individual ion impacts are sufficiently separated in time that they may be considered as independent events. But our detailed MD simulations show that in high flux FIB processing, above a threshold level at which thermal effects become significant, the primary mechanism of material removal changes to a significantly accelerated, thermally dominated process. Under these conditions, the target is heated by the ion beam faster than heat is conducted away by the material, leading quickly to melting, and then continued heating to nearly the material critical temperature. This leads to explosive boiling of the target material with spontaneous bubble formation and coalescence. Mass is rapidly rearranged at the atomistic scale, and material removal occurs orders of magnitude faster than would occur by simple sputtering. While the phenomenology is demonstrated computationally in silicon, it can be expected to occur at lower beam fluxes in other cases where thermal conduction is suppressed due to material properties, geometry, or ambient thermal conditions.

  19. Electrical pulse fabrication of graphene nanopores in electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, Aaron T.; Szalay, Tamas [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lu, Bo [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Xie, Ping [Oxford Nanopore Technologies, One Kendall Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Golovchenko, Jene A., E-mail: golovchenko@physics.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Nanopores in graphene membranes can potentially offer unprecedented spatial resolution for single molecule sensing, but their fabrication has thus far been difficult, poorly scalable, and prone to contamination. We demonstrate an in-situ fabrication method that nucleates and controllably enlarges nanopores in electrolyte solution by applying ultra-short, high-voltage pulses across the graphene membrane. This method can be used to rapidly produce graphene nanopores with subnanometer size accuracy in an apparatus free of nanoscale beams or tips.

  20. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2010-12-07

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  1. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanoporous Silicon/Polycrystalline-Silicon Solar Cells by Application of Trenched Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuen-Hsien Wu; Chia-Chun Tang

    2014-01-01

    Trenched electrodes were proposed to enhance the short-circuit current and conversion efficiency of polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) solar cells with nanoporous silicon (NPS) surface layers. NPS films that served as textured surface layers were firstly prepared on heavily doped p+-type (100) poly-Si wafers by anodic etching process. Interdigitated trenches were formed in the NPS layers by a reactive-ion-etch (RIE) process and Cr/Al double-layered metal was then deposited to fill the trenches...

  2. Nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Zhang, Junji; Gao, Rui; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-12-09

    Nanopore-based techniques, which mimic the functions of natural ion channels, have attracted increasing attention as unique methods for single-molecule detection. The technology allows the real-time, selective, high-throughput analysis of nucleic acids through both biological and solid-state nanopores. In this Minireview, the background and latest progress in nanopore-based sequencing and detection of nucleic acids are summarized, and light is shed on a novel platform for nanopore-based detection. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nanopore-based Fourth-generation DNA Sequencing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiao Feng; Yuechuan Zhang; Cuifeng Ying; Deqiang Wang; Chunlei Du

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore-based sequencers, as the fourth-generation DNA sequencing technology, have the potential to quickly and reliably sequence the entire human genome for less than $1000, and possibly for even less than$100. The single-molecule techniques used by this technology allow us to further study the interaction between DNA and protein, as well as between protein and protein. Nanopore analysis opens a new door to molecular biology investigation at the single-molecule scale. In this article, we have reviewed academic achievements in nanopore technology from the past as well as the latest advances, including both biological and solid-state nanopores, and discussed their recent and potential applications.

  4. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  5. Electrodeposition of nanoporous ZnO on Al-doped ZnO leading to a highly organized structure for integration in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renou G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we propose an improvement of the anode configuration in Zinc Oxide based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC. Instead of the classical configuration, which is composed by two different metal oxides: one transparent conducting oxide (TCO for the substrate and one nanostructured metal oxide for supporting the dye, the new approach is to use ZnO as unique material. Thus, nanoporous zinc oxide films have been electrodeposited on a sputtered Al doped ZnO layers with varying thicknesses up to 6 μm. The evolution of the porosity of the structure has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with standard nanoporous ZnO grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F noted FTO. This results firstly in the modification of the nanoporous structure morphology and secondly a better adhesion between the nanoporous layer and the substrate. Organization in the nanoporous material is enhanced with regular pores arrays and perpendicular to the substrate. Dye sensitized solar cells based on this simplified architecture present efficiencies up to 4.2% and 4.5% with N719 and D149 respectively as sensitizers. Higher fill factor and Voc are found in comparison with the one obtained for deposition on the classical transparent conducting oxide (FTO, which denote improved electrical transfer properties.

  6. Surface tectonics of nanoporous networks of melamine-capped molecular building blocks formed through interface Schiff-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan-He; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Control over the assembly of molecules on a surface is of great importance for the fabrication of molecule-based miniature devices. Melamine (MA) and molecules with terminal MA units are promising candidates for supramolecular interfacial packing patterning, owing to their multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled structures of MA-capped molecules through a simple on-surface synthetic route. MA terminal groups were successfully fabricated onto rigid molecular cores with 2-fold and 3-fold symmetry through interfacial Schiff-base reactions between MA and aldehyde groups. Sub-molecular scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging of the resultant adlayer revealed the formation of nanoporous networks. Detailed structural analysis indicated that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the MA groups persistently drove the formation of nanoporous networks. Herein, we demonstrate that functional groups with strong hydrogen-bond-formation ability are promising building blocks for the guided assembly of nanoporous networks and other hierarchical 2D assemblies. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cellular interactions on hierarchical poly(ε-caprolactone) nanowire micropatterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Gan, Zhihua

    2012-09-26

    A double template method to fabricate poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) hierarchical patterned nanowires with highly ordered nano- and microscaled topography was developed in this study. The topography of PCL film with a patterned nanowire surface can be easily and well controlled by changing the template and melting time of PCL film on the templates. The surface morphology, water contact angle, protein adsorption, and cell growth behavior on the PCL films with different surface structures were well studied. The results revealed that the PCL nanowire arrays and the hierarchical patterned nanowires showed higher capability of protein adsorption and better cell growth than the PCL film with smooth surface. Typically, the PCL surface with hierarchical nanowire patterns was most favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. The present study was innovative at fabrication of polymer substrates with hierarchical architecture of nanowires inside microscaled islands to gain insight into the cell response to this unique topography and to develop a new method of constructing the bionic surface for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  10. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  11. Surface chemistry driven actuation in nanoporous gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Wittstock, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Biener, M M; Zielasek, V; Kramer, D; Viswanath, R N; Weissmuller, J; Baumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2008-04-14

    Although actuation in biological systems is exclusively powered by chemical energy, this concept has not been realized in man-made actuator technologies, as these rely on generating heat or electricity first. Here, we demonstrate that surface-chemistry driven actuation can be realized in high surface area materials such as nanoporous gold. For example, we achieve reversible strain amplitudes in the order of a few tenths of a percent by alternating exposure of nanoporous Au to ozone and carbon monoxide. The effect can be explained by adsorbate-induced changes of the surface stress, and can be used to convert chemical energy directly into a mechanical response thus opening the door to surface-chemistry driven actuator and sensor technologies.

  12. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  13. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A.; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-01

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices.

  14. Conical nanopore membranes. Preparation and transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Naichao; Yu, Shufang; Harrell, C Chad; Martin, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We have been investigating applications of nanopore membranes in analytical chemistry-specifically in membrane-based bioseparations, in electroanalytical chemistry, and in the development of new approaches to biosensor design. Membranes that have conically shaped pores (as opposed to the more conventional cylindrical shape) may offer some advantages for these applications. We describe here a simple plasma-etch method that converts cylindrical nanopores in track-etched polymeric membranes into conically shaped pores. This method allows for control of the shape of the resulting conical nanopores. For example, the plasma-etched pores may be cylindrical through most of the membrane thickness blossoming into cones at one face of the membrane (trumpet-shaped), or they may be nearly perfect cones. The key advantage of the conical pore shape is a dramatic enhancement in the rate of transport through the membrane, relative to an analogous cylindrical pore membrane. We demonstrate this here by measuring the ionic resistances of the plasma-etched conical pore membranes.

  15. Water adsorption in ion-bearing nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, G.; Patey, G. N.

    2007-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to examine the adsorption of water into cylindrical nanopores containing single ions. The isotherms for water adsorbing into nanopores with radii of 0.44, 0.54, 0.64, and 0.74nm and containing Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, or F- at 298K are computed. In all cases the nanopores are found to fill at reservoir chemical potentials below the chemical potential of saturated water vapor at 298K. The threshold chemical potential is found to be sensitive to both the size of the channel and the ion species, with the anion-bearing pores filling at lower chemical potentials. Additionally, the filling threshold chemical potential is found to decrease as the radius of the pores is decreased. Pores with K+ and Cl- are compared, and the Cl- pores are found to exhibit higher water densities in the filled states and a more energetically favorable water structure while yielding lower per particle entropies. Sample simulation configurations are also examined and indicate that at low chemical potentials, the adsorbed water forms a cluster around the ion. Finally, the influence of the choice of water model on the adsorption isotherms is examined.

  16. Optically Transparent Wood from a Nanoporous Cellulosic Template: Combining Functional and Structural Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yu, Shun; Yan, Min; Berglund, Lars

    2016-04-11

    Optically transparent wood (TW) with transmittance as high as 85% and haze of 71% was obtained using a delignified nanoporous wood template. The template was prepared by removing the light-absorbing lignin component, creating nanoporosity in the wood cell wall. Transparent wood was prepared by successful impregnation of lumen and the nanoscale cellulose fiber network in the cell wall with refractive-index-matched prepolymerized methyl methacrylate (MMA). During the process, the hierarchical wood structure was preserved. Optical properties of TW are tunable by changing the cellulose volume fraction. The synergy between wood and PMMA was observed for mechanical properties. Lightweight and strong transparent wood is a potential candidate for lightweight low-cost, light-transmitting buildings and transparent solar cell windows.

  17. Synthesis of single-crystal-like nanoporous carbon membranes and their application in overall water splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2017-01-04

    Nanoporous graphitic carbon membranes with defined chemical composition and pore architecture are novel nanomaterials that are actively pursued. Compared with easy-to-make porous carbon powders that dominate the porous carbon research and applications in energy generation/conversion and environmental remediation, porous carbon membranes are synthetically more challenging though rather appealing from an application perspective due to their structural integrity, interconnectivity and purity. Here we report a simple bottom–up approach to fabricate large-size, freestanding and porous carbon membranes that feature an unusual single-crystal-like graphitic order and hierarchical pore architecture plus favourable nitrogen doping. When loaded with cobalt nanoparticles, such carbon membranes serve as high-performance carbon-based non-noble metal electrocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  18. TiO2纳米片/巢状分级结构纳米阵列薄膜的制备及其在染料敏化太阳能电池中的应用%Fabrication of Nanosheet/Nestlike Nanoarray Hierarchical TiO2 Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常萌蕾; 李新军

    2012-01-01

    A hierarchical configuration of TiO2 nanoarray film,comprising a nestlike TiO2 nanoarray layer integrated with a nanosheet network overlayer,was constructed.The hierarchical TiO2 film was obtained by the post-hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solution on hydrothermally synthesized TiO2-derived nanostructured arrays grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate (FTO).The TiO2 films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,and absorbance spectroscopy.FE-SEM shows that the hierarchical TiO2 film with a thickness of 1.5 μm is composed of a nanosheet overlayer (~0.2 μm height) and the nestlike nanoarray layer (~1.3 μm height).XRD patterns display that the TiO2 films have pure anatase phase structure.UV-Vis spectra reveal enhanced light scattering and dye adsorption ability of the hierarchical TiO2 film.For the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the nanosheet/nestlike nanoarray hierarchical TiO2 film,a short-circuit current (Jac) of 7.79 mA· cm-2,open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V,fill factor (FF) of 0.40,and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) of 2.48% are achieved.Within the dye-sensitized solar cell,the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the hierarchical TiO2 film was nearky ten times higher than that of nanostructured array film.%采用水热合成法在氟掺杂二氧化锡(FTO)导电玻璃基底上得到TiO2纳米阵列薄膜,并进一步通过NaOH溶液水热处理制备了由巢状纳米阵列及纳米片覆盖层构成的TiO2纳米阵列分级结构一体化薄膜.采用场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM),X射线衍射(XRD),紫外-可见(UV-Vis)漫反射光谱和吸收光谱技术对TiO2薄膜的结构和性质进行表征.FE-SEM结果表明:分级结构TiO2薄膜膜厚为1.5 μm,薄膜由一层纳米片覆盖层(约0.2 μm高)和一层巢状纳米阵列层(约1.3 μm高)组成.XRD谱图表明TiO2薄膜为锐钛矿相.UV-Vis

  19. Collaborative Hierarchical Sparse Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sprechmann, Pablo; Sapiro, Guillermo; Eldar, Yonina C

    2010-01-01

    Sparse modeling is a powerful framework for data analysis and processing. Traditionally, encoding in this framework is done by solving an l_1-regularized linear regression problem, usually called Lasso. In this work we first combine the sparsity-inducing property of the Lasso model, at the individual feature level, with the block-sparsity property of the group Lasso model, where sparse groups of features are jointly encoded, obtaining a sparsity pattern hierarchically structured. This results in the hierarchical Lasso, which shows important practical modeling advantages. We then extend this approach to the collaborative case, where a set of simultaneously coded signals share the same sparsity pattern at the higher (group) level but not necessarily at the lower one. Signals then share the same active groups, or classes, but not necessarily the same active set. This is very well suited for applications such as source separation. An efficient optimization procedure, which guarantees convergence to the global opt...

  20. Nanopore DNA sequencing and epigenetic detection with a MspA nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Andrew H.

    DNA forms the molecular basis for all known life. Widespread DNA sequencing has the potential to revolutionize healthcare and our understanding of the life sciences. Sequencing has already had a profound effect on our understanding of the molecular basis of life and underpinnings of disease. Current DNA sequencing technologies require costly reagents, can sequence only short DNA strands, and take too long to complete entire genomes. Furthermore, the required DNA sample size limits the types of experiments that can be run. For instance sequencing single cells is extremely difficult. New technologies are key to making DNA sequencing as cheap and accessible as possible and for making new experiments possible. One such new technology is nanopore sequencing. In nanopore sequencing, a thin membrane is used to divide a salt solution into two wells: cis and trans. This membrane contains a single nanometer sized hole that forms the only electrical connection between the two wells. When a voltage is applied across the membrane, ion current flows through the nanopore. This ion current is the primary signal for nanopore sequencing. DNA is negatively charged and can be pulled into the pore. When DNA is pulled into the pore, it occludes the pore and reduces the ion current that can pass through the pore. Individual DNA nucleotides along the DNA strand block the pore to varying degrees. One can measure the degree to which the pore is blocked as DNA passes through the pore and use the ion current signal to read off the DNA sequence. This thesis chronicles recent advances in the Gundlach laboratory in which I have played a leading role. It describes our work testing the biological nanopore Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA) for nanopore sequencing. The thesis consists of five chapters and three appendices which contain supplemental information for Chapters 2, 3, and 4. Chapter 1 begins with some motivation and defines the current challenges in DNA sequencing. I also introduce

  1. Hierarchical manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K; Rao, Anil; Price, Anthony N; Wolz, Robin; Hajnal, Jo; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method of hierarchical manifold learning which aims to automatically discover regional variations within images. This involves constructing manifolds in a hierarchy of image patches of increasing granularity, while ensuring consistency between hierarchy levels. We demonstrate its utility in two very different settings: (1) to learn the regional correlations in motion within a sequence of time-resolved images of the thoracic cavity; (2) to find discriminative regions of 3D brain images in the classification of neurodegenerative disease,

  2. Single Nanoparticle Translocation Through Chemically Modified Solid Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shengwei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongwen; Liu, Quanjun

    2016-02-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect single nanoparticle in solution. In the present study, the silicon nitride nanopores were fabricated by focused Ga ion beam (FIB), and the surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to change its surface charge density. The positively charged nanopore surface attracted negatively charged nanoparticles when they were in the vicinity of the nanopore. And, nanoparticle translocation speed was slowed down to obtain a clear and deterministic signal. Compared with previous studied small nanoparticles, the electrophoretic translocation of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (diameter ~100 nm) was investigated in solution using the Coulter counter principle in which the time-dependent nanopore current was recorded as the nanoparticles were driven across the nanopore. A linear dependence was found between current drop and biased voltage. An exponentially decaying function ( t d ~ e -v/v0 ) was found between the duration time and biased voltage. The interaction between the amine-functionalized nanopore wall and PS microspheres was discussed while translating PS microspheres. We explored also translocations of PS microspheres through amine-functionalized solid-state nanopores by varying the solution pH (5.4, 7.0, and 10.0) with 0.02 M potassium chloride (KCl). Surface functionalization showed to provide a useful step to fine-tune the surface property, which can selectively transport molecules or particles. This approach is likely to be applied to gene sequencing.

  3. Effect of flow rate on diameter of electrospun nanoporous fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiao-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flow rate on the diameter of the charged jet in the electrospinning process is studied theoretically. The obtained theoretical results offer in-depth physical understanding and mechanism of nanoporous fibers. It also reveals that the morphology and diameter of nanoporous microspheres can be controlled by the flow rate.

  4. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  5. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)], E-mail: hy-low@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2008-10-15

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold.

  6. HDS: Hierarchical Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Dave; Walter, Anton; Lupton, W. F.; Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Lawden, Mike; McIlwrath, Brian; Peden, J. C. M.; Jenness, Tim; Draper, Peter W.

    2015-02-01

    The Hierarchical Data System (HDS) is a file-based hierarchical data system designed for the storage of a wide variety of information. It is particularly suited to the storage of large multi-dimensional arrays (with their ancillary data) where efficient access is needed. It is a key component of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012) and is used by the Starlink N-Dimensional Data Format (NDF) library (ascl:1411.023). HDS organizes data into hierarchies, broadly similar to the directory structure of a hierarchical filing system, but contained within a single HDS container file. The structures stored in these files are self-describing and flexible; HDS supports modification and extension of structures previously created, as well as functions such as deletion, copying, and renaming. All information stored in HDS files is portable between the machines on which HDS is implemented. Thus, there are no format conversion problems when moving between machines. HDS can write files in a private binary format (version 4), or be layered on top of HDF5 (version 5).

  7. Hierarchical video summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratakonda, Krishna; Sezan, M. Ibrahim; Crinon, Regis J.

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of key-frame summarization of vide in the absence of any a priori information about its content. This is a common problem that is encountered in home videos. We propose a hierarchical key-frame summarization algorithm where a coarse-to-fine key-frame summary is generated. A hierarchical key-frame summary facilitates multi-level browsing where the user can quickly discover the content of the video by accessing its coarsest but most compact summary and then view a desired segment of the video with increasingly more detail. At the finest level, the summary is generated on the basis of color features of video frames, using an extension of a recently proposed key-frame extraction algorithm. The finest level key-frames are recursively clustered using a novel pairwise K-means clustering approach with temporal consecutiveness constraint. We also address summarization of MPEG-2 compressed video without fully decoding the bitstream. We also propose efficient mechanisms that facilitate decoding the video when the hierarchical summary is utilized in browsing and playback of video segments starting at selected key-frames.

  8. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by a hierarchical micro-nano porous carbon material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A hierarchical micro-nano porous carbon material (MNC) was prepared using expanded graphite (EG), sucrose, and phosphoric acid as raw materials, followed by sucrose-phosphoric acid solution impregnation, solidification, carbonization and activation. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry show that mixed nanopores and micropores coexist in MNC with a high specific surface area of 1978 m2·g-1 and a total pore volume of 0.99 cm3·g-1. In addition, the MNC is found to consist of EG and activated carbon with...

  9. Nanoparticle mechanics: deformation detection via nanopore resistive pulse sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, Armin; Goyal, Gaurav; Aneja, Rachna; Sundaram, Ramalingam V. K.; Lee, Kidan; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Ki-Bum; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-07-01

    Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various liposomes inside nanopores. We observed a significant difference in resistive pulse characteristics between soft liposomes and rigid polystyrene nanoparticles especially at higher applied voltages. We used theoretical simulations to demonstrate that the difference can be explained by shape deformation of liposomes as they translocate through the nanopores. Comparing our results with the findings from electrodeformation experiments, we demonstrated that the rigidity of liposomes can be qualitatively compared using resistive pulse characteristics. This application of nanopores can provide new opportunities to study the mechanics at the nanoscale, to investigate properties of great value in fundamental biophysics and cellular mechanobiology, such as virus deformability and fusogenicity, and in applied sciences for designing novel drug/gene delivery systems.Solid-state nanopores have been widely used in the past for single-particle analysis of nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes and viruses. The shape of soft particles, particularly liposomes with a bilayer membrane, can greatly differ inside the nanopore compared to bulk solution as the electric field inside the nanopores can cause liposome electrodeformation. Such deformations can compromise size measurement and characterization of particles, but are often neglected in nanopore resistive pulse sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation of various

  10. Nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells following ultrashort electric pulse exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Payne, Jason A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrashort or nanosecond electrical pulses (USEP) cause repairable damage to the plasma membranes of cells through formation of nanopores. These nanopores are able to pass small ions such as sodium, calcium, and potassium, but remain impermeable to larger molecules like trypan blue and propidium iodide. What remains uncertain is whether generation of nanopores by ultrashort electrical pulses can inhibit action potentials in excitable cells. In this paper, we explored the sensitivity of excitable cells to USEP using Calcium Green AM 1 ester fluorescence to measure calcium uptake indicative of nanopore formation in the plasma membrane. We determined the threshold for nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells for three pulse parameters (amplitude, pulse width, and pulse number). Measurement of such thresholds will guide future studies to determine if USEP can inhibit action potentials without causing irreversible membrane damage.

  11. A Protein Nanopore-Based Approach for Bacteria Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Aurelia; Ciuca, Andrei; Lee, Jong-kook; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung; Luchian, Tudor

    2016-11-01

    We present herein a first proof of concept demonstrating the potential of a protein nanopore-based technique for real-time detection of selected Gram-negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) at a concentration of 1.2 × 108 cfu/mL. The anionic charge on the bacterial outer membrane promotes the electrophoretically driven migration of bacteria towards a single α-hemolysin nanopore isolated in a lipid bilayer, clamped at a negative electric potential, and followed by capture at the nanopore's mouth, which we found to be described according to the classical Kramers' theory. By using a specific antimicrobial peptide as a putative molecular biorecognition element for the bacteria used herein, we suggest that the detection system can combine the natural sensitivity of the nanopore-based sensing techniques with selective biological recognition, in aqueous samples, and highlight the feasibility of the nanopore-based platform to provide portable, sensitive analysis and monitoring of bacterial pathogens.

  12. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  13. Hydrophilic and size-controlled graphene nanopores for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Gaurav; Bok Lee, Yong; Darvish, Armin; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Min Jun

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a general approach for transferring clean single-layer graphene onto silicon nitride nanopore devices and the use of the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to drill size-controlled nanopores in freely suspended graphene. Besides nanopore drilling, we also used the TEM to heal and completely close the unwanted secondary holes formed by electron beam damage during the drilling process. We demonstrate electron beam assisted shrinking of irregularly shaped 40-60 nm pores down to 2 nm, exhibiting an exquisite control of graphene nanopore diameter. Our fabrication workflow also rendered graphene nanopores hydrophilic, allowing easy wetting and use of the pores for studying protein translocation and protein-protein interaction with a high signal to noise ratio.

  14. Electrochemical tuning of the optical properties of nanoporous gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalas, D.; Shao, L.-H.; Canchi, R.; Okuma, T.; Lang, S.; Petrov, A.; Weissmüller, J.; Eich, M.

    2017-03-01

    Using optical in-situ measurements in an electrochemical environment, we study the electrochemical tuning of the transmission spectrum of films from the nanoporous gold (NPG) based optical metamaterial, including the effect of the ligament size. The long wavelength part of the transmission spectrum around 800 nm can be reversibly tuned via the applied electrode potential. The NPG behaves as diluted metal with its transition from dielectric to metallic response shifted to longer wavelengths. We find that the applied potential alters the charge carrier density to a comparable extent as in experiments on gold nanoparticles. However, compared to nanoparticles, a NPG optical metamaterial, due to its connected structure, shows a much stronger and more broadband change in optical transmission for the same change in charge carrier density. We were able to tune the transmission through an only 200 nm thin sample by 30%. In combination with an electrolyte the tunable NPG based optical metamaterial, which employs a very large surface-to-volume ratio is expected to play an important role in sensor applications, for photoelectrochemical water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and for solar water purification.

  15. Electrochemical tuning of the optical properties of nanoporous gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalas, D.; Shao, L.-H.; Canchi, R.; Okuma, T.; Lang, S.; Petrov, A.; Weissmüller, J.; Eich, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using optical in-situ measurements in an electrochemical environment, we study the electrochemical tuning of the transmission spectrum of films from the nanoporous gold (NPG) based optical metamaterial, including the effect of the ligament size. The long wavelength part of the transmission spectrum around 800 nm can be reversibly tuned via the applied electrode potential. The NPG behaves as diluted metal with its transition from dielectric to metallic response shifted to longer wavelengths. We find that the applied potential alters the charge carrier density to a comparable extent as in experiments on gold nanoparticles. However, compared to nanoparticles, a NPG optical metamaterial, due to its connected structure, shows a much stronger and more broadband change in optical transmission for the same change in charge carrier density. We were able to tune the transmission through an only 200 nm thin sample by 30%. In combination with an electrolyte the tunable NPG based optical metamaterial, which employs a very large surface-to-volume ratio is expected to play an important role in sensor applications, for photoelectrochemical water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen and for solar water purification. PMID:28276516

  16. On-Chip Supercapacitor Electrode Based On Polypyrrole Deposited Into Nanoporous Au Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Ohlckers, P.; Chen, X. Y.

    2016-11-01

    On-chip supercapacitors hold the potential promise for serving as the energy storage units in integrated circuit system, due to their much higher energy density in comparison with conventional dielectric capacitors, high power density and long-term cycling stability. In this study, nanoporous Au (NP-Au) film on-chip was employed as the electrode scaffold to help increase the electrolyte-accessible area for active material. Pseudo-capacitive polypyrrole (PPY) with high theoretical capacitance was deposited into the NP-Au scaffold, to construct the tailored NP-Au/PPY hybrid on-chip electrode with improved areal capacitance. Half cell test in three- electrode system revealed the improved capacitor performance of nanoporous Au supported PPY electrode, compared to the densely packed PPY nanowire film electrode on planer Au substrate (Au/PPY). The areal capacitance of 37 mF/cm2∼10 mV/s, 32 mF/cm2∼50 mV/s, 28 mF/cm2∼100 mV/s, 16 mF/cm2∼500 mV/s, were offered by NP-Au/PPY. Also, the cycling performance was enhanced via using NP-Au scaffold. The developed NP-Au/PPY on-chip electrode demonstrated herein paves a feasible pathway to employ dealloying derived porous metal as the scaffold for improving both the energy density and cycling performance for supercapacitor electrodes.

  17. Integrated solid-state nanopore platform for nanopore fabrication via dielectric breakdown, DNA-speed deceleration and noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yusuke; Yanagi, Itaru; Matsui, Kazuma; Yokoi, Takahide; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The practical use of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing requires easy fabrication of the nanopores, reduction of the DNA movement speed and reduction of the ionic current noise. Here, we report an integrated nanopore platform with a nanobead structure that decelerates DNA movement and an insulating polyimide layer that reduces noise. To enable rapid nanopore fabrication, we introduced a controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) process into our system. DNA translocation experiments revealed that single nanopores were created by the CDB process without sacrificing performance in reducing DNA movement speed by up to 10 μs/base or reducing noise up to 600 pArms at 1 MHz. Our platform provides the essential components for proceeding to the next step in the process of DNA sequencing.

  18. Perpendicular orientation of cylindrical domains upon solvent annealing thin films of polystyrene-b-polylactide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayer, Marylene [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Hillmyer, Marc A. [University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0431 (United States); Dirany, Mohammed; Thevenin, Guillaume; Erre, Rene [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France); Sinturel, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.sinturel@univ-orleans.f [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans (France)

    2010-05-03

    Polystyrene-b-polylactide (PS-PLA) was employed as a precursor to nanoporous thin films containing perpendicular cylindrical channels. Cylinder-forming PS-PLA was spin coated onto Si substrate and solvent annealed using acetone, chlorobenzene and tetrahydrofuran (THF) for different durations. By atomic force microscopy, three types of final morphology were observed at the free surface of the films (PLA surface layer, perpendicular cylinders and parallel cylinders) depending on the type of solvent and annealing time. Well-organized perpendicular domains were obtained by annealing in THF. From this oriented PS-PLA annealed thin films, a mild hydrolysis led to a highly ordered array of perpendicularly-oriented cylindrical nanopores arranged on a hexagonal lattice, rendering the resulting nanoporous mask useful for nanopattern transfer processes. The weak resistance of the film/substrate interface during PLA etching was overcome by UV light exposure prior hydrolysis.

  19. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2012-01-01

    a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure......Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  20. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  1. Super-sensitive Molecule-hugging Graphene Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Garaj, Slaven; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, Jene A

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal resolution and lateral sensitivity are decisive characteristics that determine the suitability of a nanopore sensor for sequencing a strand of DNA as well as other important polymers. Previous modeling of DNA induced ionic current blockades in single atom thick graphene nanopores has shown these nanopores to have sufficient longitudinal resolution to distinguish individual nucleobases along the length of a DNA molecule. Here we experimentally focus on the sensitivity to small changes in DNA diameter that can be discerned with graphene nanopores. We show that remarkably large sensitivities (0.5 nA/A)are obtained when the nanopore is tailored to have a diameter close to that of the polymer of interest. Our results have been obtained with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Smaller graphene nanopores that can be tuned to the diameter of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for sequencing have only recently been demonstrated. Our results indicate that nanopore sensors based on such pores will provide excellent resol...

  2. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  3. Slow DNA transport through nanopores in hafnium oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Joseph; Henley, Robert; Bell, David C; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Wanunu, Meni

    2013-11-26

    We present a study of double- and single-stranded DNA transport through nanopores fabricated in ultrathin (2-7 nm thick) freestanding hafnium oxide (HfO2) membranes. The high chemical stability of ultrathin HfO2 enables long-lived experiments with 50 000 DNA translocations with no detectable pore expansion. Mean DNA velocities are slower than velocities through comparable silicon nitride pores, providing evidence that HfO2 nanopores have favorable physicochemical interactions with nucleic acids that can be leveraged to slow down DNA in a nanopore.

  4. Nanoporous carbon actuator and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen [San Leandro, CA; Baumann, Theodore F [Discovery Bay, CA; Shao, Lihua [Karlsruhe, DE; Weissmueller, Joerg [Stutensee, DE

    2012-07-31

    An electrochemically driveable actuator according to one embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition capable of exhibiting charge-induced reversible strain when wetted by an electrolyte and a voltage is applied thereto. An electrochemically driven actuator according to another embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted by an electrolyte; and a mechanism for causing charge-induced reversible strain of the composition. A method for electrochemically actuating an object according to one embodiment includes causing charge-induced reversible strain of a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted with an electrolyte to actuate the object by the strain.

  5. Nanoporous hard data: optical encoding of information within nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Abel; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Pereira, Taj; Losic, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for developing advanced nanophotonic tools for a wide range of applications, including sensing, photonic tagging, self-reporting drug releasing systems and secure encoding of information.Herein, we present a method for storing binary data within the spectral signature of nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. A rationally designed multi-sinusoidal anodisation approach makes it possible to engineer the photonic stop band of nanoporous anodic alumina with precision. As a result, the transmission spectrum of these photonic nanostructures can be engineered to feature well-resolved and selectively positioned characteristic peaks across the UV-visible spectrum. Using this property, we implement an 8-bit binary code and assess the versatility and capability of this system by a series of experiments aiming to encode different information within the nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals. The obtained results reveal that the proposed nanosized platform is robust, chemically stable, versatile and has a set of unique properties for data storage, opening new opportunities for

  6. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical durability, silica glass optimizes the properties of a suitable host matrix. According to an easy sintering stage, nanoporous glasses such as xerogels, aerogels, and composite gels are alternative ways to synthesize silica glass at relatively low temperatures (≈1,000–1,200°C. Nuclear wastes exist as aqueous salt solutions and we propose using the open pore structure of the nanoporous glass to enable migration of the solution throughout the solid volume. The loaded material is then sintered, thereby trapping the radioactive chemical species. The structure of the sintered materials (glass ceramics is that of nanocomposites: actinide phases (~100 nm embedded in a vitreous silica matrix. Our results showed a large improvement in the chemical durability of glass ceramic over conventional nuclear glass.

  7. Thermal characterization of nanoporous 'black silicon' surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-01

    In this work we characterize the thermal conductivity properties of nanoprous `black silicon' (bSi). We fabricate the nanoporous bSi using the metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process utilizing silver (Ag) metal as the etch catalyst. The MACE process steps include (i) electroless deposition of Ag nanoparticles on the Si surface using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), and (ii) a wet etch in a solution of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The resulting porosity of bSi is dependent on the ratio of the concentration of HF to (HF + H2O2); the ratio is denoted as rho (ρ). We find that as etch time of bSi increases the thermal conductivity of Si increases as well. We also analyze the absorption of the bSi samples by measuring the transmission and reflection using IR spectroscopy. This study enables improved understanding of nanoporous bSi surfaces and how they affect the solar cell performance due to the porous structures' thermal properties.

  8. Gate manipulation of DNA capture into nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Fan, Chun; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2011-10-25

    Understanding biophysics governing DNA capture into a nanopore and establishing a manipulation system for the capture process are essential for nanopore-based genome sequencing. In this work, the functionality of extended electric field and electroosmotic flow (EOF) during the capture stage and their dependence on gate voltage, U(G), are investigated. We demonstrate that while both the electric field and EOF within a cis chamber make long-distance contributions to DNA capture around the pore mouth, the former effect is always capturing, while the latter causes trapping or blocking of the molecule depending on the magnitude of the gate voltage, U(G): an anionic EOF induced by high U(G) is capable of doubling the DNA trapping speed and thus the absorption radius in the cis chamber, whereas a cationic EOF by low U(G) would substantially offset the trapping effort by the electric field and even totally block DNA entrance into the pore. Based on the analysis, a gate regulation is proposed with the objective of achieving a high DNA capture rate while maintaining a low error rate.

  9. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team members expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  10. Graphene nanopores as negative differential resistance devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Nguyen, Phuong Duc; Skafidas, Efstratios, E-mail: sskaf@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 203 Bouverie Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-02-07

    We present graphene nanopores as new negative differential resistance (NDR) devices, and study their quantum transport properties using non-equilibrium Green's function and the density functional tight binding method. The proposed device structure is created on intrinsic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform widths, where the central scattering region has a nanopore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. We show that nitrogen-passivated scattering regions generally result in pronounced NDR properties, while hydrogen-passivated ones do not. This NDR effect occurs at low bias voltages, below 1 V, and achieves extraordinarily high peak-to-valley current ratio, while still attaining very high peak current densities. In addition, very sharp current peaks in the μA range can occur in the I-V curves, and through varying structural dimensions of the proposed structure multiple NDR regions can be realized. These results suggest that the device has promising potential in applications such as high frequency oscillators, memory devices, and fast switches.

  11. Chain-like molecules confined in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Soprunyuk, Viktor; Hofmann, Tommy; Knorr, Klaus

    2004-03-01

    We present an x-ray diffraction study on chain-like molecules, i.e. a selection of n-alkane molecules, embedded in the pores of nanoporous silica matrices. The lengths of the hydrocarbon chains are comparable to the mean diameter ( 7nm) of the tubular like nanopores which leads to drastic geometric restrictions. Diffraction patterns, recorded on heating and cooling between 200 K and 310 K, elucidate how the structure and phase behavior of the molecules is affected by the random substrate disorder and the confinement. The confined n-alkanes form close-packed structures by aligning parallel to the pore axis. In the case of the medium-length hydrocarbon chains one basic ordering principle known from the bulk crystalline state, i.e. the lamellar ordering of the molecules, is quenched[1], whereas for shorter n-alkanes this ordering principle survives[2]. The confined solids mimic the orientational order-disorder transitions known from the 3D unconfined crystals albeit in a modified fashion. 1. P. Huber, D. Wallacher, J. Albers, K. Knorr, Europhysics Letters, in press; 2. P. Huber, D. Wallacher, J. Albers, K. Knorr, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 15, 309 (2003).

  12. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided.

  13. Topological defects: origin of nanopores and enhanced adsorption performance in nanoporous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junjie; Morris, James R; Ihm, Yungok; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Duscher, Gerd; Pennycook, Stephen J; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2012-11-05

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy investigation of two nanoporous carbon materials, wood-based ultramicroporous carbon and poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbon, is reported. Atomic-resolution images demonstrate they comprise isotropic, three-dimensional networks of wrinkled one-atom-thick graphene sheets. In each graphene plane, nonhexagonal defects are frequently observed as connected five- and seven-atom rings. Atomic-level modeling shows that these topological defects induce localized rippling of graphene sheets, which interferes with their graphitic stacking and induces nanopores that lead to enhanced adsorption of H(2) molecules. The poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbon contains larger regions of stacked layers, and shows significantly smaller surface area and pore volume than the ultramicroporous carbon.

  14. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  15. Trees and Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Arndt

    1990-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of hierarchical dustering theory stems from one basic phe­ nomenon: This is the notorious non-transitivity of similarity relations. In spite of the fact that very often two objects may be quite similar to a third without being that similar to each other, one still wants to dassify objects according to their similarity. This should be achieved by grouping them into a hierarchy of non-overlapping dusters such that any two objects in ~ne duster appear to be more related to each other than they are to objects outside this duster. In everyday life, as well as in essentially every field of scientific investigation, there is an urge to reduce complexity by recognizing and establishing reasonable das­ sification schemes. Unfortunately, this is counterbalanced by the experience of seemingly unavoidable deadlocks caused by the existence of sequences of objects, each comparatively similar to the next, but the last rather different from the first.

  16. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  17. Optimisation by hierarchical search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew; Troyer, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Finding optimal values for a set of variables relative to a cost function gives rise to some of the hardest problems in physics, computer science and applied mathematics. Although often very simple in their formulation, these problems have a complex cost function landscape which prevents currently known algorithms from efficiently finding the global optimum. Countless techniques have been proposed to partially circumvent this problem, but an efficient method is yet to be found. We present a heuristic, general purpose approach to potentially improve the performance of conventional algorithms or special purpose hardware devices by optimising groups of variables in a hierarchical way. We apply this approach to problems in combinatorial optimisation, machine learning and other fields.

  18. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  19. How hierarchical is language use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan L; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-11-22

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science.

  20. Associative Hierarchical Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladický, L'ubor; Russell, Chris; Kohli, Pushmeet; Torr, Philip H S

    2014-06-01

    This paper makes two contributions: the first is the proposal of a new model-The associative hierarchical random field (AHRF), and a novel algorithm for its optimization; the second is the application of this model to the problem of semantic segmentation. Most methods for semantic segmentation are formulated as a labeling problem for variables that might correspond to either pixels or segments such as super-pixels. It is well known that the generation of super pixel segmentations is not unique. This has motivated many researchers to use multiple super pixel segmentations for problems such as semantic segmentation or single view reconstruction. These super-pixels have not yet been combined in a principled manner, this is a difficult problem, as they may overlap, or be nested in such a way that the segmentations form a segmentation tree. Our new hierarchical random field model allows information from all of the multiple segmentations to contribute to a global energy. MAP inference in this model can be performed efficiently using powerful graph cut based move making algorithms. Our framework generalizes much of the previous work based on pixels or segments, and the resulting labelings can be viewed both as a detailed segmentation at the pixel level, or at the other extreme, as a segment selector that pieces together a solution like a jigsaw, selecting the best segments from different segmentations as pieces. We evaluate its performance on some of the most challenging data sets for object class segmentation, and show that this ability to perform inference using multiple overlapping segmentations leads to state-of-the-art results.

  1. Substrate Dependent Ad-Atom Migration on Graphene and the Impact on Electron-Beam Sculpting Functional Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kevin J; Goyal, Gaurav; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Min Jun

    2017-05-10

    The use of atomically thin graphene for molecular sensing has attracted tremendous attention over the years and, in some instances, could displace the use of classical thin films. For nanopore sensing, graphene must be suspended over an aperture so that a single pore can be formed in the free-standing region. Nanopores are typically drilled using an electron beam (e-beam) which is tightly focused until a desired pore size is obtained. E-beam sculpting of graphene however is not just dependent on the ability to displace atoms but also the ability to hinder the migration of ad-atoms on the surface of graphene. Using relatively lower e-beam fluxes from a thermionic electron source, the C-atom knockout rate seems to be comparable to the rate of carbon ad-atom attraction and accumulation at the e-beam/graphene interface (i.e., Rknockout ≈ Raccumulation). Working at this unique regime has allowed the study of carbon ad-atom migration as well as the influence of various substrate materials on e-beam sculpting of graphene. We also show that this information was pivotal to fabricating functional graphene nanopores for studying DNA with increased spatial resolution which is attributed to atomically thin membranes.

  2. Photovoltaic performance of nanoporous TiO2 replicas synthesized from mesoporous materials for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyung-Jun; Yoo, Seung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ji-Man; Shim, Wang-Geun; Kim, Sun-Il; Lee, Jae-Wook

    2008-10-01

    For dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), highly ordered nanoporous TiO2 materials with crystalline frameworks were successfully synthesized from different silica templates including SBA-15, KIT-6 and MSU-H. A photoelectrode in DSSC was fabricated by adsorbing cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)bis-tetrabutylammonium dye (N719) onto the prepared TiO2 nanoparticles. The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, AFM and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and FT-IR analysis. An investigation of the influence of the bonding structure of N719 dye and nanoporous TiO2 on the photovoltaic performance of DSSC revealed that the bonding structure of N719 on TiO2 films is caused by the unidentate and bidentate linkage. Based on the overall conversion efficiency (eta), fill factor (FF), open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) and short-circuit current (/sc) from the I-V curves measured, it was observed that the photoelectric performance is strongly dependent on the dispersion properties of the nanoporous TiO2 replicas from mesoporous silica templates.

  3. Graphene nanopore with a self-integrated optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, SungWoo; Choi, Inhee; Fu, Chi-cheng; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hong, SoonGweon; Choi, Yeonho; Zettl, Alex; Lee, Luke P

    2014-10-08

    We report graphene nanopores with integrated optical antennae. We demonstrate that a nanometer-sized heated spot created by photon-to-heat conversion of a gold nanorod resting on a graphene membrane forms a nanoscale pore with a self-integrated optical antenna in a single step. The distinct plasmonic traits of metal nanoparticles, which have a unique capability to concentrate light into nanoscale regions, yield the significant advantage of parallel nanopore fabrication compared to the conventional sequential process using an electron beam. Tunability of both the nanopore dimensions and the optical characteristics of plasmonic nanoantennae are further achieved. Finally, the key optical function of our self-integrated optical antenna on the vicinity of graphene nanopore is manifested by multifold fluorescent signal enhancement during DNA translocation.

  4. Nanoporous CuS with excellent photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wence; Zhu, Shengli; Liang, Yanqin; Li, Zhaoyang; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2015-12-01

    We present the rational synthesis of nanoporous CuS for the first time by chemical dealloying method. The morphologies of the CuS catalysts are controlled by the composition of the original amorphous alloys. Nanoporous Cu2S is firstly formed during the chemical dealloying process, and then the Cu2S transforms into CuS. The nanoporous CuS exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO) and rhodamine B (RhB). The excellent photocatalytic activity of the nanoporous CuS is mainly attributed to the large specific surface area, high adsorbing capacity of dyes and low recombination of the photo generated electrons and holes. In the photo degradation process, both chemical and photo generated hydroxyl radicals are generated. The hydroxyl radicals are favor in the oxidation of the dye molecules. The present modified dealloying method may be extended for the preparation of other porous metal sulfide nanostructures.

  5. Structure-property relations of gold and graphene nanoporous actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saane, Siva Shankar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical nanoporous actuators have low weight, large specific surface areas and low voltage operating capabilities, making them attractive for application in small-scale electromechanical devices. The actuation strain of these materials at the macroscopic scale is a manifestation of

  6. Bivalent ion transport through graphene/PET nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huijun; Cheng, Yaxiong; Zeng, Jian; Mo, Dan; Duan, Jinglai; Liu, Jiande; Zhai, Pengfei; Sun, Youmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-05-01

    The PET suspended single graphene nanopore (G/PET) was produced by heavy ion irradiation and asymmetric chemical etching. The solutions of NiSO4, NiCl2, CuSO4 and CuCl2 with different concentration were adopted to study the transport properties of bivalent ion in single G/PET nanopore by measuring the I-V curves. The perfect "diode effect" and excellent rectification effect of G/PET nanopore were observed, and the huge rectification ratio up to 43.3 was obtained in NiSO4 solution. The great solution selectivity and ion current magnification effect of graphene/PET nanopore were also confirmed in our study.

  7. Ion and water transport in charge-modified graphene nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Yinghua; Chen, Weiyu; Si, Wei; Tan, Qiyan; Chen, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Porous graphene has high mechanical strength and atomic layer thickness, which make it a promising material for material separation and biomolecule sensing. Electrostatic interactions between charges in aqueous solution are a kind of strong long-range interaction which may have great influence on the fluid transport through nanopores. Here, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate ion and water transport through a 1.05-nm-in-diameter monolayer graphene nanopore with its edge charge-modified. From the results, it is found that the nanopores are selective to counterions when they are charged. As the charge amount increases, the total ionic currents show an increase-decrease profile while the co-ion currents monotonously decrease. The co-ions rejection can reach 75% and 90% when the nanopores are negatively and positively charged, respectively. Cl ions current increases and reaches a plateau, and Na+ current decreases with the charge amount in the systems where they act as counterions. Beside...

  8. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Oura, Takeshi; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi

    2016-03-18

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET's drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore.

  9. Voltage-controlled metal binding on polyelectrolyte-functionalized nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Paolo; Vilozny, Boaz; Seger, R Adam; Li, Xiang; Jejelowo, Olufisayo; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Pourmand, Nader

    2011-05-17

    Most of the research in the field of nanopore-based platforms is focused on monitoring ion currents and forces as individual molecules translocate through the nanopore. Molecular gating, however, can occur when target analytes interact with receptors appended to the nanopore surface. Here we show that a solid state nanopore functionalized with polyelectrolytes can reversibly bind metal ions, resulting in a reversible, real-time signal that is concentration dependent. Functionalization of the sensor is based on electrostatic interactions, requires no covalent bond formation, and can be monitored in real time. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the applied voltage can be employed to tune the binding properties of the sensor. The sensor has wide-ranging applications and, its simplest incarnation can be used to study binding thermodynamics using purely electrical measurements with no need for labeling.

  10. Forensic SNP Genotyping using Nanopore MinION Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Senne; Gansemans, Yannick; Deleye, Lieselot; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2017-01-01

    One of the latest developments in next generation sequencing is the Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ (ONT) MinION nanopore sequencer. We studied the applicability of this system to perform forensic genotyping of the forensic female DNA standard 9947 A using the 52 SNP-plex assay developed by the SNPforID consortium. All but one of the loci were correctly genotyped. Several SNP loci were identified as problematic for correct and robust genotyping using nanopore sequencing. All these loci contained homopolymers in the sequence flanking the forensic SNP and most of them were already reported as problematic in studies using other sequencing technologies. When these problematic loci are avoided, correct forensic genotyping using nanopore sequencing is technically feasible. PMID:28155888

  11. Thin randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays as ultrablack metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Francesco; Hines, Peter; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Motta, Nunzio

    2017-07-01

    Ultrablack metamaterials are artificial materials able to harvest all the incident light regardless of wavelength, angle, or polarization. Here, we show the ultrablack properties of randomly aligned hierarchical carbon nanotube arrays with thicknesses below 200 nm. The thin coatings are realized by solution processing and dry-transfer deposition on different substrates. The hierarchical surface morphology of the coatings is biomimetic and provides a large effective area that improves the film optical absorption. Also, such a morphology is responsible for the moth-eye effect, which leads to the omnidirectional and polarization-independent suppression of optical reflection. The films exhibit an emissivity up to 99.36% typical of an ideal black body, resulting in the thinnest ultrablack metamaterial ever reported. Such a material may be exploited for thermal, optical, and optoelectronic devices such as heat sinks, optical shields, solar cells, light and thermal sensors, and light-emitting diodes.

  12. Current steering effect of GaN nanoporous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chia-Feng, E-mail: cflin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wang, Jing-Hao; Cheng, Po-Fu; Tseng, Wang-Po; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Wu, Kaun-Chun; Lee, Wen-Che [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Current steering effect of InGaN light emitting diode (LED) structure was demonstrated by forming a high resistivity GaN nanoporous structure. Disk-array patterns with current-injection bridge structures were fabricated on InGaN LED devices through a focused ion beam (FIB) system. GaN nanoporous structure was formed around the FIB-drilled holes through a electrochemical (EC) wet-etching process on a n-type GaN:Si layer under the InGaN active layer. High emission intensity and small peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the electroluminescence spectra were observed in the EC-treated region compared with the non-treated region. The branch-like nanoporous structure was formed along the lateral etched direction to steer the injection current in 5 μm-width bridge structures. In the FIB-drilled hole structure, high light emission intensity of the central-disk region was observed by enlarging the bridge width to 10 μm, with a 5 μm EC-treated width, that reduced the current steering effect and increased the light scattering effect on the nanoporous structure. The EC-treated GaN:Si nanoporous structure acted as a high light scattering structure and a current steering structure that has potential on the current confinement for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications. - Highlights: • High resistivity nanoporous-GaN formed in InGaN LED through electrochemical process. • Branch-like nanoporous in 5 μm-width bridge structure can steer the injection current. • Nanoporous GaN acted as s light scattering and current steering structures in InGaN LED.

  13. DNA-functionalized solid state nanopore for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussi, V; Fanzio, P; Repetto, L; Firpo, G; Valbusa, U [Nanomed Labs, Physics Department, University of Genova, Advanced Biotechnology Center, Largo R. Benzi, 10 Genova, 16132 (Italy); Scaruffi, P; Stigliani, S; Tonini, G P, E-mail: mussi@fisica.unige.it [Translational Pediatric Oncology, National Institute for Cancer Research (IST), Largo R. Benzi, 10 Genova, 16132 (Italy)

    2010-04-09

    The possible use of nanopores for single DNA molecules biosensing has been demonstrated, but much remains to do in order to develop advanced engineered devices with enhanced stability, and controlled geometry and surface properties. Here we present morphological and electrical characterization of solid state silicon nitride nanopores fabricated by focused ion beam direct milling and chemically functionalized by probe oligonucleotides, with the final aim of developing a versatile tool for biosensing and gene expression profiling.

  14. Hydrophilic nanoporous polystyrenes and 1,2-polybutadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Vigild, Martin Etchells;

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous polymers from ordered block copolymers having hydrophilic cavity surfaces were successfully prepared by two methodologies: ' 1. Nanoporous polystyrenes fromPtBA-b-PS diblock or PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS triblock copolymer precursors by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), or combination...... different pathways for the conversion of the double bonds of 1,2-PB to bromoisobutyrate by using one to three steps chemical modification. Grafting polyacrylate layers of PPEGMA, PHEMA etc. onto themon...

  15. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    CERN Document Server

    Jelonek, M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of modeling hierarchical linear equations and estimation based on MPlus software. I present my own model to illustrate the impact of different factors on school acceptation level.

  16. Development of a nanoporous and multilayer drug-delivery platform for medical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagkiozaki V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Varvara Karagkiozaki,1 Eleftherios Vavoulidis,1 Panagiotis G Karagiannidis,1 Maria Gioti,1 Dimitrios G Fatouros,2 Ioannis S Vizirianakis,3 Stergios Logothetidis11Lab for Thin Films–Nanosystems and Nanometrology, Physics Department, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 3Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Biodegradable polymers can be applied to a variety of implants for controlled and local drug delivery. The aim of this study is to develop a biodegradable and nanoporous polymeric platform for a wide spectrum of drug-eluting implants with special focus on stent-coating applications. It was synthesized by poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA 65:35, PLGA 75:25 and polycaprolactone (PCL in a multilayer configuration by means of a spin-coating technique. The antiplatelet drug dipyridamole was loaded into the surface nanopores of the platform. Surface characterization was made by atomic force microscopy (AFM and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE. Platelet adhesion and drug-release kinetic studies were then carried out. The study revealed that the multilayer films are highly nanoporous, whereas the single layers of PLGA are atomically smooth and spherulites are formed in PCL. Their nanoporosity (pore diameter, depth, density, surface roughness can be tailored by tuning the growth parameters (eg, spinning speed, polymer concentration, essential for drug-delivery performance. The origin of pore formation may be attributed to the phase separation of polymer blends via the spinodal decomposition mechanism. SE studies revealed the structural characteristics, film thickness, and optical properties even of the single layers in the triple-layer construct, providing substantial information for drug loading and complement AFM findings. Platelet adhesion studies showed that the dipyridamole-loaded coatings inhibit platelet aggregation that is a prerequisite for clotting. Finally, the films

  17. Swelling, Functionalization, and Structural Changes of the Nanoporous Layered Silicates AMH-3 and MCM-22

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2011-06-21

    Nanoporous layered silicate materials contain 2D-planar sheets of nanoscopic thickness and ordered porous structure. In comparison to porous 3D-framework materials such as zeolites, they have advantages such as significantly increased surface area and decreased diffusion limitations because the layers can potentially be exfoliated or intercalated into polymers to form nanocomposite materials. These properties are particularly interesting for applications as materials for enhancing molecular selectivity and throughput in composite membranes. In this report, the swelling and surface modification chemistry of two attractive nanoporous layered silicate materials, AMH-3 and MCM-22, were studied. We first describe a method, using long-chain diamines instead of monoamines, for swelling of AMH-3 while preserving its pore structure to a greater extent during the swelling process. Then, we describe a stepwise functionalization method for functionalizing the layer surfaces of AMH-3 and MCM-22 via silane condensation reactions. The covalently attached hydrocarbon chain molecules increased the hydrophobicity of AMH-3 and MCM-22 layer surfaces and therefore allow the possibility of effectively dispersing these materials in polymer matrices for thin film/membrane applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Nanoporous Gallium Nitride Through Anisotropic Metal-Assisted Electroless Photochemical Wet Etching Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, R.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) has many potential applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), photovoltaics, templates and chemical sensors. This article reports the porosification of GaN through UV enhanced metal-assisted electroless photochemical wet etching technique using three different acid-based etchants and platinum served as catalyst for porosification. The etching process was conducted at room temperature for a duration of 90min. The morphological, structural, spectral and optical features of the developed porous GaN were studied with appropriate characterization techniques and the obtained results were presented. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibited the porosity nature along with excellent porous network of the etched samples. Structural studies confirmed the mono crystalline quality of the porous nanostructures. Raman spectral analyzes inferred the presenting phonon modes such as E2 (TO) and A1 (LO) in fabricated nanoporous structures. The resulted porous nanostructures hold the substantially enhanced photoluminescence intensity compared with the pristine GaN epitaxial film that is interesting and desirable for several advances in the applications of Nano-optoelectronic devices.

  19. Self-ordering behavior of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) in malonic acid anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W; Nielsch, K; Goesele, U [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2007-11-28

    The self-ordering behavior of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been investigated for anodization of aluminum in malonic acid (H{sub 4}C{sub 3}O{sub 4}) solution. In the present study it is found that a porous oxide layer formed on the surface of aluminum can effectively suppress catastrophic local events (such as breakdown of the oxide film and plastic deformation of the aluminum substrate), and enables stable fast anodic oxidation under a high electric field of 110-140 V and {approx}100 mA cm{sup -2}. Studies on the self-ordering behavior of AAO indicated that the cell homogeneity of AAO increases dramatically as the anodization voltage gets higher than 120 V. Highly ordered AAO with a hexagonal arrangement of the nanopores could be obtained in a voltage range 125-140 V. The current density (i.e., the electric field strength (E) at the bottom of a pore) is an important parameter governing the self-ordering of the nanopores as well as the interpore distance (D{sub int}) for a given anodization potential (U) during malonic acid anodization.

  20. Liquid crystal alignment in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for LCD panel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chitsung; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chi-Yu; Pan, Ru-Pin; Fang, Weileun

    2010-07-16

    This paper reports the implementation and integration of a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) film and liquid crystal (LC) on an ITO-glass substrate for liquid crystal display (LCD) panel applications. An np-AAO layer with a nanopore array acts as the vertical alignment layer to easily and uniformly align the LC molecules. Moreover, the np-AAO nanoalignment layer provides outstanding material properties, such as being inorganic with good transmittance, and colorless on ITO-glass substrates. In this application, an LCD panel, with the LC on the np-AAO nanoalignment layer, is successfully implemented on an ITO-glass substrate, and its performance is demonstrated. The measurements show that the LCD panel, consisting of an ITO-glass substrate and an np-AAO layer, has a transmittance of 60-80%. In addition, the LCD panel switches from a black state to a bright state at 3 V(rms), with a response time of 62.5 ms. In summary, this paper demonstrates the alignment of LC on an np-AAO layer for LCD applications.

  1. Large Modulation of Charge Carrier Mobility in Doped Nanoporous Organic Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fengjiao [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Dai, Xiaojuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Zhu, Weikun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Chung, Hyunjoong [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA; Diao, Ying [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave. Urbana IL 61801 USA

    2017-05-10

    Molecular doping of organic electronics has shown promise to sensitively modulate important device metrics. One critical challenge is the disruption of structure order upon doping of highly crystalline organic semiconductors, which significantly reduces the charge carrier mobility. This paper demonstrates a new method to achieve large modulation of charge carrier mobility via channel doping without disrupting the molecular ordering. Central to the method is the introduction of nanopores into the organic semiconductor thin films via a simple and robust templated meniscus-guided coating method. Using this method, the charge carrier mobility of C8-benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene transistors is boosted by almost sevenfold. This paper further demonstrates enhanced electron transport by close to an order of magnitude in a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based donor–acceptor polymer. Combining spectroscopic measurements, density functional theory calculations, and electrical characterizations, the doping mechanism is identified as partial-charge-transfer induced trap filling. The nanopores serve to enhance the dopant/organic semiconductor charge transfer reaction by exposing the π-electrons to the pore wall.

  2. Engineering of Surface Chemistry for Enhanced Sensitivity in Nanoporous Interferometric Sensing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Cheryl Suwen; Sylvia, Georgina M; Nemati, Madieh; Yu, Jingxian; Losic, Dusan; Abell, Andrew D; Santos, Abel

    2017-03-15

    We explore new approaches to engineering the surface chemistry of interferometric sensing platforms based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) and reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS). Two surface engineering strategies are presented, namely (i) selective chemical functionalization of the inner surface of NAA pores with amine-terminated thiol molecules and (ii) selective chemical functionalization of the top surface of NAA with dithiol molecules. The strong molecular interaction of Au(3+) ions with thiol-containing functional molecules of alkane chain or peptide character provides a model sensing system with which to assess the sensitivity of these NAA platforms by both molecular feature and surface engineering. Changes in the effective optical thickness of the functionalized NAA photonic films (i.e., sensing principle), in response to gold ions, are monitored in real-time by RIfS. 6-Amino-1-hexanethiol (inner surface) and 1,6-hexanedithiol (top surface), the most sensitive functional molecules from approaches i and ii, respectively, were combined into a third sensing strategy whereby the NAA platforms are functionalized on both the top and inner surfaces concurrently. Engineering of the surface according to this approach resulted in an additive enhancement in sensitivity of up to 5-fold compared to previously reported systems. This study advances the rational engineering of surface chemistry for interferometric sensing on nanoporous platforms with potential applications for real-time monitoring of multiple analytes in dynamic environments.

  3. Dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells fabricated by screen-printed TiO2 thin film with addition of polystyrene balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Han; Jin Mao Chen; Xiao Wen Zhou; Yuan Lin; Jing Bo Zhang; Jian Guang Jia

    2008-01-01

    The screen-printed nanoporous TiO2 thin film was employed to fabricate dye-sensitized solid-state solar cells using CuI as hole-transport materials. The solar cell based on nanoporous TiO2 thin film with large pores formed by the addition of polystyrene balls with diameter of 200 nm to the TiO2 paste exhibits photovoltaic performance enhancement, which is attributed to the good contact of CuI with surface of dye-sensitized thin film due to easy penetration of CuI in the film withlarge pores.

  4. Antibacterial activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, S.A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Bayati, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Petrochenko, P.E. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Division of Biology, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Stafslien, S.; Daniels, J.; Cilz, N. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Comstock, D.J.; Elam, J.W. [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Narayan, R.J., E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.com [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Box 7115, Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic layer deposition was used to deposit ZnO on nanoporous alumina membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scanning electron microscopy showed continuous coatings of zinc oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis was shown. - Abstract: Nanoporous alumina membranes, also known as anodized aluminum oxide membranes, are being investigated for use in treatment of burn injuries and other skin wounds. In this study, atomic layer deposition was used for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes with zinc oxide. Agar diffusion assays were used to show activity of zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes against several bacteria found on the skin surface, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. On the other hand, zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not show activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans. These results suggest that zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes have activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that are associated with skin colonization and skin infection.

  5. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques.

  6. Ion and water transport in charge-modified graphene nanopores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘英华; 李堃; 陈伟宇; 司伟; 谭启檐; 陈云飞

    2015-01-01

    Porous graphene has a high mechanical strength and an atomic-layer thickness that makes it a promising material for material separation and biomolecule sensing. Electrostatic interactions between charges in aqueous solutions are a type of strong long-range interaction that may greatly infl uence fl uid transport through nanopores. In this study, molecular dynamic simulations were conducted to investigate ion and water transport through 1.05-nm diameter monolayer graphene nanopores, with their edges charge-modified. Our results indicated that these nanopores are selective to counterions when they are charged. As the charge amount increases, the total ionic currents show an increase–decrease profile while the co-ion currents monotonically decrease. The co-ion rejection can reach 76.5%and 90.2%when the nanopores are negatively and positively charged, respectively. The Cl−ion current increases and reaches a plateau, and the Na+current decreases as the charge amount increases in systems in which Na+ions act as counterions. In addition, charge modification can enhance water transport through nanopores. This is mainly due to the ion selectivity of the nanopores. Notably, positive charges on the pore edges facilitate water transport much more strongly than negative charges.

  7. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques. PMID:27833119

  8. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  9. Weakened Flexural Strength of Nanocrystalline Nanoporous Gold by Grain Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ju-Young

    2016-04-13

    High density of grain boundaries in solid materials generally leads to high strength because grain boundaries act as strong obstacles to dislocation activity. We find that the flexural strength of nanoporous gold of grain size 206 nm is 33.6% lower than that of grain size 238 μm. We prepared three gold-silver precursor alloys, well-annealed, prestrained, and high-energy ball-milled, from which nanoporous gold samples were obtained by the same free-corrosion dealloying process. Ligaments of the same size are formed regardless of precursor alloys, and microstructural aspects of precursor alloys such as crystallographic orientation and grain size is preserved in the dealloying process. While the nanoindentation hardness of three nanoporous golds is independent of microstructural variation, flexural strength of nanocrystalline nanoporous gold is significantly lower than that of nanoporous golds with much larger grain size. We investigate weakening mechanisms of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline nanoporous gold, leading to weakening of flexural strength.

  10. Biomimetic solution against dewetting in a highly hydrophobic nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Fabien; Paris, Guillaume; Gharbi, Tijani; Balme, Sébastien; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Tangaraj, Vidhyadevi; Bechelany, Mikhael; Janot, Jean Marc; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Henn, François

    2016-06-14

    A water molecule is the foundation of life and is the primary compound in every living system. While many of its properties are understood in a bulk solvent, its behavior in a small hydrophobic nanopore still raises fundamental questions. For instance, a wetting/dewetting transition in a hydrophobic solid-state or a polymer nanopore occurs stochastically and can only be prevented by external physical stimuli. Controlling these transitions would be a primary requirement to improve many applications. Some biological channels, such as gramicidin A (gA) proteins, show a high rate of water and ion diffusion in their central subnanochannel while their external surface is highly hydrophobic. The diameter of this channel is significantly smaller than the inner size of the lowest artificial nanopore in which water drying occurs (i.e. 1.4 nm). In this paper, we propose an innovative idea to generate nanopore wetting as a result of which the application of an external field is no longer required. In a nanopore, the drying or wetting of the inner walls occurs randomly (in experiments and in simulations). However, we have shown how the confinement of gA, in a dried hydrophobic nanopore, rapidly generates a stable wetting of the latter. We believe that this simple idea, based on biomimetism, could represent a real breakthrough that could help to improve and develop new nanoscale applications.

  11. Silicon Nanopore Devices for DNA Translocation and Sequencing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sean

    2005-03-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the recent progress [1-3] in developing solid-state nanopore devices using silicon technology. We have demonstrated a novel technique for shaping nanopores in the range of 1-10 nm, using surface-tension-driven mass flow with single nanometer precision. This technique overcomes a major technical challenge in silicon technology. I will also discuss the current effort [3] in developing integrated nanopore silicon chips with electrically addressable nanopores. These devices are used for DNA translocation and sequencing studies. This work was done in collaboration with the group of Cees Dekker at TU-Delft with partial support from FOM and Guggenheim Foundation. The work at Brown was supported by NSF-NER and NSF-NIRT. [1] A.J. Storm, J.H. Chen, X.S. Ling, H. Zandbergen, and C. Dekker, ``Fabrication of Solid-State Nanopores with Single Nanometer Precision'', Nature Materials, 2, 537 (2003). [2] A.J. Storm, J.H. Chen, X.S. Ling, H. Zandbergen, and C. Dekker, ``Electron-Beam-Induced Deformations of SiO2 Nanostructures'', Journal of Applied Physics (submitted, 2004). [3] X.S. Ling, "Addressable nanopores and micropores" (patent pending).

  12. Effects of adsorption and confinement on nanoporous electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Je Hyun; Han, Ji-Hyung; Han, Donghyeop; Chung, Taek Dong

    2013-01-01

    Characteristic molecular dynamics of reactant molecules confined in the space of the nanometer scale augments the frequency of collisions with the electrified surface so that a given faradaic reaction can be enhanced at nanoporous electrodes, the so-called nano-confinement effect. Since this effect is grounded on diffusion inside nanopores, it is predicted that adsorption onto the surface will seriously affect the enhancement by nano-confinement. We experimentally explored the correlation between adsorption and the confinement effect by examining the oxidation of butanol isomers at platinum and gold nanoporous electrodes. The results showed that electrooxidation of 2-butanol, which is a non-adsorption reaction, was enhanced more than that of 1-butanol, which is an adsorption reaction, at nanoporous platinum in acidic media. In contrast, the nanoporous gold electrode, on which 1-butanol is less adsorptive than it is on platinum, enhanced the electrooxidation of 1-butanol greatly. Furthermore, the electrocatalytic activity of nanoporous gold for oxygen reduction reaction was improved so much as to be comparable with that of flat Pt. These findings show that the nano-confinement effect can be appreciable for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction as well as alcohol oxidation unless the adsorption is extensive, and suggests a new strategy in terms of material design for innovative non-noble metal electrocatalysts.

  13. DNA Origami-Graphene Hybrid Nanopore for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Dibaeinia, Payam; Aluru, Narayana R

    2017-01-11

    DNA origami nanostructures can be used to functionalize solid-state nanopores for single molecule studies. In this study, we characterized a nanopore in a DNA origami-graphene heterostructure for DNA detection. The DNA origami nanopore is functionalized with a specific nucleotide type at the edge of the pore. Using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we computed and analyzed the ionic conductivity of nanopores in heterostructures carpeted with one or two layers of DNA origami on graphene. We demonstrate that a nanopore in DNA origami-graphene gives rise to distinguishable dwell times for the four DNA base types, whereas for a nanopore in bare graphene, the dwell time is almost the same for all types of bases. The specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between DNA origami and the translocating DNA strand yield different residence times and ionic currents. We also conclude that the speed of DNA translocation decreases due to the friction between the dangling bases at the pore mouth and the sequencing DNA strands.

  14. Streaming current magnetic fields in a charged nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Abraham; Taheri, Peyman; Kostiuk, Larry W

    2016-11-11

    Magnetic fields induced by currents created in pressure driven flows inside a solid-state charged nanopore were modeled by numerically solving a system of steady state continuum partial differential equations, i.e., Poisson, Nernst-Planck, Ampere and Navier-Stokes equations (PNPANS). This analysis was based on non-dimensional transport governing equations that were scaled using Debye length as the characteristic length scale, and applied to a finite length cylindrical nano-channel. The comparison of numerical and analytical studies shows an excellent agreement and verified the magnetic fields density both inside and outside the nanopore. The radially non-uniform currents resulted in highly non-uniform magnetic fields within the nanopore that decay as 1/r outside the nanopore. It is worth noting that for either streaming currents or streaming potential cases, the maximum magnetic field occurred inside the pore in the vicinity of nanopore wall, as opposed to a cylindrical conductor that carries a steady electric current where the maximum magnetic fields occur at the perimeter of conductor. Based on these results, it is suggested and envisaged that non-invasive external magnetic fields readouts generated by streaming/ionic currents may be viewed as secondary electronic signatures of biomolecules to complement and enhance current DNA nanopore sequencing techniques.

  15. Local solid-state modification of nanopore surface charges

    CERN Document Server

    Kox, Ronald; Chen, Chang; Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/33/335703

    2012-01-01

    The last decade, nanopores have emerged as a new and interesting tool for the study of biological macromolecules like proteins and DNA. While biological pores, especially alpha-hemolysin, have been promising for the detection of DNA, their poor chemical stability limits their use. For this reason, researchers are trying to mimic their behaviour using more stable, solid-state nanopores. The most successful tools to fabricate such nanopores use high energy electron or ions beams to drill or reshape holes in very thin membranes. While the resolution of these methods can be very good, they require tools that are not commonly available and tend to damage and charge the nanopore surface. In this work, we show nanopores that have been fabricated using standard micromachning techniques together with EBID, and present a simple model that is used to estimate the surface charge. The results show that EBID with a silicon oxide precursor can be used to tune the nanopore surface and that the surface charge is stable over a...

  16. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  17. Directed Hierarchical Patterning of Polycarbonate Bisphenol A Glass Surface along Predictable Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new approach in designing textured and hierarchical surfaces on polycarbonate bisphenol A type glass to improve hydrophobicity and dust repellent application for solar panels. Solvent- and vapor-induced crystallization of thermoplastic glass polycarbonate bisphenol A (PC is carried out to create hierarchically structured surfaces. In this approach dichloromethane (DCM and acetone are used in sequence. Samples are initially immersed in DCM liquid to generate nanopores, followed by exposing to acetone vapor resulting in the generation of hierarchical structure along the interporous sites. The effects of exposure time on the size, density, and distance of the generated spherules and gaps are studied and correlated with the optical transmittance and contact angle measurements at the surface. At optimized exposure time a contact angle of 98° was achieved with 80% optical transmittance. To further increase the hydrophobicity while maintaining optical properties, the hierarchical surfaces were coated with a transparent composite of tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursor and hexamethyldisilazane as silylation agent resulting in an average contact angle of 135.8° and transmittance of around 70%. FTIR and AFM characterization techniques are employed to study the composition and morphology of the generated surfaces.

  18. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2 and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2 have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2 was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25. The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for A8R2 cells with same dependence of cell efficiency on the film thickness for both A8R2 and DP-25 cells. The best efficiency obtained in this work is 5.2% from A8R2 cell with TiO2 film thickness of 12.0 μm. The correlation between the TiO2 films thickness and photoelectron chemical properties of DSSCs fabricated from A8R2 and DP-25 was compared and discussed.

  19. High-performance supercapacitors using a nanoporous current collector made from super-aligned carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruifeng; Meng Chuizhou; Zhu Feng; Li Qunqing; Liu Changhong; Fan Shoushan; Jiang Kaili, E-mail: JiangKL@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-27

    Nanoporous current collectors for supercapacitors have been fabricated by cross-stacking super-aligned carbon nanotube (SACNT) films as a replacement for heavy conventional metallic current collectors. The CNT-film current collectors have good conductivity, extremely low density (27 {mu}g cm{sup -2}), high specific surface area, excellent flexibility and good electrochemical stability. Nanosized active materials such as NiO, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles can be directly synthesized on the SACNT films by a straightforward one-step, in situ decomposition strategy that is both efficient and environmentally friendly. These composite films can be integrated into a pseudo-capacitor that does not use metallic current collectors, but nevertheless shows very good performance, including high specific capacitance ({approx}500 F g{sup -1}, including the current collector mass), reliable electrochemical stability (<4.5% degradation in 2500 cycles) and a very high rate capability (245 F g{sup -1} at 155 A g{sup -1}).

  20. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, P B; Bazant, M Z; Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of the flow of an electrolyte solution through charged capillaries (nanopores). In the limit where the length of the capillary is much larger than its radius, the problem can be simplified to a one-dimensional averaged flux-force formalism that relates the relevant fluxes (electrical current, salt flux, fluid velocity) to their respective driving forces (difference in electric potential, salt concentration, pressure). Calculations in literature mainly consider the limit of non-overlapping electrical double layers (EDLs) in the pores and the absence of salt concentration gradients in the axial direction. In the present work these simplifications are relaxed and we discuss the general case with overlapping EDLs and nonzero axial salt concentration gradients. The 3x3 matrix that relates these quantities exhibits Onsager symmetry and for one of the cross coefficients we report a new significant simplification. We describe how Onsager symmetry is preserved under change of variables...

  1. Gyroid Nanoporous Membranes with Tunable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Schulte, Lars; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relevant permeability properties of ultrafiltration membranes is facilitated by using materials and procedures that allow a high degree of control on morphology and chemical composition. Here we present the first study on diffusion permeability through gyroid nanoporous cross......-sided skin membranes, much faster than expected by a naive resistance-in-series model; the flux through the two-sided skin membranes even increases with the membrane thickness. We propose a model that captures the physics behind the observed phenomena, as confirmed by flow visualization experiments...... the effective diffusion coefficients of a series of antibiotics, proteins, and other biomolecules; solute permeation is discussed in terms of hindered diffusion. The combination of uniform bulk morphology, isotropically percolating porosity, controlled surface chemistry, and tunable permeability is distinctive...

  2. Electroosmotic flow rectification in conical nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Laohakunakorn, Nadanai

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental work has suggested that electroosmotic flows (EOF) through conical nanopores exhibit rectification in the opposite sense to the well-studied effect of ionic current rectification. A positive bias voltage generates large EOF and small current, while negative voltages generate small EOF and large current. Here we systematically investigate this effect using finite-element simulations. We find that inside the pore, the electric field and salt concentration are inversely correlated, which leads to the inverse relationship between the magnitudes of EOF and current. Rectification occurs when the pore is driven into states characterized by different salt concentrations depending on the sign of the voltage. The mechanism responsible for this behaviour is concentration polarization, which requires the pore to exhibit the properties of permselectivity and asymmetry.

  3. Electroosmotic flow rectification in conical nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohakunakorn, Nadanai; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-07-10

    Recent experimental work has suggested that electroosmotic flows (EOFs) through conical nanopores exhibit rectification in the opposite sense to the well-studied effect of ionic current rectification. A positive bias voltage generates large EOF and small current, while negative voltages generate small EOF and large current. Here we systematically investigate this effect using finite-element simulations. We find that inside the pore, the electric field and salt concentration are inversely correlated, which leads to the inverse relationship between the magnitudes of EOF and current. Rectification occurs when the pore is driven into states characterized by different salt concentrations depending on the sign of the voltage. The mechanism responsible for this behaviour is concentration polarization, which requires the pore to exhibit the properties of permselectivity and asymmetry.

  4. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Choi, Chang Kyoung [Michigan Technological University; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening.

  5. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  6. Capillary rise of water in hydrophilic nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Gruener, Simon; Wallacher, Dirk; Kityk, Andriy V; Huber, Patrick; 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.067301

    2009-01-01

    We report on the capillary rise of water in three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic silica pores with 3.5nm and 5nm mean radii, respectively (porous Vycor monoliths). We find classical square root of time Lucas-Washburn laws for the imbibition dynamics over the entire capillary rise times of up to 16h investigated. Provided we assume two preadsorbed strongly bound layers of water molecules resting at the silica walls, which corresponds to a negative velocity slip length of -0.5nm for water flow in silica nanopores, we can describe the filling process by a retained fluidity and capillarity of water in the pore center. This anticipated partitioning in two dynamic components reflects the structural-thermodynamic partitioning in strongly silica bound water layers and capillary condensed water in the pore center which is documented by sorption isotherm measurements.

  7. Shale nanopore reconstruction with compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi

    2017-03-01

    With increasing global demand for energy resources, shale gas has been paid considerable attention in recent years. Nanopore geometry is the basis for all microscopic rock physics and petrophysical numerical experiments for shale. At present, nano digital cores can be acquired via thin section reconstruction, nanometer-scale x-ray computed tomography (nano-CT), and focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). FIB-SEM detects nanoscale pores in the xy-plane with a resolution of up to 0.8 nm voxel‑1, and it is usually provides higher resolution than nano-CT. The main workload associated with FIB-SEM is the need to recut the sample many times and scan every section, with these then being overlaid to create a three-dimensional (3D) pore model. Each cutting distance can be ascertained, but this cannot be controlled precisely because of the fundamental limits of focused ion beams. Many interpolation methods can be used to fit the anisotropy resolution. However, these methods can also alter the geometry of the pores. Nanopores that are close to the limiting resolution are particularly susceptible to stretching. Linear interpolation is likely to lengthen the pores in the low-resolution direction. The subsequent calculation of sensitive physical attributes will be affected by geometric alterations. Through foundational work in the compressive sensing (CS) method, we present a reconstruction workflow for maintaining the pore shape using prior knowledge and reliable information. The images are reassembled with equal distance, so the nanoscale structures can have a resolution of unity in three dimensions.

  8. Modeling hierarchical structures - Hierarchical Linear Modeling using MPlus

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonek, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technique (and its linkage with physics) of overcoming problems connected to modeling social structures, which are typically hierarchical. Hierarchical Linear Models provide a conceptual and statistical mechanism for drawing conclusions regarding the influence of phenomena at different levels of analysis. In the social sciences it is used to analyze many problems such as educational, organizational or market dilemma. This paper introduces the logic of m...

  9. Hierarchical fringe tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Boskri, Abdelkarim; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Lagarde, Stephane; Bresson, Yves; Benkhaldoum, Zouhair; Lazrek, Mohamed; Rakshit, Suvendu

    2014-01-01

    The limiting magnitude is a key issue for optical interferometry. Pairwise fringe trackers based on the integrated optics concepts used for example in GRAVITY seem limited to about K=10.5 with the 8m Unit Telescopes of the VLTI, and there is a general "common sense" statement that the efficiency of fringe tracking, and hence the sensitivity of optical interferometry, must decrease as the number of apertures increases, at least in the near infrared where we are still limited by detector readout noise. Here we present a Hierarchical Fringe Tracking (HFT) concept with sensitivity at least equal to this of a two apertures fringe trackers. HFT is based of the combination of the apertures in pairs, then in pairs of pairs then in pairs of groups. The key HFT module is a device that behaves like a spatial filter for two telescopes (2TSF) and transmits all or most of the flux of a cophased pair in a single mode beam. We give an example of such an achromatic 2TSF, based on very broadband dispersed fringes analyzed by g...

  10. Onboard hierarchical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  11. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  12. Hierarchical materials: Background and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Hierarchical design draws inspiration from analysis of biological materials and has opened new possibilities for enhancing performance and enabling new functionalities and extraordinary properties. With the development of nanotechnology, the necessary technological requirements for the manufactur...

  13. Hierarchical clustering for graph visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Rossi, Fabrice; Tran, Viet Chi

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a graph visualization methodology based on hierarchical maximal modularity clustering, with interactive and significant coarsening and refining possibilities. An application of this method to HIV epidemic analysis in Cuba is outlined.

  14. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  15. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In biological networks of molecular interactions in a cell, network motifs that are biologically relevant are also functionally coherent, or form functional modules. These functionally coherent modules combine in a hierarchical manner into larger, less cohesive subsystems, thus revealing one of the essential design principles of system-level cellular organization and function-hierarchical modularity. Arguably, hierarchical modularity has not been explicitly taken into consideration by most, if not all, functional annotation systems. As a result, the existing methods would often fail to assign a statistically significant functional coherence score to biologically relevant molecular machines. We developed a methodology for hierarchical functional annotation. Given the hierarchical taxonomy of functional concepts (e.g., Gene Ontology and the association of individual genes or proteins with these concepts (e.g., GO terms, our method will assign a Hierarchical Modularity Score (HMS to each node in the hierarchy of functional modules; the HMS score and its p-value measure functional coherence of each module in the hierarchy. While existing methods annotate each module with a set of "enriched" functional terms in a bag of genes, our complementary method provides the hierarchical functional annotation of the modules and their hierarchically organized components. A hierarchical organization of functional modules often comes as a bi-product of cluster analysis of gene expression data or protein interaction data. Otherwise, our method will automatically build such a hierarchy by directly incorporating the functional taxonomy information into the hierarchy search process and by allowing multi-functional genes to be part of more than one component in the hierarchy. In addition, its underlying HMS scoring metric ensures that functional specificity of the terms across different levels of the hierarchical taxonomy is properly treated. We have evaluated our

  16. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang; Chaochin Su; Huei-Siou Chen; Yi-Cheng Liu; Yi-Wen Hsu; Nai-Mu Hsu; Wen-Ren Li

    2011-01-01

    Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2) and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2) have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2) was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25). The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for...

  17. Ultrathin Gas Permeable Oxide Membranes for Chemical Sensing: Nanoporous Ta2O5 Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Imbault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric gas sensors made of gas permeable metal oxide ultrathin membranes can combine the functions of a selective filter, preconcentrator, and sensing element and thus can be particularly promising for the active sampling of diluted analytes. Here we report a case study of the electron transport and gas sensing properties of such a membrane made of nanoporous Ta2O5. These membranes demonstrated a noticeable chemical sensitivity toward ammonia, ethanol, and acetone at high temperatures above 400 °C. Different from traditional thin films, such gas permeable, ultrathin gas sensing elements can be made suspended enabling advanced architectures of ultrasensitive analytical systems operating at high temperatures and in harsh environments.

  18. Omnidirectional excitation of sidewall gap-plasmons in a hybrid gold-nanoparticle/aluminum-nanopore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Kik, Pieter G.

    2016-06-01

    The gap-plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticle inside a nanopore in an aluminum film is investigated in polarization dependent single particle microscopy and spectroscopy. Scattering and transmission measurements reveal that gap-plasmons of this structure can be excited and observed under normal incidence excitation and collection, in contrast to the more common particle-on-a-mirror structure. Correlation of numerical simulations with optical spectroscopy suggests that a local electric field enhancement factor in excess of 50 is achieved under normal incidence excitation, with a hot-spot located near the top surface of the structure. It is shown that the strong field enhancement from this sidewall gap-plasmon mode can be efficiently excited over a broad angular range. The presented plasmonic structure lends itself to implementation in low-cost, chemically stable, easily addressable biochemical sensor arrays providing large optical field enhancement factors.

  19. Ion current rectification, limiting and overlimiting conductances in nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van Oeffelen

    Full Text Available Previous reports on Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP simulations of solid-state nanopores have focused on steady state behaviour under simplified boundary conditions. These are Neumann boundary conditions for the voltage at the pore walls, and in some cases also Donnan equilibrium boundary conditions for concentrations and voltages at both entrances of the nanopore. In this paper, we report time-dependent and steady state PNP simulations under less restrictive boundary conditions, including Neumann boundary conditions applied throughout the membrane relatively far away from the nanopore. We simulated ion currents through cylindrical and conical nanopores with several surface charge configurations, studying the spatial and temporal dependence of the currents contributed by each ion species. This revealed that, due to slow co-diffusion of oppositely charged ions, steady state is generally not reached in simulations or in practice. Furthermore, it is shown that ion concentration polarization is responsible for the observed limiting conductances and ion current rectification in nanopores with asymmetric surface charges or shapes. Hence, after more than a decade of collective research attempting to understand the nature of ion current rectification in solid-state nanopores, a relatively intuitive model is retrieved. Moreover, we measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics of rectifying silicon nitride nanopores presenting overlimiting conductances. The similarity between measurement and simulation shows that overlimiting conductances can result from the increased conductance of the electric double-layer at the membrane surface at the depletion side due to voltage-induced polarization charges. The MATLAB source code of the simulation software is available via the website http://micr.vub.ac.be.

  20. Ion current rectification, limiting and overlimiting conductances in nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oeffelen, Liesbeth; Van Roy, Willem; Idrissi, Hosni; Charlier, Daniel; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Previous reports on Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) simulations of solid-state nanopores have focused on steady state behaviour under simplified boundary conditions. These are Neumann boundary conditions for the voltage at the pore walls, and in some cases also Donnan equilibrium boundary conditions for concentrations and voltages at both entrances of the nanopore. In this paper, we report time-dependent and steady state PNP simulations under less restrictive boundary conditions, including Neumann boundary conditions applied throughout the membrane relatively far away from the nanopore. We simulated ion currents through cylindrical and conical nanopores with several surface charge configurations, studying the spatial and temporal dependence of the currents contributed by each ion species. This revealed that, due to slow co-diffusion of oppositely charged ions, steady state is generally not reached in simulations or in practice. Furthermore, it is shown that ion concentration polarization is responsible for the observed limiting conductances and ion current rectification in nanopores with asymmetric surface charges or shapes. Hence, after more than a decade of collective research attempting to understand the nature of ion current rectification in solid-state nanopores, a relatively intuitive model is retrieved. Moreover, we measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics of rectifying silicon nitride nanopores presenting overlimiting conductances. The similarity between measurement and simulation shows that overlimiting conductances can result from the increased conductance of the electric double-layer at the membrane surface at the depletion side due to voltage-induced polarization charges. The MATLAB source code of the simulation software is available via the website http://micr.vub.ac.be.

  1. Hierarchical architecture of active knits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Julianna; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann

    2013-12-01

    Nature eloquently utilizes hierarchical structures to form the world around us. Applying the hierarchical architecture paradigm to smart materials can provide a basis for a new genre of actuators which produce complex actuation motions. One promising example of cellular architecture—active knits—provides complex three-dimensional distributed actuation motions with expanded operational performance through a hierarchically organized structure. The hierarchical structure arranges a single fiber of active material, such as shape memory alloys (SMAs), into a cellular network of interlacing adjacent loops according to a knitting grid. This paper defines a four-level hierarchical classification of knit structures: the basic knit loop, knit patterns, grid patterns, and restructured grids. Each level of the hierarchy provides increased architectural complexity, resulting in expanded kinematic actuation motions of active knits. The range of kinematic actuation motions are displayed through experimental examples of different SMA active knits. The results from this paper illustrate and classify the ways in which each level of the hierarchical knit architecture leverages the performance of the base smart material to generate unique actuation motions, providing necessary insight to best exploit this new actuation paradigm.

  2. Regulating Current Rectification and Nanoparticle Transport Through a Salt Gradient in Bipolar Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2015-09-16

    Tuning of ion and nanoparticle transport is validated through applying a salt gradient in two types of nanopores: the inner wall of a nanopore has bipolar charges and its outer wall neutral (type I), and both the inner and outer walls of a nanopore have bipolar charges (type II). The ion current rectification (ICR) behavior of these nanopores can be regulated by an applied salt gradient: if it is small, the degree of ICR in type II nanopore is more significant than that in type I nanopore; a reversed trend is observed at a sufficiently large salt gradient. If the applied salt gradient and electric field have the same direction, type I nanopore exhibits two significant features that are not observed in type II nanopore: (i) a cation-rich concentration polarization field and an enhanced funneling electric field are present near the cathode side of the nanopore, and (ii) the magnitude of the axial electric field inside the nanopore is reduced. These features imply that applying a salt gradient to type I nanopore is capable of simultaneously enhancing the nanoparticle capture into the nanopore and reducing its translocation velocity inside, so that high sensing performance and resolution can be achieved.

  3. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  4. Characterization of hydrophobic nanoporous particle liquids for energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi; Liu, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the development of hydrophobic nanoporous technologies has drawn increased attention, especially for the applications of energy absorption and impact protection. Although significant amount of research has been conducted to synthesis and characterize materials to protect structures from impact damage, the tradition methods focused on converting kinetic energy to other forms, such as heat and cell buckling. Due to their high energy absorption efficiency, hydrophobic nanoporous particle liquids (NPLs) are one of the most attractive impact mitigation materials. During impact, such particles directly trap liquid molecules inside the non-wetting surface of nanopores in the particles. The captured impact energy is simply stored temporarily and isolated from the original energy transmission path. In this paper we will investigate the energy absorption efficiency of combinations of silica nanoporous particles and with multiple liquids. Inorganic particles, such as nanoporous silica, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Small molecule promoters, such as methanol and ethanol, are introduced to the prepared NPLs. Their effects on the energy absorption efficiency are studied in this paper. NPLs are prepared by dispersing the studied materials in deionized water. Energy absorption efficiency of these liquids are experimentally characterized using an Instron mechanical testing frame and in-house develop stainless steel hydraulic cylinder system.

  5. Single molecule transistor based nanopore for the detection of nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. J., E-mail: ray.sjr@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science, Technical University of Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-12-28

    A nanopore based detection methodology was proposed and investigated for the detection of Nicotine. This technique uses a Single Molecular Transistor working as a nanopore operational in the Coulomb Blockade regime. When the Nicotine molecule is pulled through the nanopore area surrounded by the Source(S), Drain (D), and Gate electrodes, the charge stability diagram can detect the presence of the molecule and is unique for a specific molecular structure. Due to the weak coupling between the different electrodes which is set by the nanopore size, the molecular energy states stay almost unaffected by the electrostatic environment that can be realised from the charge stability diagram. Identification of different orientation and position of the Nicotine molecule within the nanopore area can be made from specific regions of overlap between different charge states on the stability diagram that could be used as an electronic fingerprint for detection. This method could be advantageous and useful to detect the presence of Nicotine in smoke which is usually performed using chemical chromatography techniques.

  6. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  7. Structure and adsorption of water in nonuniform cylindrical nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, G. M.; Lakatos, G.; Patey, G. N.

    2010-12-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to examine the adsorption and structure of water in the interior of cylindrical nanopores in which the axial symmetry is broken either by varying the radius as a function of position along the pore axis or by introducing regions where the characteristic strength of the water-nanopore interaction is reduced. Using the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model for water, nanopores with a uniform radius of 6.0 Å are found to fill with water at chemical potentials approximately 0.5 kJ/mol higher than the chemical potential of the saturated vapor. The water in these filled pores exists in either a weakly structured fluidlike state or a highly structured uniformly polarized state composed of a series of stacked water clusters with pentagonal cross sections. This highly structured state can be disrupted by creating hydrophobic regions on the surface of the nanopore, and the degree of disruption can be systematically controlled by adjusting the size of the hydrophobic regions. In particular, hydrophobic banded regions with lengths larger than 9.2 Å result in a complete loss of structure and the formation of a liquid-vapor coexistence in the tube interior. Similarly, the introduction of spatial variation in the nanopore radius can produce two condensation transitions at distinct points along the filling isotherm.

  8. Atomistic simulation of Voronoi-based coated nanoporous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onur Yildiz, Yunus; Kirca, Mesut

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a new method developed for the generation of periodic atomistic models of coated and uncoated nanoporous metals (NPMs) is presented by examining the thermodynamic stability of coated nanoporous structures. The proposed method is mainly based on the Voronoi tessellation technique, which provides the ability to control cross-sectional dimension and slenderness of ligaments as well as the thickness of coating. By the utilization of the method, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of randomly structured NPMs with coating can be performed efficiently in order to investigate their physical characteristics. In this context, for the purpose of demonstrating the functionality of the method, sample atomistic models of Au/Pt NPMs are generated and the effects of coating and porosity on the thermodynamic stability are investigated by using MD simulations. In addition to that, uniaxial tensile loading simulations are performed via MD technique to validate the nanoporous models by comparing the effective Young’s modulus values with the results from literature. Based on the results, while it is demonstrated that coating the nanoporous structures slightly decreases the structural stability causing atomistic configurational changes, it is also shown that the stability of the atomistic models is higher at lower porosities. Furthermore, adaptive common neighbour analysis is also performed to identify the stabilized atomistic structure after the coating process, which provides direct foresights for the mechanical behaviour of coated nanoporous structures.

  9. Antibacterial hemostatic dressings with nanoporous bioglass containing silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gangfeng Hu,1 Luwei Xiao,2 Peijian Tong,2 Dawei Bi,1 Hui Wang,1 Haitao Ma,1 Gang Zhu,1 Hui Liu21The First People’s Hospital of Xiaoshan, Hangzhou, China; 2Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, ChinaAbstract: Nanoporous bioglass containing silver (n-BGS was fabricated using the sol-gel method, with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide as template. The results showed that n-BGS with nanoporous structure had a surface area of 467 m2/g and a pore size of around 6 nm, and exhibited a significantly higher water absorption rate compared with BGS without nanopores. The n-BGS containing small amounts of silver (Ag had a slight effect on its surface area. The n-BGS containing 0.02 wt% Ag, without cytotoxicity, had a good antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli, and its antibacterial rate reached 99% in 12 hours. The n-BGS’s clotting ability significantly decreased prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, indicating n-BGS with a higher surface area could significantly promote blood clotting (by decreasing clotting time compared with BGS without nanopores. Effective hemostasis was achieved in skin injury models, and bleeding time was reduced. It is suggested that n-BGS could be a good dressing, with antibacterial and hemostatic properties, which might shorten wound bleeding time and control hemorrhage.Keywords: antibacterial, bioglass, cytotoxicity, dressing, hemostasis, nanopore, silver

  10. MspA nanopores from subunit dimers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Pavlenok

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA forms an octameric channel and represents the founding member of a new family of pore proteins. Control of subunit stoichiometry is important to tailor MspA for nanotechnological applications. In this study, two MspA monomers were connected by linkers ranging from 17 to 62 amino acids in length. The oligomeric pore proteins were purified from M. smegmatis and were shown to form functional channels in lipid bilayer experiments. These results indicated that the peptide linkers did not prohibit correct folding and localization of MspA. However, expression levels were reduced by 10-fold compared to wild-type MspA. MspA is ideal for nanopore sequencing due to its unique pore geometry and its robustness. To assess the usefulness of MspA made from dimeric subunits for DNA sequencing, we linked two M1-MspA monomers, whose constriction zones were modified to enable DNA translocation. Lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated that this construct also formed functional channels. Voltage gating of MspA pores made from M1 monomers and M1-M1 dimers was identical indicating similar structural and dynamic channel properties. Glucose uptake in M. smegmatis cells lacking porins was restored by expressing the dimeric mspA M1 gene indicating correct folding and localization of M1-M1 pores in their native membrane. Single-stranded DNA hairpins produced identical ionic current blockades in pores made from monomers and subunit dimers demonstrating that M1-M1 pores are suitable for DNA sequencing. This study provides the proof of principle that production of single-chain MspA pores in M. smegmatis is feasible and paves the way for generating MspA pores with altered stoichiometries. Subunit dimers enable better control of the chemical and physical properties of the constriction zone of MspA. This approach will be valuable both in understanding transport across the outer membrane in mycobacteria and in tailoring MspA for nanopore

  11. Direct fabrication of 3D graphene on nanoporous anodic alumina by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hualin; Garrett, David J.; Apollo, Nicholas V.; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond; Prawer, Steven; Cervenka, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    High surface area electrode materials are of interest for a wide range of potential applications such as super-capacitors and electrochemical cells. This paper describes a fabrication method of three-dimensional (3D) graphene conformally coated on nanoporous insulating substrate with uniform nanopore size. 3D graphene films were formed by controlled graphitization of diamond-like amorphous carbon precursor films, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Plasma-assisted graphitization was found to produce better quality graphene than a simple thermal graphitization process. The resulting 3D graphene/amorphous carbon/alumina structure has a very high surface area, good electrical conductivity and exhibits excellent chemically stability, providing a good material platform for electrochemical applications. Consequently very large electrochemical capacitance values, as high as 2.1 mF for a sample of 10 mm3, were achieved. The electrochemical capacitance of the material exhibits a dependence on bias voltage, a phenomenon observed by other groups when studying graphene quantum capacitance. The plasma-assisted graphitization, which dominates the graphitization process, is analyzed and discussed in detail.

  12. Hierarchical topic modeling with nested hierarchical Dirichlet process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-qun DING; Shan-ping LI; Zhen ZHANG; Bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the statistical modeling of latent topic hierarchies in text corpora. The height of the topic tree is assumed as fixed, while the number of topics on each level as unknown a priori and to be inferred from data. Taking a nonparametric Bayesian approach to this problem, we propose a new probabilistic generative model based on the nested hierarchical Dirichlet process (nHDP) and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm for the inference of the topic tree structure as welt as the word distribution of each topic and topic distribution of each document. Our theoretical analysis and experiment results show that this model can produce a more compact hierarchical topic structure and captures more free-grained topic relationships compared to the hierarchical latent Dirichlet allocation model.

  13. Mapping the ion current distribution in nanopore/electrode devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Agnieszka; Edel, Joshua B; Albrecht, Tim

    2013-01-22

    Solid-state nanopores with integrated electrodes have interesting prospects in next-generation single-molecule biosensing and sequencing. These include "gated" nanopores with a single electrode integrated into the membrane, as well as two-electrode designs, such as a transversal tunneling junction. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of current flow in a three-electrode device as a model for this class of sensors. As a new feature, we observe apparent rectification in the pore current that is rooted in the current distribution of the cell, rather than the geometry or electrostatics of the pore. We benchmark our results against a recently developed theoretical model and define operational parameters for nanopore/electrode structures. Our findings thus facilitate the rational design of such sensor devices.

  14. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  15. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yasuga

    Full Text Available Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Investigation and Characterisation of Resizeable Nanopores in an Elastomeric Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Geoff

    2008-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical work relating to the development of resizeable synthetic nanopores will be presented. The nanopores, which are roughly conical, are formed by puncturing a relatively thick (˜250 μm) elastomeric membrane with an STM tip. The aperture can be closed and the size can be dynamically controlled by stretching the elastomer [1]. Use of this technology presents a collection of interesting physical problems, covering topics that include the failure and mechanical properties of the elastomer, flow of ionic current through the aperture and particle sensing using the resistive pulse technique. Synthetic nanopores have potential applications in many fields, but especially relating to nanoscale sensing and diagnostic devices, and replication of ion channels in living cells. [1] S. J. Sowerby, M. F. Broom, G. B. Petersen, Dynamically Resizable Nanometre-Scale Apertures for Molecular Sensing, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 123 (1), pp. 325-330 (2007)

  17. Solid-State Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore’s size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules. Among these challenges, the realization of the high-quality nanopores with the help of modern micro/nanofabrication technologies is a crucial one. In this paper, typical technologies applied in the field of solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing have been reviewed.

  18. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  19. Noise and its reduction in graphene based nanopore devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashvani; Park, Kyeong-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2013-12-13

    Ionic current fluctuations in graphene nanopore devices are a ubiquitous phenomenon and are responsible for degraded spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we descriptively investigate the impact of different substrate materials (Si and quartz) and membrane thicknesses on noise characteristics of graphene nanopore devices. To mitigate the membrane fluctuations and pin-hole defects, a SiNx membrane is transferred onto the substrate and a pore of approximately 70 nm in diameter is perforated prior to the graphene transfer. Comprehensive noise study reveals that the few layer graphene transferred onto the quartz substrate possesses low noise level and higher signal to noise ratio as compared to single layer graphene, without deteriorating the spatial resolution. The findings here point to improvement of graphene based nanopore devices for exciting opportunities in future single-molecule genomic screening devices.

  20. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  1. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  2. Deformation mechanism of nanoporous materials upon water freezing and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erko, Maxim; Wallacher, Dirk; Paris, Oskar

    2012-10-01

    Temperature-induced non-monotonous reversible deformation of water-filled nanoporous silica materials is investigated experimentally using in-situ small-angle x-ray scattering. The influence of freezing and melting in the nanopores on this deformation is treated quantitatively by introducing a simple model based on the Gibbs-Thomson equation and a generalized Laplace-pressure. The physical origin of the melting/freezing induced pore lattice deformation is found to be exactly the same as for capillary condensation/evaporation, namely the curved phase boundary due to the preferred wetting of the pore walls by the liquid phase. As a practical implication, elastic properties of the nanoporous framework can be determined from the temperature-deformation curves.

  3. Enhanced potassium selectivity in a bioinspired solid nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Fabien; Kraszewski, Sebastian; Ramseyer, Christophe; Balme, Sébastien; Déjardin, Philippe; Janot, Jean Marc; Henn, François

    2013-12-01

    Biological ion channels present unique ionic properties. They can be highly permeable to ions, while selecting only one type of ions, without external energy supply. An important research field has been developed to transfer these properties to solid state nanoporous membranes in order to develop artificial biomimetic nanofilters. One of the promising ways to develop biomimetic structures is based on the direct insertion of the gramicidin A, i.e. an ionic channel, inside a nanopore. Experiments have recently proved the feasibility of such a hybrid membrane with very interesting results regarding the ionic selectivity. Here, we propose to interpret these experiments using theoretical molecular dynamic simulations which allow us to analyze more profoundly the structures of the proteins confined inside the nanopore and the relation between their conformation and the observed ionic properties.

  4. A tip-attached tuning fork sensor for the control of DNA translocation through a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Changbae; Kaur, Harpreet; Huang, Tao; Li, Jiali

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that a tuning fork can be used as a force detecting sensor for manipulating DNA molecules and for controlling the DNA translocation rate through a nanopore. One prong of a tuning fork is glued with a probe tip which DNA molecules can be attached to. To control the motion and position of the tip, the tuning fork is fixed to a nanopositioning system which has sub-nanometer position control. A fluidic chamber is designed to fulfill many requirements for the experiment: for the access of a DNA-attached tip approaching to a nanopore, for housing a nanopore chip, and for measuring ionic current through a solid-state nanopore with a pair of electrodes. The location of a nanopore is first observed by transmission electron microscopy, and then is determined inside the liquid chambers with an optical microscope combined with local scanning the probe tip on the nanopore surface. When a DNA-immobilized tip approaches a membrane surface near a nanopore, free ends of the immobilized DNA strings can be pulled and trapped into the pore by an applied voltage across the nanopore chip, resulting in an ionic current reduction through the nanopore. The trapped DNA molecules can be lifted up from the nanopore at a user controlled speed. This integrated apparatus allows manipulation of biomolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) attached to a probe tip with sub-nanometer precision, and simultaneously allows measurement of the biomolecules by a nanopore device.

  5. Optical observation of DNA translocation through Al2O3 sputtered silicon nanopores in porous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hirohito; Ito, Shintaro; Esashika, Keiko; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-03-01

    Nanopore sensors are being developed as a platform for analyzing single DNA, RNA, and protein. In nanopore sensors, ionic current measurement is widely used and proof-of-concept of nanopore DNA sequencing by it has been demonstrated by previous studies. Recently, we proposed an alternative platform of nanopore DNA sequencing that incorporates ultraviolet light and porous silicon membrane to perform high-throughput measurement. In the development of our DNA sequencing platform, controlling nanopore size in porous silicon membrane is essential but remains a challenge. Here, we report on observation of DNA translocation through Al2O3 sputtered silicon nanopores (Al2O3 nanopores) by our optical scheme. Electromagnetic wave simulation was performed to analyze the excitation volume on Al2O3 nanopores generated by focused ultraviolet light. In the experiment, DNA translocation time through Al2O3 nanopores was compared with that of silicon nanopores and we examined the effect of nanopore density and thickness of membrane by supplementing the static electric field simulation.

  6. Enzyme Reactions in Nanoporous, Picoliter Volume Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T.; Choi, Chang-Kyoung; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale fabrication allow creation of small volume reaction containers that can facilitate the screening and characterization of enzymes. A porous, ~19 pL volume vessel has been used in this work to carry out enzyme reactions under varying substrate concentrations. Assessment of small molecule and Green Fluorescent Protein diffusion from the vessels indicates that pore sizes on order of 10 nm can be obtained, allowing capture of proteins and diffusive exchange of small molecules. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase can be contained in these structures and diffusively fed with a solution containing glucose and the fluorogenic substrate Amplex Red™ through the engineered nanoscale pore structure. Fluorescent microscopy was used to monitor the reaction, which was carried out under microfluidic control. Kinetic characteristics of the enzyme (Km and Vmax) were evaluated and compared with results from conventional scale reactions. These picoliter, nanoporous containers can facilitate quick determination of enzyme kinetics in microfluidic systems without the requirement of surface tethering and can be used for applications in drug discovery, clinical diagnostics and high-throughput screening. PMID:22148720

  7. Electroosmotic access resistance of a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Sherwood, John D.; Mao, Mao

    2014-11-01

    Electroosmotic flow through a nanopore that traverses a dielectric membrane with a fixed surface charge density is considered. In the limit where the surface charge is small and the applied electric field weak, the reciprocal theorem is used to derive an expression for the electroosmotic flux through the pore up to quadratures over the fluid volume. Thus, an ``electroosmotic conductance'' (the fluid flux per unit applied voltage) may be defined in analogy to the corresponding electrical conductance of a hole in an insulating membrane immersed in a uniform conductor. In the limit when the membrane is thick compared to the pore diameter, the usual result for the electroosmotic conductance through long cylindrical channels (which varies inversely as the membrane thickness) is recovered. The electroosmotic conductance is shown to approach a finite value for an infinitely thin membrane: this residual electroosmotic resistance (inverse of conductance) is analogous to the concept of ``access resistance of a pore'' in the corresponding electrical problem. The dependence of the electroosmotic conductance on pore radius, Debye length and membrane thickness is investigated. Reference: Supported by the NIH under Grant 4R01HG004842. SG acknowledges a visiting professorship at Cambridge University funded by the Leverhulme Trust, UK. JDS thanks DAMTP (Cambridge University) and Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse for hospitality.

  8. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  9. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kim

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up.

  10. Rapid, Simultaneous Multianalyte Detection with a Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasianowicz, John; Henrickson, Sarah; Robertson, Baldwin; Weetall, Howard

    2000-03-01

    The ability to rapidly and simultaneously quantitate many analytes represents the next frontier in sensing. This capability would have a great impact on the cost and feasibility of analyzing blood, detecting pathogens and toxins in drinking water as well as chemical and biological warfare agents. In addition to performing transport and defense functions in cells and organelles, pore-forming proteins (ionic channels) act as sensors by converting the concentration of an analyte into a change in the pore’s conductance. Recently, several groups, including ours, suggested that channels placed in artificial membranes might prove useful for detecting analytes. Unfortunately, molecules that alter native channel conductance are limited to a small number of highly specific classes (e.g. neurotransmitters, anesthetics, protons or deuterium ions). Thus, steps towards adapting channels for more generalized analyte detection have placed recognition sites inside a channel, adjacent to the pore’s mouth or well outside the pore. We demonstrated that a wide variety of analytes could be simultaneously detected by a simpler system. Instead of attaching the recognition element inside a narrow channel, it is covalently linked to a polymer that threads completely through a nanopore.

  11. Thermal Stability of Nanoporous Raney Gold Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Tai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous “Raney gold” sponge was prepared by de-alloying an Au-Al precursor alloy. Catalytic tests using a micro-reactor confirmed that Raney gold can serve as an active heterogeneous catalyst for CO oxidation, reduction of NO to N2, and oxidation of NO to NO2. In general, the specific surface area of a heterogeneous catalyst has an influence on its catalytic efficacy. Unfortunately, gold sponges coarsen readily, leading to sintering of their structure and reduction in surface area. This potentially places constraints on their upper operating temperature in catalytic reactors. Here we analyzed the behavior of Raney gold when the temperature was raised. We examined the kinetics and mechanism of coarsening of the sponge using a combination of in situ optical measurements and Metropolis Monte Carlo modeling with a Lennard-Jones interatomic potential. Modeling showed that the sponges started with an isotropic “foamy” morphology with negative average “mean curvature” but that subsequent thermally activated coarsening will drive the morphology through a bi-continuous fibrous state and on, eventually, to a sponge consisting of sintered blobs of predominantly positive “mean curvature”.

  12. Phonon bottleneck identification in disordered nanoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2017-09-01

    Nanoporous materials are a promising platform for thermoelectrics in that they offer high thermal conductivity tunability while preserving good electrical properties, a crucial requirement for high-efficiency thermal energy conversion. Understanding the impact of the pore arrangement on thermal transport is pivotal to engineering realistic materials, where pore disorder is unavoidable. Although there has been considerable progress in modeling thermal size effects in nanostructures, it has remained a challenge to screen such materials over a large phase space due to the slow simulation time required for accurate results. We use density functional theory in connection with the Boltzmann transport equation to perform calculations of thermal conductivity in disordered porous materials. By leveraging graph theory and regressive analysis, we identify the set of pores representing the phonon bottleneck and obtain a descriptor for thermal transport, based on the sum of the pore-pore distances between such pores. This approach provide a simple tool to estimate phonon suppression in realistic porous materials for thermoelectric applications and enhance our understanding of heat transport in disordered materials.

  13. Thin film porous membranes for catalytic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.C.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on new and surprising experimental data for catalytic film gas sensing resistors coated with nanoporous sol-gel films to impart selectivity and durability to the sensor structure. This work is the result of attempts to build selectivity and reactivity to the surface of a sensor by modifying it with a series of sol-gel layers. The initial sol-gel SiO{sub 2} layer applied to the sensor surprisingly showed enhanced O{sub 2} interaction with H{sub 2} and reduced susceptibility to poisons such as H{sub 2}S.

  14. New polyimide-polyoxometalate nanocomposite materials with nanoporous structure and ultra-low dielectric constant, formed in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtov, Mukhamed; Said-Galiev, Ernest; Kochurov, Vitaliy; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2012-07-01

    Vinyltrimethoxysilane interaction with K8(SiW11O39) obtained polyoxometalate (Bu4N)4[SiW11O39{(CH2 = CH-Si)2O}](SiW11-CH = CH2). Synthesized two new fluorinated aromatic polyimide in two stages with a dielectric constant (k) in the range 2.70-2.75. On the basis of poly(amic acids) and a mixture of thermal imidization polyoxometalate obtained polyimide/polyoxometalate composite film. It was found that with increasing polyoxometalate in a mixture of 0 to 20 wt% the dielectric constant decreases from 2,75 to 1,70. Nanoporous materials with ultra-low dielectric constant in the range 1.31-1.64 in combination with high thermal (T10% = 536-570°C in N2) and mechanical characteristics using supercritical carbon dioxide have been developed on the basis of the obtained polyimide/polyoxometalate composite films.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Study of the Structural Color by Widening the Pore Size of Nanoporous Anodic Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural color originated from the nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA film is related to the structural characteristics. This paper aimed to obtain different structural colors which can cover the whole visible range by widening the pore size of metal-coated NAA. First, we used the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method to analyze the relationship between the physical structure and optical properties. Then, we fabricated different colors and expected color pattern by widening the pore diameter of NAA. Numerical and experimental study shows that the colors can cover the whole visible range by widening the pore diameter. This work can not only lead to better understanding of the mechanism of tuning color on NAA film, but also help us to fabricate expected color in the whole light range.

  16. Hierarchical electrodeposition of methylene blue on ZnO nanocrystals thin films layered on SnO2/F electrode for in vitro sensing of anti-thalassemic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Chaitali; Malhotra, Nitesh; Chauhan, Nidhi; Narang, Sumit; Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanocrystals-methylene blue nanocomposites were developed by electrodeposition of methylene blue onto the thin films of zinc oxide nanocrystals deposited onto SnO2/F coated glass substrates for in vitro sensing of anti-thalassemic drug i.e. deferiprone. Detailed morphological, electrochemical, structural and optical characterizations of ZnONC-MB/FTO electrode were done using XRD, SEM, EIS, FTIR, LSV, and CV and show quick response time (within 5 s), linearity as 1 × 10(-3) to 10(3) μM and shelf life of about 10 weeks under refrigerated conditions. Attempts have been made to utilize this electrode for estimation of deferiprone in urine samples. The developed sensor exhibited high reproducibility and good storage stability.

  17. Structure-dependent water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes: toward selective gating upon temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2015-04-28

    Determining water structure in nanopores and its influence on water transport behaviour is of great importance for understanding and regulating the transport across nanopores. Here we report an ultrafast-slow flow transition phenomenon for water transport across nanopores of carbon nanotubes owing to the change in water structure in nanopores induced by temperature. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we show the dependence of water transport behaviours on water structures. Our results indicate that owing to the change in water structure in nanopores, water flux across nanopores with certain pore sizes decreases sharply (nearly 3 orders of magnitude) with the decreasing temperature. This phenomenon is very sensitive to the pore size. The threshold temperatures for the occurrence of the ultrafast-slow flow transition for water transport are also determined for various pore sizes. These findings suggest a novel protocol for selective gating of water and proton conduction across nanopores and temperature-controlled drug release.

  18. Influence of nanopore surface charge and magnesium ion on polyadenosine translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Coulon, Pierre Eugène; Bechelany, Mikhael; Cambedouzou, Julien; Janot, Jean-Marc; Balme, Sebastien

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the influence of a nanopore surface state and the addition of Mg(2+) on poly-adenosine translocation. To do so, two kinds of nanopores with a low aspect ratio (diameter ∼3-5 nm, length 30 nm) were tailored: the first one with a negative charge surface and the second one uncharged. It was shown that the velocity and the energy barrier strongly depend on the nanopore surface. Typically if the nanopore and polyA exhibit a similar charge, the macromolecule velocity increases and its global energy barrier of entrance in the nanopore decreases, as opposed to the non-charged nanopore. Moreover, the addition of a divalent chelating cation induces an increase of energy barrier of entrance, as expected. However, for a negative nanopore, this effect is counterbalanced by the inversion of the surface charge induced by the adsorption of divalent cations.

  19. Boosting infrared energy transfer in 3D nanoporous gold antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoli, D; Calandrini, E; Bozzola, A; Ortolani, M; Cattarin, S; Barison, S; Toma, A; De Angelis, F

    2017-01-05

    The applications of plasmonics to energy transfer from free-space radiation to molecules are currently limited to the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum due to the intrinsic optical properties of bulk noble metals that support strong electromagnetic field confinement only close to their plasma frequency in the visible/ultraviolet range. In this work, we show that nanoporous gold can be exploited as a plasmonic material for the mid-infrared region to obtain strong electromagnetic field confinement, co-localized with target molecules into the nanopores and resonant with their vibrational frequency. The effective optical response of the nanoporous metal enables the penetration of optical fields deep into the nanopores, where molecules can be loaded thus achieving a more efficient light-matter coupling if compared to bulk gold. In order to realize plasmonic resonators made of nanoporous gold, we develop a nanofabrication method based on polymeric templates for metal deposition and we obtain antenna arrays resonating at mid-infrared wavelengths selected by design. We then coat the antennas with a thin (3 nm) silica layer acting as the target dielectric layer for optical energy transfer. We study the strength of the light-matter coupling at the vibrational absorption frequency of silica at 1240 cm(-1) through the analysis of the experimental Fano lineshape that is benchmarked against identical structures made of bulk gold. The boost in the optical energy transfer from free-space mid-infrared radiation to molecular vibrations in nanoporous 3D nanoantenna arrays can open new application routes for plasmon-enhanced physical-chemical reactions.

  20. Deliberate change without hierarchical influence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana; Kesting, Peter; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to present that deliberate change is strongly associated with formal structures and top-down influence. Hierarchical configurations have been used to structure processes, overcome resistance and get things done. But is deliberate change also possible without formal...... reveals that deliberate change is indeed achievable in a non-hierarchical collaborative OSS community context. However, it presupposes the presence and active involvement of informal change agents. The paper identifies and specifies four key drivers for change agents’ influence. Originality....../value The findings contribute to organisational analysis by providing a deeper understanding of the importance of leadership in making deliberate change possible in non-hierarchical settings. It points to the importance of “change-by-conviction”, essentially based on voluntary behaviour. This can open the door...